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International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 71-80; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.238

Abstract:
Oral communication skills, especially speaking, are significant for university students’ life and future careers. Students’ participation in any successful communicative activity is based on many factors. However, some barriers can violate this communication in the classroom (linguistics, psychological, cultural, social). Detailed literature indicated that previous studies focused only on students' linguistic knowledge and ignored other factors such as social, cultural, and psychological problems. Therefore, this research investigates barriers that suffocate university students' oral communication interaction with their teachers and suggests some solutions to discard these obstacles. The study adopted a quantitative method based on a self-administered closed and open-ended questionnaire. Students were asked to tick the reasons that hinder them from communicating in the class with their teachers. The study addressed 107 third-year students at the English Department at Moulay Ismail University in Meknes, Morocco. The obtained results indicated that social barriers constituted the major challenge that hinders or blocks students from oral participation with their teachers. Next, linguistics knowledge came as a second barrier, and finally, physical barriers.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.245

Abstract:
Modulation is a procedure categorized under oblique translation method. The present paper addresses the semantic and syntactic changes associated with the use of modulation in English-Arabic translation. It seeks to present all the ten types of modulation, devoting an example for each type, to elucidate the semantic and syntactic changes made on the modulated Arabic target text as compared to the literal Arabic translation. Based on the data used, the paper argues that both obligatory and optional modulations are employed in English-Arabic translation. Semantically, obligatory modulations are adopted when the literal meaning is not intended, when English and Arabic use different figurative words to express the same notion or when they use different symbols to indicate the same concept. Optional modulations are employed to serve stylistic purposes, keep the words collocate with one another, produce naturalness, adopt preferred structures and specify space or time. Syntactically, the English source text and the modulated Arabic target text are similar whenever Arabic starts with a noun and are different otherwise. Finally, the modulated Arabic target text and the literal Arabic translation are identical whenever they both either start with a noun or a verb and are different when they possess different structures.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.227

Abstract:
This study aims at analyzing the structures of interrogatives used in Dickens's novel "A Tale of Two Cities". It is directed to identify and categorize these structures; and then to ferret out Dickens's stylistic tendencies of using them in the novel under study. A qualitative approach was used as a research design of the study. The data were extracted from the material of the novel after having an extensive reading. The structures were identified and then categorized. Out of more than 800 interrogatives in the novel, ten examples for each category were selected randomly. In addition to categorizing, they have been interpreted stylistically. The qualitative analysis of the data revealed that the author used various categories of interrogative structures in the conversational parts of the novel. These included regular full-formed structures of interrogatives, elliptical structures of interrogatives, statement-formed structures of interrogatives, parenthetical structures in interrogatives, vocative structures in interrogatives, and structures with question tags. In terms of stylistic interpretation, these structures revealed the author's stylistic tendencies to employ these interrogative structures which are linguistic features of spoken language in conversations for enhancing the dialogic language. This dialogic language can be manifested in the utilization of features of an oratorical style in Dickens's novel in hand
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 113-124; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.197

Abstract:
Among countries have all had an impact on how language is regarded. When considering the linguistic landscape in the modern time of scientific-linguistic studies, multilingualism, various discursive acts, sociolinguistic frames and affordances all complicate the process of viewing and placing it. In small-scale research of Odiongan, a municipality of Tablas Island, a rapidly rising administrative and commercial centre in Romblon, visual analyses of discourses, as indicated by the linguistic landscape, were done. In addition, the study summarizes some of the studies that have dealt with the linguistic landscape. It also outlines the theoretical framework that was employed in the current investigation and presents the question that this study seeks to solve. Among the organizations that have been selected as the study's specific resources are a community-governmental office, which represents a government body, a state university, which represents the educational sector, and a church, which represents a religious entity. The public signs chosen to reflect the linguistic landscape practiced in these societal components were also chosen to represent the linguistic landscape practiced in each of the institutions studied. 
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 97-112; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.240

Abstract:
This qualitative/quantitative study investigates Moroccan high school EFL learners’ apologizing strategies based upon a theoretical framework of politeness strategies and the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP) model. It investigates whether they approach native speakers’ apology norms or their own cultural way of apologizing. To achieve this goal, four first-year baccalaureate classes (Science Experimental Physics major) were observed and then a sample of 64 subjects was randomly selected to fill in a written discourse completion test which had 6 apology situations. All the responses are classified according to both politeness strategies and CCSARP model used by Blum-kulka et al. (1989). The observed classes during the training showed that Moroccan first-year baccalaureate students used an off-record super strategy while apologizing (the use of hints) to the teacher, whereas the teacher used positive politeness while addressing his pupils. The results of the discourse completion test (DCT) revealed that Illocutionary indicating devices (IFIDs) plus an explanation of account (IFIDs + Account) is the most frequently used apology strategy by the subjects. More than 60% employed this semantic formula in all six situations. The use of IFIDs and explanation of account were significantly linked to the effect of subjects’ L1 and due to the impact of their own collective-agency culture. Hence, choosing to use that strategy by the subjects was pragmatically unsuccessful and would be inappropriate by the apologizer since it does not meet the apology norms of native speakers of English, and it indicates and follows the Moroccan culture norms and rules. The paper concludes with some practical suggestions for improving the teaching of apologies.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 40-58; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.237

Abstract:
The study investigates the use of a Directed Motivational Current (DMC) framework in a Saudi Arabian English as a foreign language (EFL) context. It explores the development and induction of a DMC in a higher education blended learning environment. It is based on a constructivist, descriptive, longitudinal case study. Data were gathered from female students enrolled in an English language master’s program and encompassed three data sources: weekly student diaries, a focus group, and an online follow-up survey. The results reveal that the motivational behavior experienced by the students was linked to long-term identity goals, a prominent facilitative structure, and the generation of positive emotionality. The study emphasizes the importance of structuring engaging and autonomous learning environments that promote strong social well-being, clear group vision, and L2 competence. It also found that multiple initial triggering stimuli can provide the impetus to help ignite a group-DMC. The evidence also suggests a need for teacher-initiated re-triggers such as the use of games throughout the project as they create motivationally enhanced eudaimonic sensations that help sustain a DMC and enable the success of a project. The research highlights the educational value of using a DMC in EFL learning environments.
, Mounya M'Rabti, El Mehdi EL Madani
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i3.233

Abstract:
There has been an extensive growth of ICT-based models adopted in doctoral supervision as a major avenue in maintaining relationships with doctoral candidates engaged in research at a geographical distance from university and those undertaking research-related activities off-campus. However, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in recommendations of safety procedures and extended restrictions issued by the World Health Organization, has considerably affected doctoral education in ways that have revitalized distance, online supervision and so moved this latter from being an option on the side to a requisite. The main endeavor of this study is to examine the challenges doctoral supervisors have encountered whilst supervising candidates’ projects in the present circumstances and also explore the prospects of post-pandemic distance-delivered doctorate programs in the Moroccan university. The study employs a qualitative analysis guided by semi-structured interviews of 17 supervisors to obtain a clearer perception of doctoral supervision practices in light of the pandemic as well as the efficacy of alternative online distance modes. The findings yielded compelling issues grounded on institutional support, financial restrictions, adaptability of existing platforms, as well as technical unpreparedness to move online, all of which demand a critical reflection and strategic attention to build research capacity. Eventually, this study brings in various pedagogical implications sought to enlighten the uptake of online supervision and its integration and efficacy as a current alternative.
Driss Benattabou, , Abdelouahed Bouih
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 85-100; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.247

Abstract:
The aim of the following study is to explore the interrelatedness between second/foreign language attainment and the learner’s age. The interest in this study grew for two fundamental reasons. First of all, although there have been many investigations dealing with the link between the learners’ age and their second/foreign language attainment, the findings from the research continue to be inconsistent and inconclusive (Pfenninger & Polz, 2018; Kroll & De Groot, 2009). Additionally, the equivocal nature of the findings is related in part, to the failure of most of these studies to examine this relationship under adequately controlled conditions (Nikolov & Djigunović, 2006). This paper attempts to undertake the central question at multiple levels of analysis among Moroccan learners of different age groups being subject to the same teaching and learning conditions. More interesting perhaps is that although much research has been undertaken to explore the significance of the age factor in language learning, this topic is still an uncharted area of research in the Moroccan educational context, and very little is known about it. Our concern here is to disclose the interrelatedness between the learners’ age and their success or failure in language attainment. Drawing on data comparing young and older learners’ attainment levels in English as a foreign language, the results prove very convincingly that young language learners tend to surpass their older classmates, though not significantly at different levels of analysis, but more substantially at one particular level pertaining to the language skill of reading. Another more central objective of this paper is to draw the attention of language teachers and educationalists in general to the importance of the young-adult difference in language learning and to delineate some of the pedagogical implications for the teaching and learning of languages in Moroccan elementary schools.
Mohammad Ali Al-Saggaf, Asra Zarina Binti Asbollah, Mirza Binti Abd Rahim
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 20-32; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.226

Abstract:
This study attempts to identify the interferences of L1 in L2 writing among final year Malay students taking Bachelor in Teaching English as Second Language (TESL) in a Higher Education Institute in Shah Alam, Malaysia. 73 bilingual Malay students who are in their final year of study participated in this study. Data collection tool included two instruments; 1) a questionnaire in which the participants were asked regarding their perception on the interference of their L1 in their L2 writing, as well as 2) written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The participants were provided with a text in Malay language to be convert into the second language within 30 minutes. Then, the errors were classified into six (6) categories according to the prepared rubric to find out the impact of L1 interferences in L2 writing. The findings of this study have shown that the biggest impact of first language interference can be seen in the writing is grammar, word choice, spelling, punctuation and content, whereas no evidence of error in capitalization. Yet, the negative impact on the transfer of L1 to writing in L2 were likely committed because of the non-existence of a certain rule or concept in the L1 of the participants. Besides, students’ perceptions on the interference of L1 in L2 writing have shown that they are not aware of the inadequate knowledge of English language that may have led them to do these kinds of errors.
, Nuha AlShurafa, Fatima Aldakheel, Maather Alrawi
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.223

Abstract:
Gender is considered a vital factor that contributes in affecting the use and interpretation of politeness strategies by interlocutors (Mills, 2003) which is affirmed by various studies. The objective of the present study is to investigate the use of politeness strategies among male and female interlocutors (a male interviews male and female interviewees) in a Saudi TV show to examine differences in case there are any. The present study is primarily based on the theoretical framework proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987). Such framework gives rise to a systematic network of politeness strategies, presupposing that speech acts are generally linked to the abstract cultural notion of “face”. Two questions are addressed as; firstly, Does the male interviewer use the same politeness strategies with both male and female interviewees? Secondly, what are the politeness strategies used by male and by female interviewees in their interaction with the male interviewer? Are they the same or different? The results show that the female interviewer on one hand, uses negative politeness most of the time. The male interviewer, on the other hand, was neutral with the female interviewee. Moreover, the male interviewee uses only positive politeness strategies in his interaction with the interviewer. Similarly, politeness strategies used by the interviewer are positive. Such strategies that are used between male interlocutors indicate a common ground and convey that both are co-operators.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 72-85; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.216

Abstract:
The current study analyzes international newspapers headlines depicting Russia attack on Ukraine. Different newspapers worldwide were chosen to highlight the embedded ideologies by applying Halliday’s transitivity system as a research instrument. The researcher analyzed the lexical choices and the linguistic devices used in headlines to represent Putin and Russia in the war between Russia and Ukraine. He investigated the way language is used in newspapers’ headline to create emotional impacts on the part of the readers and to influence the common public opinion about the crisis. The study highlights the hidden ideologies conveyed through the choice of lexical devices and the way the same event can be represented differently. Key words:  transitivity, lexical choice, ideology, representation, public opinion making.
, Vioren Gownellis, Magpika Handayani
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.210

Abstract:
Delivering a speech in the English language has its own difficulties, especially for a non-native English speaker. The most challenging aspect for a non-native English speaker in delivering an English speech is that the speech delivery process may suffer a negative language transfer because of the differences between the speaker’s official language and English grammatical features. This article aimed to explore the personal pronoun usage of the Indonesian President in the 2014 APEC CEO Summit speech. This qualitative research was done by adopting Fairclough (2013)’s discourse analysis pattern. The findings showed that the most frequent personal pronoun that the President used is “we” and “our”. The use of these two indicates that he speaks on behalf of his country, and he has a sense of solidarity with the citizen. Regarding the personal pronoun, his speech only has minor ineffective usage, so it can be concluded that the usage is generally effective. However, we also found that the speech quality can be judged from many aspects, such as the sentence structure, the vocabulary, and the speech delivery method. Every strategy in doing formal speech has its advantages and disadvantages.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 47-71; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i2.212

Abstract:
The paper addresses the question of state alternation in Amazigh. It provides a detailed description of the morphological and phonological changes that target CS nouns. Then, it discusses the environmental conditions under which CS and FS occur. The paper argues that these changes go beyond the morphological and phonological system of the language. Later, it outlines the main previous studies about the phenomenon and presents an alternative complementary approach that takes a reconciliation path between Lahrouchi’s templatic analysis (2013) and El hankari’s syntactic model (2014) to account for state alternation.  It argues against Achab’s analysis (2000) of the initial vowel as a determiner since [+ definite] in Amazigh is not an inherent feature of DP and it is contextual. Moreover, a further argument against DP analysis is that in some languages demonstratives, quantifiers, possessives do not occur with (in) definite articles, unlike Amazigh. I postulate that CS is a language-specific phenomenon that is not only the result of phonological operations but also of certain syntactic operations. I argue against El hankari’s analysis of d ‘and’ as a preposition, that CS marks its complement. The same goes for bu and mu ‘the one with’. I postulate that buNouns contain an inflectional morphology inside them, which make bu a derivational affix. A phrasal affix which attaches to words that are already inflected (see also Bensoukas 2015). The affixation of bu CS marks its selected noun. I hypothesize that Amazigh does not allow the consonant cluster /tw/. In this line of analysis, the initial vowel does not change when it is part of the stem. Hence, Amazigh has not only consonantal roots but vocalic ones as well. I argue that a noun cannot be marked for CS in isolation. It is marked by the functional head that c-commands the NP. The head is not only T or P, but it can be also a coordinator; a numeral or a phrasal affix.
Mahdi Aben Ahmed
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.209

Abstract:
Learning a new language is a challenging task for many learners. However, it can be an exciting learning process based on several individual difference factors such as self-esteem, anxiety, tolerance of ambiguity, motivation, and attitudes. Thus, this paper focused at examining the attitudes of private college students in Saudi Arabia towards learning the English language for medical academic purposes as it highlights the differences between male and female learners’ attitudes towards learning English language. Relevant data was attained by employing survey questionnaires from a sample of 200 students selected from three private medical colleges that utilize the English language as a medium of instruction in Saudi Arabia. SPSS analysed the accumulated data. The findings dominantly revealed that students have positive attitudes toward learning the English language, especially if the materials are authentic and related to their respective medical areas of concentration and related to their future workplace. Moreover, the study disclosed that there was no significant difference in the learners’ attitudes toward English language learning based on gender. This study’s findings are highly recommended to EFL students, teachers, policymakers, and researchers who are interested in investigating linguistic-associated behaviours. The findings can additionally reinforce related studies or serve as framework for further research studies of the same nature.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 74-87; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.202

Abstract:
The number of enrollment in Arabic language classes in the last two decades experienced a remarkable spike worldwide. Hence, exploring students’ motivation in learning Arabic language as L2 has gained considerable scholarly attention in various contexts. This study aims to explore the motivation orientations of Arabic language learners at King Khalid University based on Self-determination Theory ( SDT). A total of 52 students of Arabic, in the first and second year, were randomly selected. A 19-item questionnaire based on SDT was administrated to the participants via online. A principle component analysis was primarily employed (PCA) to categorize the questionnaire items into distinctive and latent factors. The results yielded four distinctive motivation orientations ,with an eigenvalue greater than one for each. In addition, categorial analysis was employed to analysis an open-ended item. The categorial analysis highlighted that religious reasons for learning of learning Arabic is the most frequently reported reason for learning Arabic as l2 among this population. Moreover, the results showed that religious identity and religious motives have a latent role in determining the students’ overall motivation orientations in learning Arabic. Also, the results showed that demotivating factors could possibly exist among learners of Arabic in the Saudi context.
Joey Villanueva
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.205

Abstract:
COVID 19 has continued to evolve and become very dangerous to public health. The Philippine government was consistent in making efforts to remind the people about virus control using various forms of media and communication platforms. English was used in delivering messages which were generally foreign to some Filipino people. This research paper has attempted to translate pervasive words via Machine-aided Translation (MAT) and linguistically analyzed in terms of the relationship between language structure and use. Conceptualization of meanings in the fields of diglossia, phonology, morphology, and orthography involving two languages (English and Filipino) were used in different conditions. The phenomenological research design was utilized to generate essential data through online interviews and review of multimedia and non-formal narratives. Purposive sampling procedure was employed in the selection of respondents and words were identified based on the frequency of use in a day-to-day communication. Results suggest that the use of English in delivering messages has prevented individuals to perceive the meaning of pervasive words and being unable to interact and collaborate with others. Translation techniques and sociolinguistic analysis have eliminated language barriers and provided clear transmission lines in public health communication.
, Hairus Salikin
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 56-73; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.207

Abstract:
The research studies Friday sermons from the linguistic perspective, especially from the generic structures, not from the religious (Islamic) point of view. The structures of Friday sermons in Jember may vary from one text to another. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the reason why the generic structures of Friday sermons in Jember can vary, to present the actual structures of each Friday sermon, and to reconstruct the generic structure potential (GSP) to accommodate the various elements, sequences, and iterations occurring in Friday sermons in Jember. The research results show that (1) the variations of the actual structures of Friday sermons in Jember are determined by the optional elements, the optional element orders, and the iterations of the elements, but variation does not affect the acceptance of the sermon practices religiously, and (2) those variants of the actual structures of Friday sermons still belong to the same contextual configuration, consequently a GSP can be generated to accommodate the actual structures of different Friday sermons in many different mosques in Jember. The paper concludes that the GSP model could be applied to other Friday sermons not only in Jember but also in any other different cities.
, Marwah Al-Rawe, Samar Suleiman
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.200

Abstract:
This paper explores selected aggressive and offensive spoken or written discourse material used by the American ex-president Donald Trump at different periods of time during his rule as the United States of America president. The data analysis model will be mainly conducted within the terminology and framework of Van Dijk’s model of critical discourse analysis (henceforth CDA). The research has adopted ten ideological categories to reveal the extent of power, racism and racial discrimination. The current study has mainly investigated how language is structured to show various meanings that indicate the relation of power used in social contexts. The study also tries to show the role of CDA in analyzing elements of power and hegemony and how language users operate them to achieve the goal of successful communication among participants. The abuse is resulted from the use of power as exercised by language users. The way language is perceived and manipulated can identify ideologies imposed by speakers, resulting in controlling addressees through power dominance. The primary objective of this research is to demonstrate the extent to which social power, abuse, and other unpleasant expressions are used in Trump’s political speeches. The research indicates that the majority of Trump’s spoken or written speech methods contain aspects of language that violate social norms and convey a sense of authority and superiority over other addressees.
Mohammad Uddin
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 26-40; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.204

Abstract:
The target of this paper incorporates rehabilitation of /u/ sound in Bangladeshi adult speakers of English in classroom practice. The phoneme /u/ is a short vowel and /u:/, a long vowel in English phonemic inventory. But long and short vowel distinction is not a phonemic feature in Bangla. That is why, many Bengali speakers of English pronounce /u/উ/ in both the cases as there is /উ /u/ sound in Bengali language.  This creates problem for the listeners specifically the native speakers to understand the speech of the Bengali adult speakers of English and the comprehensibility level of their pronunciation is very low. The researcher, from his practical experience, finds that Phonological establishment of /উ /u/ sound in the tertiary level students of Bangladesh is one of the main reasons of this problem. This paper is a pedagogically designed lesson plan to rehabilitate the fossilized /u/উ / sound in Bengali speakers by applying Audio Articulation Method in the class hour. By operating various kinds of drills such as, interaction drill, substitution drills, minimal pairs, tongue twister etc in the class hour, the teachers can conduct the class to rehabilitate the fossilized sounds in the learners and both the trainers and trainees in Bangladesh can get the chance to defossilize  the fossilized sound by these  drillings.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 3, pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v3i1.203

Abstract:
This paper aspires to provide a reflection, inspired from personal experience, on online education at the university level in Morocco. The data has been gathered by means of recently published literature on online education to enable the researcher to be at a better position to critically evaluate concepts, methodologies and teaching approaches in tandem with online education. The use of information technology to publicly promote the renewal and revival of education in general and teaching in particular is a blatant epistemological marker of our education model’s progress in terms of digitalization and computerization of educational resources via different robust national programs, such as MARWAN (2002), GENIE (2005), NAFIDA (2008), INJAZ (2009) and LAWHATI (2015). In fact, this has given rise to emerging technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data (BD) and the Internet of Things (IOT). In this regard, it must be noted that the current Moroccan education system exhibits diversified online education trends both in form and content, and thus this new paradigm of learning abundantly introduces various types of intelligent education systems and platforms that emerge on a perpetual basis. Owing to this conscious online shift, both the class content and the learning context of students can be tracked and monitored at any time, which is directly conducive to fathoming out the individualization and differentiation of students in a timely manner.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 123-134; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.201

Abstract:
COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by a massive ‘infodemic’ and an over-abundance of disinformation that makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it. Young Moroccan internet users resort to social media for their news, and easily fall prey to the misinformation and fake news they encounter online. When it concerns public health, disinformation can turn into a lethal weapon. This is further exacerbated at the time of COVID-19 pandemic. To tackle this, the present research paper answers the research questions using a qualitative method, particularly semi-structured interviews preferable in exploratory research where the purpose is to gain an understanding of spreading online misinformation in the age of COVID-19. Semi-structured Interviews are conducted via “Google Meet” and “Zoom” using video-conferencing among 12 young Moroccan social media activists and professionals. The main research findings have shown that young Moroccan social media users have been consuming fake news about the Coronavirus, which has been especially prevalent on the most popular platforms, Facebook, Whats App and YouTube. Other results have shown that the mainstream media failed to debunk misinformation by subjecting them to rigorous fact checking experiments, lack of Media Information Literacy research in the form of crisis audits and crisis planning, Moroccan social media are ill prepared for crisis manual and conducting crisis training. These ensure that media regulators are not better equipped to handle any misinformation in health crisis situations. Therefore, media literacy is not only about how to use the computer and do an internet search, it also involves helping young Moroccan people to deal with disinformation in crisis situations, and realize that anyone anywhere can put up a very official-looking websites. These websites masquerade as high-credibility sources that have been spreading misinformation about COVID-19. Therefore, the government needs.
, Myla L. Santos
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 104-122; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.186

Abstract:
Though studies in the Western and Asian settings have already provided ample evidence in the symbolic relationship between teacher cognition and classroom teaching, such relationship has remained unexplored in the Philippine setting. Hence, this study aims to describe the beliefs in the teaching of English grammar of experienced and less experienced Filipino ESL teachers in a senior high school. It also compared their beliefs and actual classroom teaching to establish if there is match between what they think and practice. Reasons for divergence from their beliefs were also explored. Results revealed that teachers’ personal theories become the basis for their personal knowledge, thus have strong influence on their planning, instructional decisions and classroom practices. While both teachers share similarities on their cognition and practice on grammar teaching, minimal differences were documented. Experienced teacher has a greater tendency to translate stated beliefs to actual practice. Contextual factors such as time, curriculum, efforts to improve one’s practice and the learners themselves were the cited reasons for teachers’ divergence.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 91-103; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.196

Abstract:
Motivation is essential in learning a foreign language. Understanding how learners learn and what motivates and demotivate them will help the teachers, policy makers and curriculum planners .The study investigated the various reasons/motivations of the Sudanese Learners of English language based on Dorney soci-educational model& Garder’s of Second Language(L2) Self System. The main question the paper tried to answer was what types of motivations of Sudanese L2 learners have? . A sample of 35 students were asked their opinions on what motives them in studying English by means of a questionnaire. The result of the study showed that the majority of the participants (95%) had an extrinsic motivations i.e external factors for studying language, namely instrumentally-promotion and parental encourage and family influence .Also, Ideal L2 had significant role in Sudanese learners, as 85% of the learners responded to the questionnaire items that assessed this factor. The study also showed that the ought L2 self has the lowest impact on the students learners, only 55% of learners .The other factors /motivations that were tested in the study showed less influence on Sudanese learners but yet they are important to consider by teachers.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 27-46; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.189

Abstract:
This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and word complexity (simple versus complex words) in an EFL context. The participants in this study were 100 fourth-year secondary school Arts students in Tunisia. Students’ morphological awareness was measured by the Morphological Awareness Test. Vocabulary size was tested using an adapted version of Nation’s (2001) Vocabulary Levels Test as a receptive measure of vocabulary size. Half of the vocabulary test items were made complex to check the participants’ performance on simple and complex words. The informants’ scores were high on the overall morphological awareness task, and the best performance was on inflectional morphemes. This could be very useful for teachers to build on, improve, and construct better future teaching practices. Finally, morphological awareness differentiated between students’ performance on simple versus complex words.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 62-74; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.171

Abstract:
The present study aims at investigating Moroccan EFL teachers’ participation in and attitude towards online professional development. It seeks also to examine teachers’ perceived effectiveness of online professional development by using a cross-sectional survey design. This design was supported with a questionnaire and a scale to collect data from a sample of (103) Moroccan EFL teacher. The data elicited was coded and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of the study reveal that teachers in the Moroccan context are not fully engaged in online professional and they still exhibit higher preference to traditional forms of professional development. In addition, the results report that teachers perceive that online professional development provides effective content that is sustainable and access flexible. However, teachers also inform that online professional development is not active and collaborative in nature. Based on the results of this study a number of informed recommendations are directed to Moroccan English language teachers and policymakers.
, Hellalet Nadia
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 75-90; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.173

Abstract:
This research paper reports an experimental study geared to examine the effect of teaching reasoning fallacies on the critical thinking ability of a group of Moroccan university students. In a random assignment post-test design, 40 subjects took part in study-treatment. While the subjects in both experimental groups (n 20) received a treatment on how to avoid and spot fallacies in arguments, the control group was involved straightway in taking the pre-test and the post test (with no prior assistance) for comparison purposes. After the treatment -which consisted in having the experimental group (n 20 subjects) receive a training on the meaning of 15 reasoning fallacies and reinforcements tasks on how to identify them in statements and how to avoid them when they speak or write - all the subjects answered a twenty item multiple-choicetest and 5 of them responded to structured interview to identify their attitudes. The final scores were then subjected to descriptive as well as referential statistics (independent and paired samples T-test) for between group comparison purposes. The results reveal a significant facilitative and positive effect of reasoning fallacies training understudy and particularly so when compared to the control condition. A follow-up investigation through an independent samplest-test) attested to the fact that the training resulted in an increased critical thinking ability as measured by the receptive and productive and this is particularly so when compared to the control condition. The study concludes with the main finding together with their interpretation. Some practical implications related to critical thinking instruction, lesson planning and material development, in general, brings the paper full circled.
Mohammad Uddin
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 47-61; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.166

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to show how to defossilize the English /e/ sound which is pronounced by the Bengali learners of English instead of /ei/ sound in such words like ape, make and day etc. This mispronunciation creates confusion among the native speakers of English and the Bengali learners’ pronunciation loses comprehensibility to the listeners. The author, in his experience, observes that Phonological fossilization of /e/ sound in the Bengali speakers of English is the main cause of this mispronunciation and incomprehensibility level in them. The present study is a detail lesson plan to defossilize the problem causing /e/ sound by using Audio Articulation Method propounded by Mehmet Demirezen in the classroom practice. As a fossilized pronunciation error correction method, the audio articulation method can play a vital role in creating awareness of a fossilized sound among the EFL learners in Bangladesh. By applying different kinds of drills, such as, conversation drills, substitution drills, question-answer drills, repetition drills, language games etc in the class hour, the teachers can endeavor to defossilize the problem causing sounds among the students and both the teachers and learners in Bangladesh can be benefited through this practice.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i4.181

Abstract:
On March 11, 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declares Covid-19 disease as global pandemic. Accordingly, the style of linguistic or verbal communication between governments and nations has been highly affected. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate resources where X-phemistic expressions come as characteristics of the speeches of Saudi Health Minister during Covid-19 pandemic. Moreover, it examines how Warren's euphemistic strategies (1992) have appeared in the minister’s speeches. The collected data are the eight speeches delivered by Saudi Minister of Health during Covid-19 pandemic. They are analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis (TA) approach. The results show that Saudi Health Minister manages to deliver the massages about Covid-19 crisis through applying variety of linguistic devices which sound to be euphemistic, dysphemistic, and orthophemistic representations of the pandemic. The employment of each X-phemisms choice is mainly occurred within certain thematic fields. Euphemism is used in presenting unpleasant massages, naming the health crisis, and comforting the public. Dysphemism is applied in one specific theme of describing the virus. Orthophemisms is found in themes of declaring facts about the pandemic, warning the public, and requesting to follow instructions. It is also found that implication, reversal, particularization, metonymy, and metaphors are the most frequently used euphemistic strategies among Warren model (1992). This analysis contributes to the limited examination of pandemic discourse by understanding how X-phemistic expressions and euphemistic strategies are used by Arabic speakers during international crises like Covid-19.
Genevieve Urbano, Roselyn Mae Balneg, Patricia Michaela Collantes, Rafaela Reese Diaz, Jeahn Oliver Fernandez, Alyanna Nicole Padilla, Margie Rose Sagadraca,
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 76-93; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.174

Abstract:
Hip-hop has become a male-dominated industry, and it has reached all over the world, including the Philippines. This study analyzed two Original Pilipino Music (OPM) rap songs: Neneng B by Nik Makino feat. Raf Davis, and Pantsu by Zae. The two songs were examined to see how women are represented and how women's empowerment is promoted. Addressing the objectives, this study used a qualitative design that involved stylistics and text analysis. Using the Feminist Theory and applying Sara Mills' Feminist Text analysis model, the lyrics were examined in a word, phrase/sentence, and discourse level. This research revealed that a female artist's song promotes woman empowerment while the song written by male artists has more objectification tendencies. This study further implicates the role and position of women in modern-day society with music.
Ibrahim Abaker
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.130

Abstract:
Collocations are defined as ''the frequent co-occurrence of lexical items that naturally share the characteristics of semantic and grammatical dependencies"(Ibrahim, 2003: iii). In translation, collocations are considered a factor that makes translation more effective and powerful. However, translating collocations is an everlasting struggle for most students of translation. The present study aims at investigating the challenges that Sudanese EFL university students encounter when rendering English collocations into their Arabic equivalences and vice versa as well as the reasons behind these challenges. To this end, 26 Sudanese EFL students, between 20-30 years old, studying at Nahda College in Sudan, were selected. A diagnostic test composed of two questions is used as a tool for data collection. Frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation are used to analyse the collected data. The results of this study manifests that Sudanese EFL university students encounter difficulties in translating collocations from English into Arabic and vice versa; the causes of these difficulties are due to students’ unawareness of the linguistic and cultural differences between the two languages as well as their heavy reliance on literal translation strategy.
, Mohammed Larouz
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 33-45; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.163

Abstract:
Because most of the previous research on translation constraints in English-Arabic-English translation has separately investigated English-Arabic and Arabic-English translation problems, the current study is meant to compare the constraints that EFL students face across the two translation types. To attain this objective, English-Arabic and Arabic-English tests were administered to forty-seven (N= 47) EFL students in two Moroccan university educational settings to measure their abilities in the two translation domains. The results reveal that the participants' scores in both versions are not at the expected ability level due to the obstacles they encounter in the translation process. The study also shows that having a good ability in the English-Arabic version cannot strongly predict a similar good ability in Arabic-English translation because of the different natures of the two languages, which suggests taking more care of the student’s proficiency in English and Arabic languages and exposing students to their distinctive aspects for the sake of coming up with accurate and appropriate translations. The study ends with implications for pedagogy and recommendations for future researchers.
Hamidreza Abdi
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 23-32; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.161

Abstract:
The present study investigated the important role higher education plays in the success of the translator in his/her profession. To end this, the researcher prepared a translation test consisting of 12 short literary texts for data collection from both educated and uneducated translators who were equally divided into two groups. The 20 judges were invited to judge the level of communicative function of the translations made by both groups of translators on the basis of a five-point scale on a continuum from "Uncommunicative" to "Communicative" that was designed according to Nord’s (2018) functionalist approach. As the results indicated, the educated translators produced the highest communicative translations that put into Nord’s instrumental translation category. By contrast, the uneducated translators made the translations with the average level of communication that led their translation to be placed into documentary translation category. In conclusion, the educated translators, who held a master’s degree in Translation Studies, were more successful in producing communicative translations because of their profound knowledge of translation theories and mastery over translation strategies. This gives the indication of the utmost importance of higher education in the achievement of the translators in their career.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.164

Abstract:
Corona virus, a global phenomenon, is considered as a nightmare that has affected people’s lives. Covid-19 pandemic has changed the way we live, interact, work, and learn. Many preventions measures come into existence. Indeed, the epidemic of the virus has led to social distancing, quarantine measures, temporary home confinement measures, travel cancellations, and schools closure. In fact, the process of education obviously aims to facilitate learning. The latter has been affected by Covid-19; it influenced the learning process of students and e-learning has become salient; therefore, it has played a vital role in the instruction of students. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate the implication of online learning on the motivation of students, precisely the ones belonging to higher education. It takes the students of English department at the Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences of University Mohammed First as a case study. The quantitative research design for the present study is based on an online questionnaire that was used to collect data from fifty one respondents, and eventually analyze the set of data by using SPSS, to examine their mode of motivation throughout the use of e-learning. The findings of the study showed that students favor the authentic traditional mode of learning rather than the unsatisfactory experienced virtual learning; which entails the negative degree of motivation that was, unfortunately, decreased in the e-learning process. Thereupon, e-learning should be used vigilantly and cautiously and its conduct of pedagogies should be advanced and improved more by stakeholders.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 46-64; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.141

Abstract:
This research is a pragmatic and politeness study that deals with the speech act of disagreement in Tunisian Arabic, a variety of Arabic spoken in Tunisia. It accounts for disagreement in relation to the contextual factors of Social Distance, Social Power, and Rank of Imposition. Discourse Completion Test (DCT) is used to study the production of disagreement. Data was collected from a group of native speakers of Tunisian Arabic at “Institut Supérieur des Langues de Tunis, Tunisia”. Native speakers of TA used a variety of strategies, which were identified in other languages (e.g., Direct Refusal, Suggestion, Giving Account, and Request…) along with new strategies (e.g., Teasing, Unsympathetic advice, Challenge, and Criticism).The identification and quantification of the strategies of disagreement also helped develop insights into the Tunisian culture.
, Masih Rahimi Nezhad
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 65-75; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i3.146

Abstract:
“Semantic prosody” has been researched since the first claim of Sinclair in (1987). Since then, semantic prosody became one of the most important issues in language studies as a linguistic phenomenon. In 1993, Louw defined semantic prosody as a special tendency of words, which might be in a pleasant environment that creates a ‘positive semantic prosody’ or in an unpleasant environment that creates a ‘negative semantic prosody’. The current research is based on a corpus analysis design, in “COCA” and “COHA”. Two synonym pair words of “Start/Begin” and “Guide/Lead to” were chosen as a case study. Representative number of each word was estimated by “Cochran’s formula”. This study is concentrated on investigation of the fact that while negative semantic prosodies are much more frequent than words with positive semantic prosody, but based on the linguistic positivity bias and “The Pollyanna hypothesis” which is introduced by Boucher and Osgood (1969), in English, the productivity of words with positive semantic prosody in synonym pairs, is more than productivity of negative semantic productivity. This fact might be due to the social interactions, the emotional content of words and linguistic behavior. It is notable to say that people tend to talk more about the brighter side than the darker side of life. This discrepancy makes words’ choosing somehow problematic for translators and English learners.
Hamzat Nauzo Abdulkadir
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 67-75; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i2.155

Abstract:
This work examines Mariama Bâ's So Long a Letter from a Marxist perspective. It explores the radical and feminist tendencies on the stereotype of African women with the awareness that women are equal with men without prejudice to the interpretation of the theory of creation. Based on Marxist theoretical framework, our analysis shows that the oppression and exploitation of women is a process involving women themselves. The woman, in effect, continually reproduces the conditions of her subservience as Marx will add, through alienation, competition, rivalry and docility. Through alienation, women forfeit their rights to be the initiators and controllers of their historical processes. The study concludes that Marxist Feminist must practically engage in struggle against inequality and all manifestations of oppression and exploitation of women.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 55-66; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i2.147

Abstract:
This paper explores how the flouting of the Gricean maxims is used to bring about comedy and humorous effect in Hassan El Fad’s 4th episode of Tendance sitcom. Therefore, it aims at finding out what maxims are flouted the most to create comedy and what maxims the two main characters disobey for the sake of making people laugh. To reach the study objective, the paper is based on the analysis of the fourth episode transcription. That is, the study relies on a qualitative descriptive method as it aims at exploring the flouting of Grice’s cooperative principle in Moroccan Arabic comedy and describing how such flouting generates humour and comedy. The results show that the most frequently flouted maxim was the maxim of quantity (39.3%), followed by the maxims of quality (29.6%), manner (26.2%) and the least maxim flouted was relevance (4.9%). The results suggest that the use of flouts has to do with their different moods and personalities, which is why the main characters did not use as many flouts in order to create comedy, since it would not be in line with their personalities. Furthermore, the study shows that most of maxim flouts that create comic implicature are perceived via the use of obscure overstatement and personification, use of misleading conventional-coded expressions, irrelevant oddness of conversation-established ideas, and flouting of Moroccan communication patterns. The study concludes that the use of urban accent of Marrakech city alongside maxims flouting generated humorous effect.
, Trang Xuan Phuong Dao
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 39-54; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i2.142

Abstract:
Enhancing EFL learners’ communicative competence is a time-taking process to reach certain levels of interacting with different communication participants. However, in the tertiary education in Vietnam, traditional teaching approach with the task-based learning does not thoroughly focus on the language use but on the strategies to perform the tasks. Hence, the functional approach has been applied to boost learners’ awareness of their language delivery thanks to communicative functions and notions. The new mode of teaching concentrates on what communication participants desire to convey and why they make use of those speech acts. This paper aimed to explore the impact of the integration of task-based learning and the functional approach, and learners’ perspective towards the implementation of such approach combination. With the application of the mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches, the data were collected via a pre-test and a post-test, survey, and 32 interviews with the participation of 100 students whose major is Business Administration at a university. The findings reveal that adding the functional approach to the existing teaching method could enhance students’ overall speaking competence, especially their fluency and discourse management. Additionally, the application of the functional approach received positive feedback from the learners.
, Lamis Ali, Nabil Muhayam
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i2.136

Abstract:
Translation of tourist texts engenders textual, linguistic and cultural hurdles before achieving translation quality, which has not been given due account in translation studies. To bridge this gap, this study aimed to assess postgraduates' performance in translation of tourist texts from English to Arabic and vice versa, using a translation task (Arabic and English tourist texts) and a questionnaire. The questionnaire took a form of a 5-point Likert scale in which the students rated the texts they translated. Further, it retrieved information about translation time and postgraduates' translation experience. Findings revealed low translation quality and inappropriate use of translation procedures in rendering the tourist texts into English and Arabic. The postgraduates encountered hindrances in formulating the main ideas of the source text (ST), composing the target text (TT) and communicating the TT to the target language (TL) readers. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications have been discussed.
, Mohammed Larouz, Mustapha Fagroud
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 22-38; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i2.131

Abstract:
While frequency of occurrence and lexical diversity are common measures of lexical proficiency, very few studies have examined range along with these two other lexical indices, especially in EFL contexts. Using a sample of 529 undergraduate EFL learners’ essays, the present study examined the development of three indices of lexical proficiency (word frequency, range and lexical diversity) across 3 different proficiency levels. No similar study has been conducted so far in the Moroccan context, which makes this study a valuable contribution to a better understanding of university learners’ productive lexical knowledge. Unexpectedly, although frequency is an established measure which can successfully show differences in learners’ proficiency, the results of this study indicate that at the productive level, the range of content words and lexical diversity might better reflect differences among learners of different proficiency levels. While word frequency was stable among the three groups, indices of range and lexical diversity reflected better lexical knowledge in higher proficiency levels. We concluded that in EFL contexts, range and diversity might be better measures of proficiency. This suggests that there should be more focus on developing these two aspects in EFL classes.
Hamidreza Abdi
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 17-26; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.118

Abstract:
Familiarity with information and communication technology (ICT) is of great importance to the translation students because it allows the students to make use of a wide range of ICT tools. The present study investigated the degree of students’ familiarity with ICT tools employed to support ICT related activities included in the translator’s workstation. To do this, a questionnaire encompassing 24 questions was designed on the basis of translation activities proposed by Fulford and Granell-Zafar (2005), including information search and retrieval, communications, and marketing and work procurement. The results indicated the high familiarity of the M.A. translation students with general-purpose software application, namely online dictionaries and internet search engines, and the lower than the average familiarity of them with specific-purpose software, such as FTP and MUDs. Furthermore, chi-square test (X²) was run to see whether there is a significant relationship between each type of ICT tools and the participants. The results illustrated that the relationships between the M.A. translation students and some ICT applications, including internet search engines, web browsers, online dictionaries and encyclopedia, IRC, and MUDs, were significant; whereas, it was not significant between the other types of ICT software and students. This includes online translation marketplaces, internet forums, email, instant messaging, video chat, discussion mailing lists, talkers, and FTP.
Osama Jamoom, Milood Al-Omrani
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 135-146; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.121

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate EFL university teachers’ engagement in research. It examined EFL university teachers’ reasons for engagement in research and the barriers that impede them from doing research. It covered both the engagement and the reluctance aspects of the issue. The data were collected from 24 EFL university teachers through the modality of questionnaire. The results suggested that the teachers had moderate to low level engagement in research. The teachers’ main reasons for doing research revolved around the significance of research in developing their professional career, how doing research could improve their teaching and research skills, and how it could give them professional promotions. The results also showed that lack of time, absence of access to up-to-date books and journals and lack of encouragement and motivation are the main obstacles that limit their engagement in research. Understanding these issues, the study ended with suggestions and recommendations for policy makers, institutions authorities and teachers to make EFL contexts convenient for teacher engagement in research.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 40-61; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.103

Abstract:
This study analyzes the portrayal of women and men in the visual discourse of Moroccan English as a Foreign Language (MEFL, henceforth). Nine of these textbooks have been sampled to serve this purpose. Although past research has been extensively undertaken to examine the textual discourse of school textbooks, there is up to now a dearth of research geared to analyze their visual contents. This research adopts the analytical techniques of quantitative content analysis to examine the numerical distribution of the two sex groups throughout their pictorial representations. Mapping the visual content of the sampled textbooks, it has been shown that, unlike men, women have been misrepresented both in terms of their visibility (frequency of appearance) as well as in terms of the occupational roles assigned to them. The use of frequency counts, percentages, ratios and chi-square tests have helped unveil imbalanced gender disparities favoring men. The paper ends up presenting the conclusion of this study along with some recommendations.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 76-90; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.110

Abstract:
This research explores the challenges of translating cultural references in Islamic TV programs from Arabic into English. Subtitling is a constrained type of translation due to the space and time limitations on the screen. Apart from this challenge, the subtitler has to deal with cultural pitfalls that cannot be separated from a stormy global background that includes political and ideological tensions between the Muslim World and the West. This study investigates these difficulties, attempts to suggest solutions to them and identify the basic qualifications of competent subtitlers of this kind of programs. The ultimate purpose is to help establish healthy communication between Muslim and Western countries through translation which is an act of cultural mediation. To achieve this, three real-life examples and their subtitles have been selected from Iqraa TV programs and analyzed using Christiane Nord’s functional model. Results show three types of cultural pitfalls typical of Islamic TV programs, i. e., Qur’anic allusions, Sunnah allusions and politicized issues. Instrumental translation has been found to be effective in overcoming these cultural pitfalls, while documentary translation proved to be ineffective due to the space limitations and its lack of clarity. Creativity, flexibility, and cultural sensitivity are indispensable for the subtitler to bridge the communication gaps between the source and target cultures.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 107-123; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.122

Abstract:
This study investigated the common gratitude strategies in different situations, which permeated indebtedness as a way of shaping pre-service teachers' identity. Using a 15-item Discourse Completion Test (DCT), 22 pre-service teachers in the Province of Cavite, Philippines participated in this study. An informal interview was conducted to validate the gathered data from the instrument used. The analysis was done through the use of Cheng's (2005) taxonomy of gratitude expressions, which include eight (8) strategies: thanking, appreciation, repayment, recognition of imposition, apology, positive feeling, alerter, and other non-taxonomy-based expressions. The results revealed that the respondents highly employed the use of 'simple thanking,' which reflects the simplicity and directness of the Filipino linguistic choice in making responses on various occasions. It was also found out that aside from the taxonomy-based thanking schemes, the respondents also used combined strategies and the 'no-response' strategy. Supported by Woodward’s identity theory, the identified gratitude strategies, as an illocutionary speech act, built the participants’ identities with an implication to their relational and socio-cultural patterns of language.
Adel Abdulkhaliq Abdulkareem
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 62-75; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.108

Abstract:
Translation technology offers a great contribution to the field of translation, bringing strong changes to the way translation is studied and done. This research paper examines the translation technology in the curricula of the Department of Translation at the Faculty of Languages and Translation, the University of Aden. It also aims to identify the extent to which students of the fourth level in the Department rate their abilities in using such translation technologies and to specify their attitudes towards them. To attain these aims, the researcher used a descriptive method. A questionnaire was distributed to the sample of the study, which consisted of 24 participants who were selected randomly. The findings of the study show that the participants rated their abilities in using translation technology such as CAT tools and OCRs, etc. as 'poor'. They confirmed that the curricula of the Department of Translation do not help equip them with the required knowledge and skills to use and deal with such translation technologies and resources. The participants stated that using translation technologies are important due to their numerous advantages. This study concludes with some recommendations, one of them is that it is necessary to add at least one additional course that deals with translation technologies. It also recommends that it is essential to update the curricula of the Department of Translation taking into consideration the students' needs and requirements of the local and regional markets.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 91-106; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.100

Abstract:
This article studies the derivational system of gender and number in Ait Atta variety of Amazigh language. Thus, the following claims are made: first, gender is overtly marked on feminine nouns by the prefixation of the gender morpheme t-. The paper argues that [t…t] is not a circumfix or a discontinuous morpheme, but it is an asymmetric inflection. In the derivational system of gender, large majority of nouns allow for gender opposition. However, mass nouns allow only for one lexically determined gender and number. Moreover, masculine has no overt realization in Amazigh language. Vocalic initial nouns fall into the category of masculine nouns. I argue that the initial vowel is a nominal marker. I submit that the noun, in general, consists of maximally three main parts: a prefix, a lexical base, and a suffix. Second, the majority of Berber noun stems involve, at least, one vowel in addition to the prefixal vowel (e.g. ‘a-ḍar’ foot, ‘a-funas’ bull, 'a-ɣrum’ bread). Third, when the plural noun is specified as [+feminine], it takes the gender morpheme t-. Fourth, number takes the form of a feature assigned lexically to the noun. The study provides a templatic analysis to account for internal noun change. It implements Lahrouchi and Ridouane (2016) analysis of diminutives and plurals in Moroccan Arabic and argues that sound plurals in Amazigh language are associated with standard Num projection, while id/istt-plurals are associated with lower in the structure with n projection.
Nurul Jannah Ahmad Ghulamuddin, Siti Khadijah Mohd Mohari,
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 27-39; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.105

Abstract:
Writing is perceived to be one of the most difficult skills for English language learners to master. Although studies on challenges faced by ESL students in writing are replete, most of them have focused on students at secondary and tertiary levels of education. Studies on learners at lower level have been scarce. Thus, this paper aims to fill the gap by examining the major problems faced by ESL primary school level students in writing in English. Survey and interview sessions were conducted to fit the purpose of the study. Data were collected from a class of 26 students from Year/Standard 6 of the primary school level in Malaysia and an interview session with the English teacher of that particular class. The findings indicate that the major difficulties charted are rooted in the students’ poor mastery in vocabulary, inability to spell words correctly and L1 interference. Thus, in order to enhance the students’ skills in writing in English, the teacher implemented some remedial measures during the teaching and learning sessions. The findings have essential pedagogical implications on understanding students’ struggle to write in English at the lower level of education.
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.106

Abstract:
Using a blend of methods including existing subtitling models in Audiovisual Translation (AVT), Functionalism in Translation Studies, the General Theory of Verbal Humour, Cultural Linguistics (CuL) and careful analysis of numerous examples of Persian humour on social media, i.e. Instagram, the present research aims to demonstrate that there is a compelling argument to be made for updating traditional approaches to translation, subtitling in particular (cf. Zabalbeascoa, 2019). The findings of this study show that in today’s globalised world, in which social media and new technologies are influencing the translation process, the core model of translation, subtitling in particular, in all its actuality, seems to be incomplete, as cultural conceptualisations underlying lexical items are lost in translation. Cultural conceptualisations that are, however, central to meaning construction and humour perception in the target culture. Cultural conceptualisations that are, thus, crucial for translators’ daily task. The study suggests that in order to meet the concerns of the translation profession today, in this globalised world with its new ways of communication, and for successful intercultural communication, cultural conceptualisations underlying lexical items be incorporated into Audiovisual Translation (AVT), subtitling models (cf. Zabalbeascoa, 2019).
, Mohammed Larouz
International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Volume 2, pp 124-134; https://doi.org/10.36892/ijlts.v2i1.102

Abstract:
The present paper aims at investigating the relationship between speaking and writing in descriptive discourse among Moroccan university EFL students within the department of English Studies at Moulay Ismail University, Meknes, Morocco. To attain this end, 80 undergraduate semester six students studying English as a foreign language were randomly selected to participate in the current study. Subsequently, speaking and writing proficiency tests were administered to the participants to measure their descriptive abilities in speaking and writing. The data were analyzed by carrying out correlation and regression analysis in SPSS. The results reveal that there is a strong positive and statistically significant correlation between speaking and writing in descriptive discourse, r = .61. Descriptive speaking can predict 37 percent of EFL students’ descriptive writing (R2 =.37). The study ends with implications for teachers, syllabus designers, and the department of English studies.
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