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Qing-Hua Liu,
Published: 1 January 2020
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 16; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1222_16

Abstract:
Hemothorax cannot always be treated by thoracic surgeon. Rapidly improved interventional pulmonology broadens the application of medical thoracoscopy. We attempt to share our experiences of medical thoracoscopy for hemothorax and discuss the value of medical thoracoscopy in pleural diseases. We reported a 76-year-old male with hemothorax who was cured by medical thoracoscopy under local anesthesia together with argon plasma coagulation. Moreover, final pathological diagnosis was acquired as pleural sarcomatoid carcinoma. The unusual manifestation under medical thoracoscopy of such a relative rare disease was also described in this paper. The medical thoracoscopy could be used successfully for hemothorax instead of treating with surgeon, especially for those who cannot tolerate procedure of operation or surgical thoracoscopy.
Caixia Li, Kai Zhang, Xiangyang Sun, Fubo Xie, Wencheng Jian
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14, pp 196-200; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1175_16

Abstract:
Objective: The aim is to study the effectiveness and side effects of sorafenib administration after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. To evaluate the safety of the combination of sorafenib and TACE to treat HCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 unresectable HCC patients were enrolled. After TACE, administration of sorafenib was carried out. Follow-up was taken for every 4 weeks. Liver and renal function and alpha-fetoprotein were tested. Modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) was used to evaluate the clinical effect. The side effects were recorded. Results: The median overall survival (mOS) and the median time to progress were 12.5 and 8 months with the range from 6 to 32 and 4–30 months, respectively. The mOS of patients with single tumor was 18 months while that of multiple tumors in liver was 10 months (χ2 = 4.1639, P = 0.0413). According to mRECIST, there were no complete response patients, 2 partial response patients, 10 stable disease patients, and 24 progressive disease patients. Response rate was 5.5% (2/36). Disease control rate (DCR) was 33% (12/36). The main adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction and diarrhea. The frequency of Grade II, III hand-foot-skin reaction was 39%. After treatment, it decreased to 5.6%. Forty-four percentage patients suffered from diarrhea of Grades I and II. After treatment, it decreased to 28%. The mean interval of TACE was 45 days before combination therapy and 120 days after combination therapy. Conclusion: Administration of sorafenib after TACE could prolong overall survival of advanced HCC patients, keep the stable status longer and extend the interval between TACEs. The side effects are usually treatable, which proves the safety of this combination.
Rohit Tapadia, KausalyaKumari Sahu, JyotiRamanath Kini, RadhaR Pai, , M Nirupama, Ks Pooja
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 15, pp 138-141; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_28_17

Abstract:
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) but have a low incidence. Arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal, GISTs occur at different sites in the GIT with stomach being the most common. They can rarely be seen at sites outside the GIT such as omentum, retroperitoneum and are called as extraintestinal GISTs (EGIST). They have a spindle or epithelioid cell morphology and show positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD117. Our aim was to study the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical profile of our cases of EGISTs. A cross-sectional study of EGISTs received from 2010 to 2015 was done. IHC with CD117 and discovered on GIST1 (DOG1) was performed and tumors were scored based on the percentage of cells that stained positive. Thirteen abdominal non-GIST spindle cell tumors were included in the study as controls. Seven cases of EGIST were included (four-omental, three-retroperitoneal). All cases stained positive for CD117 and DOG1. One case of epithelioid EGIST scored 4 + with DOG1 and 2 + with CD117. Another case with mixed morphology scored 2 + with DOG1 and 4 + with CD117. All controls were negative for both markers. EGISTs are one of the rare differentials for spindle cell lesions outside the GIT. Although both markers stain positive, DOG1 showed higher score with epithelioid GISTs.
, Yi Shen, Haibo Cai, Wei Lu, Hengyao Liu, Zhaopeng Wang
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 15, pp 1547-1552; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_482_17

Abstract:
Objective: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide with a relatively low 5-year relative survival rate of 16%. Novel and efficient therapeutic approach for lung cancer is desperately needed. Materials and Methods: Targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a promising strategy to eradicate malignancies. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in the control of cell fates and developmental processes including CSCs. The function of Notch1 in the regulation of CSCs and whether targeting Notch1 could be a potential therapy for lung cancer were explored in this study. Lung CSCs (LCSCs) were isolated from A549 cells and identified as CD44+/CD24 cells by magnetic-assisted cell sorting, then the putative LCSCs were treated with Notch1 inhibitor and Notch1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs); the growth and proliferation of LCSCs were investigated to test the effect of Notch1 blocking on the growth and viability of LCSCs. Results: CD44+/CD24 cells isolated from A549 cells possessed stem cell-like properties with high expression of Notch1. Blocking Notch1 by inhibitor DAPT or siRNA both inhibited the growth capacity of LCSCs. Conclusion: Our discovery demonstrated a depression of growth in CD44+/CD24 and A549 cells caused by blockade of Notch signaling pathway. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the detailed effects of Notch1 blocking on the LCSCs. Nevertheless, targeting the Notch pathway has exhibited great potential to be an improved lung cancer treatment.
Pguru Sai Ratna Priya, Mg Janaki
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14, pp 451-453; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1264_16

Abstract:
Radiation in patients with diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosa (XP), systemic lupus erythematosus, and other connective diseases is a matter of concern because of higher incidence of toxicities. Here with, we are reporting a case of carcinoma esophagus with XP, who tolerated the treatment well with sufficiently prolonged palliation of symptoms, after treatment with external beam radiotherapy. This might be attributed to the different mechanisms of DNA damage and repair mechanisms for ultraviolet (UV) rays and X-rays. UV rays cause DNA damage by dimer formation whereas X-rays will cause single- or double-stranded breaks in DNA. The repair mechanisms for UV rays are nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis while for X-rays, they are base excision repair, homologous recombination, and nonhomologous end joining, and these repair mechanisms for X-rays are intact in a XP patient. Hence, they can be been treated with high dose of radiation, and they do tolerate the treatment well.
Xiangping Fu, Zhiwen Zhang, Ming Zhao, Xiaopeng Wang
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_990_15

Abstract:
Recurrent medulloblastoma has a very poor prognosis in children regardless of the treatment employed. We report the case of a 3-year-old child with recurrent refractory medulloblastoma who was treated with both bevacizumab and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The boy was found to harbor a tumor in the cerebral posterior fossa in November 2010. Craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor completely. Postoperative pathological examination showed desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed. Three years later, the boy suffered from constant headache again. Magnetic resonance imaging showed seeding of medulloblastoma in the posterior fossa as four masses with diameter ranging from 2 cm to 3 cm. To avoid overdose radiation, we used SRS and anti-angiogenesis therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg for four times with an interval of 1 month. Gamma Knife (Leksell Gamma Knife®, Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden) was used targeting at one lesion each time and performed for consecutive two times with bevacizumab therapy. Following this combined treatment, the lesions targeted with radiosurgery showed complete response with minimal toxicity in <1 month successively. The combined use of bevacizumab and SRS may represent a novel treatment against medulloblastoma in patients who are not surgical candidates, and should be investigated further. This is the first documented case of medulloblastoma treated with bevacizumab and SRS. Further clinical trials should be considered to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy.
ShankarLal Jakhar, Ramesh Purohit, Akankhsha Solanki, P Murali, Trupti Kothari, Neeti Sharma, HarvinderSingh Kumar
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 943-946; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_767_16

Abstract:
Head and neck cancers are attributed to be the most common type of malignancy in the developing countries with most cases presenting in advanced stage. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the effect of an accelerated hypofractionated 4 days schedule (octa shot) in providing palliation to such advanced cases of head and neck cancer.Twenty-two patients with advanced (Stage VIB-IVB) squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region were enrolled in the study. All these patients were planned for radiotherapy at Cobalt Unit with a fractionation schedule of 3.5 Gy/fraction, 2 fractions/day with 6 h interval between two fractions, for four days (28 Gy/8Fr/4 days). Patients were reviewed at 2 and 4 weeks to assess change in tumor size, any symptomatic relief, or toxicity. The tumor response, dermal, and mucosal toxicities were assessed using WHO criteria.Median age of these 22 patients (17M male + 5F female) in the study was 59.8 years. After completion of radiotherapy, first response evaluation done at 15th day showed ≥50% objective response in 14 patients. At 1 month, this response increased to ≥75% in 16 patients and 50%-75% in three patients. None of the patients had disease progression. Improvement in symptoms was reported with respect to pain and dysphagia by patients subjectively. Only two patients reported Grade III mucositis; remaining patients had mucositis and dermatitis up to Grade II.The study concludes that this "octa shot" is an effective palliative radiotherapy schedule. With a decreased duration of hospital stay, it is also favorable for outpatients.
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Muzaffer Elmali, Adem Gul, Yurdanur Sullu
Published: 1 January 2019
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 15, pp 719-721; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1194_16

Abstract:
A solitary fibrous tumor is a rare spindle cell neoplasm originating from the mesenchyme. This type of tumor of the orbit is very uncommon and can be misdiagnosed as a hemangiopericytoma, fibrous histiocytoma, meningioma, or neurofibroma. We report an orbital solitary fibrous tumor in an 18-year-old male, with slow-growing swelling in the right orbital region. An orbital contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed heterogeneously enhancing right extraconal inferomedial mass, with no evidence of calcification or bone destruction. The lesion was surgically excised without complications. Based on microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, the mass was finally diagnosed as a solitary fibrous tumor. These tumors should be preoperatively differentiated from other spindle cell tumors of the orbit, and radiological imaging methods are useful in the differential diagnosis but are nonspecific. Therefore, histopathological and immunohistochemical staining features are more useful for the diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumors, especially CD34 staining.
, , S Banerjee, Es Arun Kumar, Bm Vadhiraja, , Ramamoorthy Ravichandran, DineshPai Kasturi
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14, pp 300-307; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_278_17

Abstract:
Midplane dose estimates in vivo using this method provide accurate determination of delivered dose in the middle-third esophagus RT treatments. This method could be useful in similar clinical circumstances for dose confirmation and documentation.
Keiichi Kontani, , Takako Kubo, Shin-Ichiro Hashimoto, , , Dage Liu, Masafumi Tamaki, Fuminori Aki, Kazumasa Miura, et al.
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14, pp 409-415; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1053_16

Abstract:
Immunohistochemical TOP2A, TIMP-1, and B-tub expression analyses are expected to be useful for predicting tumor responses to chemotherapy.
Suyang Guo, Bo Yang, Hongli Liu, Yuzhi Li, Shengze Li, Ling Ma, Jian Liu, Wei Guo
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 689-692; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_414_17

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum expression levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and CA-125 as potential serum biomarkers for recurrence of cervical cancer. Methods: Eighty-six cervical cancer patients who received radical treatment were retrospectively included in this study from February 2011 to January 2014. Of the included 86 cases, 23 were recurred within the 36 months (recurrence group [RG]) and other 63 patients did not (non-RG [NRG]). The serum levels of SCC-Ag, hs-CRP, and CA-125 were examined and compared between the two groups. The prediction recurrence sensitivity, specificity area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by STATA11.0 software (http://www.stata.com). The correlation among SCC-Ag, hs-CRP, and CA-125 were analyzed by Pearson correlation test. Results: The serum levels of SCC-Ag, hs-CRP, and CA-125 were 1.29 (0.21–33.20) mg/mL, 4.78 (0.22–175.20) mg/mL, and 11.56 (2.028–123.66) IU/mL for NRG and 5.64 (0.50–136.80) mg/mL, 22.41 (0.56–588.90) mg/mL, and 25.41 (3.658–3687.00) IU/mL for RG, respectively. The serum levels of SCC-Ag, hs-CRP, and CA-125 in NG group were significant higher than those of NRG group (P pearson = 0.20, P = 0.04), SCC-Ag and CA-125 (rpearson = 0.64, P< 0.001), hs-CRP and CA-125 (rpearson= –0.13, P = 0.56) was found in the RG patients. Conclusion: Serum SCC-Ag, hs-CRP, and CA-125 were higher in recurrence cervical patients which could be potential biomarkers for predicting cervical cancer recurrence risk.
Di Wang, Xia Wang, Li-Wei Qiu, Chen Peng, Shu-Ping Zhong, Lin Ye
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 676-682; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_132_17

Abstract:
Background: It is important to find reliable molecular markers or biological targets that associate with ovarian cancer (OC) metastasis for diagnosis and treatment. In this study, researchers investigated the regulated chain of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) and metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) in OC tissues and cells. Materials and Methods: Expression of miR-30c and MTA1 was detected with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in 33 OC and matched adjacent tissues. MiR-30c mimics were synthetized and transfected into SKOV3 cells to target MTA1. The wound healing and transwell assays were detected to observe migration and invasion of transfected OC cells. Results: Compared with matching normal ovarian tissues, the MTA1 expression was upregulated and localized in the cytoplasm, and the expression of miR-30c was significantly reduced. The expression intensity of MTA1 was correlated with the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor grade, and metastasis of OC. Transfecting miR-30c mimics could significantly reduce the expression of MTA1 in SKOV3 cells and obviously inhibit the migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells. Conclusion: MiR-30c and MTA1 abnormally expressed in OC, which may be related to metastasis of OC. In MiR-30c as a tumor suppressor gene, its expression in OC could lead to reduced expression of MTA1, which may be one of the mechanisms of metastasis of OC cells.
Guomin Jiang, Yuanqan Huang, ZhongZhi Jia, Jianfei Tu, Tao Shen, Feng Tian
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 720-724; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_993_16

Abstract:
To assess the value of conventional transarterial embolization/chemoembolization (cTAE/TACE) therapy via extrahepatic arteries for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with unresectable HCC who underwent cTAE/TACE therapy via extrahepatic arteries between May 2008 and July 2016 across 4 medical centers were identified. The technical success, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels changes, tumor response, disease control rate, survival rate, and major complication were analyzed. A total of 185 patients (167 male and 18 female) were included in this study. A total of 401 procedures were performed of the 185 patients, with 2.2 ± 0.4 procedures for each patient. A total of 197 extrahepatic arteries were identified, including inferior phrenic artery (n = 80), omental artery (n = 39), gastric artery (n = 22), right renal capsular artery (n = 21), adrenal artery (n = 13), cystic artery (n = 11), and right internal mammary artery (n = 11). The technical success rate was 96.8% (179/185). The serum AFP levels were significantly reduced at 1 month after treatment in 71 patients whose AFP ≥400 ng/mL preprocedure (P < 0.01). The disease control rate was 93% (172/185) at 3 months after cTAE/TACE, with partial response, stable disease, or progressive disease of 115, 57, and 13 patients, respectively. The cumulative survival rate from the time of cTAE/TACE via extrahepatic arteries was 100% at 6 months. There were no embolization-related major complications. cTAE/TACE therapy via the extrahepatic arteries can reduce the incidence of presence of residual HCC, and improve the therapeutic efficacy of cTAE/TACE.
Zhongmin Peng, Yue Peng, Wangang Ren, Hui Wang, Meng Li, Zhen Feng
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 702-706; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_140_17

Abstract:
Objective: The detection rate of synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLC) showed an increasing trend year by year. In an attempt to identify the optimal treatment strategy for SMPLC, we retrospectively analyzed our surgical treatment outcomes of a series of patients with SMPLC. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 SMPLC patients who met the modified Martini-Melamed criteria and with clinical data retained between November 2012 and July 2016 underwent complete resection without any preoperative induction therapy at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital. The relationships between gender, age, family history of cancer, the number of tumors, the location of tumors, tumor size, tumor histology, regional lymph node metastasis, type of surgery, pathological stage, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, mortality, and survival were further analyzed. Results: Among the 43 patients, 29 (67.4%) patients had ipsilateral tumors, whereas 14 (32.6%) patients had contralateral tumors. Nine patients with contralateral tumors underwent one-stage surgical treatment, with mean postoperative hospitalization days of 9.8. EGFR mutations were detected in 5 patients with synchronous multiple primary lung adenocarcinomas (SMPLA) for each lesion independently. The results showed different tumors in the same patient could carry different EGFR mutations. The 1- and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Larger maximal tumor dimension (P = 0.015), advanced pN stage (P = 0.002), advanced pT stage (P = 0.046), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.013), and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.025) were correlated with poor OS. Conclusions: SMPLC could be considered to be a local disease rather than the systemic disease. Surgical treatment is an effective approach for patients with SMPLC. Mutational status of EGFR could be used as a diagnostic criterion, especially in patients with SMPLA.
, Dongping Shang, , , Jinghao Duan, Yong Yin
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 693-698; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1448_16

Abstract:
Purpose: To explore the impact of different width detector on the volume and geometric position of gross tumor volume (GTV) of the solitary pulmonary lesion (SPL), as well as the impact on scanning time and radiation dose during the simulation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with SPL underwent three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation using different width detector, followed by four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans. GTV16 and GTV4 derived from different width detectors were compared with internal gross tumor volume (IGTV) generated from 4DCT on the volume and geometric position. Fourteen patients with lesions located in the upper lobe were defined as Group A and nine patients in the middle or lower lobe were defined as Group B. The scanning time and radiation dose during the simulation with the different width detector were compared as well. Results: The volumes of IGTV, GTV16, and GTV4 in Group A were 13.86 ± 14.42 cm3, 11.88 ± 11.93 cm3, and 11.64 ± 12.88 cm3, respectively, and the corresponding volumes in Group B were 12.84 ± 11.48 cm3, 6.90 ± 6.63 cm3, and 7.22 ± 7.15 cm3, respectively. No difference was found between GTV16 and GTV4 in Groups A and B (PA = 0.11, PB = 0.86). Either GTV16 or GTV4 was smaller than IGTV (P16 = 0.001, P4 = 0.000). The comparison of the centroidal positions in x, y, and z directions for GTV16, GTV4, and IGTV showed no significant difference both in Groups A and B (Group A: Px = 0.19, Py = 0.14, Pz = 0.47. Group B: Px = 0.09, Py = 0.90, Pz = 0.90). The scanning time was shorter and radiation dose patient received was lower using 16 × 1.5 mm detector combination than 4 × 1.5 mm detector (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Different width detector had no impact on the volume and geometric position of GTV of SPL during 3DCT simulation. Using wide detector would save time and decrease radiation dose compared with the narrow one. 3DCT simulation using either 16 × 1.5 mm detector or 4 × 1.5 mm detector could not cover all tumor motion information that 4DCT offered under free breathing conditions.
Hong Feng, Xingwen Wang, Yunyan Wu, Xueling Song, Chengtao Sun, Changshun Wu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 730-734; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_587_17

Abstract:
DdPCR was able to identify HER2 amplification status in breast and gastric cancers with precise correlation with IHC and FISH results. This method might become a standard method for testing FFPE samples. However, the technology requires further research.
Xin Ye, Xia Yang, Guanghui Huang, Xiaoying Han, Jiao Wang, Wenhong Li, Zhigang Wei, Min Meng
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 683-688; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_458_17

Abstract:
Background: The safety and effectiveness of repeated computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in the management of local recurrence (LR) in patients with medically inoperable Stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were retrospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From February 2008 to August 2014, 104 patients with medically inoperable Stage I NSCLC received MWA. Patients with LR were given repeat MWA. The clinical outcomes and complications of repeat MWA for LR were evaluated. Results: At a median follow-up of 47 months, LR occurred in 24/104 (23.1%) patients within 12 ± 8 months after MWA. LR rates were higher in tumors >3.5 cm than that of tumors ≤3.5 cm (35.7% vs. 18.4%). Local control of the repeat MWA was achieved in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients. Overall survival (OS) and progress-free survival (PFS) for patients without LR were similar to that of with LR and receiving repeat MWA (OS: 48 m vs. 41.5 m; PFS: 42 m vs. 32 m). The OS rates were 100%, 74.6%, 60.6%, and 27% for patients without LR at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, and they were 96.4%, 69.5%, 60.6%, and 26.1% for patients with repeat MWA for LR. Repeat MWA for LR was not associated with more significant complications. Conclusion: The LR was higher in tumors >3.5 cm than that of in tumors ≤3.5 cm. For patients with LR, it was feasible and effective to use MWA repeatedly to achieve the similar OS and PFS as patients without LR. No additional complications were reported in the repeat MWA compared to the original MWA.
Yi Hou, Xiaokun Zhao, Jiaqin Chen, Jingsheng Zhou, Weiwei Chen, Haifeng Mao, Rui Chen
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 725-729; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1286_16

Abstract:
Background: Extrahepatic metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its insensitivity to chemotherapy are the main causes of poor prognosis in patients with HCC. This study investigated the anti-cancer effect of Macrothele raveni venom on intrarenal metastatic HCC. Materials and Methods: Subrenal capsule xenograft model of HCC was established by inoculation of H22 liver cancer cells. Results: The general health, histology, and molecular changes were observed after administering 10 times of different dose of Macrothele raven venom injections. A volume of 0.8 μg/ml and 1.0 μg/ml of Macrothele raven venom significantly improved general health status in mice with subrenal capsule HCC tumors. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that Macrothele raven venom dose-dependently reduced invasion and metastasis of liver cancer cells in the kidney. Immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that Macrothele raven venom injection dose-dependently decreased PI3K mRNA and protein, Akt protein, and mTOR mRNA expression, but increased Bad mRNA and protein expression in the kidney with H22 tumor cell invasion. 0.8 μg/ml is the most effective dose for the treatment of intrarenal metastatic HCC. Conclusions: Macrothele raven venom dose-dependently inhibits invasion and metastasis of intrarenal metastatic HCC through inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling and increase of Bad expression.
Tao He, Ruizhi Tan, Li Wang, Jie Song, Jianchun Li
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 707-714; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1396_16

Abstract:
Objectives: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women, and the tumor cells' invasion and metastasis is the main cause of death. Recent reports showed that Twist, a transcription factor, plays multiple roles in breast cancer initiation, progress, and metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms of Twist in tumor invasion and metastasis of breast cancer still remain unclear. Here, we examined the correlation between Twist, E-cadherin, and estrogen receptor (ER) in promoting invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells and tissues.Materials and Methods: The mRNA and protein expression of Twist, E-cadherin, and ER in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231, and ZR-75-30) and human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues from 32 patients were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively.Results: Expression of Twist in cells with high ability of invasion and metastasis was higher than that in MCF-7 cell line which has low ability of invasion and metastasis, while the expression of ER and E-cadherin was much more higher in MCF-7 cell line than in other cells. IHC showed that the expression rate of Twist in IDC tissues and adjacent tissues was 84.38% and 31.25% and the positive expression of E-cadherin and ER was 21.88% and 40.63% in IDC tissues and 81.25% and 84.38% in adjacent tissues, respectively. Interestingly, overexpression of Twist promoted cellular invasion and metastasis and decreased the expression of E-cadherin, ER, AKT, and p-AKT in HEK-293 cells.Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Twist was upregulated in high invasion and metastasis cell lines as well as IDC tissues companioned with downregulated expression of E-cadherin and ER, which provides important clues for the deeper study of breast cancer.
, Yang Yang, Jing-Jing Pan, Li Zhao, Yu-Hua Hu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_167_16

Abstract:
Aim of Study: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and outcomes of thyroid carcinoma (TC) in children and adolescent population treated in our institution. Materials and Methods: We gathered 43 TC patients 18 years of age or under initial diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 from two hospitals. Patient's clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) The incidence of TC is higher in women (2.4 vs. 1.6). Papillary carcinoma accounted for the major type (67.4%). There was significant difference in tumor number, extra thyroidal invasion, and distant metastasis when compared with the children group (P P Conclusion: The initial workup is crucial in determining benign from malignant lesions. Surgery is the most effective therapy even if it is associated with more complications in children. There is an extremely good prognosis for pediatric TC even distant metastasis happens.
Yan Liu, Xiaotian Sun, Min Min, Yiliang Bi, Yang Xu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1458_16

Jie Li, Bin Zhou, Congrong Tang
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 699-701; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_468_17

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between k-RAS gene mutation and the resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment in patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Forty-five pathologies confirmed NSCLC patients who received EGFR-TKI (Gefitinib) treatment were retrospectively included in this study. The mutation of codon 12 and 13, located in exon1 and exon 2 of k-RAS gene were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DAN sequencing in tumor samples of the included 45 NSCLC patients. The correlation between Gefitinib treatment response and k-RAS mutation status was analyzed in tumor samples of the 45 NSCLC patients. Results: Eight tumor samples of the 45 NSCLC patients were found to be mutated in coden 12 or 13, with an mutation rate of 17.8% (8/45); the objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7%(11/37) with 1 cases of complete response (CR) and 10 cases of partial response in k-RAS mutation negative patients. Furthermore, the ORR was 0.0% in k-RAS mutation positive patients with none CR. The ORR between k-RAS mutation and nonmutation patients were significant different (P Conclusion: k-RAS gene mutation status was associated with the response of Gefitinib treatment in patients with NSCLC.
Dehua Wu, Fei Deng, Jie Lei, Xueqin Zhang, Weiwei Huang, Yongjun Li
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 664-668; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_61_17

Abstract:
Objective: KIAA1199 has been identified as an oncogene in many cancers. Here, we collected 153 cases of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues to investigate the relationships between KIAA1199 protein and clinical factors.Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was used to detect the expression of KIAA1199. Follow-up included blood analysis, chest X-ray, ultrasound examination, and computed tomography was carried out every 3 months for the first 2 years and at 6-month intervals thereafter during the follow-up period (3 years). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox analysis were applied to identify the relationship between KIAA1199 and NSCLC.Results: IHC results showed that 76 (49.67%) specimens had strong expression of KIAA1199 protein, with poor differentiation (P = 0.003), higher positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.037), and higher tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.016). Using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, it is found that patients with high KIAA1199 protein expression have poor overall survival (P = 0.004). Cox analysis suggested that the KIAA1199 protein was an independent prognostic marker for NSCLC patients (P = 0.040).Conclusion: Our findings revealed that KIAA1199 protein could be applied in predicting NSCLC patient's outcome.
, Fujun Zhang, , Shude Chai, Guangjun Zheng, Kaixian Zhang, Anyan Liao, Ping Jiang, Yuliang Jiang, Zhe Ji
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 607-612; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_412_17

Abstract:
Radioactive 125I seeds (RIS) interstitial implantation brachytherapy has been a first-line treatment for early-stage cancer of the prostate gland. However, its poor accuracy and homogeneity has limited its indication and hampered its popularization for a long time. Intriguingly, scholars based in China introduced computed tomography (CT)-guided technology to improve the accuracy and homogeneity of RIS implantation and broadened the indications. Then, they creatively designed and introduced three-dimensional printing coplanar template (3D-PCT) and 3D printing noncoplanar template (3D-PNCT) into the practice of RIS implantation. Use of such templates makes RIS implantation more precise and efficacious and aids preoperative planning, real-time dose optimization, and postoperative planning. However, studies on the standard workflow for 3D-PT-assisted CT-guided RIS implantation have not been published. Therefore, the China Northern Radioactive Seeds Brachytherapy Group organized multidisciplinary experts to formulate the guideline for this emerging treatment modality. This guideline aims at standardizing 3D-PT-assisted CT-guided RIS implantation procedures and criteria for selecting treatment candidates and assessing outcomes and for preventing and managing postoperative complications.
Jun Zhou, , Chuang Li, Ying Liu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 642-646; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_213_17

Abstract:
Purpose: We evaluated the clinical efficacy of gelatin sponge microparticle (GSM) -mediated chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with liver metastases following surgery for gastrointestinal tumors.Materials and Methods: In a retrospective analysis of 37 patients who were treated at our hospital with GSM-mediated chemoembolization for liver metastases over 13 years, we evaluated outcomes using a modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors system and also assessed liver function and adverse effects. All patients had previously undergone surgery for gastrointestinal tumors.Results: Treatment produced various degrees of necrosis and shrinkage of lesions among our patients. Two patients achieved a complete response (CR), 27 showed a partial response (PR), five had stable disease, and three had progressive disease. The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 78%, and no severe adverse effects were observed.Conclusion: GSM-mediated chemoembolization showed good clinical efficacy in the treatment of liver metastases after gastrointestinal tumor surgery. However, larger cohort and clinical controlled studies are warranted.
Jianjun Zhang, Jiang Yu, Hui Xiong, Chunxiao Wei, ,
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_74_17

Abstract:
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the detection of upper urinary tract-urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC). Methods: Between November 2011 and November 2015, voided urine specimens from 52 consecutive patients with UUT-UC and 26 controls were collected for both FISH test and cytology. Sensitivity and specificity of FISH test and cytology were determined and compared. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was also analyzed. Results: For FISH analysis, the sensitivity was 79.5% and specificity was 96.3%. For cytology, the sensitivity was 27.3% and specificity was 100%. The overall sensitivity for FISH was significantly higher than that of in single value-based urine cytology (79.5% vs. 27.3%, respectively, P< 0.001). The sensitivities of FISH and cytology by grade were 64.3% vs. 28.6% for low-grade urothelial carcinomas (P = 0.128) and 86.7% vs. 26.7% for high-grade urothelial carcinomas (P Conclusions: FISH has superior sensitivity and similar specificity in the detection of UUT-UC, compared with cytology. The present findings indicated that FISH can be applied as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for suspected UUT-UC patients.
Guoqiang Li, Jianliang Chen, Shu Li, Shu Zhou, Shouji Cao, Yun Lou, Haiyuan Shen, Jie Yin
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 651-659; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_491_17

Abstract:
Objectives: In this study, we characterized the expression of 32 other kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) and analyzed their association with the progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: The data from 295 HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were included in the study. An independent t-test was used to compare the KIF levels in HCC and adjacent tissues. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the relationships of KIF expression with tumor biomarkers and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan–Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to analyze survival, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Results: The expressions of 32 KIFs were compared between HCC and adjacent nontumor tissues. Among them, 12 KIFs showed no statistical significance, 17 KIFs were upregulated, and three KIFs were downregulated in tumor tissues. The levels of some KIFs were markedly correlated with that of biomarkers for the S phase and proliferation. KIF2A and KIFC3 expression was positively associated with biomarkers for cell invasion and migration. Some KIF overexpression was significantly associated with neoplastic pathological grade and tumor-node-metastasis staging. Furthermore, KIF2C, KIF4A, and KIF11 overexpression were significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival times. KIF2A, KIF2C, KIF3A, KIF4B, KIF11, KIF15, KIFC1, and KIFC3 overexpression was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) times, whereas higher expression of KIF19 was associated with a longer OS time. Further multivariate analyses suggested that only KIF4B was an independent prognostic factor for HCC. Conclusions: Most overexpressions of abnormal KIFs were significantly associated with HCC progression and prognosis, indicating that KIFs could be prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers for HCC. However, it is necessary to further study the function of KIFs and their mechanisms involved in HCC.
Tao Jiang, E Changyong, Dan Wang, Yang Yu, Hongyu Liu, Hui Ren
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 625-630; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_406_17

Abstract:
Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the therapeutic efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and hepatic resection (HR) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed for comparative studies reporting outcomes of both RFA and HR for HCC. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 4812 patients with HCC were included, with 2419 in the RFA group and 2393 in the HR group. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates in the HR group were significantly higher than those in the RFA group (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58–0.79, P < 0.00001; OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65, P < 0.00001, respectively). 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival and correspond recurrence-free survival rates were all better in HR group. Conclusion: RFA gets promising clinical outcomes for HCC treatments but is not yet comparable to surgery. HR is still the first-line treatment for HCC.
Chenchen Ren, Li Yang, Yuanhang Zhu, Yang Bai, Xiaoan Zhang
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 613-620; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_56_17

Abstract:
Objective: The aim is to evaluate the clinical application value and correlation with cervical lesions' progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA test in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS/borderline) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs/mild dyskaryosis) cytological abnormalities. Methods: A meta-analysis was conduct by searching China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979–2016), Wanfang Date (1998–2016), VIP (1989–2016), PubMed (1950–2016), Web of Science (1950–2016) and Elsevier Science Direct (1998–2016), for studies on effect of HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection in women with ASCUS/LSIL/dyskaryosis. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan4.2 software. The subgroups analysis was conducted according to women's initial HPV DNA test results. Results: Six articles with a total of 1024 subjects were included in the study. It was concluded that a positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA tested result have a higher risk of progressing to CIN2+ in future 2 years than a negative result. The pooled relative risk (RR) is 3.08, (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57–6.07, P < 0.05). The same situation was also observed in the subgroup of HPV DNA tested positive group and HPV DNA tested unlimited group. The pooled RR value of the two subgroups was, respectively, 1.98, (95% CI = 1.19–1.19, P < 0.05) and 7.58, (95% CI = 3.64–3.64, P < 0.05). Conclusion: A positive HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result suggested the women with ASCUS, or LSIL Pap smear was in a truly dangerous position, which is an adverse prognostic factor. It suggested that cervical lesions stay in a progressing status and these women should be referred for colposcopy and strengthen follow-up promptly. Whereas, women with a negative HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing result can increase follow-up interval, by comprehensively considering their situation, thus, avoiding unnecessary colposcopy and reducing the rate of colposcopy and biopsy.
Yuwei Li, Yaoyong Chen, Yuming Jia, Kaijian Lei, Xinfeng Zhang, Yueyong Cao, Jun Zhu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 636-641; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_93_17

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of bronchial artery chemoembolization (BACE) combined with radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Sixty-two Stage III–IV NSCLC patients were divided into Groups A and B. Thirty cases were treated with BACE combined with radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation in the Group A and 32 cases were treated with BACE alone in the Group B until disease progression. Efficacy, incidence rate of adverse drug reactions, and survival rate were compared between the two groups. Results: The local control rates and effective rates of Groups A and B were 90% and 59.3% and 74% and 40.6%, respectively, with P < 0.05 for each. The progression-free survival of the study group and the control group was 12.6 and 8.2 months, respectively; the median survival time of the Groups A and B was 644 and 544 days, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.034). Conclusion: BACE combined with radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation was safe and effective in the treatment of advanced NSCLC, with an efficacy superior to that of single BACE.
Dezhi Li, Hui Huang, Xiaolei Wang, Yuehuang Wu, Shaoyan Liu, Zhengang Xu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 660-663; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_29_17

Abstract:
Background: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is an uncommon neoplasm of maxillary sinus. This study was designed to investigate the clinical courses and summarize the experience of the treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis which included patients with MFH of the maxillary sinus from January 1980 to December 2008 treated in our institute. Survival data were analyzed by means of the Kaplan–Meier method using univariate analysis and Cox regression model using multivariate analysis. Results: The study included 31 patients. Of which, one patient received radical radiotherapy, and thirty patients received surgical resection. Of these, thirty patients received preoperative radiotherapy, and 11 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Radical resection with clear surgical margins was obtained in twelve patients (80%) after preoperative radiotherapy, and in eight patients (53.3%) with postoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.221). The 3-year overall survival rate (OS) and recurrence-free survival rate (RFS) were 59.0% and 43.5%, respectively. Patients treated with a radical resection had significantly better survival than patients with a nonradical resection. Three-year OS was 79.8% and 28.1%, 3-year RFS was 61.9% and 18.5%, respectively (P = 0.001 and 0.029, respectively). Local recurrence rate (LRR) was lower in patients resected with clear surgical margins than patients with unclear or uncertain margins, and the 3 years LRR was 33.3% and 72.2%, respectively (P = 0.052). Conclusions: Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for MFH of the maxillary sinus. A radical resection with clear margins is essential for excellent local control and long-term survival.
Zheng-Yu Lin, Jin Chen, Zhi-Bin Wu, Zhong-Wu Chen, Yi-Ping Chen
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 669-675; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_448_17

Abstract:
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the therapeutic response in small lung malignancies (<3 cm) immediately after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of MRI performance in 24 cases of small lung tumors (16 primary, 8 metastatic; 20 patients) immediately, post-RFA, and at follow-up. Variables measured included maximum diameters of tumors on pre-RFA MRI, central areas of low signal intensity (SI) on post-RFA T2-weighted images (T2WIs), and central areas of high SI on post-RFA T1WIs. Additional post-RFA measurements included the maximum diameters for areas of ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on computed tomography (CT), high SI on T2WIs, and isointense SI on T1WIs. Mean values were used for statistical analysis. Results: Before RFA, 16 primary and seven metastatic lung tumors showed isointense signals on T1WIs and hyperintense signals on T2WIs. Immediately after RFA, the ablated lesions showed central low signals and peripheral high annular signals on T2WIs and central high signals and peripheral annular isointense signals on T1WIs, with reduced SI on diffusion-weighted images. Significant differences were found between the preoperative MRI maximum tumor diameter and post-RFA diameters of central low SI areas on T2WIs and central high SI areas on T1WIs. Furthermore, there were significant differences between the post-RFA maximum diameter of circumferential high signals on T2WIs and the post-RFA maximum diameters of both GGOs on CT and circumferential isointense signals on T1WIs. There were three cases of local recurrence (two pulmonary metastases and one primary) during follow-up. Conclusions: MRI evaluation of the therapeutic response of RFA for small malignant lung tumors (<3 cm) was precise and reliable.
Haiyan Zhu, Feng Duan, Yanhua Bai, Li Cui, Xiaohui Li, Jieyu Yan
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 631-635; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_286_17

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with arterioportal shunts (APS). Subjects and Methods: From January 2008 to June 2014, 36 cases of HCC with APS were treated by TACE with NBCA. NBCA-lipiodol mixture was superselective delivered before routine TACE in HCC patients with APS. Recanalization of shunt, objective response, clinical adverse events, and survival rates was retrospectively studied. Results: All interventional procedures were successful without any procedure relevant complications. The immediate APS improvement rate was 83.3% (30/36), and the APS improvement rate at first-time follow-up was 66.6% (20/30). Radiologically confirmed complete response (CR), partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease at 1 month after first chemoembolization were observed in 1 (2.7%), 19 (52.8%), 6 (16.7%), and 10 (27.8%) patients, respectively. Survival rates were 91.7% at 6 months, 47.2% at 1 year, and 13.9% at 2 years. The median survival time was 11 months. No severe adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: The preliminary experience indicates TACE with NBCA can be safely performed and may improve prognosis of HCC with arterioportal shunt.
Qingrui Yang, Hongsheng Sun, Qian Wu
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 621-624; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_410_17

Abstract:
Initially, collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) is expressed mainly in adventitial fibroblasts and neointimal smooth muscle cells of balloon-injured vessels, and increases cell migration, promotes tissue repair in response to injury. A variety of studies demonstrated that over-expression of CTHRC1 in solid tumors results in enhancement of migration and invasion of tumor cells, and is associated with decreased overall survival and disease-free survival. CTHRC1 expression is elevated in hepatitis B virus-infected patients and highly correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma progression as well. Furthermore, CTHRC1 plays a pivotal role in a great many fields, including increases bone mass, prevents myelination, reverses collagen synthesis in keloid fibroblasts, and increases fibroblast-like synoviocytes migration speed and abundant production of arthritic pannus in rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, it will provide new insight into the pathogenesis of tumor and autoimmune diseases, and will shed new light on the therapy of related clinical diseases.
Murali Krishna Chilakapati, Gd Sockalingum, Ms Vidyasagar, M Manfait, Donald J Fernanades, Bm Vadhiraja, K Maheedhar
Published: 1 January 2008
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 4, pp 26-36; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.39602

Abstract:
Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.
Ayşe Kavak, Murat Yılmaz, HaydarKamil Çam, Volkan Tuğcu, Hülya Albayrak, Damlanur Sakız, Ümran Yıldırım
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_917_16

Abstract:
Cutaneous metastasis of prostate cancer is rare. Lesions in this type of skin metastasis are usually seen as suprapubic nodules. Here, we presented two cases with skin metastases of prostate cancer characterized by grouped cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules.
Yong Song, Wen-Kui Sun, Wen Yang, Chen-Hui Ma, Xin-Wu Xiao, Yi Shi
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_540_16

Abstract:
Neurilemmomas are rare tumors of neural crest cell origin that occur most commonly in the head and neck region. Intercostal neurilemmomas are extremely rare and are mostly seen as solitary tumors in the posterior mediastinum. Only one case report of multiple intercostal neurilemmomas has been documented previously. In this article, we report a case of multiple intercostal neurilemmomas in a 54-year-old woman who had initially presented with progressive dull left chest pain over a 1-year period. A computed tomography scan revealed three tumors in the left thoracic cavity which were distributed as a string of beads along the third intercostal nerve. Histological and immunohistochemical testing confirmed a diagnosis of neurilemmomas. The patient underwent successful radical excision of the tumors through a thoracotomy approach, and her postoperative course was uneventful. Following the operation, she had no evidence of recurrences.
K Sruthi, PrameelaG Chelakkot, Ram Madhavan, RajeshR Nair, Makuny Dinesh
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 14, pp 1251-1255; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_20_17

Abstract:
Albeit a retrospective analysis, ours is the only study in literature offering 8 Gy single dose, using electrons, as a postoperative adjuvant treatment to prevent recurrence in keloids. Our recurrence rates were similar to that quoted in published series. This hence can be validated in further studies as it is cosmetically acceptable, safe, painless, and cost-effective with good patient compliance.
, Mehravar Rafati, Hemmatollah Rouhani, Mahsa Noori-Asl, ,
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 936-942; https://doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1085_16

Abstract:
Compton-scattered photons transfer incorrect spatial information. These photons are detected in used photo-peak energy window. In this study, three scatter correction procedures including dual-energy window (DEW), three energy window (TEW), and new approach were evaluated, and then the best procedure based on simulation and clinical conditions introduced.In this study, simulation projections and three-dimensional nonuniform rational B-spline-based Cardiac-Torso phantoms were produced by GEANT4 application for emission tomography simulation code. For clinical study, 2-day stress/rest myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) protocol was performed with 99m Tc-sestamibi for 46 patients. Image quality parameters including contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and relative noise of the background (RNB) were evaluated.The simulation results showed that contrast values for DEW, TEW, and new approach were (0.45 ± 0.07, 0.5 ± 0.08, and 0.63 ± 0.09), SNR values (4.74 ± 0.94, 5.58 ± 1.08, and 6.56 ± 1.24), and RNB values (0.33 ± 0.06, 0.33 ± 0.07, and 0.33 ± 0.05), respectively. In clinical study, the contrast values for DEW, TEW, and new approach were 0.53 ± 0.03, 0.57 ± 0.07, and 0.62 ± 0.04 in rest MPI and were 0.52 ± 0.04, 0.57 ± 0.06, and 0.6 ± 0.05 in stress MPI, respectively. Moreover, for the rest images, the SNR values were 7.65 ± 1.9, 9.08 ± 2.2, and 10.2 ± 1.75 and for stress images were 7.76 ± 1.99, 9.12 ± 2.25, and 10.17 ± 2.04, respectively. Finally, RNB values for rest and stress images were 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.03, and 0.13 ± 0.03, respectively.The simulation and the clinical studies showed that the new approach could be better performance than DEW, TEW methods, according to values of the contrast, and the SNR for scatter correction.
Mei-Yu Fang, Li Lin, Guang-Yong Chen, Chun-Wei Xu, Hai-Yan Wang, Yong-Fang Wu
Published: 1 January 2018
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.206304

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis is the distribution pattern of KRAS and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC).Materials and Methods: The database was searched without language restrictions. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Stata software. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval to estimate the distribution of and correlation between KRAS and BRAF mutations, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in the left- and right-sided CRC.Results: The studies were divided into five groups: (1) Distribution of KRAS/BRAF mutations in distal and proximal CRCs, the summary OR value was 1.24 versus 4.03, (2) distribution of KRAS/BRAF mutations in CIMP-low/negative and CIMP-high (CIMP-H) tumors, the summary OR value was 0.77 versus 10.49, (3) distribution of KRAS/BRAF mutations in MSI-low (MSI-L)/microsatellite stable (MSS) and MSI-high (MSI-H) tumors, the summary OR value was 0.51 versus 9.60, (4) proportion of CIMP-H/MSI-H tumors among distal and proximal colorectal tumors, the summary OR value was 3.66 versus 6.54, and (5) proportion of CIMP-H tumors among MSI-L/MSS and MSI-H tumors, the summary OR value was 5.87.Conclusion: The meta-analysis reveals that KRAS has a slightly higher mutation rate in MSI-L/MSS tumors. Moreover, BRAF mutations have a higher detection rates in the right-sided CRC, which suggests that BRAF mutations are likely in CIMP-H tumors. Therefore, based on these findings, the molecular diagnostic tests to be conducted in CRC patients can be determined according to the location/clinical features of the tumor.
Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Geraily, Nooshin Sharafi, Mahbod Esfehani, Maryam Masoudifar, Blookat Eftekhar Rajab
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 97-101; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.206244

Abstract:
Introduction: Using physical wedges (PWs) to modify dose distribution and more homogeneous target coverage is a well-established technique. However, there are many problems with PWs known as beam hardening, which made them problematic. This can be overcome by dynamic wedges which do not filter beam. Comparison of physical properties of physical and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs) restricted to homogeneous medium. Hence, the main aim of this study is to compare dosimetric properties of physical and EDWs at bladder inhomogeneous phantom as a most common case implementing wedges. Materials and Methods: An inhomogeneous pelvic phantom with homogeneities of uterus, femur, soft tissue, rectum, and bladder was designed. Eclipse treatment planning system with the aim of bladder target was used for calculations. All dose distributions were measured with EBT3 films. Results: Comparison between beam profiles of physical and EDWs at wedged and nonwedged directions shows a greater difference at near inhomogeneous soft tissue interface and also at heel side of wedges. Conclusion: Little difference observed between dose distribution of physical and EDWs shows neglectable effect of beam hardening produced by PW compared to EDW at inhomogeneous medium. Furthermore, EBT3 films present good feature to measure dose distributions at EDW fields.
Sushmita Pathy, Pradeep Ventrapati, , Seema Kashyap
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 145-147; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.206240

Abstract:
Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare soft tissue tumors. The eyelid is a very uncommon site for these tumors, and an anaplastic variant of HPC in the eyelid has not been reported before. A 44-year-old male presented with complaints of slowly progressive, painless swelling on the inner aspect of the left upper eyelid for 9 months. He underwent local excision of the swelling and histopathology revealed a WHO Grade III anaplastic HPC. Whole body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography done postoperatively did not show any evidence of local or distant disease. The patient was planned for adjuvant radiotherapy of 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks in view of high grade of histopathology and doubtful margins. He is disease free at the time of the last follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic HPC of eyelid being reported in English literature.
Nidhi Patni, Nagarjuna Burela, Rajesh Pasricha, Jaishree Goyal, Tej Prakash Soni, T Senthil Kumar, T Natarajan
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 131-136; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.199451

Abstract:
Purpose: To achieve the best possible therapeutic ratio using high-precision techniques (image-guided radiation therapy/volumetric modulated arc therapy [IGRT/VMAT]) of external beam radiation therapy in cases of carcinoma cervix using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT).Materials and Methods: One hundred and five patients of gynecological malignancies who were treated with IGRT (IGRT/VMAT) were included in the study. CBCT was done once a week for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and daily in IGRT/VMAT. These images were registered with the planning CT scan images and translational errors were applied and recorded. In all, 2078 CBCT images were studied. The margins of planning target volume were calculated from the variations in the setup.Results: The setup variation was 5.8, 10.3, and 5.6 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral direction. This allowed adequate dose delivery to the clinical target volume and the sparing of organ at risks.Conclusion: Daily kV-CBCT is a satisfactory method of accurate patient positioning in treating gynecological cancers with high-precision techniques. This resulted in avoiding geographic miss.
P Arul, Suresh Masilamani
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 91-96; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.199452

Abstract:
Background: There is a lack of uniformity with regard to the reporting terminology used in breast cytology by pathologists worldwide, resulting in miscommunication of results among health-care providers. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the evaluation of breast lesions using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommended terminology. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total number of 523 breast FNACs were categorized according to the NCI guidelines. Of these, 286 (54.7%) had histopathological follow-up, and their FNAC diagnoses were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) along with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and accuracy of FNAC were calculated. Results: Among 286 FNAC cases, 4 were unsatisfactory (C1), 188 were benign (C2), 11 were atypical, probably benign (C3), 21 were suspicious, favor malignancy (C4), and 62 were malignant (C5). On histopathological examination of categories C2 and C3 (total of 199 cases), 193 were confirmed as benign (true negative) and remaining 6 cases were turned out to malignant (false negative). Among categories C4 and C5 (total of 83 cases), 81 were confirmed as malignant (true positive) and remaining 2 were turned out to be benign (false positive). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of FNAC were 93.1% (95% CI, 88.2%–95%), 99% (95% CI, 96.8%–99.8%), 97.6% (95% CI, 92.5%–99.6%), 97% (95% CI, 94.9%–97.8%), and 97.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study concluded that FNAC reporting using NCI guidelines highly correlated with the histopathological diagnosis.
, , Tohid Morteza Zadeh, Hassan Ali Nedaie, Daryoosh Hamrahi, Najimeh Khezerloo
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 118-121; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.199389

Abstract:
Introduction: Many factors, such as PRESAGE ® composition, dose rate, energy, and type of radiation, temperature, etc., may effect on PRESAGE ® dosimeter response. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of temperature variation on response of PRESAGE ® solid dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, a PRESAGE ® solid detector was fabricated. Ninety-four percent weight polyurethane, 5% weight carbon tetrachloride, and 1% weight leucomalachite green were used. Radiological and physical characteristics of PRESAGEs ®, such as mass density, electron density, and effective number atomic were obtained and compared with water. Response of PRESAGE ® dosimeter in temperatures −4, 10, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and 90°C was evaluated. In addition, the absorption peak at various temperatures was investigated. Results: The results showed that the absorption peak at different temperatures was in the range of 630–635 nm. For temperatures below 75°C, the results indicated that temperature variation has no effect on the response of PRESAGE ® dosimeter whereas at the temperatures >75°C, temperature variation has an effect on PRESAGE ® dosimeter response. Conclusion: The finding showed that temperature changes have not impact on the absorption peak. In addition, the results related to the effect of temperature variation on the response of PRESAGE ® dosimeter showed that in the range of clinical applications (temperatures below 75°C), temperature variation has no effect on PRESAGE ® dosimeter response.
Bk Yamini, Nikhila Radhakrishna, Amrut Sadashiv Kadam, N Shivashankar, Chendil Vishwanathan, Rajesh Javarappa
Published: 1 January 2017
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, Volume 13, pp 113-117; https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.199386

Abstract:
Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) used for definitive management of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) allows organ preservation at the cost of preservation of function. Vocal cords, being within the field of irradiation, undergo acute and chronic changes which adversely impacts the patients' voice. Aims: To assess the acute changes in the acoustic characteristics of voice post-CCRT in patients with nonlaryngeal HNSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with HNSCC treated with CCRT, a total dose of 66–70 Gy/33–35 fractions at five fractions/week, with weekly cisplatin. Acoustic analysis (AA) and laryngoscopic examination performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months post-CCRT. Statistical analysis of the parameters using ANOVA and Student's t-test was performed. Results: Of the thirty patients, 26 patients completed CCRT. At 6 weeks post-CCRT, among 14/26 patients, most (11/14 [78.57%]) developed Grade III toxicity. On AA, both increase and decrease in mean F0 from baseline was observed. An increase (P 0.05). Conclusions: Periodic AA allows quantification of voice changes and mapping of vocal toxicity induced by CCRT.
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