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Results in Journal Quantitative Economics and Management Studies: 103

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Putiri Bhuana Katili, W. Wibowo, Maruf Akbar
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 199-205; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems319

Abstract:
Employee Engagement is an important strategy on increasing company performance. The aims of this research is to elaborate influences of leadership styles and work- life balance to the employee engagement; also influence of employee engagement to the employee performance. To achieve this aim, the data was collected from 204 employees using questionnaire as instrument of research. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling. This research conducted in steel industry. From this research can be concluded that work-life balance have most significant influence to employee engagement, and employee engagement have strong influence to the employee performance. By increasing leadership styles and work-life balance , the company could improve employee engagement. Therefore, the company management can utilize this research result for increasing employee performance and company competition.
A. M. Ogaboh Agba, John J. Akpanudoedehe, Felix E. Ojong, Michael Sunday Agba
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 163-181; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems298

Abstract:
Climate change remains one of the world’s greatest challenge in the 21st century. It causes inevitable changes that alter human activities. Adaptation to climate change creates and at the same time limits opportunities that support human existence. While United States of America, Europe, China, India and other countries are maximizing the opportunities climate change adaptation offers especially in areas of green technology, energy and agriculture, that of Africa who are more vulnerable to climate change are complacent and at most show less commitment. As the negative impacts of climate change increases and livelihoods erode, and as jobs continue to disappear leading to conflicts and upheavals in Africa, governments across the continent need policy options that will enable them to mitigate and adapt to climate change while at the same time address the problem of unemployment and create new patterns of livelihood. This paper, therefore, explores options that support these objectives. It offered policy suggestions in green energy and agriculture where Africa have a comparative advantage over other nations, and which also has the capacity of employing 90 per cent of the continent's workforce. It makes suggestions on how Lake Chad and other water sources affected by climate change in Africa can be revived to support agricultural activities and hydropower industry as well as create green jobs. It advocated for investment in biofuel, wind and solar energies to create green jobs. The paper submits that if green jobs are created and agricultural activities supported conflicts associated with unemployment and migration will be reduced drastically.
Nayab Khalid, Aaqib Qayyum
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 182-191; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems272

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to examine Pakistan's health sector issues and the critical ties between health indicators and economic growth. ARDL analysis has been applied on the data set of Pakistan’s economy, in the time reference to 1990-2020. The study revealed that the important ties between GDP, foreign direct investment, fertility and life expectation in the short run are strong, while mortality rate is negative, but have a significant impact on economic development. The fertility rate has a huge effect on GDP in long-term, while affecting foreign direct investment. The study achieves that countries with developing economic growth will focus more on improving human capital well-being.
Wahyuddin, Mauliyana
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 387-399; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems382

Abstract:
This research is intended to determine how much influence the premium income, underwriting results, investment results, and risk based capital on the profit of insurance companies (a study of insurance companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange). In this study, the technique to collect the form of financial documentation as the data were taken from 11 insurance companies as samples that listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2019. The multiple linear regression analysis methods use to analyze the data. The results of this study indicate that premium income, underwriting results, investment returns, and Rased Based Capital have a positive and significant effect on profits in insurance companies registered in Indonesia in 2017-2019. It is hoped that insurance companies registered in Indonesia will be able to maintain the value of premium income, underwriting results, and Rased Based Capital in the company, this is so that insurance companies are able to provide more performance for the progress of the company in the future.
Em Yusuf Iis, Wahyuddin, Armanu Thoyib
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 376-386; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems383

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the effect of employee empowerment, work environment, and career development on the performance of Aceh Government employees. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to 150 employees. Data analysis method was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that employee empowerment, work environment, and employee career development affected work motivation and employee performance significantly. In addition, employee empowerment and work motivation have a direct and significant influence on employee performance, and career development and work environment also have a direct effect on performance. Work motivation partially mediates the influence of employee empowerment, work environment, career development on performance. The Government of Aceh is expected to improve career development in order to create a conducive work environment to improve the performance of Aceh Government employees.
Felix E. Ojong, A. M. Ogaboh Agba, Felix O. Eteng, Gbadebo S. Maruf, Abayomi I. Akintola, E. U. Usung
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 335–344-335–344; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems376

Abstract:
The study assessed the impact of Treasury Single Account (TSA) on revolving funds in public organisations, with particular reference to drug revolving fund in government hospitals in Nigeria. Specifically the study examines the relationship between appropriation control of TSA, cash management of TSA, payment mechanism of TSA and Drug Revolving Fund (DRF) in public hospitals. Survey method was adopted and 1020 questionnaire were administered. Data generated study were presented in tables and simple percentile. Hypotheses were also tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). Findings established significant links between appropriation control of TSA, cash management of TSA, payment mechanism of TSA and DRF in public hospitals. It was recommended among other that management should carryout monthly review of cash management of DRF to ensure that adequate funds are availability for drugs administration in public hospitals.
Rosnaini Daga, Fadliyani Nawir, Dhita Pratiwi
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 318–325-318–325; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems359

Abstract:
The strategy of improving service quality through the digitalization of services is a strategy that a company uses to develop digital-based services to answer consumers' increasingly digital needs. Likewise, the banking business continues to innovate to improve the quality of its services. The digitization of banking services is one strategy that can answer problems that occur in terms of improving the quality of banking services. PT. Bank Negara Indonesia Central Jakarta has implemented digitalization of services for the last 3 (three) years. It can be seen from the annual report and internal interviews that Bank Negara Indonesia has achieved good performance targets. However, several obstacles are faced in implementing the digitalization strategy for services such as legacy IT systems. This work culture is not yet digital and poor coordination between BNI's internal divisions. Some of these things need to be considered more seriously to achieve PT. Bank Negara Indonesia's vision and mission.
Novita Rosanti, Karta Negara Salam, Panus
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 365-375; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems360

Abstract:
The study aim is to analyze are brand image and product quality partially positive and significant impact on purchasing decisions at Starbuck; Do brand image and product quality simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on purchasing decisions at Starbucks; Which variable has the most dominant influence on purchasing decisions at Starbucks. In this study, the authors chose the research location in Starbucks, Trans Studio Mall, Makassar City. In connection with the problems previously stated, an analysis will be carried out based on the data obtained using the following calculation: (1) Validity test, used to measure whether a questionnaire is valid or not. A questionnaire is said to be useful if the questionnaire's questions can reveal something, which is measured by the questionnaire. The results showed that the brand image variable had positive and significant influences on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks should maintain a good brand reputation, increasing consumer loyalty. Introducing products to consumers will give a good impression, and consumers will also remember the product. The results showed that the product quality variable had positive and significant effects on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks had to improve the quality of the products offered to increase sales levels. 12.9% of variables are not examined in this thesis, and this also affects the purchasing decision at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar; the variables that are not examined are (Price, Location, and Lifestyle). Researched, so you can find out what variables influence a person to make purchasing decisions at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar. In this study, the authors chose the research location in Starbucks, Trans Studio Mall, Makassar City. In connection with the problems previously stated, an analysis will be carried out based on the data obtained using the following comment: (1) Validity test, used to measure whether a questionnaire is valid or not. A questionnaire is said to be useful if the questionnaire's questions can reveal something, which is measured by the questionnaire. The results showed that the brand image variable had positive and significant effects on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks should maintain a good brand reputation, increasing consumer loyalty. Introducing products to consumers will give a good impression, and consumers will also remember the product. The results showed that the product quality variable had positive and significant influences on purchasing decisions; this indicated that Starbucks had to improve the quality of the products offered to increase sales levels. 12.9% of variables are not examined in this thesis, and this also affects the purchasing decision at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar, the variables that are not examined are (Price, Location, and Lifestyle). Researched, so you can find out what variables influence a person to make purchasing decisions at Starbucks Trans Studio Mall Makassar.
S. Sampurnawati, Titien Agustina
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 326-334; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems277

Abstract:
This study aims to (1) describe the competence of Human Resources (HR), intellectual capital and the performance of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) engaged in the production of Sasirangan, a typical cloth of South Kalimantan (2) Analyze the influence of the level of competence of Human Resources ( HR) and intellectual capital on the performance of Sasirangan MSMEs. (3) Analyzing the competence of Human Resources (HR) and intellectual capital have a dominant effect on the performance of Sasirangan SMEs. Associative research method on 40 respondents taken by total sampling method. The data analysis technique used multiple linear regression. The results showed that the competence of Human Resources (HR) and intellectual capital had a positive and significant effect on the performance of MSMEs. Between these two variables, intellectual capital has a more dominant influence on Sasirangan MSMEs.
Mary Eru Iji, Edem A. Ebong, Thomas A. Omang, Mary U. Ojong-Ejoh
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 307-317; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems309

Abstract:
The objective of the study is to examine the extent to which women involvement is small business contributes to household income and family wellbeing. The study adopted the survey research method in collecting data from 317 women from Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria using Cluster and Purposive sampling technique. The Survey Monkey Sample Determinant Technique was used to determine the sample size for the study. The instrument of data collection was a semi-structured self-developed questionnaire. Data collected from the Field was analyzed using descriptive statistic and parametric statistic (Simple Lineal Regression) at 0.05 level of significance. The result from the descriptive statistics revealed that most of the women used in the study, 97.41 per cent do not depend solely on their husband income. 63.70 cent of women spend all the money from their endeavour in taking care of their homes. 81.10 per cent of the women reported that they are able to contribute to the household and take care of themselves. From the parametric statistics carried out, result revealed a significant correlation between women involved in small business and household income and family wellbeing in Yala. The study thereby concludes that women in small business significantly contribute to household income and family wellbeing. The study calls for governmental effort towards improving the capacity of women in Yala through self-help programs and microcredit.
Nur Laili Safitri, R. Agus Baktiono, Elok Damayanti, I Gede Arimbawa
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 192-198; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems318

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of work motivation and compensation on the performance of PT. Delami Brands Kharisma Busana Surabaya. This study used a quantitative approach and data collection through questionnaires and observations. With a population of 76 respondents. Analysis of the data used the validity test, reliability test, classic assumption test, and multiple linear analysis test. The results showed that the effect of work motivation and compensation on the performance of PT. Delami Brands Khasrisma Busana Surabaya showed positive and significant results. The F test results are 70,878> F table = 2,92 simultaneously. Partially work motivation of 8.433> t table 1.993 has a significant effect on employee performance, compensation of 4.564> 1.993 has a significant effect on the performance of employees of PT. Delami Brands Kharisma Busana Surabaya.
Amine Ben Hadj Hassine
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 281-287; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems356

Abstract:
The objective of this article is to identify the challenges of Tunisian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the implementation of Industry 4.0. Indeed, the Subject of Digital Transformation has its relevance as Industry 4.0 is considered as the first industrial revolution to be predicted before it happened. Competition from digital companies is disrupting business models, and leaders no longer have a choice: the time has come for digital transformation (Dussart, C, 2015). This transition is not new. It covers a necessary reality, especially for so-called traditional companies, which were not born in digital culture. Built on an old model, they must initiate and succeed in their transformation to remain competitive. This paper aims to analyze the opportunities brought by digital transformation for Tunisian companies. In our research and on the methodological section, we used an exploratory qualitative approach with Tunisian companies, using a questionnaire. The results of this investigation have shown that the great opportunities and challenges facing Tunisian companies are human capital in the first place, funding and above all methodological support. And the government must be the first to assist and support the digitization process.
Ali Sunandar, Kuncoro Bili Aszhari
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 261-271; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems323

Abstract:
In every construction project, there is always a change or what is commonly called a change order (CO). CO greatly affects the effectiveness of project work where its sustainability depends on three interrelated components namely quality, time and cost. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes, risks, impact of CO and risk management on costs. This research was conducted in the Bekasi area at the Tamansari Iswara project. This study uses descriptive analysis methods and direct interviews with the experts concerned by distributing questionnaires to 85 respondents and producing data for analysis. With the help of statistical analysis software that is SPSS researchers use several tests such as validity test, reliability test, descriptive analysis test, regression analysis, and risk analysis to determine the dominant variables and risk management. From the results of the analysis conducted there are 6 dominant variables namely X18, X19, X15, X28, X21, X9, X25, and the highest risk is found in variables X1 and X21.
Sarah Wahyu Darmawan Geraldine Putri, Sengguruh Nilowardono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 251-260; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems322

Abstract:
Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya has many determinants in purchasing decisions, these factors are Brand Image, Service Quality, Social Media Marketing. And these factors will be examined statistically which aims to determine how much influence. The variables used are four, namely Brand Image (X1), Service Quality (X2), Social Media Marketing (X3), and Purchase Decision (Y). Data collection was obtained from distributing questionnaires to customers of Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya. The results show that the Brand Image variable (X1), Service Quality (X2), and Social Media Marketing (X3) simultaneously and partially have a significant effect on Purchase Decision (Y). This research is a quantitative study with a sample of 160 respondents. The analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. Based on this research, Restaurant Navy Seals Surabaya can maintain Brand Image, Service Quality, and Social Media Marketing, so that customers survive and faithfully buy at the place.
A.M. Ogaboh Agba, Pius U. Angioha, Ntiense G. Akpabio, Abayomi Akintola, Gbadebo S. Maruf
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 355-364; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems306

Abstract:
The study examines workplace inducements and labour turnover. Specifically, the study sought to establish the relationship between staff promotion, performance-based bonuses, employee discount, training, and labour turnover in the telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Using a self-report questionnaire. Data was collected from five hundred and seventy-two (572) staff selected in four (4) telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The obtained data were statistically analysed using simple linear regression. Each hypothesis was tested at 0.05 per cent level of significance. The result obtained from the analysis revealed that staff promotion, performance-based bonuses, employee discount and training significantly affect labour turnover in the telecommunications industry in South-South, Nigeria. The study recommended among others that policy options that encourage improved incentives for employees in telecommunications Company.
Romadini Antikasari, Agus Baktiono, I Gede Arimbawa, Elok Damayanti
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 244-250; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems321

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of product quality, restaurant atmosphere, and customer value on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This type of research is quantitative. The population of this study were 95 respondents who bought at Surabaya Choie Dimsum. The analysis technique used is Partial Least Square (PLS). Data was obtained from questionnaires and tested with the SmartPLS 3.0 application. The results of this study indicate that product quality, restaurant atmosphere, and customer value have a positive and significant influence on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. And customer satisfaction has a positive and significant influence on customer loyalty.
Mary U. Ojong-Ejoh, Pius U. Angioha, Rose U. Agba, Evaristus A. Aniah, Maruf Gbadebo Salimon, Abayomi Akintola
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 272–280-272–280; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems305

Abstract:
This study examines the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on small and medium scale enterprise Operation in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey method was used in collecting data from 474 SMEs in Calabar, Cross River State using the stratified and purposive sampling technique. The instrument of data collection was a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire. Data collected from the field was coded, analyzed using descriptive statistics such as tables and graphs and correlation analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Out of the 474-instrument distributed only 422 was returned and used for analysis. From the analysis, the result revealed that 88.6 per cent of the SMEs reported being negatively affected by the pandemic, 71.3 per cent reported laying off employees during this period. Also result from the correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between covid-19 pandemic and the operations of SMEs in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Based on these findings, there is a need for policy adjustment toward SMEs operations in Calabar
Lamia Jamel
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 122-128; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems301

Abstract:
The nexus among financial development and economic growth has long remained a subject matter of considerable debate in the financial and economic literature. This article examines the relationships between financial development, institutions, and economic growth. This indicates that the marginal effect of financial development on economic growth depends on the quality of institutions. To do so, we employ a panel data of 14 MENA countries during the period of study from 2008 to 2019. For the econometric methodology, we use fixed and random effects models. To choose between fixed effects and random effects, we employ the Hausman test. Based on the empirical findings, we demonstrate that financial development has a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, we have observed that institutional quality seems to be a necessary complement to financial development. Consequently, it is important to implement policies leading to the deepening of financial systems, through a including a solid institutional framework. Thus, by promoting such development and better institutional quality, economic growth will thus be accelerated.
Mariana Simanjuntak, Astri Rumondang Banjarnahor
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 214-232; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems344

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate previous research on the co-creation of Green Service-scape Destination (GSD) specifically concerning definitions, theories used, research themes, methodologies, and contexts; studied in accordance with the perspective of Service Dominant Logic (SDL). This study used bibliometric analysis and used Publish or Perish software with Google Scholar as the database. A total of 183 articles published in 122 journals from 2010 to 2020 were selected. This study used systematic data to reveal trends in development markets and qualitative inductive analysis to define relevant themes within the topic. Search results according to keywords, found that the total number of research articles there are 1246, with the most cites themed SDL totally 910. This study provides future directions for research on GSD. GSD generates increased variety of tourist needs through proactive green innovation activities in efforts to adjust services. GSD provides improved methods, types, quality and service design with green environmental conditions, resources and service provider corporate support. To get the maximum advantage of layout and atmosphere is given added value through Innovation. This study reveals trends in co-creation GSD and sustainable marketing performance has the potential to generate job opportunities, empower resources effectively and strategically, increase social expectations and awareness, improve the economy and meet the needs of destinations and the sustainability of a value chain.
Amine Ben Hadj Hassine
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 233–243-233–243; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems329

Abstract:
To the extent that the company is an “open system”, it must be in a continuous standby state. In this research work, we will try to focus on the contribution of economic intelligence strategies to the performance of the company. We will begin with a literature review to better understand the theoretical concepts. Then we will conduct a field study of 92 Tunisian industrial companies. Our work has revealed that economic intelligence has a positive but differential effect on the firm’s performance. But some determinants of performance do not seem to take full advantage of the strategies of economic intelligence to which companies should attach greater importance.
Bal Ram Chapagain
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 94-104; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems267

Abstract:
Considering the importance of job satisfaction in teaching, and the ongoing debate regarding the influence of various factors on job satisfaction, this study identifies the status of job satisfaction and examines the influence of institutional sector and demographic factors on job satisfaction among Nepalese academicians. The study sample comprised 156 academicians from different higher-level educational institutions in Nepal, and the data were collected through structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that Nepalese academicians are moderately satisfied with their job, in which intrinsic factors appear stronger than extrinsic factors. The findings also demonstrated that the institutional sector, in favor of public institutions, and academic qualification influence job satisfaction but gender, age, and teaching experience do not influence job satisfaction of academicians. Widespread sampling framework, all-inclusive job satisfaction measures, and remarkable findings have made the study unique and potent.
Ulul Abror, I Nyoman Sudapet, Hamzah Denny Subagyo, Joko Suyono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 298-306; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems326

Abstract:
The aim of this study: (1) to analyze the effect of service quality on Patient Satisfaction, (2) to analyze the effect of service quality on Word of Mouth, (3) to analyze patient satisfaction with Word of Mouth. This research is quantitative research. Population and sample distributed were 252 respondents. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. Analysis of the data used is Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity, Reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The results showed that the effect of the Service Quality variable (X1) on patient satisfaction (Y1) was significant at 0,000 and Service Quality (X1) is significant with variable Word of Mouth (Y2) of 0.002 which means medium. Based on the correlation for the Patient Satisfaction variable (Y1) for Word Of Mouth (Y2) of 0,000 which means strong. The results of this study indicate that, quality of service, has a significant influence on patient satisfaction, which leads to word of mouth patients. While patient satisfaction has no significant effect on Word of mouth patients.
Tri Wahyu Putra Susanto, I Nyoman Sudapet, Hamzah Denny Subagyo, Joko Suyono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 288-297; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems325

Abstract:
The aim of this study: (1) to analyze the effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, (2) to analyze the effect of prices on Customer Satisfaction, (3) to analyze the effect of Service Quality on Repurchase Intention, (4) to analyze the effect of Price on Repurchase Intention, (5) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction on Repurchase intention. This research is quantitative research. The population and samples were distributed to 86 respondents. Data collection techniques using a questionnaire. The data analysis used is Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity, Reliability and Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The results of the study show that the influence of Service Quality variable (X1) on Customer Satisfaction (Y1) is significant at 0,000. Customer Quality Variable (X1) is not significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0.225. Based on the correlation for the Price variable (X2) to customer satisfaction (Y1) of 0.020. And the price variable (X2) is significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0,000. And the Customer Satisfaction variable (Y1) is significant with the Repurchase Intention (Y2) variable of 0,000. The results of this study indicate that, compared to service quality, Price has a stronger influence on customer satisfaction, which leads to a Buyback Interest.
Rega Irsa Irawan, Sengguruh Nilowardono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 206-213; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems320

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of innovation, promotion, product quality on consumer loyalty with customer satisfaction as intervening. This research method uses quantitative with OLS analysis tools. The research instrument was a questionnaire with 75 samples of Gastby product consumers. The results of the study prove that Innovation has positive significant effect on consumer satisfaction as evidenced by the results of t value of 4.457 with p-value of 0.00, Innovation has significant positive effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the results of t value of 8.897 with p-value amounting to 0,000, promotion does not have a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction t value of 0.421 with a p-value of 0.674, promotion does not have a significant positive effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the result of t of 1,277 with a p-value of 0,202, quality the product has significant positive effect on customer satisfaction as evidenced by the results of t table (1.666) and p-value smaller than 0.05, product quality has significant positive effect on loyalty consumer as evidenced by the results of this value greater than t table (1.666 ) and p-value is smaller than 0.05 consumer power has an effect on consumer loyalty as evidenced by the results of t value of 4.689 with a p-value of 0.00.
Menik Tri Wahyuni
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 140-148; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems316

Abstract:
Working capital is a very important part of the company. Working capital should always be available enough to be able to provide maximum benefits and the company’s operations can continues. Analysis of source and use of working capital is needed for companies to find out the source of funds and how those fund spent.The purpose of this study is to determine the analysis of sources and uses of working capital of PT Sido Muncul,Tbk in Semarang, and to review the policy of uses working capital of PT Sido Muncul, Tbk in Semarang. This study use dercriptive qualitative method. The result of this research indicate that the source of working capital in 2016 to 2018 is quite good. However, in 2017 and 2018 the use of working capital’s company is greater than the source. In 2016 working capital of PT Sido Muncul was increase Rp55.060.000.000. Whereas in 2017 was decrease Rp158.045.000.000 and in 2018 also decreased Rp241.108.000.000. This is due to the high amount of increase in fixed assets by the company. For investment policies, companies tend to use conservative policies, while for working capital expenditure policies companies tend to use aggressive policies.
Nur Alifah Istiqomah, Elok Damayanti
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 149-157; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems317

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the influence of incentives and motivation on the performance of employee of PT. Tozy Santosa Surabaya. This research is quantitative research. Population and sample based on questionnaire distribution to the employees of PT. Tozy Sentosa Surabaya was taken 63 respondents. Data collection techniques used interviews, observation and questionnaires. The data analysis used reliability test, validity test, classic assumption test and multiple linear analysis test. The results of the study, incentives and motivations simultaneously and partially significantly influence the employee performance of PT. Tozy Santosa Surabaya with significance value
Pius U. Angioha, Rose U. Agba, Beauty U. Kenneth, Eno U. Ishie
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 158-162; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems275

Abstract:
The study specifically examines the correlation between remuneration and the effectiveness of employees in commercial banks in cross river state, adopting a survey method, data was collected from 232 participants employed by five commercial banks in cross river state. The participants were selected using the proportional stratified and simple random sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire was adopted to elicit the required information for the study. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. out of the 232 distributed questionnaires, 213 was returned and used for analysis. Result revealed a correlation between remuneration and the effectiveness of employees in commercial banks in cross river state. From the analysis 21.8 per cent of the variance in the effectiveness of bank's employees is accounted for by remuneration. The study concludes that bank the management of banks need to take into cognizance the economic situation in the country and improve on the take-home package of their employees.
Irriene Indah Susanti, Fahmizan Rimawan
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 345–354-345–354; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems324

Abstract:
The development of Depok-Antasari Toll road construction was delayed by the work on the implementation of land work of 30.70% from the original plan presentation so that The initially planned time was completed in August 2019 extended to be completed in December 2019. In this study will analyze the acceleration of completion duration on The construction project of Depok–Antasari Toll road with an alternative to the number of heavy equipment. The purpose of this research is to know the cost of project that is physical and duration of time is faster by using the alternative. The results of the analysis was obtained that total project cost under normal conditions is IDR. 9,860,552,249.00 with the duration of project execution 130 working days. In the condition after accelerated with the addition of the number of heavy equipment alternative– 1 obtained a fee of Rp. 10,030,638,486.00 or more expensive 1.02% of the project cost in normal conditions and duration Project execution of 109 business days or faster 21 days from the normal duration. While the total cost of the project in the alternative condition–2 obtained Rp. 10,153,918,103.00 or more expensive 1.04% of the project cost under normal conditions and duration of project execution 104 days or faster 26 days from the normal duration. It can concluded that the acceleration of work by alternative method-1 is a more effective and economical acceleration alternative, because By applying an alternate acceleration–1. The duration of project work is faster than normal circumstances and does not experience a delay of employment from the planned time of 120 days. And the total budget cost of the project is cheaper compared to the alternative acceleration method-2.
A. M. Ogaboh Agba, T. A. Omang, C. N. Enukoha, Felix O. Eteng
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 129-139; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems282

Abstract:
The study examined the relationship between performance-based incentives and employees’ productivity in commercial organizations in Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigates the links between performance-based incentives such as promotions, bonus, recognition and employees’ productivity. Expectancy theory was used to situate the study. Descriptive survey design that allows for the use of questionnaire as quantitative tool was adopted as well as in the selection of respondents from commercial organizations. Quantitative data were analyzed using multi-variance analysis. It was revealed that performance-based promotion, performance-based bonus, performance-based recognition significantly influence productivity of employees in commercial organizations. The study further reveals a joint relationship between the predictor variables (performance-based promotion, bonus, recognition) and productivity of employees. It was recommended among others that promotion policies in commercial organizations should be transparent and fair. Management of these entities should make personnel policies that outline key performance indicators and their relationship to internal promotions, bonuses and wages.
Himza Fadhilah Putri Wulandari
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 85-93; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems315

Abstract:
Every company established has a goal to gain profits and maximize wealth to shareholders. The purpose of this study is to analyze method of Economic Value Added as a measure of financial performance assessment at PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk. Method used in this study a Qualitative Descriptive approach. Data source in this study uses secondary data form of financial statements PT. Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk in 2016-2018. Analysis data technique used is method of Economic Value Added. Economic Value Added shows the measurement of extent to which company has value added to owners of company in a given year or period. The results of this study can be concluded that Economic Value Added (EVA) at PT.Campina Ice Cream Industry Tbk in 2016 worth Rp. (3.656.510.875) and in 2017 valued at Rp. (2.473.733.162) so that it produces a negative Economic Value Added or> 0 which can be said that the company financial performance is not good. However, in 2018 company achieved scores. Economic Value Added
Rahman Olanrewaju Raji
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 72-84; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems269

Abstract:
This paper explores the asymmetric nexus between financial inclusion, financial efficiency and financial stability, within asymmetric and symmetric Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) framework, covering the period from 2003 to 2018, using quarterly data in Nigeria. The findings showed that symmetric technique of econometric test detects, that financial stability is augmented by better improvement in financial inclusion in short-run, while asymmetric technique observed that short-run positive effect, and negative effect likewise long-run decrease in this index heightened the level of financial stability in this economy. This study further found trade-off existence, between financial efficiency and financial stability in both symmetric and asymmetric techniques of econometric tests, which is consistent with some empirical findings. The results based on the model and empirical data indicate that, the monetary authority needs to follow prudent and adequate supervisory standard in pursuing financial inclusion, financial intermediaries should be accompanied with good institutional quality, including financial awareness that should be enhanced through financial teachings in all sectors both in the urban and rural areas of the economy.
Neema Gasper Mariwa, Garba Betchem, Isaac Amankwaa Adu, Minkah Yaw Andrews
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems247

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of spiritual leadership on employees’ turnover intention by assessing the role of quality of work life as a mediating role and organizational climate as a moderator. This study identifies and examines, using a cross-sectional survey research design, the empirical support for two alternative model – a direct effect model and an indirect effect model of the likely effect of spiritual leadership on employee turnover intention, mediated by quality of work life and organizational climate as moderator on hotel employees of Tanzania. The results of this study showed the inverse relationship of spiritual leadership and turnover intention mediated by quality of work life. In addition organizational climate moderated the effect of quality of work life on turnover intention such that the relationship was stronger when organizational climate was high. The findings from this work adds to the existing literature and provide hotel managers with knowledge on the effects of spiritual leadership on turnover intention of employees. This is an original practical examination and its significance partly comes from its research implications and practice implications.
Louis Sevitenyi Nkwatoh, Kekere Sule Ibrahim
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems251

Abstract:
This study investigated the macroeconomic effect of refugee inflow on West African Countries using a panel vector autoregressive approach over the period 1992 to 2018. Our results provide evidence that a positive refugee shock induces a positive effect on GDP per capita, government consumption and labour force. On the other hand, the effect of a shock to refugee exerts a negative effect on the fiscal balance of host Countries. The overall result from the variance decomposition indicates that refugees prefer to migrate to Countries with better economic activities as reflected by the GDP per capita and labour supply, even though the magnitude of contribution of refugees to economic activities is small and significant only in the short run. Hence, refugees do not constitute an economic burden to West African States, but however induce a negative effect on their fiscal balance via extra budgetary expenditure. This calls for a global response to refugee crisis with respect to its fiscal implication on host Countries. This may go a long way in averting another circle of crisis because refugees often exacerbate the worsening economic and social problems of host Countries, leading to increase in government consumption.
Pooja Dangol
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems119

Abstract:
The general objective of the study is to determine the role of performance appraisal and its impact on employee. The study is guided by the following specific objectives: to establish the extent to which performance appraisal process affects employee motivation, to determine the extent to which appraisers affect staff motivation and to determine the challenges in appraising employee performance. The study adopted descriptive research design. The population of interest consists of 120 employees of Service Industry in Nepal. Data is collected using structured questionnaires and additional qualitative data is collected using the reference from the questionnaire and the objectives of the study. The data is analysed using statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentages and Pearson correlations. Data is presented using tables and charts. The research findings suggest that regular assessment of performance leads to employee motivation. Performance appraisal rating can be considered as a technique that has a positive effect on work performance and employee motivation. Employees may be motivated if the appraisal process is based on accurate and current job descriptions. On the challenges of performance appraisal on employee motivation established that some managers tend to be liberal or strict in their rating of staff which may affect the employees’ motivation. The manager’s ability to address the skills gaps can have a significant impact on the employee’s motivation. Regular ratings may affect the performance and motivation of the employees. Fair assessment of the employee’s performance may enhance their motivation.
Samuel Wesiah, Sixtus Cyprian Onyekwere
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 47-71; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems258

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in the UK using quarterly data from 1963q1 to 2015q1. Three variables were used as proxies for financial sector development, namely, ratios of broad money supply to GDP, ratios of private sector credit to GDP and the ratios of stock market capitalization to GDP. Economic growth was measured using real GDP per capita. In order to achieve stated aim, the study employed the Johansen Cointegration test and the Granger causality test within a vector error correction framework (VEC) to test for the existence (or not) of a long run relationship as well as the direction of causality between financial development and economic growth. The result from the Cointegration test indicates that there is a stable long run equilibrium relationship between financial development and economic growth in the UK. The Granger causality test presents evidence of a bidirectional causality. This suggests that financial development and economic growth are mutually causal, that is, causality runs from both side which is in line with the feedback hypothesis in the literature which argue that financial development and economic growth exhibits a two-way causal relationship. In terms of each individual variable, the study finds that while bank credit to the private sector and stock market capitalisation Granger cause GDP per capita, GDP per capita on the other hand, Granger causes broad money supply.
Madumere Humphrey Ikenna, Dickson Ben Uche, Agu Godswill Agu
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 105-121; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems252

Abstract:
The purpose of this was to investigate the relationship between perceived service quality and customer loyalty in the road transport industry in Nigeria. Leveraging the RATER service quality model, only reliability, tangibles and responsiveness were explored. Participants were drawn from the customer base of organized road transport firms operating in the South East of Nigeria. Being a quantitative survey, results from 318 valid responses were analyzed with SPSS version 21. Findings indicate that the three constructs (reliability, tangibles, and responsiveness) are significant predictors of customer loyalty, with reliability having the greatest influence, followed by responsiveness and tangibles. The study recommends steady monitoring of service quality as a step towards customer loyalty in the highly competitive road transport industry in Nigeria.
Madumere Humphrey Ikenna, Cletus I. Emeti, Agu Godswill Agu, Nwaizugbo Ireneus Chukwud
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems248

Abstract:
Basing on the RATER model of service quality, we explored the role service empathy and assurance in building road transport customers’ loyalty intention. Being a quantitative study, data from 318 valid responses, analyzed with simple regression analysis in SPSS 21.0, indicate that the two constructs – service empathy and service assurance are positive and significant predictors of customer loyalty. Further, with 82% and 78.8% variance explained for assurance and empathy respectively, results indicate that service assurance drives more customer loyalty than service empathy in the organized road transport industry in Nigeria. To attract and retain customers, operators in the industry must be service quality conscious.
Mamay Komarudin, Naufal Affandi
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 411-425; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems201

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the influences of technical variables, which consist of the stock price and the Total Volume Activity (TVA), as well as fundamental variables, which consist of the Price Book Value (PBV) and the Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) on the investment decisions and the company value measured by using the PER of some companies of agricultural sector listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Path analysis is used as the data analysis method. The research results show that one of the technical factors that significantly influences the investment decision and the company value is the stock price. Meanwhile, one of the fundamental factors that influences the investment decision and the company value is the PBV. The hypothesis testing showing that the stock price factor and the PBV factor have positive effects on the value of agricultural sector company is proven or accepted. On the other hand, the other variables, according to theorema trimming, are proved to be not includable in the path calculation if the path is proved to be insignificant, in this case the DER and the trading volume variable
Raghu Bir Bista, Priyanka Basnet
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 390-398; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems223

Abstract:
This paper examines determinants of bank liquidity of the commercial bank in Nepal based on 12 years long time series data base from 2004 to 2015, employing the econometric model. As a result, the bank liquidity of the commercial bank has fluctuation and instable trend line indicating the risk of liquidity crunch. Similarly, deposit, capital adequacy, remittance and bank size are determinants of bank liquidity of the commercial bank out of which deposit is prevalent to increase bank liquidity and capital adequacy is key to decrease it. In long term, capital adequacy, bank size and government expenditure increase bank liquidity of the commercial bank but deposit decreases it. Thus, internal variables influence bank liquidity more than macroeconomic variables. Therefore, the commercial banks should maintain bank liquidity in short period and in long period for achievement of financial health, stability and growth as per mention regulatory provisions and criteria of the monetary policy and the monetary policy should be formulated to maintain short and long term bank liquidity in accordance with IMF standards and guidelines for reducing the potential risk of liquidity crunch as result of the variation of macro-economic variables and of international global trade and oil price and production.
Yu Hsing, Yun-Chen Morgan, Antoinette S. Phillips, Carl Phillips
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 383-389; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems224

Abstract:
This paper finds that more internet users as a percentage of total population promote economic growth in Mexico and that the impact exhibited a nonlinear relation and was greater in the initial stage of Internet adoption. In addition, less government budget deficit as a percent of GDP, a higher real stock price, real peso appreciation, a higher real crude oil price or a lower expected inflation rate would enhance economic growth.
Muhammad Afzal, Shoaib Ahmad
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 426-434; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems222

Abstract:
This paper examined the relationship between FDI, imports, exports, terms of trade and investment in Pakistan for the period 1990-2015. Results show that an increase in all these factors will contribute significantly to FDI flows that may help the Pakistan’s economy. FDI has negative and significant impact on GDP. Exports have an insignificant effect that may imply that historically economy had led exports more than the exports led the economy. More important fact is that world economic conditions play a crucial role in the macroeconomic performance. When these conditions are favorable, not only the economy but also the trade grow. Though global financial crisis did not seriously affect Pakistan’s economy, Pakistan faced multifaceted challenges on external and internal fronts notably fight against extremism, energy crisis and uncertain external inflows. There is a need to pay more attention to domestic situation than to look abroad for financial assistance since FDI is not an unmixed blessing.
Abdelkader Derbali, Hany A Saleh
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 399-410; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems220

Abstract:
In recent years, companies' actions towards factors of production have multiplied. The human dimension is increasingly present in decisions and companies feel socially responsible. The sustainability of companies necessarily requires limiting the negative environmental effects because of these production activities. Ethical finance in general, whether Islamic or not, is a growing demand on the part of consumers and states. The aim of this paper is to assess the risk of two ethically responsible indices such as S&P500 Shariah index and S&P500 Environment and Socially Responsible index. In this paper, we will conduct a comparative study of market risk on two ethically responsible indices: the Islamic Index of the Shariah (S&P500 Shariah index) and the S&P500 Environment and Socially Responsible index during the period from 30/09/2010 to 21/09/2018. The evolution of the market will be represented by the general index of the S&P500. To do this, we use different approaches to value at risk such as VaR parametric approach, VaR non-parametric approach and the Theory of Extreme Values approach. Our results show that, on the one hand, the S&P500 Environment and Socially Responsible index is less risky than the S&P500 Shariah index and the S&P500 index. On the other hand, the S&P500 Shariah index is at low risk when yields are extreme. We conclude that the S&P500 Environment and Socially Responsible index is less risky than the Shariah S&P500 Index when you consider that yields are moving under normal market conditions.
Yeboah Evans, Rose Gyamea Kyeremeh
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 375-382; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems219

Abstract:
Coronavirus outbreak has brought significant negative impacts on developed and developing economies with Ghana, not an exemption. This pandemic has slow down economic activities across the globe through unplanned budget expenditures by various government. There is an increasing pressure on many governments to directed tremendous capital resource to stop the outbreak. The perspective of this paper is to provide, update, and inform concerning Covid-19 situation in Ghana, and also look at government expenditure on this pandemic and economic impact. This study employed the quantitative method which promotes the analysis of secondary sources of data. The study captured some of economic and livelihood programme implemented by the government of Ghana to support the most vulnerable persons. With Ghana currently having low active Covid-19 confirmed cases proves that the government has done well to control the spread of the virus.
Rashesh Vaidya
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 366-374; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems197

Abstract:
There are two types of analysis done for a stock market. One is fundamental analysis, where an investor looks at an intrinsic value of the stock, and another is technical analysis, where investors determine the future trend of the market looking at the current pattern or trend of the market. This paper is focused on one of the technical analysis tools, i.e., Moving Average Convergence-Divergence. It is a tool based on the three exponential moving average (9-12-26 EMA Rule). The MACD analysis, with the help of a single line, was helpful to find out the exact bullish and the bearish trend of the Nepse. A signal line is a benchmark to determine the stock market moving either to a bullish or bearish trend. It can help an investor, where the market is going in a direction. A market convergence, divergence, and crossover were better identified with the help of the MACD histogram. The paper found that the Nepse return was stable for a very minimal period from 1998-99 to 2019-20. The shift from the bullish to bearish or vice-verse were seen easily identified with the help of a MACD histogram. Finally, a better-combined knowledge of moving average and candlestick chart analysis will help an investor, to put a clear picture of a market trend with the help of MACD analysis.
Firman Ardiansyah, Agus Sukoco, Ani Wulandari
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 326-334; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems211

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze the effect of the influence of capital structure, profitability ratio and liquidity ratio on share prices (studies on manufacturing companies in southeast asia) 2017-2019. The sample used was 15 manufacturing companies with purposive sampling method. This research used quantitatif approach. The data collection techniques used are documentation in the form of secondary data and library research. The analysis of this research uses multiple linear regression. The results of this study are the capital structure, liquidity ratio and rentability ratio have a significant positive effect on stock prices simultaneously and partially.
Sigit Prabowo
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 319-325; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems210

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an influence between DPR, NPM, and ROA on company profit growth. The population used is coal mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, consisting of 17 companies with 3 periods, namely 2017-2019. The sampling technique is done by means of saturated samples or census samples, in which the entire population is used as the sample. The data in this study are secondary data. Data analysis used multiple linear regression using SPSS. Tests were carried out using a significance level of 0.05. The results of the partial DPR research show a regression coefficient of 0.073 (positive) with a sig value (0.999), meaning that it has a positive and insignificant effect on profit growth. The results of the research in partial NPM show a regression coefficient of 447.313 (positive) with a sig value (0.000) which means that it has a significant positive effect on profit growth and the results of the research in partially ROA show a regression coefficient of 340.076 (positive) with a sig value (0.007) which means that it has a significant positive effect. on profit growth.
Anarki Bayu Sadewo, R. Agus Baktiono
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 346-355; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems183

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze differences in consumer satisfaction in buying products through the Online Shop between SHOPEE and LAZADA among FEB students of Narotama University Surabaya seen from the perception of how to use applications, promotions, prices, and satisfaction. This type of research is comparative research with a quantitative approach. The population in this study were students of the Faculty of Economics and Business at Narotama University who had used both Lazada and Shoppe online shop applications using purposive sampling in the research sample. The research data was obtained by distributing research questionnaires on How to Use, Promotion, Price, and Customer Satisfaction, to 85 respondents. The results showed that: (1) There are differences in the variable of how to use the application between the Lazada online shop and Shopee, (2) There is no difference in the variable promotional activities carried out between the Lazada online shop and Shopee, (3) There are differences in the product price variables offered between the Lazada online shop and Shopee, (4 There is no difference in the consumer satisfaction variable in shopping through the Lazada online shop with Shopee.
Thanh Nga Pham
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 335-345; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems198

Abstract:
Corruption is always a big problem exist in every country. Today, the corruption is not only in the public sector but also in the private sector. Each State has used many ways to prevent and fight this crime. The 4th Industrial Revolution (4IE) brings many innovative solutions for modern life. Especially, e-Government is a great achievement of the 4IE. Base on the e-Government, the policies and regulations of States are transparent. It plays an important role to prevent and fight corruption more effectively. In this paper, the author will analyze the case study of Vietnam on fighting corruption base on the information technology and the outcome of applying e-Government on preventing and fighting corruption in both public sector and private sector. From this result of research, the author will recommend some solutions to improve the corruption status in Vietnam on the next period.
Shoaib Ali, Hafiz Muhammad Naveed
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 356-365; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems216

Abstract:
This research aims to examine the external governance process boosts the performance of Pakistan's listed commercial banks by estimating the return on equity (ROE) and earnings per share (EPS). The research involved external governance mechanism with the moderating role of government ownership. The study's sample structure consists of Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) listed banks with the existence of government ownership from 2014 to 2018. Data is obtained as well from financial statements, shareholding trends, and the Credit Rating Agency of Pakistan (PACRA). To meet the specific aim of the research and to satisfy the goals of the analysis, the panel data methodology (fixed effect and random effect model) has been applied. The findings have shown that the external governance system plays an important role in the banking sector's accountability and performance. Government ownership may also improve banking institution efficiency by improving external governance mechanisms. This study will allow commercial banks to overcome the challenges and boost efficiency with the external governance mechanism and devise better working strategies. This study makes it easier for the bankers' rulers to run the external governance system to strengthen bank efficiency. This work is unique because no one defined an external governance system with government ownership as a moderating role.
J. Jose Prabhu
Quantitative Economics and Management Studies, Volume 1, pp 312-318; https://doi.org/10.35877/454ri.qems176

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship refers to establishing of a brand-new business to take advantages from brand-new chances. Entrepreneur is the vital element of entrepreneurship and also now women in Czech Republic are additionally effective in this as they have qualities preferable for entrepreneurship advancement. Entrepreneurship is a much ideal profession for women than regular work. Females are thought about an important human resource of the country and every state need to try to utilize them as arbitrators of economic growth and also advancement. Empowerment of women has actually become a vital concern in current times. This write-up manages empowerment of country females via entrepreneurship as well as the benefits entrepreneurship among the small company. "Economic empowerment of females resulted in development of household as well as Neighborhood". This principle purpose of the research study is to identify the economic empowerment of women business owners. The example size of the study is 100 respondents. The data collected went through online form structured questionnaire as well as the devices utilized for analysis percentage analysis and also ANOVA test. This declaration is confirmed by a cumulative small business entrepreneurship in the Czech Republic.
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