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Gaziyev Obidjon, Andijan Gm-Uzbekistan, Oleksii Zakharkin, Liudmyla Zakharkina
Published: 1 January 2017
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.1(2).80-102.2017

Raphael Louis, Lt. General (Osp) Leader-President/ceo, Canada Ontario
Published: 1 January 2017
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.1(2).52-59.2017

Badri G. Narayanan, Naveen R. Kadasala, L. V. Narayan Achari, Seshadev Sahoo
Published: 1 January 2017
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.1(2).27-33.2017

Mahabuba Khanm Mim, Mahide Hasan, Afzal Hossain,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 48-61; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).48-61.2022

Abstract:
The tourism industry has become an important sector that has a substantial influence on the development of a country’s economy. One of the most significant benefits of tourism includes the construction and improvement of local infrastructure. Tremendous opportunities waits for Bangladesh as she has potentials to attract both local and global tourists. However, tourism and destination marketers should utilize different marketing tactics to content and retain existing customers, encourage new and prospective ones. The research was to examine the impact of destination familiarity, destination image, safety and security, travel motivation, social media and reference groups on tourists’ destination choice in the contexts of Bangladesh. The research design of this study was descriptive. The study was used purposive sampling method. Primary and secondary data both were used. Primary data were collected through a structured questionnaire by survey method from 256 Bangladeshi tourists visiting to tourism destination using a five-point Likert scale. Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 25.0 version software was used for analysis the data. It was analysed using descriptive statistics analysis, multicollinearity test, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results of the regression analysis revealed that all aspects except travel motivation had a significant and positive influence on destination choice in Bangladesh. Therefore, it is recommended that the research creates awareness among prospective tourists, investigators, academicians, government authorities, tourism businesses, politicians and all the stakehold
Tetiana Dotsenko, Svitlana Kolomiiets
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 97-106; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).97-106.2022

Abstract:
The paper emphasizes the importance of human health as the most valuable, most important resource at the individual and national level, affecting the country’s socio-economic development and competitiveness. It states that it is necessary for the actors ensuring the public health system to form a new concept for the functioning of the health system, taking into account the current state of public health, the functioning of medical institutions, and the resource support of the healthcare industry. The primary purpose is to conduct a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications dealing with the global behavioral and social dimension of the public health system. The systematization of literary achievements and approaches to solving this problem has been carried out, which indicates the need for proper attention and high-quality, conceptual, international research by world scientists on issues related to the state and level of public health, satisfaction with the healthcare system. The relevance of the analysis of research on the behavioral and social dimension of the public health system of the world implies that the further development of the healthcare industry necessitates research, intensive development, and dissemination of available scientific and methodological international experience in solving this issue of the public health system in different countries worldwide. The research consisted of four stages. A map of the interrelationships of key concepts with other scientific categories has been constructed; a content-contextual study of the constructed blocks of bibliometric analysis has been implemented; an inter-cluster analysis has been carried out. A map of the interrelationships of the key concepts under study with other scientific categories has been constructed, reflecting the dynamics in the form of a contextual-time block; the evolutionary-time prospects of the study have been determined. A geographically extensive map of the scientific bibliography of the categories under study has been constructed; the spatial component of the study has been analyzed. A territorially branched map of the spatio-temporal dimension of the category under the study in dynamics has been constructed. The methodological tools of the research are theoretical (grouping, abstraction, synthesis) and empirical methods (observation, description), research methods, services of the Scopus information platform, and VOSViewers tools.1.6.15. The study was conducted based on the publications indexed by the Scopus database for 2000-2020. The objects of research were the following scientific categories: “health care system, medical services, behavioral aspect, social aspect,” the countries United States, Germany, Norway, Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, India, Netherlands, China, Brazil, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium, Iran, Japan, Italy, Spain, because these two groups of objects allowed to conduct two-directional analysis of the problem under study. The results of the bibliometric analysis presented in the paper showed that the aspect of the behavioral and social dimension of the public health system was relatively young and insufficiently developed; the attention of the scientific community for a long time on this issue was mainly concentrated in the United States and the United Kingdom. China, Iran, and Japan were less involved in this process at an earlier time interval, but this research became relevant for them in recent years. The study results can be used to identify the most potential priority areas for forming the policy and strategy of the state health system, based on determining the main significant, modern, relevant characteristics of the healthcare industry.
Enriko Ceko
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 5-22; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).5-22.2022

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to offer a new approach to evaluate the index of ISO 9001 standard, as so far countries are listed for the ISO 9001 standard based only on the number of ISO 9001 certificates issued for each country, and this perception does not correspond to reality, because some countries that are listed per alphabetic order on top, doesn’t enjoy the property of having a better ranking when it comes to rank countries per number of ISO 9001 certificates issues, or when it comes to rank countries about their weight on the issue. On the other side, listing countries simply by the number of ISO 9001 certificates issued, doesn’t reflect the real weight of countries on the issue, because this rank should be adjusted with the number of businesses of countries taken into consideration, better understanding of ranking models used. A new approach to ranking countries about this issue is needed, reflecting the issue of taking into consideration the number of ISO 9001 certificates issued in a country per number of businesses in that country, as a better way of evaluating the index of ISO 9001 standard. The methodology/method used to conduct this study were (1) the data collection on the number of ISO 9001 certificates issued per country, (2) the data collection on the number of businesses in each country, (3) the division of the number of ISO 9001 certificates issued with the number of businesses, (4) construction of a new ranking list of countries based on the ISO 9001 standard index, (5) inversing the list to give the right value/rank of countries, and graphics draw of the new approach for better visualization and understanding the issue. The main conclusion of this study is that a new approach is needed to evaluate the index of ISO 9001 standard as a more appropriate indicator for listing/ranking countries and this serves all those interested in the academic field, public administration, and the reports and studies of the national and international level of organizations, to create a better perception of doing business in general and on the aspects of quality management in particular, especially when it comes to making the most appropriate comparisons between countries on these issues, weighting them numerically and graphically, as well as helps on understanding, and for a better approaching of socio and economic issues related to ISO standards and continuous improvement of people and organizations.
Meera Mehta, Shivani Arora, Shikha Gupta, Arun Jhulka
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 39-47; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).39-47.2022

Abstract:
Purpose. Microblogging sites are being used by people across the globe to share their opinions and to express sentiments for everything in real time. Through social listening, companies analyse the sentiments to assess the way forward, and the researchers use it to analyse the trend or an event and give forward-looking recommendations. The objective of the paper is to analyse the sentiments of people relating to Paytm IPO which can be used to predict the way forward. Design/methodology/approach. The study attempts sentiment analysis. For this purpose, QSR NVIVO 12, the qualitative analysis tool was used to retrieve the tweets from the Twitter website. NCapture was installed for this purpose. Post data cleaning, stemming, query augmentation and classification, the Twitter data was analysed. Findings. The sentiments around the IPO of Paytm have been negative and sarcastic. The extremely negative tweets were near twice the number of extremely positive tweets. Practical implication. The study can help an investor in evaluating the investment that they might be planning in the given company. For the company, whose IPO is being considered, an analysis of the sentiments around the IPO can help in taking corrective measures, if the sentiment is negative, towards reputation building. Originality/value. The study is an original contribution to the extant literature in the field of sentiment analysis.
Nijat Gurbanov, Nargiz Yagublu, Narmin Akbarli, Ibrahim Niftiyev
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 23-38; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).23-38.2022

Abstract:
One of the key challenges for businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic has been to maintain financial sustainability despite the public crisis and consumer demand shocks. While some companies have managed to digitize and cope with the new realities, others have not. This will determine the future of companies and the direction of anti-crisis tools in management strategies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of digitalization as an anti-crisis tool among Azerbaijani businesses during the Covid-19 outbreak. The data set is based on voluntary survey data gathered from key businesses of the Azerbaijan economy. Our analysis applied k-means clustering, the related-samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test to learn whether there was any connection between digitalization and financial sustainability. Our findings indicate that 42% of the businesses that participated in the study obtained benefits by using digitalization as a crisis management tool during the Covid-19 pandemic period, but 38% of the respondents did not report any significant changes in their businesses despite increased digitalization efforts. Moreover, 20% of the businesses examined experienced negative changes after digitalization. The results of the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test indicated that those businesses that had high scores before and after the increased digitalization efforts during the Covid-19 pandemic, achieved higher median profits, while the businesses with lower scores experienced a financial loss. As can be seen from the results, the chances of benefiting from digitalization are rather uncertain for local businesses. The main policy conclusion from this study is that businesses in Azerbaijan need to address the digitization challenge comprehensively to increase benefits and reduce costs. The results of our study are useful for business owners, policy makers, and top managers when developing strategies for enterprise-level digitization, especially during and after viral outbreaks.
Byyiyet Josiah Jacob, Yusha’U Ishaya, Shem Yunusa Bajama
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 123-131; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).123-131.2022

Abstract:
Over the last decade, much research has been conducted in the field of human resource management (HRM) and its associations with organizational performance. Prior studies have found substantial positive evidence for statistical associations between HRM and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between HRM practices and firm performance. This study examines the relationships among HRM practices and firm performance. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey design. Primary data was sourced through the instrument of questionnaire. The total of 13 department which comprises of 305 employees which the sample size needed to carry out our survey was 75 in order to achieve 90% precision from the sample. The research study is drawn scientifically using the stratified random sampling technique. The findings revealed among others HRM has a great impact on organizational performance and the conclusion is a stimulus to Nigeria breweries through a well-coordinated HRM practices, value added to company’s production processes and the contribution made by each employee have more effect on the results obtained by the organisation. This finding leads to the conclusion that HRM can bring about a higher organisational performance for firm. The researcher recommended among others that HRM should endeavor to have a well-structured effective organizational performance in order to achieve the set up objectives and in order to improve employees efficiency and effectiveness towards achieving the organisational goals, the appraisal period should be more frequent probably every quarterly and various motivational instrument should be introduce to entice employees to perform better and these would go a long way in fostering an understanding of multicultural work climate and enhancing the building of a truly agile Nigeria breweries, Kaduna.
Fernando Alonso Ojeda Castro
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 132-147; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).132-147.2022

Abstract:
The document seeks to follow up on companies, entrepreneurs and States, on the issue of strategy and entrepreneurship. For this, two parts are taken, “Companies and take-off strategies typical of central and southeast Asia, before the pandemic”, there are unicorn companies, ventures, new versions of organizations before COVID, period from 2012 to 2019. The cases to be studied come from companies, States, organizations, which are located in the center, such as in Southeast Asia: the Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China. It also takes the leading countries of Southeast Asia, led by Japan, first-generation of the Asian Tigers, Singapore, South Korea, Republic of China Taiwan (ROC); second generation, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, among others. Then, strategic cases are described, analyzed, and sought, in the period 2021-2022, the same countries of Central Asia, plus Japan, the first-generation Tigers, all those previously analyzed, plus Hong Kong and the Second generation, all the analyzed in the previous period, plus Malaysia and Cambodia (OJEDA F. A., 2014). Sectors associated public policies, business strategies, exact cases of companies are observed, for each country, before and after the pandemic until today, 2022. With this research scheme, the reader establishes a “road map” of the companies, which has been generated from a highly volatile international environment, but with great opportunities. It is also an attempt to show a business “catalogue of practices” from these countries, which can be an example for Western organizations, in times of global crisis and international price volatility, especially affecting the value chains of food commodities, energy and basic electronic supplies.
Paul F. Gentle
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 157-158; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).157-158.2022

Abstract:
Jan Tinbergen was the first Nobel prize winner in economics. He shared that honor with Ragnar Frisch. The focus of their research that earned the Nobel prize, was “pioneering work in the field of econometric, the field at the intersection of statistics, mathematics, and economic theory” (p. 125). Erwin Dekker, a cultural economist provides this very comprehensive book about Jan Tinbergen. Dekker is on the faculty of Erasmus University, in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Halil D. Kaya
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 80-96; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).80-96.2022

Abstract:
In this study, we examine whether different types of regulations affect the composition of small business owners in U.S. states. We employ a national survey titled the “United States Small Business Friendliness Survey”. This survey asks small business owners their opinions on different types of regulations (i.e. “health and safety regulations”, “employment regulations”, “tax code”, “licensing regulations”, “environmental regulations”, and “zoning regulations”). The survey also asks business owners questions on their own characteristics like “position in the firm”, “previous entrepreneurial experience”, “gender”, “age”, “political view”, “education level”, and “race”. Our results show that each regulation category affects almost all categories of owner characteristics. The exceptions are the following: “Health and safety regulations” do not affect position in the firm, “employment regulations” do not affect gender and age, “tax code” does not affect position in the firm and age, “licensing regulations” and “environmental regulations” do not affect position in the firm and gender, and “zoning regulations” do not affect position in the firm, previous experience, and gender. “Health and safety regulations” affect gender, age, political view, education level, and race. “Employment regulations” affect previous entrepreneurial experience, political view, education level, and race. “Tax code” affects previous entrepreneurial experience, gender, political view, education level, and race. “Licensing regulations” affect previous entrepreneurial experience, age, political view, education level, and race. “Environmental regulations” affect previous entrepreneurial experience, age, political view, education level, and race. “Zoning regulations” affect age, political view, education level, and race. Overall, our findings indicate that regulations affect the geographical choice of entrepreneurs. The states with a more favorable score in a certain area of regulation attract a certain group of entrepreneurs. Policymakers should consider these findings when devising their strategies to attract certain types of entrepreneurs to their states.
, Vadym Dun
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 107-113; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).107-113.2022

Abstract:
This article summarizes the arguments and counterarguments in the framework of the scientific discussion on the problem of identifying, using the Granger test, the components of macroeconomic stability of Ukraine most sensitive to the destructive impact of Covid-19. The study’s primary goal is to select from among many macroeconomic indicators precisely those that cause epidemiological surges in morbidity and mortality of the population using the example of the Covid-19 pandemic. The systematization of literary sources and approaches to solving the problem of finding determinants that affect the course of the pandemic shows many views among the scientists of the world. Still, they do not establish a single opinion. The study of the topic of identifying the influence of indicators of macroeconomic stability on the destructive impact of the pandemic in work is carried out in the following logical sequence: 1) systematization of literary sources according to the topic of the study; 2) creation of a statistical database that meets the requirements of the chosen methods; 3) bringing the obtained time series to a comparative form and achieving their stationarity; 4) conducting a two-sided test to identify causality. The methodological tools of the research methods were the Dickey-Fuller test for detecting a unit root and stationarity of a series, ways to achieve stationarity of a series using different methods, and a two-sided Granger test for detecting the causality of indicators. The object of the study is Ukraine; the term of the study is the beginning of the pandemic from February 2020 to December 2021. The article presents the results of an empirical analysis of the identification of the components of macroeconomic stability of Ukraine most sensitive to the destructive impact of Covid-19, which showed that such indicators exist and the causal relationship exists in both directions. The study empirically confirms and theoretically proves that the most influential factors are the consumer price index and inflation, which cause the variability of the number of infected and deaths in Ukraine. The study results can help create regional and national patterns of resistance to the destructive impact of the pandemic on macroeconomic stability.
Zaur S. Ibragimov
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 148-156; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).148-156.2022

Abstract:
Since the founding of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation in 2004, this institution has been actively involved in large-scale international cultural relations. The purpose of creating this fund was to preserve and popularize the legacy of the national leader of the Azerbaijani people, Heydar Aliyev, to convey the truth about Azerbaijan to the world community, and to familiarize with its history, culture, and spiritual values. The purpose of this article is to determine the stages of formation and development of the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, to analyze the directions of its multi-vector activity and to justify the role of the Foundation in forming a positive image of independent Azerbaijan. Along with general logical methods, the methods of political monitoring, content analysis, historical and comparative analysis are used, which make it possible to highlight the complex of activities carried out by the Fund and to forecast the trends of its further activity. Since the foundation of the Foundation, important projects have been developed and successfully implemented to protect the welfare of the Azerbaijani people, protect their national heritage and moral values. The Heydar Aliyev Foundation, paying special attention to the expansion of cooperation with Islamic countries in the field of science and culture, ensured the achievement of the highest level of development of relations between Azerbaijan and the Islamic Organization for Education, Science and Culture. The Heydar Aliyev Foundation paid serious attention to the expansion of cooperation within the framework of the UN, which resulted in the adoption of the Program on creating conditions for the use of information and communication technologies by people with visual impairments. According to the results of the research, it was established that the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, in cooperation with the government, parliament and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, plays the role of one of the effective means of implementing the foreign policy, social, humanitarian, political, economic and cultural strategy of Azerbaijan. The Foundation was able to form a positive image of Azerbaijan on an international scale, establishing constructive cooperation in all spheres, both with individual states and with influential international and regional organizations.
Firwana Hazem, Firwana Sharif
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 62-79; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).62-79.2022

Abstract:
The study aimed to identify the impact of human resources empowerment in achieving the strategic goals of business companies in the Gaza Strip. The researcher chose three dimensions of empowerment, and after reviewing the scientific references and previous scientific studies that dealt with the subject to measure their role in achieving the strategic goals of business companies. The study reached a few results, the most important of which are: The study showed that the level of importance of (information sharing, freedom and independence, work teams) in business companies in the Gaza Strip was high, and this can be explained by the importance of each of the dimensions of employee empowerment, and thus is reflected in the achievement of strategic goals. The study showed that the freedom and independence of workers in business companies in the Gaza Strip was moderate, and this is because the management of these companies gives freedom and independence to the employee to act in situations that confront them during their work, but it is not absolutely free, due to the sensitivity and importance of private work. The study came out with several recommendations, the most prominent of which were: Increasing the principle of freedom and independence and making more spaces available for employees, especially those on the front lines. Attention must be paid when forming work teams that their role should be to achieve the general goals of the company in general, and to reach the strategic goals in particular. Intensifying and deepening the effective and efficient sharing of information between the various administrative levels, and urging workers and employees to the principle of innovation at work in line with the nature and mission of the company.
Assia Guedjali
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 114-122; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(3).114-122.2022

Abstract:
For more than fifty years the place and role of women in Algeria have undergone profound changes. The political changes of the 1990s consolidated and strengthened the existing gains, in a new dynamic of women’s rights. All the institutional arrangements put in place and the action programs implemented since the beginning of the 2000s have resulted in significant changes in the situation of women, both in the field of education, health and living conditions and in participation in economic and public life. Aware that education favors the integration of women into active life, the enrolment of girls in school appears to be the main factor behind this progress and is the powerful means that has had a positive influence on the development of women’s advancement. It should also be noted that, since independence, women have gradually entered all fields of study, particularly scientific and technological ones. In higher education, the female student presence is globally dominant, with girls representing more than 60% of enrolments over several consecutive years. In addition, the labour code has enshrined non-discrimination and eliminated inequalities in all sectors since independence. The methodological tools of the research are the description by statistical tools, in order to describe and explain phenomena through historical data in the form of measurable variables. The results of the analysis show that this process of schooling and access to employment, for both boys and girls, is undoubtedly bringing about social change in Algerian society. The gap between male and female activity has been slowly narrowing in recent years. Moreover, these changes in female employment and in participation in economic activity have not kept pace with the rise in women’s level of education. Indeed, despite all these significant changes, the labour market still shows a strong gender division. Statistics on the gender and occupational distribution of the labour force show that women are concentrated in activities that are an extension of their status as mothers and wives, such as education, health, and services (administration). This article will highlight the main indicators of the evolution of Algerian women with regard to the public policies initiated by the state, which have allowed for a slow but present social change. This process of schooling and access to employment, for both boys and girls, is undoubtedly bringing about social change in Algerian society. The gap between male and female activity has been slowly narrowing in recent years. Moreover, these changes in female employment and in participation in economic activity have not kept pace with the rise in women’s level of education. Indeed, despite all these significant changes, the labour market still shows a strong gender division. Statistics on the gender and occupational distribution of the labour force show that women are concentrated in activities that are an extension of their status as mothers and wives, such as education, health, and services (administration). This article will highlight the main indicators of the evolution of Algerian women about the public policies initiated by the state, which have led to a social change that is certainly slow but very present.
Paul Ojonemi Salisu
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).127-137.2022

Abstract:
The level of unemployment amongst the old and young people in Nigeria is not only outrageous but seemingly on the increase, notwithstanding the presence of all economic major resources together with several policies, programmes, and projects of successive administrations. Governments, at various levels, have adopted different measures to reduce unemployment and poverty rates with little or no significant effects. This study, therefore, attempts to focus mainly, on Human Capital Development (HCD) and Public Private Partnership as panacea to alleviating unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria and Africa at large. To achieve its objective, the paper employs a secondary method of data collection and hence, the documentary method of analysis is adopted. Literature revealed that responsive governance – governance that responds to the plight and predicaments of the citizenry (unemployment and poverty) by investing in human capital development will in the end, not only produce men and women of creativity but entrepreneurs that will drive the economy by engaging their knowledge and skills in productive ventures. In addition, the adoption of Partnership Approach by the study canvassed the involvement of the private sector to actively participate in job creation that will lead to poverty alleviation. It is recommended that for an economy to thrive, governance should focus on the provision and sustenance of basic infrastructural facilities such as functional vocational institutions, quality education, and an enabling environment for the private sector’s ease of doing business.
Ashley-Ann Cooper,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).19-28.2022

Abstract:
Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a genetic / neurological condition, impacting about 2% of young children in the United States, which causes certain challenges in one’s communication, learning, socialization, and even stress management coping skills. Children with autism tend to demonstrate the presence of constrained, confined, or repetitive patterns of behaviors, activities, and interests. People with ASD learn differently than others, and their attention can be gained and maintained through repetition and routine. Individuals who have a mild or extreme form of ASD often experience more difficulty adjusting to changes in the work environment and society in general. Consequently, even though many individuals with ASD can perform their jobs successfully, they are often discriminated against and not afforded reasonable accommodations for them to gain and maintain steady employment. In this paper, we provide an overview of ASD to create awareness, along with recommendations so that more autistic adults can be employed in the workplace. Employers and manager should know that autism spectrum disorder involves a range of symptoms that cause difficulty communicating, such as flat affect (or diminished emotional expression), poor eye contact, and difficulty understanding nonverbal cues. These symptoms make it difficult to find and maintain employment, and people with autism regularly deal with discrimination and prejudice, both in and out of the workplace. Employers show less interest in hiring neurodivergent employees even if they are qualified and capable of performing the required work, and many do not provide sufficient accommodations to those that they do hire.
Paul Gentle
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 67-82; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).67-82.2022

Abstract:
The demonstrations in 2019, 2020 and thereabouts for the preservation of certain civil rights in Hong Kong, led to some suppression by the Chinese National central government. As a result, some of the special trade advantages between Hong Kong and the U.S. were lost. The economics and cultural special traits helped Hong Kong thrive. Having a judicial system separate from that of Mainland China, allowed for a more commerce producing judiciary. A key requirement for Hong Kong to be treated differently than Mainland China was for Hong Kong to have some independent autonomy, sufficient for the U.S. to see Hong Kong as a separate area politically from Mainland China. In July 2020, the U.S. made the formal decision to take away Hong Kong’s special status, because a sufficiently independent Hong Kong no longer exists. This article examines the history of this phenomena and the results of having that special trade policy changed. Data from recent years show how the economy with Hong Kong and trade with Hong Kong has changed. Unfortunately, some cultural ties and exchanges between the United States and Hong Kong have also been curtailed. These changes regarding cultural ties are beyond the scope of this article. In regard to Chinese support for the United States, Ukraine and NATO, Ukraine in the war between Ukraine and Russia, this should be pointed out. China should support Ukraine, since it is in China’s best interest, and it is the right action to take.
, Marine Gevorgyan
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).42-49.2022

Abstract:
The article presents a brief history of the founding of the capital Yerevan, some examples of the history and architecture of Armenia, which has a tourist attraction. Yerevan is rich in historical, cultural and scientific monuments, which together with hotels, restaurants, clubs, and various places of entertainment are tourist resources․ The paper is dedicated to urban tourism development issues. The main purpose of the research is to explore urban tourism development opportunities and main challenges in Yerevan, the capital of Republic of Armenia. Investigation of the topic is carried out in the following logical sequence: presentation of historical-cultural monuments, museums of scientific, and cultural interest visited by tourists, the main touristic assets, the main social-economic indicators and tourism infrastructures of Yerevan are discussed, then the main obstacles are analyzed. Yerevan is 2803 years old; it is rich with cultural-historical monuments. Yerevan has all the opportunities for historical, cultural, religious, gastronomic, entertainment, adventure, educational, medical, festival, and MICE tourism development. The methodological tools of the research methods are historical description, historical analysis, statistical methods, also SWOT analysis. The object of the research is Yerevan city and the subject of the research is tourism development issues in Yerevan. The results of the analysis shows that correlation coefficient is high in Yerevan between volume of tourism services and GDP, volume of tourism services and GDP per capita, volume of tourism services and employment. Also, SWOT analysis reveals the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of tourism development in Yerevan. The research theoretically proves and empirically confirms that tourism has a significance role for sustainable development of the city. Based on the main analysis, some recommendations are carried out towards creating sustainable tourism development plans, improving marketing, statistical recording, increasing touristic information in the city, developing infrastructures, investing in more sustainable and smart solutions in city development. The main sustainable solutions should be connected with the transport system, water and waste recycling mechanisms, energy efficiency, construction, increasing green areas, and-so-on. The results of the research can be useful for municipalities for elaborating urban tourism development plans which will lead to sustainable development.
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 138-146; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).138-146.2022

Abstract:
This paper analyzes various aspects of energy dependency and identifies the hidden factors behind national energy security. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the factors that reduce energy security in the consumption of natural gas, oil, and nuclear energy generation were identified. One such factor is import dependency on energy resources. Import dependency on energy is a crucial characteristic of energy security and can exacerbate the effects of external aggression, non-competitive behavior, and pressure. Given the energy crisis of 2022, most countries around the world have revised their energy security policies to reduce import dependency by diversifying supplies and reducing dependence on Russian energy resources. The factor analysis of energy dependency ratios, 1990-2020, was used to study the energy security of the EU27 countries. The factor analysis was performed for annual indices calculated using the Eurostat database of “Simplified energy balances.” The paper hypothesized the existence of latent relationships between energy security variables for the twenty-seven EU countries. The hypothesis was verified using Bartlett’s sphericity test and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin criterion. The results of hypothesis testing showed its statistical significance (the p-value < 0.05) and the possibility of factor analysis. Correspondence indices also indicated the adequacy of possible prediction of a set of variables. The factor analysis was executed in Python using the FactorAnalyzer module (the release 0.4.0). The principal factor extraction and the varimax rotation model were used to obtain the initial solution, preserving the orthogonality of the loading matrix. The factor structure of the model was confirmed for four factors consisting of the twenty-eight elements. The received four factors model allowed us to describe around 80% of the cumulative variance. It was found that each factor separately explained 46.89%, 15.80%, 10.91%, and 6.39% of the variance, respectively.
Belen Suarez Lopez, , Antonio Vargas Alcaide
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 94-105; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).94-105.2022

Abstract:
In an increasingly digitized world and after the disruption of the covid-19 pandemic, the internet and social networks are becoming the central backbone of interactions between individuals, organizations, and governments worldwide in general and defending the democratic values in Ukraine in particular. The influence capacity of social networks on creativity and innovation has grown in recent years and has been an objective of the study. This paper analyses the interaction between innovation and social networks from a balanced assessment, considering opportunities and risks. The interaction between social networks and innovation could redesign the value creation process. The proliferation of social media platforms coincides with the expansion of the open innovation paradigm and has demonstrated its efficiency in facilitating solutions in different fields such as science, statistics, engineering, production and the generation of social policies. On the other hand, risks have to be analyzed and mitigated. The social networks and search engines could have become a proxy for organizing and accessing information and knowledge on a large scale; however, evidence points out how the fake data and concentration could suffocate innovation. The research develops a theoretical framework to analyze how the organizational structure of social networks could influence the knowledge absorption capability and innovation; what is the influence of the social networks on creativity and innovation; and their role as drivers to create the social value. The results of the research could be practically valuable for many stakeholders: Chief Innovation Officers and Communication Managers, Teams responsible for Stakeholders Engagement and Open Innovation programmes, Policy Makers, and the Scientific Community interested in developing empirical research on the topic, as well as citizens to understand their role as change-makers contributing to developing Innovation and Creativity.
Meleq Hoxhaj, , Erkinela Nushi
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).29-41.2022

Abstract:
Albania has seen significant political and socioeconomic changes in the last 30 years, owing mostly to its participation in democratization and the transition to an open market economy. The purpose of this study is to investigate demographic dynamics in Albania to better understand the country’s current population situation and the near future projection for the period 2025-2031. The relevance of analyzing this topic is to better understand actual demographic changes in Albania and to have a detailed projection of the situation in the near future. The article begins by analyzing important demographic changes and their effects on a country’s economy, specifically the labor market. Furthermore, we demonstrated the trajectory of demographic changes in Albania for various main demographic parameters such as births, deaths, natural increase, marriage, divorces, and numbers of foreigners in Albania, using data from the Institute of Statistics in Albania (INSTAT). The following are presented population projections for ten coming years. The changes that have happened in the labor market are presented here to better comprehend the effects and repercussions of these demographic changes. The descriptive analysis of the main demographic indicators shows that the population is rapidly declining, posing a serious problem with numerous consequences, particularly in the labor market, necessitating the implementation of immediate policies to mitigate this phenomenon and its consequences. It makes a technical contribution by employing an approach that allows for fresh estimations of the amount of internal migration, demographic changes, and labor market issues in Albania. The results of the research can be useful for policymakers to initiate social, fiscal, and incentive policies to mitigate the decline and aging of the population.
Haruka Yoshimori Haruka Yoshimori, Masaaki Yoshimori
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 5-18; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).5-18.2022

Abstract:
This paper summarizes arguments driving education policy discussion about a relationship between the growth of the economy and early childhood cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The first finding is that rising Harmonized Test Scores, including PISA test scores, do not contribute to labor productivity per person in high income courtiers in Asia, Europe, and North America. On the other hand, the test scores can drive the economy in high income countries in Africa, Caribbean, Middle East, and South America; upper middle-income countries in Africa, Caribbean, Middle East, Ocean, and South America; low middle-income countries; and low middle-income countries more than high-income countries. The second finding is that rising Harmonized Test Scores (HTS) are likely to connect to labor productivity per hour. By a simple regression by taking a logarithm, this study investigates the relationship between labor productivity per hour and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) test scores. The coefficient of determination is 0.60. It is not enough to get a sufficient result. Accordingly, the study discusses how labor productivity per hour in high income courtiers in Asia, Europe, and North America is associated with non-cognitive skills. In the digital economic phase, it seems that integrated cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills contribute to labor productivity per hour. We recommend that policymakers should invest in early childhood to not only maintain or improve PISA test scores but also to improve non-cognitive skills associated with psychology. Overall, this paper presents analysis and empirical results, aimed at building a more future-oriented education policy. The audience for this paper includes policymakers, educators, and economists.
Manitra A. Rakotoarisoa, Cheng Fang
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 106-126; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).106-126.2022

Abstract:
As many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) struggle against severe food insecurity, unemployment and poverty, their heavy reliance on the export of raw materials as sources of revenue to solve these problems has long been put into question. The trade between China and SSA is characterized by China’s importing mining and extraction from SSA and SSA’s importing manufactured goods from China. We analyse the asymmetric SSA-China trade and focus on how trade policy and productivity shocks will reduce SSA’s dependency on raw material export to China. We perform accounting and simulation exercises using the General Equilibrium GTAP model. The main innovation in our study is the inclusion of estimates of different labor productivity growth rates across regions and across sectors in the model. These labor productivity growth estimates show that the gaps between China and SSA especially in manufacturing are huge; ignoring these gaps would have biased any estimation. The other innovation is the simulation that the imports from China would yield some technology spillover on productivity in SSA. We examine several scenarios that include tariff elimination by China, common external tariff in SSA, and free regional trade in SSA. We find that with its current low labor productivity growth rates especially in manufacturing sectors, SSA continues to lose in the global trade, including in its trade with China. More important, manoeuvring room for trade policies is limited. China tariffs on imports from Africa are already low and bringing these tariffs down to zero will lead only to a modest increases in welfare and employment for SSA without altering SSA’s dependence on raw material export. Raising the tariffs on manufactured goods from China will reduce SSA’s welfare and employment by harming consumers and the agriculture sectors dependent on intermediate goods from China. Increases in labor productivity and technical progress in SSA’s manufacturing sectors are welfare improving, but will not alter the high share of mining and extraction export to China unless such increases in productivity are accompanied by a voluntary restriction on these raw material exports. As such a voluntary restriction is being practically hard to apply and sustain, SSA shall continue to liberalize internal markets and pursue higher growth rates in labor productivity to cut the losses in international trade. Our simulations show that freer intra-African trade with small and steady increase in productivity can have significant impacts on welfare and employment.
, Oba Adenuga Olusegun Adeleke
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 83-93; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).83-93.2022

Abstract:
With rapidly changing work environment and digitalization in social life, it is easier and effective to use electronic learning (E-learning) systems to train human resource. This training can cover various dimensions like technologies, product, services, culture and policies. This study examined the influence of E-Learning on employee training and development. Two research questions were posed for the study and two hypotheses formulated in line with the objectives. As such, the objectives of the study were to examine whether the employees with less workload spend more time on E-learning than employees with higher workload, thus handle larger responsibilities and how the trainings imparted through E-learning has influence on performance of the employees and service quality. The study employed survey research, the experimental research and the ex-post facto. For this research, the quantitative research design was used. Questionnaires were administered to a sample size of two hundred and sixty (260) employees out of the seven hundred and twenty six (726) employee population of Non Academic Staffs of Kwara State University Nigeria. The simple random sampling and the test re-test reliability approach was adopted. The research found out that E-learning is a facilitating step for improving the pace of learning and reducing employee down-time thus enabling employees to handle greater responsibilities. Thus it concluded that employees with less workload can be made more responsible by providing training through E-learning. And it was also revealed that E-learning improves performance of employees by enhancing their productivity which influences quality of work thus improves employee performance. Based on the results of findings, the study recommends that Learning interactivities designed to accomplish knowledge transfer with a heavy emphasis on skills development on online learning platform can be used for new hires and market including: Business operations, auxiliary services, guidelines and future markets which will enhance employees performance and service quality. Other e-learning solutions are important as they are self-directed and much easy than any other methods of training.
Raphael Louis
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 50-56; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).50-56.2022

Abstract:
This paper outlines the arguments and counterarguments within the scientific communities on the issue of common genetic factors discovered in mental disorders. The main objective of the research is to analyse the relationship between genetics and mental health. The relevance of this study by FAAVM Canada, (North America), is to help recognize that major mental health disorders share certain genetic defects. These findings may also point to apply better multidisciplinary scientific research methodologies to diagnose and treat these conditions. However, genetic factors can increase the risks of mental health issues, or make us more vulnerable to developing them, by reducing the brain’s ability to deal with or compensate for traumas and other cognitive disruptions. This research empirically confirms and theoretically proves that the results can be useful for vaccine and pharmaceutical drug development. Across the European Union (EU) region, approximately 165 million people are affected annually by mental illnesses, for the most part, anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders. On average, over 50% of the general population in middle-income and high-income countries will experience at least one mental illness at some point in their lives. That being said, mental illnesses are by no means limited to a minority group of predisposed persons but are a major public health challenge. These scientific attributes are in fact mandatory diagnostic criteria that exert considerable socio-economic repercussions not only for those affected but also for their families, communities, social, and employment related environments. In the first year of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic, global frequency of anxiety and depression increased by an immense 25%, according to a scientific summary released by the World Health Organization (WHO). Mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders account for over 10.4% of the global burden of mental health diseases, owing to demographic changes and prolonged life expectancy, and were the leading cause of years lived with disability among all disease groups.
Mohamed Ramli, Faiçal Boutayeba, Azzeddine Nezai
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6, pp 55-66; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(2).55-66.2022

Abstract:
The main aim of this research paper is to examine empirically the link between public investment in human capital and economic growth in Algeria over the period 1990-2017. In fact, public authorities spend annually considerable funds to make both education and health available for all citizens as they are vital elements for a better life. This political action which is well understood from social perspective should have also some economic benefits especially in terms economic growth. Scholars strongly argued the crucial importance of investing in human capital to spur growth. In this context, the current paper tends to assess the impact of public spending devoted to human capital components on economic growth in Algeria. To do so, the study used annual time series data of government expenditures on these two sectors ranged from 1990 to 2017, and employs for estimation the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The main finding of this paper is that there is no cointegrating relationship between these two variables in the long run. This result is in line with many previous studies in Algeria as well as in other developing countries. This basically supports the idea that spending on education and health would not inevitably lead to growth. The lessons learnt from the experience of emerging economies denote that there are a series of preliminary conditions that should be set up to make the association between public investment in human capital and growth possible. Government spending alone cannot induce economic growth if corruption prevails and resources are inefficiently allocated. Also, it is the quality of health and education that matters. In Algeria, despite of the considerable funding of education and health sectors, the quality of service offered inside schools and hospitals is still poor. Thus, increasing numbers of doctors leave the country because they believe that work conditions are not suitable. Many Patients also prefer to join foreign hospitals because they believe that local medical service is somewhat unsatisfactory. Likewise, a great number of university students choose to join foreign universities to pursue their higher studies because they consider the quality of local universities is poor. Based on this evidence, policymakers are invited to take into consideration these conditions among others in order to strengthen the impact of public investment in human capital on economic growth in the future.
M. Korbaa Fouad, Gadi Ibtissem
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).63-78.2022

Abstract:
Algeria is oriented towards the promotion of non-hydrocarbon exports. The value of this enterprise is due to reach five billion dollars in 2021.This new economic policy should rely on the dynamic of ports platforms. The port is a complex organisation similar to a network company, it is an implantation location for companies concerned with optimizing their import/export operations. The port of Arzew is a main gateway for Algerian exports. For non-hydrocarbons, Customs notes that five products exported to western Algeria totaled more than 75% of non-hydrocarbon exports. These are mineral or chemical nitrogen fertilizers (urea), anhydrous ammonia oils, finished products from the steel industry, cement and others. Today, ports must be exemplary in terms of governance policy, installation, infrastructure and logistical tools. Certainly, a new role is taking shape and imposing itself on the port authority, its new functions are described as ‘new governance agenda’. This concerns its role, which is called upon to contribute with other actors in all areas (environmental, economic, social, territorial, etc.). Increasingly, ports have become creators of public value. This concept is closely linked to the establishment of collaborative governance because of the importance of stakeholders. public value is the result of the coordination of different actors-networks, with this in mind, authors insist on making the link between public action and the stakeholders by clarifying the objectives and purposes of the public products and services that must include the production of value not only for the individuals directly affected but also for the communities concerned. Nowadays, ports must be exemplary in terms of governance policy, installation, infrastructure and logistical tools. The objective of our research is to examine the governance in place in supporting non-hydrocarbon exports in a Algeria west region. The approach pursued in this work is based on the applicability of a model of the creation of public value or ‘network governance’. The results obtained have made it possible to highlight the positive impact of port facilities on exports, while the governance in place is of capital importance.
Masaaki Yoshimori
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).87-99.2022

Abstract:
This paper summarizes arguments and counterarguments driving academic discussion about the Milton Hershey School (MHS) and the Hershey Company’s control mechanism, enacted by the Hershey Trust (HT). It then studies the Hershey Trust’s governance with respect to ethics, budget sources, and management, focusing on how the Hershey Company exercises corporate control over MHS. My main tool of analysis is an event study, which estimates a particularly abnormal response of the Hershey Company’s stock price to potentially disruptive developments. Empirical results indicate that the Hershey Company has not been greatly influenced by the Hershey Trust. Abnormal return of the Hershey Company’s stock price is skewed, and it has an asymmetric probability distribution after June 2016. However, the Hershey Trust continues to indirectly manage and control the Hershey Company. The Hershey Trust, accordingly, is a de facto ‘industrial foundation’. Thus, charitable trustees of the Hershey Trust affect the Hershey Company’s stock price and management. The HT and the MHS had mistaken a governance because the diversification lies with beneficiations of the trust per se, not shareholders of the Hershey Company. The HT and MHS should end their puppet dominance of the Hershey Company because the HT’s and MHS’s future 501(c)(3) status will be jeopardized. Overall, this paper presents analysis and empirical results, aimed at building a more charitable organization. The audience for this paper includes policymakers, regulators, and academics.
Ismayıl Muradov
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).79-86.2022

Abstract:
The study summarizes a number of scientific discussions and arguments. The main purpose of the study is to improve the quality of e-services in government agencies, to study the current situation and issues related to the general situation in Azerbaijan in this area. Research and systematization of scientific sources show that there are problems with e-governance in government agencies and a number of improvements are needed. Transparent governance and the creation of citizen satisfaction in Azerbaijan is one of the priorities of the state. In this sense, the relevance of the study includes the analysis of e-governance problems in government agencies in Azerbaijan and ways to solve them. The study was conducted in the following sequence: – General information on e-government is provided; – In the world practice, there are a number of obstacles to the implementation of e-government in any country; – Information was provided on what factors are important for the development of e-government information resources in e-governance; -The current state of e-governance in government agencies in Azerbaijan has been analyzed. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research is the perspectives of researchers, theories, scientific articles, scientific research on e-governance and its improvement. Research objects include e-government, analysis of e-government problems in government agencies and finding solutions. The research is based on scientific-theoretical approaches and empirical analysis. Research has shown experimentally and theoretically that development is impossible without e-government, and the application of e-government has become a necessity. At the end of the study, the results and recommendations of the study were given. The results of the research are useful in the development of programs, projects and proposals related to e-governance, as well as in solving research problems and overcoming existing problems in e-government. E-government plays an important role in the successful development of public administration, increasing the flexibility, efficiency and citizen satisfaction of public administration. The main purpose of e-government is to improve the quality of work and management of government agencies, to protect the rights and freedoms and interests of citizens, to ensure transparent governance.
Johnson Kolawole Olowookere, Adesola Olufunmilola Oluwatuyi, Morufu Oladehinde Oladejo
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).113-122.2022

Abstract:
This study examined the determinants of audit quality among Consumer goods companies listed on the Nigerian stock exchange from 2009 to 2018. This study made use of secondary data obtained from fact books, annual reports, and account of selected consumer goods company under study. The relevant data were subjected to statistical analysis Pearson Correlation while the diagnostics test conducted were Multicollinearity, Autocorrelation, Normality, and Heteroscedasticity Test. The study’s findings showed that board size and company liquidity have a substantial positive influence on financial results, while audit fees, firm size, and audit committee meetings have a negative but non-significant impact. The study concluded that, since board size has a substantial positive effect on audit quality, the governmental body should track firms to ensure that the required board size is met as part of strategies to enhance audit quality among Nigeria’s publicly traded consumer goods companies.
Slimane Mrabet, Sidi Mohammed Benachenhou,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).100-112.2022

Abstract:
There is a gap in marketing literature related to impact of service quality dimensions on perceived service quality and patient satisfaction, in the private healthcare industry. The healthcare system is responsible for improving the general population’s health in a country. To differentiate from competitors, the quality of service is mainly considered a critical success factor for hospitals (Azmit et al., 2017). Therefore, competition is essential for improving quality and patient satisfaction in healthcare institutions (Kitapci et al., 2014). This article aims to determine the relationship between health service quality dimensions and patient satisfaction in the healthcare sector. Specifically, the paper seeks to find out the most critical dimensions of service quality, which is used to evaluate the characteristics of private healthcare service quality as perceived by patients. A field study was carried out on a sample of 208 patients in Tlemcen city in Algeria. The questionnaire developed for this study was based on a SERVQUAL model specifically, based on Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry, (1985) variables that identified the influence of five dimensions (i.e., reliability, tangibility, assurance, responsibility, and empathy) in healthcare service environments on patient satisfaction. The results have found after the application of structural equation modelling that: reliability, tangibility, assurance, responsibility was more significant in contributing to patient satisfaction, while empathy was not significant. This indicates that patients tend to have a positive perception about the health service if they consider the perceived quality of the health service to be credible, reliable, tangible, and responsive, even though they may feel that the health provider does not empathize with them. Hence, healthcare industry practitioners can consider this model as an instrument to assess healthcare and help improve their service quality. Therefore, service provider managers can use this instrument to assess private hospital service quality in Algeria and other African countries.
Dayo Ojaleye,
Published: 1 January 2022
SocioEconomic Challenges, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.21272/sec.6(1).41-62.2022

Abstract:
The input-output table provides summary information on the industrial structure of an economy in a specific period. This table contains information on the flow of goods and services between industries and economic sectors. The backward and forward links are descriptive measures of the economic interdependence of sectors in terms of the volume of transactions. Sectors with strong backwards and forward linkages are vital sectors and play an essential role in a country’s development strategy. This paper aims to construct a symmetric input-output table for Nigeria and examine the Nigerian economy’s production structure by using the results applying traditional backward and forward linkage methods developed by Chenery-Watanabe and Rasmussen. Our study identifies the key sectors with backward and forward linkages as Crop and Animal production, Manufacture of Food products, Textiles, Refined petroleum products, Chemicals, Motor vehicles, Furniture, Machinery and equipment, Wholesale/retail trade, Land transport and Telecommunication. In addition, through the constructed symmetric input-output table, sector development can be further done in line with the relationship matrix, as it serves as a conduit for investment strategy, local linkage matrix and policy development. So, for the development strategy it is very important to determine which industries possess high backward and forward linkages, then stimulating final demand or primary inputs namely of these industries could positively influence the economic activity of the country. The results from this work may be used by policy makers in terms of which sectors of the economy stimulate (for example, by means of creating extra final demand, decreasing taxes, or with the help of subsiding) in order to gain better results in the sphere of economic development of Nigeria.
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