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Results in Journal Environment and Pollution: 219

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J. William Louda, Bobby G. Duersch, Jeffrey T. Osetek, Charmaine Cintron, Lorraine Chaljub, Vittoria Queiroz
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p61

Abstract:
South Florida and much of the rest of the World suffers from harmful algal blooms (HABs) and controls of both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollution are required to curtail the onset, spread and/or expansion of these blooms. This report covers our studies on several aspects of equestrian waste (viz. horse manure) aimed at yielding an overview of phosphorus and its pollution stemming from non-point horse manure sources in portions of Palm Beach County Florida. Methods included a modified Hedley extraction sequence, emphasizing ‘easily extractable phosphorus’ (EEP), and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic identification of organic phosphorus (Po) species. Samples included fresh and aged horse manure, pasture soils, horse feed and pasture grasses, and canal waters adjacent to equestrian or agricultural fields. Easily extractable Phosphorus (EEP) averaged about 54-77% of the total horse manure phosphorus. Total phosphorus ranged from 13,020 – 22,300 mg per kilogram dry weight. (≈60-100 lbs. P2O5 / ton and on a wet weight basis, this equates to 4,000 to 14,818 grams-P/ U.S. ton or 8.8 to 32.6 pounds of phosphorus (≈ 20-75 lb. P2O5) per wet weight ton of horse manure. Considering the values of EEP in fresh samples from a single horse, we found a range of 8,000 – 17,000 mg-P/kg (8-17 g-P/kg) dry weight horse manure. Soil samples yielded the highest P in the NaOH extract of the Hedley sequence. This equates to the Al, Fe and ester forms. Phosphorus (viz. EEP) runoff is viewed here as a non-point P pollution source.
Filippus Nambuli, Cecil Togarepi, Albertina Shikongo
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p47

Abstract:
Waste scavenging is an emerging challenge faced by many Municipalities and Local Authorities in Namibia. However, it has been neglected by authorities due to insufficient knowledge about its contribution to resource recovery and recycling. This study investigated how waste scavenging as a problem can be transformed into an opportunity for Integrated Waste Management in Namibia. The main objective of the study was to determine the socio-economic drivers as well as health implications of waste scavenging at Keetmanshoop municipal dumping site, Namibia. Using the purposive sampling method, a total of 45 waste pickers were interviewed through semi-structured questionnaires. The data collected included waste pickers demographic (age, gender, marital status, and level of education), socio-economic impacts (income and diseases) from waste scavenging. The study revealed that the main drivers of waste scavenging are poverty (71.1%) and unemployment (64.4%). Furthermore, waste scavenging contributes significantly to waste pickers’ livelihood through income generation from the sale of waste materials (93.3%). The majority of the waste pickers (80%), scavenge mainly for metals whereas the least target food. The study concluded that waste scavenging, although neglected, contributes significantly to the livelihoods of waste pickers and waste management in Keetmanshoop. The study recommends that waste scavenging should be regulated and integrated into the formal waste management system of the Municipality through avenues such as the formation of the waste picker’s cooperatives that will be registered with the municipality and recognised through formal structures.
Ahmed Abubakar Jajere, Jonah Kunda Joshua, Umar Muhammed Bibi, Yusuf Maina-Bukar
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p33

Abstract:
Over the years, West African Sahel’s people developed some strategies for predicting the seasonal weather using meteorological indicators to plan for extreme weather events. This study used information on local indicators of seasonal weather prediction and mean monthly rainfall and temperature record (1981-2017) from Nguru weather station located at Latitude 14°N in achieving the aim of the study. Both qualitative and quantitate (descriptive and inferential) statistical tools were employed in analysing the collected data. The study found that the local population of the study area used meteorological indicators in predicting the seasonal weather. The results of the analysis revealed that the variability of the annual rainfall during the study period was large. An increasing trend of 3.1mm annually was observed. While decreasing trend in the cold, dry and hot dry season temperature and an increasing trend in warm moist temperature by 0.025°C, 0.05°C and 0.0004°C respectively, was observed. Annual rainfall amount accounts for 31% and 2% variability in cold dry and warm moist season temperature, respectively. Cold, dry season and warm moist season temperature respond to any 1mm increase in annual rainfall by decreasing by 0.012°C and 0.002°C, respectively. The Hot, dry season temperature also accounts for 4% of the variability in annual rainfall. The model’s result revealed anyone 1°C increase in hot dry season temperature lowers the annual rainfall by 10mm. This study confirmed that the observed relationship between seasons weather conditions by local population exist. Therefore annual rainfall is the major determinant of cold dry seasonal temperature in the study area.
J. J Kunda, Ahmed Abubakar Jajere, Otabe E. A., Chindo Musa Muhammed, Umar Muhammed Bibi, Yusuf Maina-Bukar
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p20

Abstract:
For this study, geospatial technology was used to assess agricultural lands vulnerable to flooding in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Six thematic layers of factors influencing flood occurrences in the study area were generated from monthly rainfall, land use/cover, drainage density, soil, digital elevation model and slope. Pairwise comparison of the Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to derive the weights for each factor using expert’s judgements and literature. Weighted overlay model from the spatial analysis tool in the ArcGIS 10.4 environment was used to perform the vulnerability modelling. Expert’s judgement on the relative factors influencing flood in the study area was: rainfall (25%), elevation (22%), slope (20%), drainage density (13%), soil type (8%) and land use/cover (12%). The consistency ratio of the analysis was reasonable: (CR= 0.078). Results from the model demonstrated land vulnerability to urban agricultural flooding in the study area ranging from areas of very highly vulnerable to very low vulnerable areas, with farmlands along the floodplains of River Benue falls within the very highly vulnerable areas. The elements at Risk are; Farmland 537.6 (66.1%), Irrigation Land 40.5 (5.0%) and Built-up Land 125.8 (15.5%).
Jeroen Provoost, Karen Victor
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n2p1

Abstract:
The complexity of the vapour intrusion (VI) transport pathway has received an ever-increased interest worldwide, and an improved and consolidated understanding of the VI issue requires collaboration between international research groups. This study uses the social network analysis methodology, applied to bibliometric authorship for VI research, to discover trends in collaboration, identify lead scientists, organisations, and countries. Furthermore, some of the external factors influencing the collaboration and productivity were assessed. The data suggests that the global research network for VI produced over a time span of 54 years 566 publications via 157 sources. The research network is composed of 437 organisations and 1053 authors from 33 countries. This suggests an increasingly active international collaborative research effort. However, inter-continental cooperation is much less than continental. The top five most central countries in the network are the USA, followed by Canada, China, The Netherlands, and Italy. The researchers with the most publications are from these five countries as well as the top organisations. The social network analysis conducted shows a good approximation of the collaborative structure for the key countries, organisations and researchers involved. Since 2010, the research community has become more stable.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p69

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2021.
Bernard Gouba, Madjoyogo Herve Sirima, Betaboale Naon
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p46

Abstract:
Wastewater from industrial units in the Kossodo district in the city of Ouagadougou has a physicochemical impact on the environment and the population. For several years the Kossodo area was famous for the effects of wastewater from industrial units on the environment (a foul odor). We took samples from various points of the open canals in order to determine the physico-chemical parameters of this wastewater. This choice was guided by a concern to measure the physico-chemical impact of wastewater from the open sewer in the industrial zone of Kossodo in the city of Ouagadougou on the one hand and to show the danger represented by this wastewater from industrial units on the environment and public health on the other hand. The objective also guided the choice of the parameters retained for the measurement of the physicochemical impact of the industrial units wastewater of the open sewer of Kossodo zone in the city of Ouagadougou: MES, DCO, BOD5, pH, Potassium, Sodium. The results show that the wastewater from the open sewers of the industrial units of Kossodo in the city of Ouagadougou, has a high physicochemical parameter content than the authorized discharge standard.
Fikrte Yirga, Ayele Badebo, Mashila Dejene
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p57

Abstract:
High yielding farmers’ bread wheat cultivars are threatened by emerging race(s) of stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst) in the highlands of Ethiopia. In depletion of rust resistance in commercial cultivars, researchers often look for new sources from close relatives and landraces. The objective of this study was to determine stripe rust resistance in selected Ethiopian bread wheat landraces obtained from the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (IBCE). In 2017, a total of 152 accessions were exposed to the prevailing stripe rust races in hot spot areas (Kulumsa and Meraro) in Arsi zone of Oromia region. In the second year (2018), only promising landraces (57) were evaluated both at seedling and adult plant growth stages. The seedling test was conducted in the greenhouse at Kulumsa research center using three (PstS2 (v32), (PstS11) and (PstS11 v25) Pst races. In field evaluations, terminal severity (TRS), coefficient of infection (CI), area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), disease progress rate (DPR) and head infection (HI) were considred. High disease pressure was noted with 100% severity on susceptible entries at both locations and seasons. Highly significant (P<0.001) differences were noted among the landraces for all disease parameters indicated above. Of the 152 landraces, 57(38%) exhibited lower or equal disease reaction compared to the resistant check(Enkoy) across locations. Overall, 18 accessions showed resistance to the prevailing Pst races both at seedling stage and field conditions whereas14 exhibited susceptible /intermediate reaction at seedling stage, but had lower disease reaction under field conditions. This study has identified potential sources of overall and adult plant resistance in the Ethiopian bread wheat landraces to the prevailing Pst races. The authors recommend further studies to determine the diversity and/or novelity of resistance genes in selected accessions. Future wheat improvement should focus on utilization of these genetic resources to minimize the re-current outbreak of rust diseases.
Roch Corneille Ngoubou, Jean Bienvenu Dinga, Dominique Nganga
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p30

Abstract:
This research work deals with the physico-chemical analysis of the surface water of the Djiri river with the aim of preventing the population against possible water pollution. The analysis of the samples collected in the Djiri river revealed the presence of lead in these waters at levels exceeding the WHO guideline values: an average annual pollution (0.93 mg / l) which is visibly above the WHO guideline value (0.01mg / l). The in situ data of the Djiri river revealed a significant drop in flow between the period 2016 characterized by a divergence index of 0.82344 thus highlighting a hydrological situation for which the actors of national hydrology will absolutely have to implement measures. Remedial mechanisms to protect this river against possible disappearance.
Hania Saadouni, Rabah Alouani
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p15

Abstract:
Digital elevation modeling (DEM) was used to determine key morphological features such as hypsometry, slopes and topographic evolution in correlation with tectonic regimes and erosion mechanisms. This contribution discusses the tectonic model of northern Tunisia, which since 1977 has been described by geologists as an allochthonous unity domain of the Serravallian-Tortonian. This study presents new data from the erosion rate calculation following the establishment of these units and then proposes another view on regional tectonics. Therefore, the example used of Oued Sedjnene gives a rising rate of the order of 0.01 mm/year, almost equivalent to the results found in surrounding medeterranean belt (ex. Italy and Turkey). The structure and geomorphology of northern Tunisia is a result of folding of Cenozoic basin. However located tangential structure are related to transcurrent faults and not overthrust structure.
D. I. J. Samaranayake, R. S. Thennakoon
Environment and Pollution, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ep.v10n1p1

Abstract:
The study consisted of a survey and field experiment to observe the impact of behavioural nudges on an individual’s attitudes and accuracy on waste sorting. The survey conducted on 203 students of the University of Peradeniya, and then the field experiment within the university premises. The responses to the survey revealed that the participants having a negative attitude toward the usual waste disposal and sorting practices. Also, the majority of the respondents preferred non-monetary incentives as an effective strategy to motivate individuals to improve the accuracy of waste sorting. Then the participants are given nine strategies as separate behavioural nudges to improve the waste sorting behavior. The responses are highly varied and the majority prefer to use a combination of different colours and detailed labels as a motivational strategy. Thus, the preferred strategy was examined at the faculty premises throughout three stages and tested three hypotheses. Findings revealed that the strategy improves the accuracy, and supports the university community for proper waste sorting practices. Further, it exposed that the detail labels and stickers are impactful than the color sensitivity of respondents.
, George Amoako, Baah Sefa-Ntiri, Samuel Amoah, Samuel Sonko Sackey, Charles Lloyd Yeboah Amuah
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n2p29

Abstract:
The amount of micronutrients in food is a key factor that determines the health status of a person. The concentrations of nine micronutrients, Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Chlorine (Cl), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Vanadium (V), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu) and Iodine (I), in polished Jasmine 85 rice, locally cultivated in five rice farming areas in Ghana (Afienya, Afife, Dawhenya, Ashaiman and Aveyime), were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis. The standard materials used as reference were the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-530 Tuna fish homogenate and the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA 1566b Oyster Tissue. Recoveries of the elemental concentrations ranged from 88% to 111% of the certified values. Relative standardization method was used in the quantification of the elements. The range of concentrations measured in the rice are: 142.3-188.1 mg/kg for Na, 483.2-875.7 mg/kg for Mg, 465.6-718.0 mg/kg for Cl, 514.6-2949.0 mg/kg for K, 2303.0-2622.0 mg/kg for Ca, 0.0698-0.1925 mg/kg for V, 9.956-14.460 mg/kg for Mn, 0.8728-1.6790 mg/kg for Cu and 0.1181-0.1447 mg/kg for I. Using Hierarchical clustering analysis and Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the intensities of measured concentrations, K was established to be the most abundant, and was used to categorize two distinct clusters; Group 1 farms (Ashaiman, Afienya, and Dawhenya) and Group 2 farms (Aveyime and Afife). Group 2 farms recorded elevated intensities of micronutrients. With Pearson's correlation coefficient, some noteworthy correlations realized were between Na and K (r = 0.951), Na and V (r = 0.842) and K and V (r = 0.812). This indicated the same or similar source inputs for each pair. The calculated mean daily intake of K exceeded the mean Recommended Dietary Allowable and Adequate Intake for all Life Stage Groups. Estimated health risk associated with the consumption of rice was only present for children between the ages of 1 and 3 for Mg. The information on these nine micronutrients content of the rice from these five farming areas would be valuable in rice consumption studies to evaluate the overall availability of micronutrients to the Ghanaian populace and age groups and also in nutrition planning for analysis of nationwide rice supplies, mainly for regions and countries known to be susceptible to deficiencies of these micronutrients. The techniques espoused in this research can be used to accurately determine the concentration of micronutrients in rice and also trace the area where the rice was produced.
Aderonke Adetutu Okoya, Doyinsola Omotoyosi Diisu, Olasunkanmi Olalekan Olaiya, Oyeyemi Sherifdeen Adegbaju
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n2p1

Abstract:
This study investigates flamboyant pods (FP) and chitosan [extracted from periwinkle shells (PS)] modified flamboyant pods (CMFP) adsorbents for dye removal from textile industrial wastewater, and were compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Physicochemical properties with dye concentrations of wastewater were investigated before and after adsorption using standard methods and Ultraviolet-visible Spectrophotometer respectively. Batch adsorption were performed and pH (3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 9.0, 11.5), adsorbent dosage (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 g), contact time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes) and initial concentration (25, 50, 100, 125, 250 mg/L) were optimized for Indigo dye using the adsorbents. Initial concentration data was used to test conformity with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption efficiencies for simulation ranged from 11.33±0.70 to 83.8±0.00. Optimum adsorption conditions of indigo dye were pH 6, 0.1g sorbent dosage, 60 minutes contact time and 250 mg/L dye concentration; gave efficiencies of 83.8%, 79.6% and 89.8% for FP, CMFP, CAC respectively with wastewater. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater decreased except nitrate which increased from 11.53±0.00 to 34.65±1.41mg/L. Data best fit Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The study inferred that FP and PS could be processed as less expensive, environment friendly alternative adsorbent to the costly CAC for treating textile wastewater.
M. A. Quader
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n2p19

Abstract:
Discussions, analyses and modelling are based on global level data. The natural environment is causing deaths to its habitants. The ongoing coronavirus is also doing damage to the lives of the glove. Worldwide people are too much worried putting extra ordinary efforts to contain the coronavirus pandemic. But the damage being done to the lives of the people on the glove by natural environment problems is substantially higher than that done by the coronavirus. Air pollution death rate is 6.02 times of death rate due to coronavirus and the total environmental death rate is 10.85 times that of coronavirus death rate. Three statistical models regarding coronavirus development, coronavirus spread and coronavirus fatality are developed.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n2p50

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2020.
Ali Akbar
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n2p14

Abstract:
SMOG is a form of horrible air pollution that has recently been declared as a public health emergency in Southeast Asia. This article will talk about the drawback of smog pollution and its outcomes on human health. Smog has become the most important issue for Pakistan, from some past years. Since 2011, nearly all areas of Pakistan especially Lahore has been repeatedly affected by smog. In Many previous types of research, the focus is on Smog and, its source, alarm systems, and safeguard, when a risky Environmental event like smog, the conclusion may be riskier than the event itself will cause if people take irrational actions due to lack of relevant awareness. So, examine people's attitudes and a reaction to smog is theoretically and realistically meaningful. Recent projects of coal as a source of energy, high rates of outpouring from unmonitored industries, a large number of automobiles on roads, play a major role in trends of deforestation to construct new roads and recently the burning of crops leftovers has added fuel to the fire. Vehicles increase by 9% compared to the last five years due to a lack of public transport systems. Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh emit the most hydrocarbons in their fuel emissions compared to SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries. As a result of these problems, Pakistan is facing its relatives, losses and various dangerous human diseases.
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p45

Abstract:
This Article addresses the issue whether climate change is a myth or a reality. Can if affect development of developing countries? This article is a qualitative research on the need of developing countries to strike a balance on the options of choosing whether to pursue sustainable development goals only or addressing climate change and its effects or both. Developing countries are affected by climate change just like the developed countries. If they were to ignore it this would affect their sustainable development goals. However to address climate change, their pursuit of sustainable development is affected. Resources that would be used in achieving the goals of sustainable development are diverted to combating the effects of climate change. Developing countries lack the technology and finances to combat climate change on their own. They need developed countries to assist them. However this assistance is not forthcoming. Therefore there is a need to strike a balance between what goals to pursue. We look at Uganda as an example of a developing country that is affected by climate change and how it has coped briefly. We look at the international conventions that deal with climate change including the Paris Agreement and we see how they impact on developing countries’ pursuit of sustainable development goals. Are the conventions adequate?
Yi Wei, Peiwei Tang, Minfeng Huang, Yongzhang Pan
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p14

Abstract:
A novel photocatalyst powder, BiOI/BiOBr/MoS2, was synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area and pore size analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray energy spectrometry (EDS) were utilized to characterize the prepared samples. After evaluating the photocatalytic performance of the catalyst, it was loaded on the glass fiber and carbon fiber by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and N-methylpyrrolidone, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was investigated by the degradation of ammonia nitrogen wastewater. The fiber cloth solved the problem of separation of powder from solution after reaction, and the presence of the binder reduces the agglomeration of the nanoparticles in the water. After four times repeated experiments, the degradation of simulate ammonia nitrogen wastewater by loaded glass fiber and loaded carbon fiber are 74.1% and 60.58%. Fixation of BiOI/BiOBr/MoS2 powders on fiber cloth solve the problem of difficult recovery of powder photocatalytic materials and it can be recycled, which has economic valuable.
, Shahla Nazneen, Sardar Khan, Urooj Zafar
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p37

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine potentially toxic element (PTE) contamination and their potential ecological risk factors in shooting range soil. For this purpose soil samples were collected from different locations (left side, right side, shooting point, middle, and stop-butt) from the shooting range of Frontier Corps Training Centre (FCTC) present in Warsak, Peshawar. The soil samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and potentially toxic elements including Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The strong acids digested extracts were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the concentrations of selected PTEs. The concentration of Pb was found to be maximum at stop-butt i.e. 2049 mg/kg and exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) critical value of 400 mg/kg, while its concentrations at left, right, shooting point and middle were 14.0 mg/kg, 18.8 mg/kg, 47.4 mg/kg, and 18.2 mg/kg, respectively and exceeded the background level of normal soils which is 10 mg/kg for Pb. This study revealed that the shooting range soil was highly contaminated with Pb, and very high contamination factor and potential ecological risk for Pb was observed at stop-butt, very high contamination factor and potential ecological risk for Cd, while moderate contamination factor for Zn was observed at all locations of the shooting range. In Pakistan, the environmental perspective of shooting range soils is overlooked and there is a need to take steps to avoid such contamination of soils with Pb and other PTEs that can enter into food chains and can also leach to contaminate the aquifer. Replacement of vegetation of shooting range with PTE tolerant species, addition of soil conditioners and uncontaminated soil would reduce the mobility of these contaminants into aerial portions of plants and protect the groundwater contamination.
, Unyime U. Umoh, Ugim S. Ugim, Emmanuella E. Oyo-Ita, Orok E. Oyo-Ita
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p26

Abstract:
Four recent sediment cores (0-30 cm long) from Afam (AF), Mangrove (MG), Estuary (ES) and illegal Petroleum refinery (PT) sites of the Imo River, Southeastern Nigeria were analyzed to characterize the sources and distribution of organic matter (OM), as well as examine their historical trends of deposition and assess human-induced changes in the last ca. 5 decades using biomarker approach. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each section of the cores. Evaluation of proxy parameters such as carbon preference index (CPI, 2.01 - 2.19), carbon number maximum (Cmax, 29, 31) and atomic C/N (16.51-31.32) for the most recent top layers (0-5 cm) revealed greater wash-in of land-derived organic matter (OM), attributable to the recent rise in water height. The bottom layer (PT1, 25-30 cm,) of the PT core deposited ca. 1964-1972 exhibited a CPI of 0.97 and pristane/phytane (Pr/Ph, 3.75), suggesting that oil bunkering/illegal refinery activity had begun in the region ca. 8 years after the first commercial discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956. The occurrence in high abundance of heptadecane in the middle layer (ES4, 10-15 cm) of the ES almost corresponded with the period of eutrophication that blocked the waterway in the late 1980s. Measurement of a marked unresolved complex mixture at the near-top layer (AF5, 5-10 cm) of the AF indicated that the heaviest contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons occurred at ca. 1997-2005. This time frame coincided with the period of intensive bunkering and oil pipeline vandalism by Niger Delta militant groups.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p54

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2020.
, Johannes Boachie
Environment and Pollution, Volume 9; doi:10.5539/ep.v9n1p1

Abstract:
Africa’s urbanization processes are seen as both a challenge and an opportunity for sustainable development. While these processes unfold differently in diverse countries across the continent, it has become increasingly apparent that surge urbanization, population growth and the lack of effective planning for an efficient waste management system have brought in its wake other challenges that have significant implications for public health and sustainable development. Thus, much as urbanization has the potential to drive Africa’s growth and sustainable development agenda, current happenings in most of Africa’s cities, in particular, also signal the negative impact of rapid and unplanned urbanization on sustainable development processes. Waste and sanitation management have become an enduring urban challenge across Africa. They come with significant cost to people and governments and as the search for lasting solutions continue, Waste Transfer Stations have emerged as an efficient management technology which has been embraced and deployed in some countries. While it has received praises in some quarters as an innovative technology, there is concern that such praises have muted critical issues of pollution, odor nuisance, cultural incompatibility and public health challenges, which, for the most part, are unrecognized or underestimated. The question then becomes: are Waste Transfer Stations the solution to Africa’s urban waste and sanitation challenges?
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p56

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2019.
, Hojatolah Jafaryan
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p21

Abstract:
The experiments were conducted to study of the acute toxicity of Cyprinus carpio and Rutilus rutilus by added copper salt in basins. 13 fishes with average weight of 2±0.5g to Rutilus rutilus and 20±2.2g Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of copper salt respectively. The experiments were done by Static Method during 96 hours. A group of fish was considered as control samples. The different concentrations of copper such as 0, 0.1, and 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.45 and 5mgL-1 were used to Rutilus rutilus and Cyprinus carpio fishes. Under stable condition (TOC and pH), the lethal concentration of copper was measured of 0.4mgL-1 and 0.45mgL-1 to Rutilus rutilus and Cyprinus carpio respectively during of 96 hours. The results indicated the significant differences were observed between treatments of fish with each other and also with the control samples. With increasing of copper in each treatment, the mortality rate of fish significantly was increased. Histopathological findings showed that major lesions were hemorrhage, hyperemia, hyperplasia and epithelial cells necrosis in total fish. Also in the lesion fish were observed degenerated tubules of their kidney, expansion of Bowman's capsule and hepatocytes necrosis.
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p8

Abstract:
The prime and foremost purpose of this study was to explore climate change perception among indigenous people living in Sylhet, Bangladesh. This study also tried to investigate the nexus between some socio-demographic dimensions of the respondents and their perception regarding climate change. The present study followed descriptive-explanative research design where survey method used to collect necessary data. In case of survey method, a self-developed semi structured questionnaire was provided to the respondents for collecting relevant data. Total number of population was 75 and 63 respondents has been interviewed following the sample size estimation of Nurul Islam (2011). Findings of this study revealed that, there is a statistically significant difference between some socio-demographic dimensions (like; Age, Family type, Education and Income) and climate change perception. Furthermore, no statistically significant relationship found between Gender, Religion, Savings and climate c...
Farhangi Mohammad, Hosseini Seyed Abbas, Jafaryan Hojatollah, Ghorbani Rasoul, Harsij Mohammad, Sudagar Mohammad
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p31

Abstract:
Community structure and biodiversity of benthic macro fauna in around pen culture of Sturgeon fish in Gorgan Bay were studied for period of one year from August 2015 to July 2016. Seasonal samplings were carried out at 5 stations in 3 transects. In addition, depth (D), water temperature (Toc), dissolved oxygen (DO); pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (PO4-3), nitrite (NO2-) and total ammonia (NH3+) were measured in each station. Results of season variations of Physico – chemical factors of water showed that, there were no significant differences between PO4-3 (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences between BOD5, COD, NO2-, NH3+ and TDS (p<0.05). Totally, 11 genus's and 10 families belong to 3 phyla as Mollusks, Arthropods and Annelids were identified. The results showed, there were the maximum abundance percent belong to Hydrobiidae and Cochliopidae with 33.83% and 26.25% and the minimum abundance percent belong to Gammaridae with 0.05% respectively. However, the maximum abundance belongs to Pyrgohydrobia sp., from Hydrobiidae with 3410 n/m2. The results showed, there were the maximum and minimum abundance percent in autumn and spring with 1.07 and 0.88 % respectively. The results of distance-based redundancy analysis (db.-RDA) revealed that environmental factors such as depth, DO and TDS are all important in determining the distribution of macro benthic species in Gorgan Gulf. However, there were significant differences between abundance, species number (S), diversity (as Shannon–Wiener’s, H´), species richness (as Margalef’s, D), and evenness (as Pielou’s, J) (p<0.05). There were the most diversity species in 2 and 5 stations.
Muhammad Syaeri
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p41

Abstract:
Purpose – The aim of this research is to test the difference of sudents learning outcome of Geographic subject taught with social inquiry learning model, social simulation and students’ social investigation, social behavior, learning motivation of SMA in Aceh Province. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology employed in his research was quasi-experimental with the design using a Non-equivalent Control Group Design method. The experimental class and the control of this research are selected randomly. The subject of this research is ninth grade student of public SMA in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Based on the early observation that the researcher conducts, total public SMA in Aceh is 344 schools. This study took 3 (three) study group of every SMA to be managed as a research subject, which was a class taught using a group investigation, social inquiry, and social simulation learning method. Data analysis technique is inferential analysis intended to test the research hypothesis conducted by using varians analysis technique (ANAVA). Findings – The findings that there are no differences in student learning outcomes of Geography subject taught with social inquiry learning models (A1), social simulation learning models (A2) and group investigative learning models (A3). There are differences in the learning outcome of geography subject and different social attitude, which is a high social attitude (B1) and social attitude (B2). There is an interaction between the learning model (A), social attitudes (B) and learning motivation (C). There is an interaction between learning models (A) and social attitudes (B). There is an interaction between learning model (A) and learning motivation (C). There is an interaction between learning model (A) and learning motivation (C). Originality/value – The research on the application of social interaction learning model to improve learning motivation, social attitude, and students learning outcome at the geographic subject of SMA in Aceh Province, Indonesia.
Elie Kolwa Doboy, , Richard Kamga
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n2p1

Abstract:
The objective of this study is the production and the characterization of rice husk biosorbent. In fact, the biosorbent has been obtained by phosphoric acid treatment; its physicochemicals characteristics such as point of zero charge, specific surface, iodine number and chemicals functions have been determined. The analysis indicaded that, the point of zero charge is 8.7; for the pH value less than 8.7, the biosorbent surface is posotively charged and for pH value higher than 8.7, the biosorbent surface is negatively charged. The biosorbent iodine number is 1560.87±1 mg/g, it means that, the biosorbent is constituted in majority of microspores. Furthermore, the specific surface of biosorbent is 104.45±1m2/g, it is five times as big than untreated rice husk obtained by Dada and al., (2012). Acid treatment improve the porosity of biosorbent. Infrarouge spectrum present ether and aromatic functions.
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p39

Abstract:
The platinum-group elements are rhodium, ruthenium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum. Together with rhenium and gold they form the highly siderophilic (“iron-loving”) elements. These are poorly known with respect to toxicity and ecotoxicity. The mobilization by man of the eight metals is about 100 times to 1 million times the natural mobilization. Mean soil concentrations in Europe may now be more than doubled for gold, rhenium and rhodium. The objective of the current work was to enable a preliminary assessment of the consequences of such high environmental levels. Thresholds for ecological effects found in the literature were divided by the element’s mean soil concentration and plotted against group and period in the periodic system. Thresholds for health effects were correspondingly divided by the mean dietary intake of the element over large population groups. For health effects, an upper limit of intake is commonly used. This was shown to be about 4 times the mean normal intake for most period 4 elements. For other periods, occupational exposure thresholds entail upper limits of intake in µg/day of: Ru 18, Rh 8, Pd 17, Re 60, Os 15, Ir 4, Pt 20 and Au 160. For ecological effects, the no effect thresholds for period 4 were 1-5 times the soil concentrations. Very scarce data suggest higher relative thresholds for periods 5 and 6. The current high contaminations of European soil by Rh and possibly Pd may be of concern. Since the estimates of risks are uncertain, further research is warranted.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p75

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019.
Max William Ssali, Jianguo Du, Isaac Adjei Mensah, Duncan O. Hongo
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p54

Abstract:
This research seeks to enhance the current literature by exploring the nexus among environmental contamination, economic growth, energy use and foreign direct investment in 6 Selected Sub-Saharan-African-nations for a time of 34 years (1980-2014). By applying, panel unit root (CADF and CIPS, Cross-sectional independence test), panel cointegration (Pedroni and Kao cointegration test, Panel PP, Panel ADF), Hausman poolability test and an auto-regressive distributed lag procedure in view of the pooled mean group estimation (ARDL/PMG), experimental findings discloses that alluding to the related probability values, the null hypothesis of cross-sectional independence for all variables is rejected because they are not stationary at levels but rather stationary at their first difference. The variables are altogether integrated at the same order I(1). Findings revealed that there is a confirmation of a bi-directional causality between energy use and CO2 in the short-run as well as one-way causality running from energy use to CO2 in the long run. There is additionally a significant positive outcome and uni-directional causality from CO2 to foreign direct investment in the long-run yet no causal relationship in the short-run. An increase in energy use by 1% causes an increase in CO2 by 49%. An increase in economic growth by 1% causes an increment in CO2 by 16% and an increase in economic growth squared by 1% diminish CO2 by 46%. The positive and negative impact of economic growth and its square approve the EKC theory. To guarantee sustainable economic development Goal, more strict laws like sequestration ought to be worked out, use of sustainable power source ought to be stressed. GDP ought to be multiplied to diminish CO2 by the utilization of eco-technology for instance carbon capturing, to save lives and also to maintain a green environment.
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p32

Abstract:
Reply to the Readership regarding Ilgren & Hoskins (2018) Anthophyllite Mesothelioma Articles.
, John A. Hoskins
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p1

Abstract:
The largest anthopyllite deposits in the world are found in Finland and it is from here that most of the commercial anthophyllite derives. However, other large deposits exist in both North America and Japan. Commercial production has existed in both these countries although not on a scale which matches the Finnish mines. Small deposits are known from several other countries but, apart from minor exploitation in India no significant mining has taken place. The North American deposits are primarily in the Eastern US states, mostly Maryland, Georgia and North Carolina although there was also extensive exploration in Alabama. In Japan, the major mining site was at Matsubase on the southermost island of Kyushu. Although these mines and attendant commercial concerns operated for decades and under conditions of high dust exposure no mesothelioma clusters are known from the mining areas.
, John A. Hoskins
Environment and Pollution, Volume 8; doi:10.5539/ep.v8n1p18

Abstract:
Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral formed through a prograde metamorphism of magnesium-rich ultramafic talcose rocks through increasing pressure and temperature and dehydration. The talc and anthophyllite are in phase equilibrium. Anthophyllite asbestos is therefore not a ‘contaminant’ of talc but a product derived from it. Fibrous talc, or so-called transitional fibers, are anthophyllite fibers undergoing retrograde degeneration. In its fibrous asbestiform state, anthophyllite differs in several fundamental ways from other commercially exploited forms of amphibole asbestos of which there are two broad families: monoclinic and orthorhombic. The more common forms of commercial amphibole asbestos such as crocidolite and amosite are monoclinic. The anthophyllites are orthorhombic. The differences between the two crystal systems are reflected at the level of the basic amphibole-structure in a greater overall fiber width dimensional profile and a significant reduction in microstructural strength. Strength reduction most probably arises at the cellular level and is particularly pronounced within the thinner population of fibers. Here microstructural differences, due in significant part to stacking defects in the basic amphibole structure, can account for these observations. The lack of an observed attendant mesothelioma risk following exposure to anthophyllite and transitional fibers in humans is a consequencel of these microstructural features that appear to differentiate them from the equidimensional monoclinic forms of amphibole asbestos such as South African crocidolite and amosite.
Timothy J. Garceau
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p11

Abstract:
In local airsheds, wood smoke from residential woodstoves is a major source of PM2.5 pollution. Exposure to PM2.5 can cause a variety of health problems and complications. Communities situated in valleys that experience cold winters are especially susceptible to poor air quality during inversion events on calm winter nights. Keene, New Hampshire, USA is one such community where the widespread use of outdated residential woodstoves frequently resulted in PM2.5 exceeding national standards. Seeking to improve air quality, the City of Keene partnered with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services from 2009-2010 to facilitate a woodstove changeout program which replaced 86 inefficient woodstoves with newer or alternate heating appliances. Despite the fact that many U.S. communities have enacted similar programs, research on their effectiveness is limited. This research assessed Keene’s program and determined that Keene has experienced a significant reduction in PM2.5 on calm winter nights. When winds are below 2 miles per hour (3.22 kilometers per hour), PM2.5 dropped 7% to 52% (1.28 to 7.30 µg/m3) after the woodstove changeout; a mean decrease of 23%. It therefore appears that Keene’s woodstove changeout program successfully improved air quality on the nights that are most likely to violate national air quality standards. This provides evidence that such programs can be an effective means to moderating the effects of wood heating in communities susceptible to inversions.
Mebelo Mataa, Namakau Manzi, Kalaluka Munyinda
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p1

Abstract:
This study evaluated stability, maturity and the efficacy of different poultry litter for possible use in container plant production. Three types of poultry manure- Battery cage (BC), Deep litter (DL) and Free range (FR) were used, with Kraal manure (KM) as a comparison. The experiment was set up as a Split- split design with 6 replications. Composting period was main plot, poultry manure type the split plot and mixing ratio as the split- split plot. The litter was mixed with garden soil in 2 ratios (3:1 and 1:1 soil: manure ratio) and tested for up to 12 weeks. Rape (Brassica napus) was used as a bioassay for maturity, which was determined at 1 month, 2 months and 3 months. The pH declined slightly from 7 to about 6 for all treatments except for the kraal manure. Respiration trends were similar to electrical conductivity. Within 2 weeks of curing the respiration rate for all manures declined to below 4 mg CO2- C/ kg. At the end of 12 weeks curing Battery cage had highest total nitrogen (2.32 %), followed by Free range (1.25 %), Deep litter (0.73 %) and Kraal manure was lowest at 0.35 %). Maturity (rape survival) increased with compositing time. After 3 months of curing Kraal manure had highest survivability of rape. The DL at 1:1 ratio had the lowest survival of 67%. At 12 weeks except for BC at 3:1 all treatments had 100 % survival. The results showed that nitrogen rich manures (DL and BC) needed longer curing in order for them to reach maturity.
Haruki Shimazu
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p32

Abstract:
This study examines the occurrence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in cigarettes and sidestream cigarette smoke and to see the OPE formation characteristics during smoking. All seven OPEs in both gas and particulate phases were measured in sidestream cigarette smoke for four brands of cigarettes. Tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) were found frequently. Median total OPE increases in the air samples during smoking were 56.2 ng per cigarette for gas-phase OPEs and 2360 ng per cigarette for particulate-phase OPEs. TBP and TCEP could be absorbed to particles in air more readily than alkans as seen from the correlation line between gas–particle partition coefficients (Kp) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PLº) for alkans. Furthermore, TBP was determined in the cigarettes. Median total OPE decreases in the cigarette samples during smoking were 1200 ng per cigarette. The combustion reaction increased TBP and TBEP levels in cigarettes, and particulate-phase TBEP in air appeared to influence the production of TBP, TCEP, and TPP. TBP and TBEP in cigarettes likely affect the production of TBP, TBEP, TCEP, and TPP in air during smoking.
Joaquín Pinto-Espinoza, Adán Reyes-Pavón, Marco A. Benítez-Espíndola, Gustavo Alvarado-Kinnell, Angélica M. Bello-Ramírez
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p42

Abstract:
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established clear and solids conclusions on the 2013 report, it says that has been scientifically demonstrated with 95% of certainty, that human activities are the main cause of the global warming, observed since the middle of the XX century. The Orizaba Valley is a Mexican region, located at the geographic center of Veracruz State, having Orizaba City as the main demographic population surrounded by other municipalities, becoming the fourth metropolitan populated area of Veracruz State. This region has the third position on economic, historic and cultural relevance at Veracruz State, just after the Veracruz Port and Xalapa City. It was one of the main places with a vast economic growing during the Viceroyalty of the New Spain, being an obligatory passing route and resting place between Veracruz Port and Mexico City. This project estimates the magnitude of the Greenhouse Gas emissions coming from mobile sources at the Orizaba Valley. It includes the urban region of the municipalities of Ixtaczoquitlan, Orizaba, Río Blanco, Camerino de Mendoza and Nogales. The collected data was processed according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology and it was possible to make the following projections: 1) One baseline scenario and 2) Three scenarios under hypothetical mitigation strategies that promise to achieve a reduction of GHG emission of 30 % from the year 2020 to 2050. Beyond this, also there is a significant reduction in fossil fuels consumption due to the efficient use of energy. All projections were made by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system software. In addition of the achievement on the GHG emissions reduction goal, it is possible to glimpse an economic recovery, if and only if, the decision makers of the governments decide to participate in the international trade of carbon market.
Joseph Clement Akan, Joshua Yohanna Dawa, Lawan Inuwa Bukar, Zakari Muhammed
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p21

Abstract:
The present study determined the levels of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rice (Oryza Sativa) samples from six agricultural locations in Bade and Karasuwa Local Government Areas, Yobe State, Nigeria. Four varieties of rice (FARO 42, 44, 45 and 52) were collected for this study. The concentrations of PAHs in the study rice samples were lower than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC), average daily dose (ADD) of PAHs in the different variety of rice from the six agricultural locations shows that FARO 44 had the highest ADD (5.84 x1011 mg/kg), while FARO 52 shows the lowest ADD (1.20 x1015 mg/kg). The potential for non-carcinogenic PAHs in this study revealed that FARO 42 has the highest hazard index (2.04 x1011 mg/kg). Result from incremental lifetime expectancy cancer risk shows that FARO 44 from Jawa had the highest value (4.19 x1010 mg/kg), while the lowest value (7.61 x1015 mg/kg) was recorded for FARO 52 from Rina Kuna agricultural location. Results from the present study shows that the rice samples from the study locations are safe for human consumption and not significantly contaminated by PAHs.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n2p51

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2018.
Edward B. Ilgren,
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p9

Abstract:
Anthophyllite asbestos only occurs in a few parts of the world in sufficient quantities to be mined. The largest deposits of anthophyllite asbestos occur in Finland where it was mined for more than 75 years and very extensively used and distributed, anciently, for more than six millennia. Anthophyllite is one of the five minerals known collectively as amphibole asbestos. Studies of the effect of these five mineral fibre types when inhaled have shown that fibre width is an important determinant of mesothelioma induction. Only the “thinner” fibres or those with fiber diameter dimensional profiles predominantly less than 0.25 – 0.30 µm, are clearly mesotheliogenic. The “thicker” ones or those whose predominant widths are greater than these diameters do not appear to show an observable attendant risk of mesothelioma. Observations based on studies of at least, two “thick” forms of amphibole asbestos support these hypotheses. The one is Bolivian crocidolite; the other Finnish anthophyllite. The Finnish anthophyllite industry presents an important opportunity to study the robustness of the theory that fibre width is key to mesothelioma genesis as vast numbers of people in all sectors of the Finnish industry and their families have historically incurred massive fiber exposures sufficient to cause a gross excess of asbestosis. Nonetheless, in spite of these long term, high dose exposures clear evidence for a mesothelioma risk due to anthophyllite asbestos is still lacking.
Lucila B. Dunnington, Masami Nakagawa
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p81

Abstract:
Abandoned mines across the world leak contaminated waters into precious water resources, threatening human populations and natural environments alike. The primary demand from the industry for addressing the contamination is a passive system that utilizes locally available and cheap material, with little energy or maintenance requirement. Passive treatment systems can operate in remote regions, using diverse, inexpensive, and locally available material with low waste production, but are subject to ambient conditions and are often space intensive. The geothermal gradient available at abandoned mines is a viable heat energy source that can provide advantageous temperature conditions for established remediation techniques, namely bioremediation.Currently, the primary models used for testing new passive designs are either largely empirically based, or limit the scope of modelling parameters, making it difficult to incorporate innovative design aspects into the existing modelling framework. The following paper presents a model, based on kinetic parameters from a column experiment, which couples mechanics, thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and microbial kinetics. The modelling results show the effect of an imposed temperature gradient on the permeability and microbially driven reactions of a bioreactor. The model reflects evolving thermal and mass transfer in the multiphase system. The addition of geothermal energy to a bioreactor is shown to improve long-term permeability, enhance reactions and precipitation kinetics, and decrease the necessary spatial expanse of designed bioreactor systems.
Wenzhong Wang
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p46

Abstract:
In recent years, with the increasing care of environmental issues, the relationship between air quality and the level of economic development has been widely studied. In the present paper, a traditional EKC model and two improved model are built to analyze the relationship between the air quality index and the per capita GDP with the panel data of 41 major cities during 2000 and 2015 of China. By the co-integration analysis, the results show that under the three-square EKC model, the relationship between the AQI and GDP per capita satisfies the N-shaped environment Kuznets curve and there exist two turning points. In the form of the traditional two-square EKC model, the two variables are satisfied with the U-shaped relationship. The results of the growth rate model also show that the two variables are satisfied with the U-shaped relationship, but there are differences among the turning points.
Souleymane Pelede, Aboubakar Sako, Ousmane Bamba
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p66

Abstract:
Small-scale reservoirs play a central role in socio-economic development of Burkina Faso. In the absence of a best environmental management plan, these reservoirs can be potential factors of water pollution and ecological deterioration. In the present study, we investigated ecological status of sediments from the Soubeira reservoir, using concentrations of a series of heavy metals. Concentrations of the metals ranked as follows: Fe> Mn> Cr> Zn> Cu> Pb> As ~ Co> Hg ~Mo> Cd. Based on the correlation analysis, Fe, with weaker relationships with other metals, may be derived from the local ferruginous soil, whereas Cd, Cu and Cr could be mainly originated from anthropogenic sources and carried by clay minerals into the reservoir. In contrast, Hg and As abundance could be related to artisanal gold mining in the surrounding environment. Negative correlations between heavy metals (except As) with pH were consistent with desorption and mobility of the majority of heavy metals under low pH values. The significant negative correlations were also observed between CEC and As (r = - 0.75) and between clay and As (r = -0.64). This could be an indication of As mobility under the physico-chemical conditions of the reservoir. Both potential ecological risk and adverse effect indices suggested that the reservoir sediments were highly polluted. Five heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr and Hg) could cause adverse effect to biota, whilst only Hg and Cd appeared to show high and moderate potential ecological risk indices, respectively. The study demonstrated that the Soubeira reservoir requires a heavy metal pollution control program.
D R A M T R Atugoda, L L U Mandakini, N J G J Bandara,
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p53

Abstract:
We employed scientific tools to investigate the ex situ phytoremediation of cadmium by Azolla pinnata. Azolla pinnata was capable of efficient sequestration of cadmium up to a concentration of 1 ppm, though with a visibly high “physiological cost”. The sequestration of cadmium (1 ppm) was strongly reduced after 24 hours, in Azolla plants pre-treated with the gram-negative antibiotic erythromycin (60 µg/l), suggesting that the cyanobacterial population was important for phytoremediation. Only the co-treatment of 1 ppm cadmium with 1 ppm vanadate, showed significantly higher phytoremediation (P
Edward B. Ilgren,
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p24

Abstract:
Although people in all sectors of the Finnish anthophyllite industry, including their families, have been heavily exposed to anthophyllite there is no evidence for even a single proven case of attributable mesothelioma. A few cases have been claimed but the evidence either, that they were mesotheliomas or that amphibole exposure was solely to anthophyllite is, in every case examined, insufficient. Even among the population who lived in Karelia in Central Finland who were exposed domestically or enviromentally to anthophyllite released during agricultural and various domestic activities and during transport from the mines, Finnish epidemiology found no risk of mesothelioma. There is also an absence of mesotheliomas reported in the earlier Finnish literature. This anomaly compared to the effects of exposure to other amphiboles is strong support for the role of fiber width in mesothelioma production. Anthophyllite, though, is not without clinical effect. As screening techniques improved it was discovered that of every person over the age of 65 years, one third living in Karelia had bilateral pleural plaques. The area was henceforth called the Endemic Pleural Plaque (EPP) zone. Radiographic analysis of the residents living in the district of Kuusjarvi led to suggestions that the cases resulted from asbestos blown from the Paakila facility via fiber drift as far away as 30 km. Later studies showed that ‘fiber drift’ was very unlikely to be a factor in the radiological findings thus observed.
Ines Burgos-Lujan,
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p1

Abstract:
Bean sprout production consumes a significant volume of municipal water and generates a similar amount of wastewater. Water costs become a serious concern for this food industry, therefore wastewater reuse is highly desired by many sprout producers. Bean sprout wastewater has a relatively low level of contamination, which gives a great potential for reuse. The objective of this study was to exam the treatment feasibility of sprout production wastewater using a membrane bioreactor. Real-world wastewater from a sprout producer was treated continuously for 35 days. Important water quality parameters were monitored closely including chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, tannins, pH, total suspended solids (TSS), etc. Once the biological system was stabilized, the MBR’s effluent showed very low level of COD, ammonia, TSS and bacteria, which demonstrated that the reuse of sprout wastewater is achievable.
Bolanle Wahab, Bayonle Ola
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p36

Abstract:
Despite the active participation of informal waste collectors (IWCs) in waste management in Ibadan, south-west Nigeria, a major observed challenge to effective operation of this group of workers is the variation in the seasons of the year and their accompanying weather futures. This study investigated the effects of seasonal changes on the types and volume of waste handled by the informal waste collectors, level of patronage and income earned in the five municipal local government areas of Ibadan. A cross-sectional survey approach was adopted and both primary and secondary data were sourced. Through questionnaire survey and field observations, data were collected from 253 informal waste collectors operating in the study area. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and inferential statistics (ANOVA) were used in analysing the data obtained from the field work. The study established that the types and volume of waste collected and income earned by the informal waste collectors varied from season to season. Patronage of the informal waste collectors was found to be reduced by about 25% in the dry season owing to less volume of waste generated and increased burning. The low patronage reduced the income by about 25% on average. The implications of this are that the job security of IWCs is threatened and increased burning of waste increases the atmospheric carbon content, which depletes the ozone layer and consequently results in global warming. The study, therefore, recommended financial and technical assistance to the waste collectors by either government or non-governmental organisations to establish small waste merchandising business to cater for the period of low patronage.
Albert John
Environment and Pollution, Volume 7; doi:10.5539/ep.v7n1p93

Abstract:
Reviewer acknowledgements for Environment and Pollution, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2018.
Jiapeng Huang
Environment and Pollution, Volume 6; doi:10.5539/ep.v6n2p1

Abstract:
In recent years, with the rapid development of global industrialization, people’s quality of life has improved, and people are no longer satisfied with the quality of goods and purposes, the majority of people even choose goods based on the packaging of goods which cause the situation of excessive packaging become serious. As an important part of manufacturing, packaging industry should emphasize the development of environmentally friendly packaging. Recognized as one of the most promising green packaging materials, paper packaging materials accounted for more than 40% of packaging materials, however, unsuitable production and recycling of paper packaging pose a threat to the environment and the social economy. For the sustainable development of the paper packaging industry, this essay put forward the concept of "green paper packaging" through literature research. This essay will introduce the proper production and recycling of green paper packaging materials, discuss the structural design of green paper packaging, and looking forward to the development direction of green paper packaging, and come to the conclusion that not only need we use new materials and environmental friendly packaging structures, but also we should attach importance to the production and the recycling of the packaging so as to make sure the entire life cycle of packaging does not harm the human body and the environment.
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