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Results in Journal Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology: 54

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Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.54

Abstract:
We aimed to determine sleep quality and anxiety levels of surgical nurses fighting the COVID-19 ‎outbreak. This study was carried out as a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The data were collected by ‎using a sociodemographic data form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory ‎‎(BAI). A total of 302 healthcare workers participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was ‎‎31.95±7.82, and 73.2% of the participants were female, 58.9% of the participants were married and 31.5% ‎of them working in the surgical intensive care and operating room services. Of all participants, 73.5% had ‎poor sleep quality and mean PSQI was 8.18±3.69. The BAI score of surgical nurses was 16.61±12.12 and ‎‎22.5% of them experienced severe anxiety. The means of PSQI and BAI were higher in women, working in ‎surgical intensive care and operating room services, working over 40 hours a week (p<0.05). BAI score was ‎responsible for 45.6% of the change on PSQI score (p<0.001). The COVID-19 outbreak dramatically ‎increased the level of anxiety and negatively affected sleep quality. The mental health of the surgical nurses ‎should be monitored closely. It is recommended to provide psychological support to the healthcare workers.
Feray Ferda Şenol, , Altay Babacan, Yunus Emre Ibik, Ferhan Korkmaz
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.53

Abstract:
In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus prevalence and demographic data of patients of all age groups who applied to our hospital with the complaint of acute gastroenteritis. A total of 12,840 patients aged 0-90 years, who applied to our hospital (Elazığ Fethi Sekin City Hospital) with the complaint of acute gastroenteritis between 15 August 2018 and 18 October 2021, were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of rotavirus and adenovirus antigens was determined from stool samples by qualitative immunochromatographic method (Microcult-Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combo, Biotech China) in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Of the patients who applied with the complaint of acute gastroenteritis, 3,507 (27.3%) were infants, 9,087 (70.8%) were children, and 246 (1.91%) were adults. Of all patients, 1,350 (10.5%) were positive for at least one viral agent. Of patients with detected viral agents, 750 (55.6%) were male and 600 (44.4%) were female. Of the samples, 1,099 (8.56%) were positive for rotavirus, 199 (1.55) were positive for adenovirus, and 52 (0.40%) were positive for both pathogens. The positivity rate in men was 10% higher than in women. The positivity rates were highest in patients admitted in 2019 (5,915) for both rotavirus and adenovirus, 10.5% (622) and 2.23% (132) respectively. In the study, rotavirus positivity was highest in winter with 12.2% (270/2,216) and adenovirus positivity was highest with 2.12% (95/4,484) in summer. In the evaluation carried out according to age, gender, and season, the period in which viral gastroenteritis was seen at the highest rate was determined as "childhood". In the evaluation of gastroenteritis cases, it is important to know that viral agents are common, especially in the childhood age group, in addition to bacteriological and parasitological agents in stool samples in acute gastroenteritis infections and considering that there may be seasonal and periodic changes in the frequency of viral gastroenteritis. It was thought that unnecessary antibiotic use would be eliminated or minimized by replacing the lost fluid and electrolytes, which are the basic treatment of viral infections, following the correct identification of the causative agent.
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.52

Abstract:
Since the earliest times of history, smallpox left deep traces in the memory of humanity with the great epidemics and destruction (deaths) it caused. Variola virus, which is the causative agent of smallpox, and some other viruses in the same family have been a part of many extraordinary changes in the field of science and medicine. Poxviruses have a privileged position in the scientific world due to the fact that the first examples of immunization (variolation) in ancient civilizations, the first safe vaccines developed for use in humans (cowpox virus, vaccinia virus), first infection model of viral pathogenesis (ectromelia virus), and the first human infection eradicated globally (smallpox). Smallpox virus (variola major) is classified as a biological warfare agent (category A), causing high-mortality infections and epidemics, and remains a worldwide concern. These viruses are also unique with their various biological features. Poxviruses, one of the largest viruses associated with human infections, are widely used as a convenient model in vaccine development and vector-based treatment studies, with large number of protein coding, ability to replicate primarily in the cell cytoplasm (unlike other DNA viruses), and their other advantageous features. More than 10 species of poxviruses cause infections in humans, and except for a few species that are only isolated from humans, these viruses are generally associated with zoonotic infections. Monkeypox virus (MPXV), one of these species, was regarded far from being a threat to humanity in the past due to possible cross-immunity caused by smallpox vaccine. However, local monkeypox cases reported in Central and West Africa in the early 1970s were replaced by small-scale outbreaks in the United States and Sudan in the 2000s, and in the following periods, this virus is considered to be the most important species of the Poxviridae family after the eradication of smallpox virus due to the increasing number of case reports in African countries, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. In addition to epidemiological changes that increase the risk of contact with animal reservoirs, the growing proportion of the unvaccinated population and the new and unexpected transmission pattern indicate that human monkeypox infections may continue to intensify. In recent days, while many countries and health authorities have been re-evaluating the existing and potential risks related to monkeypox virus and smallpox virus, some countries have started to take various measures against the possibility of epidemic and biosecurity risks. The main purpose of this article is to consider the general biological characteristics of poxvirus strains, to examine their host distribution, and to provide an overview of the risks attributed to poxvirus strains associated with human infections.
, Birgül Tuncay
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.51

Abstract:
Allergy is an important health problem in preschool children and its prevalence is increasing. Allergy is especially common in nursery and preschool children. There is limited data on allergy epidemiology in children in Türkiye. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of allergy in nursery children and to determine the risk factors that lead to allergies. The descriptive cross-sectional field study was carried out between 01.11.2017 and 01.05.2018 in the nurseries in Yozgat City Center. The study was conducted with the parents of 320 children who continued nursery education between the specified dates. The data were obtained by a 35-question information form prepared by the researchers. The mean age of the children was 4.7±0.95 and 56.25% (180/320) were male. A family history of asthma or disease with appearance of allergic symptoms, history of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in the first two years of life and having pets at home were significantly more common in the group with allergic sensitivity compared to the group without allergic sensitivity (p<0.05). It was determined that 14.7% of the children were diagnosed by the physician, 38.3% (18/47) of these diagnoses were urticaria, 31.9% (15/47) were allergic asthma, 19.1% (9/47) were atopic dermatitis-eczema, and 10.6% (5/47) were allergic rhinitis. According to the results of this study, it was found that children with allergic sensitivity had a history of asthma or atopic disease in their families, experienced allergic symptoms frequently, and frequently had URTI until the age of two.
Altay Babacan, Feray Ferda Şenol,
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.49

Abstract:
Özet Lökosit sayısının 3500/μL seviyesinin altında olması lökopeni olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Çoğunlukla sekonder sebeplerle ilişkili olan ve immün sistem görevlerini etkileyebilmesi nedeniyle klinik önem taşıyan lökopeni çocuklarda farklı etiyolojik sebeplere bağlı olarak gelişebilmektedir. Çalışmamızın amacı çocuk hematoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastalarda benign lökopeni sıklığını ve etiyolojik sebeplerini belirlemektir. Bu retrospektif çalışmada 2019-2021 yılları arasında Elazığ Fethi Sekin Şehir Hastanesi Çocuk Hematoloji polikliniğine başvuran ve lökosit sayıları 3500/μL'nin altında olan hastalara ait veriler incelendi. Otoimmün hastalık, malignite, aplastik anemi ve kronik nötropenisi olan hastalar çalışmaya dahil edilmedi. Polikliniğimize başvuran 2500 hasta incelendi ve lökopeni insidansı %3.32 olarak bulundu. Lökopeni tespit edilen 83 hastanın 44'ü erkek (%53) ve 39'u kız (%47) hastalar olup, hastaların ortalama yaşı 8.5±4.5 yıl idi. Hastaların ortalama lökosit sayısı 2950±450/μL, ortalama lökopeni süresi 7.5±2.5 gün, ortalama takip süreleri 14±5 gün olarak tespit edildi ve tüm hastalarda lökopeninin düzeldiği gözlemlendi. Lökopeninin en sık nedenleri sırasıyla enfeksiyonlar %68.7 (57/83), vitamin B12 eksikliği %14.5 (12/83) ve ilaç kullanımı %10.8 (9/83) olarak tespit edildi. Çalışmamızda çocukluk çağında akut geçici lökopeni nedenleri arasında en sık sebebin enfeksiyon kaynaklı olduğu tespit edilirken, vitamin B12 eksikliğinin de lökopeniye sebep olabileceği gözlemlenmiş olup, bu olgularda lökopeninin tedavi ile düzeldiği saptanmıştır.
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.50

Abstract:
Hepatitis viruses (hepatotropic viruses) are classified into five ‎kinds, denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and E, each with its ‎own unique genotypes, clinical implications, and geographic ‎distribution. Viral hepatitis is a type of liver inflammation that ‎can resolve on its own or proceed to cirrhosis or hepatocellular ‎cancer. Hepatitis A, B, and C infections are the most common ‎types of infectious viral hepatitis. Over the previous five ‎decades, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has exhibited an ‎intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income nations. ‎HBV genotype variation is thought to be crucial in regulating ‎disease development, infection outcome, antiviral therapy ‎response, and illness prognosis. HBV is divided into ten ‎genotypes (A-J) and roughly 40 sub-genotypes, correlated with ‎different geographic distributions, transmission routes, and ‎disease progression. The goal of this study was to figure out ‎the current status of HBV prevalence and genotype distribution ‎in West African countries. HBV genotypes A, D, and E have ‎been reported the most widely prevalent genotypes in Africa so ‎far, while there are limited reports of genotypes B and C. HBV ‎genotype A is shown to be more prevalent in Africa than on ‎other continents, implying that it has an African origin. ‎Genotype D has been found across Africa, particularly in the ‎Mediterranean and North African regions. Except in Africa, HBV ‎genotype E infection is extremely rare, even when infection ‎with this genotype has been recorded outside of Africa, it has ‎virtually always been in African origin people. Within Africa, ‎HBV genotype E is abundant and broad across the continent, ‎reaching from Senegal's west coast to Namibia's southwestern ‎tip and eastward to the Central African Republic. These ‎epidemiological findings and differences have important ‎implications for the immunization, antiviral therapy, and clinical ‎outcomes of HBV on a national and regional level.‎
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.48

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemi döneminde hem hasta beklentileri hem de hastane içi alınması gereken tedbirler değişmiştir. Hastane içerisinde bulaş riskini en aza indirecek maske, mesafe ve hijyen gibi unsurlar önem kazanmıştır. Bu bağlamda da sağlık hizmeti sunan kurumların hasta beklentilerini karşılayarak kaliteli hizmet sunma parametrelerini iyileştirmeleri gerekmektedir. Özellikle pandemi döneminde, cerrahi tedavi alan hastalar için ameliyat öncesi, anı ve sonrası hareketlilik nedeniyle bulaş ve ölüm korkusunun artabileceği ve hizmet kalite algısının etkilenebileceği düşünülmüştür. Bu çalışmada COVID-19 pandemi döneminde hastanelerde sağlık hizmeti alan cerrahi hastaların algıladıkları hizmet kalitesine ilişkin görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden durum çalışması kullanılmıştır. Araştırma evrenini, Yozgat Bozok Üniversitesi Araştırma ve Uygulama Hastanesi cerrahi servislerinde yatan hastalar oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma örneklemi 15.11.2021-15.12.2021 tarihleri arasında cerrahi birimlerde yatan; operasyon geçirmiş, araştırmaya katılmaya gönüllü olan ve iletişim problemi olmayan 30 hastadan oluşmaktadır. Veriler tanıtıcı bilgi formu ile araştırmacılar tarafından oluşturulmuş yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu ile toplanmıştır. COVID-19 pandemisi döneminde cerrahi servislerde yatan hastaların sağlık hizmet kalitesine ilişkin görüşlerinin olumlu olduğu, cerrahi servislerde yatan birimlerde koronavirus salgını merkezli tedbirlerin üst düzeyde alındığı, afiş ve bilgilendirme çalışmalarının ise iyileştirilebileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.
, Fahri Acar, Şule Bayer, Ecem Çakır Altınyaprak, , ,
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2022.47

Abstract:
Bu çalışmada, Ulusal Kanser Tarama Programı kapsamında yetişkinlerin kanser taramasına katılma ‎sıklıkları ve katılmama nedenlerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu tanımlayıcı anket çalışması, ‎Türkiye'de Mart 2021 ve Haziran 2021 tarihleri arasında aile hekimliği polikliniklerinde yetişkinlerle ‎yürütülmüştür. Anket 43 soru içeriyordu; ilk bölümde katılımcılardan bazı sosyodemografik verileri ‎sağlamaları istendi; ikinci bölümde ise mevcut sigara içme durumu, kronik hastalık varlığı, herhangi bir ‎kanser türünün olup olmadığı, ailede kanser öyküsü, ülkesindeki kanser tarama programı hakkında bilgi alma ‎durumu, COVID-19 salgını öncesinde ve sırasında herhangi bir kanser taraması yaptırma öyküsü anketin ‎üçüncü bölümü ise ulusal kanser tarama programı (kolorektal kanser, serviks kanseri, meme kanseri) ile ‎ilgili sorulara odaklandı. Ankete katılan 191 kişiden %54.2'si pandeminin dışkıda gizli kan testi yaptırma ‎sıklığını etkilediğini, %47.4'ü pandeminin kolonoskopi sıklığını etkilediğini, %37.7'si pandeminin mamografi ‎çekme sıklığını etkilediğini ve %37.1'i pandeminin pap smear testi yaptırma sıklığını etkilediğini belirtti. Bu ‎gecikmelerin en çok belirtilen nedeni enfeksiyon kapma endişesiyle sağlık ocağına gitmekten korkmaktı. ‎Kanser taramasındaki kesintiler, mevcut kanserlerin geç teşhisine, kanserle ilişkili ek ölümlere yol açacaktır. ‎Tarama oranları COVID öncesi seviyelere dönene kadar bu kesintilerin büyük bir etkisi olabilir. Sonuçlarımız ‎pandeminin tarama programları üzerine olumsuz etkilerini gösterdi ve en çok vurgulanan neden enfeksiyon ‎kapma endişesiyle sağlık ocağına gitmekten korkmaktı.‎
Faduma Nur Adan, Marian Muse Osman, Ahmed Muhammad Bashir, Ismail Selçuk Aygar, Sadettin Er, Oktay Sarı, Onur Bahçeci, Tuğrul Hoşbul, Ümit Savaşçı, Mahamat Adam Moussa, et al.
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 2, pp 123-135; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.39

, Alpaslan Tanoğlu, Züleyha Akkan Çetinkaya, Efe Serkan Boz, Hayrunnisa Sezikli, Fatih Güzelbulut, Mesut Sezikli
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 2, pp 102-106; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.36

Abdirahim Ali Adam, Fatih Şahiner, Alpaslan Tanoğlu, Tuğrul Hoşbul, Mohamed Abdulkadir Hassan Kadle, Marian Muse Osman, Saim Yüksel, Hilmi Erdem Sümbül, Nurettin Ay, Ilhan Cebeci, et al.
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 2, pp 115-122; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.38

, Turan Buzgan
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.35

Abstract:
Infectious diseases are generally preventable public health problems; however, they cause epidemics, economic losses, and deaths at all levels worldwide. Especially with the effect of globalization, it has been observed much better with the COVID-19 pandemic, where viral outbreaks can rapidly affect all stages of life. Experiences show that not only national authorities, but also international organizations should play critical roles in the control of infectious diseases. Based on this perspective, in our study, the responses of the World Health Organization (WHO), which has a decisive role in international health policies, to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the first three-month period were examined. In addition, the possible effects of the national measures and policies taken by Canada, Turkey, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, which are in different income groups according to the World Bank, on the number of cases and deaths were discussed. In this context, the contributions, or potential effects of the WHO on the performance of these countries against the COVID-19 were interpreted. It was understood that the countries in different income groups have developed policies based on their capability at country level independent from other countries in the fight against COVID-19 outbreak. It has been evaluated that the success of countries in the fight against the outbreaks is affected by different parameters such as average age of the country's populations, health infrastructures and income levels that greatly affect access to medical supplies and equipment. However, it can be said that international organizations with institutional power such as WHO cannot play a leading role at the expected level in the prevention of the pandemic and ineffective in directing local policies and ensuring international coordination. Especially in the COVID-19 viral pandemic environment where fast and precise decisions are required, this leading role is desperately needed. The first quarterly decisions and meeting notifications of the WHO in the COVID-19 pandemic were examined in our study and it was understood that these outcomes cannot provide a definite and effective management plan to national health policy makers, although WHO presented diagnostic tools rapidly and, in some degree maintained the supply chain of medical equipment globally. As a result, when all these elements determined in our study were considered together; the need for an integrative, proactive, and fair international health institution that produces prompt, effective and constantly updated comprehensive policies should be emphasized.
Mehmet Tahtabaşı, Ergin Karaman, Yasin Akın, Osman Konukoğlu, Nihat Kılıçaslan, Mehmet Gezer, Sadettin Er, Selda Tez, Mesut Tez, Kemal Tekin
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 2, pp 67-74; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.33

Ahmed Adam Osman, Nur Abdullahi Karshe, Ismail Gedi Ibrahim, Mehmet Tahtabaşı
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 2, pp 52-55; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2021.31

Tuğrul Hoşbul, Ülkü Irem Yılmaz, Canset Nur Aydogan, Fatih Şahiner
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 1, pp 19-29; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2020.20

Ismail Selçuk Aygar, Muhammed Furkan Kürkçü, Selman Kızıl
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 1, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2020.7

Mehmet Şahiner, Eray Serdar Yurdakul,
Journal of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Volume 1, pp 43-56; https://doi.org/10.46683/jmvi.2020.4

Abstract:
The time elapsed since the first studies on genetic information transfer and the discovery of DNA has exceeded 150 years. While studies on a substance that was originally called nuclein in the core of leukocytes in a surgical bandage resulted in the discovery of DNA, the knowledge of humanity has extended as chain rings with the new discoveries added by each researcher or research team and has led to the development of many molecular diagnostic methods, one of the most important tools of today's medicine. DNA replication mechanisms, basic parameters of transcription and translation stages that result in protein synthesis are described in detail within 20 years after the definition of the three-dimensional structure of nucleic acids. This basic information pioneered the development of methods used in manipulative applications such as the detection, replication, in-vitro synthesis and cloning of nucleic acids. The genomic information filling a library from a cell was derived by using sequence analysis techniques, developed a hundred years after the first detection of DNA in a leukocyte nucleus, within the scope of the human genome project. After these processes, which gave researchers many Nobel prizes, unknown microorganisms were discovered, gene silencing and cloning studies were performed, and in-vitro production of numerous biomolecules has become possible with the techniques offered by recombinant gene technology. The development of new molecular techniques opens new windows for scientists for diagnosis, treatment and gene technology in the fields of medicine, biology and veterinary medicine. This article summarizes the stories of the earliest studies and pioneers of molecular biology techniques used today and the great discoveries reached at the end of the difficult processes.
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