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Andriyana Andreeva, Galina Yolova, Darina Dimitrova
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 120-133; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.9

Abstract:
The study researches a set of problems regarding the role of the Labour Inspectorate in its capacity as a supervisory authority on compliance with labour legislation in Bulgaria. In view of the objectives they have set, the authors trace back in logical sequence the historical development of the supervisory authority and its current regulations. The study performs an up- to- date normative analysis of the main legal tools for exercising control of compliance with labour legislation. Based on the research, summaries and conclusions of practical importance are formulated so that the legal framework may be updated.
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.1

Abstract:
It is generally accepted that municipal property is a basic prerequisite for financial autonomy and administrative independence of local authorities. In Bulgaria, municipalities received ownership rights from the Constitution (1991) and this regulation was further confirmed by the Law on Local Self-Government and Local Administration (1991). In 1996 municipal property was finally settled with the adoption of the Law on Municipal Property and the Law on State Property. In the late 1990s local governments received significant amounts of assets from the central government. The process was accompanied by abuses of administrative authority, corruption scandals, and financial mismanagement. Two decades latter, Bulgarian municipalities have different types of assets, but the effectiveness of local financial management is still a topical issue. This paper aims to analyse and estimate the financial performance of nine enterprises owned by Blagoevgrad municipality with Z-Score model. The analyzed period covers the years from 2006 to 2020. The results indicate that municipal enterprises can achieve profitability while providing a wide range of services to the local community.
Jakub Michulek, Roman Blazek
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 68-83; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.6

Abstract:
Communication is one of the reasons for the success of companies. The ability to understand each other during work leads to the creation of favorable working conditions and a working environment. At the same time, it helps to establish good relations between employees. However, communication barriers are emerging in every organization. These barriers prevent effective communication. The main goal of this study is to determine whether the occurrence of communication barriers in the company affects the work performance of employees. To achieve the goal, we will use data obtained from a questionnaire survey. These data were collected from a sample of respondents from the Slovak Republic. The data were processed using MS Excel and IBM SPSS Statistic 25. In our article, we proved that the occurrence of communication barriers in the company does not affect the work commitment of employees.
Agus Suyandi Roni, Rachmad Safa’At, Istislam, Iwan Permadi
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 84-100; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.7

Abstract:
A good and healthy environment is a human and constitutional right for every Indonesian citizen (UUD NRI 1945). However, increasingly complex environmental problems continue to threaten human rights, such as cases of forest and land fires. The community is the most disadvantaged party due to the forest and land fires, ranging from environmental damage, healthy problems, delays in the learning process in schools, and other activities that have an impact on economic losses. In this case, the community cannot apply for restitution. The legal problem is that there is a void in norms governing the restitution process for victims affected by environmental crimes in general, including victims of forest and land fires. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to formulate a formulation in the criminal justice system in Indonesia related to legal protection in the form of compensation/restitution for the victims affected by forest and land fires. This type of research is a legal research with a statutory approach, a conceptual approach, a case approach, and uses a legal material analysis technique in the form of a qualitative descriptive technique with inductive logic. The results of this study conclude that the formulation of appropriate norms must be carried out immediately and must also be made in a balanced manner, not sharp down and blunt up, these regulations must be made taking into account the rights and obligations as well as the dignity and worth of the community as victims of forest and land fires based on Human Rights (HAM) which recognizes the basic human right to be able to live in a good and healthy environment and is obliged to maintain and be responsible for all actions to prevent pollution. Restitution is given taking into account the amount of losses suffered by the affected victims.
Roman Blazek, Jakub Michulek
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.3

Abstract:
The aim of the paper is to clarify the use of the Beneish model to reveal creative accounting in companies. To bring its use closer to the general public and also to provide disinterested scientists with results and evaluations that are informative both for the scientific community and for people who are just beginning to take an interest in the topic. The aim of the research is to reveal the use of creative accounting, using apparatus for its detection, in the construction industry. A healthy business environment is very important for the state, as potential investors make decisions according to different rules, and it is only one of them that is ranked high in the evaluation of the state and its. Negative assumptions or hidden facts that may later become real shed a negative light on the landscape. We anticipate that the growing deterioration in economic stability will also affect the use of creative accounting in companies that, in an effort to maintain their economic position, also resort to instruments that violate the Accounting Code. The overall study was conducted on 117 companies, which were selected on the basis of various criteria. Based on the application of a tool for detecting creative accounting, specifically the Beneish model, we found that more than half of the companies surveyed decided to apply creative accounting in their accounting, which led e.g. to tax optimization.
Gergana Angelova, Veselin Stoimenov
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 39-54; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.4

Abstract:
Hotel brand effectiveness determines the level of guest satisfaction, their desire for a repeat visit (guest loyalty) and their positive word-of-mouth. It depends on the quality of hotel superstructure and services paired with the proper use of brand destination resources. For a proper evaluation of hotel brand effectiveness it is necessary that guest perception and behaviour be considered as brands exist in guests’ minds. Successful brands ensure pleasure, even delight and create the emotional connection “brand-guest”. Brands are difficult to evaluate because they are considered to be something intangible and the choice of a brand is rather emotional than rational. This paper has the objective to analyze and evaluate the hotel brand effectiveness through a proper set of factors, i.e. criteria and indicators. The research employs a qualitative method of analysis and evaluation which entails encoding of guests’ reviews uploaded in the TripAdvisor platform including the period of Covid-19. Research results have proved a higher level of brand effectiveness according to three basic criteria – guest perception, guest behaviour and brand destination.
Doaa Salman, Nouran Yasser, Andrew Raafat
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 15-27; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.2

Abstract:
This paper provides a market analysis which represents a diagnostic procedure for determining the core causes of market behaviour from an economic standpoint. This paper reflects on the role of the automobile industry which has a substantial impact on a country’s growth since it contributes to high levels of employment, consumption, and investment. The goal of this study is threefold: first, use the demand and supply framework to explore the impact of the factors that drive those interactions and forecast future results for the S-class. Second, apply SWOT, PESTLE, and Porter’s model analysis to analyze the product line during the period from 2010 to 2020. Third, assess Mercedes-environment Benz to meet the company’s present and future objectives. Results show no violations of demand and supply laws for the S-class product in the United States, and it is a price-sensitive product, according to the findings. Fluctuations in the elasticities of demand and supply were observed due to the changes in the consumers’ willingness to buy the S-class and the changes in the market conditions which affected the supply over the decade of study. Results show Mercedes’ market opportunities is in a risky situation as the delay in the supply chain reflects negatively and give opportunities to other substitutes in the different market across the globe.
Cherine Soliman, Doaa Salman Abdou
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 101-119; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.8

Abstract:
Digitalization is reshaping the country’s future economic viability. Many countries invest in developing digital entrepreneurs to accelerate economic growth. This study aims first to determine the role of Egyptian private higher education (HE) in developing digital entrepreneurs (DE). Second, explore the institutional governance and strategy of the private universities via the three higher educational constructs, namely the university vision, mission, and core value; the educational environment; and the university’s digital social media use as an influencer factor in the development of digital entrepreneurs. The methodology of the paper applies both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It began with a series of semi-structured interview questions posed to a group of undergraduate students, followed by a quantitative investigation. This research highlights the existing difficulties and prospects of DE in Egyptian higher education. Finally, provide recommendations to decision-makers and educators on how to speed up DE.
Budi Her Utomo, Suhariningsih, Iwan Permadi, Yuliati Yuliati
Economics & Law, Volume 4, pp 55-67; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v4i1.5

Abstract:
Passive Subjective Novation is a replacement of the old debtor with a new debtor, and the creditor agrees that the old debtor is freed from the obligation to pay the debt. In Indonesia, Novation is regulated in the provisions of Article 1381 of the Civil Code, but in reality there is no single legal regulation that clearly explains Novation, especially Passive Subjective Novation. This legal vacuum regarding Passive Subjective Novation then causes legal uncertainty and creates problems because there are no clear references in terms of understanding, implementing regulations, and standard operating procedures (SOPs). The problems in this study are related to the existence of Passive Subjective Novation in credit agreements with mortgage rights in the legal system of agreements and guarantees, the meaning of Passive Subjective Novation in credit agreements by using mortgage guarantees on land, and the legal position of new debtors with Passive Subjective Novation so that can provide legal certainty. This research is normative juridical research using an analytical approach and a conceptual approach as well as grammatical interpretation analysis techniques, systematic interpretations and teleological interpretations to analyze primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials. The results of this study indicate that the existence of a novation credit agreement, especially a passive subjective novation if carried out will involve the parties who were originally involved in the previous credit agreement. The novation is carried out explicitly by using a concrete authentic deed to confirm the position of this novation in the credit agreement. Switching the debtor when the credit agreement is still halfway through, can cause problems for the bank, and the most important and first problem that arises is who will continue the credit agreement because it is impossible for the credit agreement to be released just like that.
Andriyana Andreeva
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 85-97; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.8

Abstract:
The present work examines the issue of the work discipline and the disciplinary liability of the habilitated persons according to the Bulgarian legislation. The liability in the sphere of higher education is warranty for high quality of the educational service and for observation of the rights of the trained persons. The norms of the relevant normative acts – HEA and DASRBA have been subjected to legal analysis. Based on the examination of some issues of the work discipline breaches and disciplinary sanctions conclusions and summaries for the application of the norms are made.
Kehinde Olufunke
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.2

Abstract:
Environmental problem in Nigeria is a phenomenon that needs urgent attention from the relevant stakeholders and concerned individuals. Environmental problem in Nigeria comes in diverse ways and forms and they lead to various forms of hazards both on the citizens and the environment at large. It has been discovered that the laws put in place for regulating the environment is grossly inadequate and thus, there is a need to amend some of these laws and ensure adequate enforcement of the ones already enacted as it has been identified that there is a lack of enforcement mechanism by the bodies saddled with the responsibility of enforcing these laws already put in place. This paper examined some of the environmental problems in Nigeria and focuses mainly on pollution as a significant problem affecting the Nigeria environment. Various forms of pollution were identified, causes and effects of pollution were adequately addressed in this paper. The paper was not concluded without proffering solutions to the identified problems.
Yen Nguyen,
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 53-71; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.6

Abstract:
The study examines the impact of foreign capital flows on economic growth in Vietnam over the period 1989-2019 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). The findings indicate that there exists a long-run relationship between economic growth and foreign capital flows. Foreign direct investment stimulates economic growth both directly and indirectly since the findings indicate that in both the short and long run, foreign direct investment has significantly positive effects on economic growth. Foreign direct investment can also indirectly affect growth through appreciation of human capital due to the existence of a bi-directional Granger causality relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment. Our findings suggest that foreign direct investment and human capital are complementary to improving economic growth and Vietnam should promote foreign direct investment with enhancing human capital accumulation. External debt, however, has an insignificant impact on growth and the impact of foreign aid is also negative. Vietnam, therefore should not rely on external debt in the long run and allocate the effectiveness of foreign aid to achieve the optimal target.
Doaa Abdou, Fatma Elnasr
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.3

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the technology impact via Blockchain to change consumer behavior in the digital art industry. The paper objectives are three folds: first, analyze the impact of Ethereum in selling digital artwork and on the bank world. Second, investigate the effects of Non-Fungible Token on the art industry. Third, highlight how people can sell their artworks, tweets, or even memes for thousands of dollars. Fourth, explain the effect of Ethereum in creating value for artwork and why a meme that includes nothing unique to be sold for an unbelievable price? The paper provides insights on the future of the digital arts industry and the rational behavior of the developers, artists, and even customers, as the three parties shape the business of the NFL’s success. It reflects on the investment behavior in digital arts and the importance of a secure long-term investment for a niche segment that seeks to satisfy their need of acquiring unique products. The paper serves as a guide for digital art and focuses on how AI applications create profitable markets.
Abdul Muhammad, Prija Djatmika, Dhiana Puspitawati, Nurini Aprilianda
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 72-84; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.7

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the concept of legal protection for death penalty convicts who are not executed immediately after permanent legal force in the future. This research is a normative legal research with the approach of Law, History, Comparison, Philosophy and Cases. The legal materials used are primary, secondary and tertiary with analytical techniques using perspective analysis. The results of this research indicate that at the Judicial Review stage, the Criminal Code Procedure must set a time limit for submitting a judicial review application since the decision has permanent legal force (inkracht van gewijsde). The execution of the judge’s decision that imposes the death penalty on the convict who submits the application for judicial review and clemency must be strictly regulated.
Mariana Dimitrova
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 98-110; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.9

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has shown European economies that they need a clear plan for the future with a focus on labour market needs. The crisis has significantly affected certain groups of the population and employers in specific types of sectors. The existence of a flexible system of active employment policies and the possibility for the implementation of innovative projects and measures is a prerequisite for successful assistance to the most affected persons and enterprises. The paper presents good practices and successful approaches in the pandemic situation, examines innovations of public employment services and programs for active support of employed and unemployed people in the EU.
Philip Ivanov, Marianа Usheva
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 43-52; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.5

Abstract:
The current paper is aimed at investigating and proving the link between motivation and various outcomes such as – a propensity for staying in the company; psychological tension among employees; pride of working in the current company; engagement; work satisfaction; initiative in work. Our main goal is to prove the direct link between, the so-called “match factor” and the work outcomes. The study was held in the form of a survey among two groups, totalling 596 respondents in various sectors of the economy. And the results were tested with regression analysis for proving a significant influence of the match factor. Based on the result testing, we concluded that there is a direct link between motivation and work outcomes.
Carissa Wijaya, Fajar Sugianto, ,
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.4

Abstract:
In the current digital era, digital economic and financial transactions are increasing rapidly in line with the use of digital platforms during the pandemic caused by Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB). The growth was offset by the rampant cases of personal data leakage in digital financial transactions in Indonesia. Besides, personal data itself is a person’s personal right that must be protected as best as possible and efforts to protect personal data for users of digital platforms is needed. The application of a Data Protection Officer that reflects the General Data Protection Regulation is the right solution for protecting personal data. This research was conducted with the aim of giving companies and consumers confidence in the Data Protection Officer as an independent institution capable of protecting personal data on digital platforms. The research method used is juridical normative with a statute approach, a case approach, and a comparative legal approach. The results and conclusions of this study are that it is necessary to formulate a regulatory formulation for the Data Protection Officer profession so that it can function according to its protection function.
Stefcho Bankov
Published: 30 December 2021
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i2.1

Abstract:
The article raises issues related to the lack of effective mechanisms for protection of the rights of victims of crime under the Bulgarian Penal Code. The author discusses the shortcomings in the criminal proceedings and how the application of the norms for protection of the accused’s consignment in the commission of the crime, in fact, limits the right to defense of the victim. An overview of the existing regulation of the problem in the European legal system has been made. Finally, the author examines the contradictory case law and how it in itself restricts the victim’s right to a fair trial.
Rahmida Erliyani, M. Hadin Muhjad, Muhammad Amin
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 64-76; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.5

Abstract:
Environmental cases are often decided by decision of exemption because the evidence is scientific. The Criminal Procedure Code (KUHP) still adheres to conventional evidence. The judge did not receive scientific evidence. Even though, the environmental cases will not be completed without scientific evidence. Normative legal research methods are used, because scientific evidence is contained in laws and regulations including the Criminal Procedure Code. Legal materials collected were analysed to answer the problem. Legal analysis of norm obscurity is carried out by law interpretation while legal vacancies are carried out by legal construction or rechtsvinding. The results showed that environmental cases in the form of pollution and environmental damage were only proven by scientific evidence, which was an extension of evidence in the Criminal Procedure Code, which had an impact on the procedural Burden of Proof, namely the position of evidence. Scientific evidence does not stand alone but follows one of the legitimate evidences, namely expert information or proof of evidence or evidence.
Olaniyi Felix Olayinka
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 18-37; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.2

Abstract:
Pre-colonial communities occupying the space now known as Africa reflected “paradise on earth” having men of integrity, selfless, with focus on community development. The bonding of man with land and the invocation of land-based – spiritual powers allowed for easy enforcement of good morals and conduct in communities. The partitioning of Africa, with the break of the existing social-cultural bonding and the consolidation under colonisation of communities in Africa made communal bonding un-sustainable. The African ubuntu concept gave way, turning an average African a potential drain on his community under a “winner takes all” syndrome, just as he grabs property indiscriminately. The western legal systems introduce private property ownership, but the legal systems in practice record huge breaches of the rule of law, truncation of justice and development. The paper precisely investigates whether development in Africa can be attained based on legal systems foreign to Africa, rather than through indigenous legal tradition.
Philip Ivanov, Mariana Usheva
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 38-52; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.3

Abstract:
The applied forms of motivation within the enterprise can significantly affect the overall results of the organization. Often, namely motivated staff is the difference between the good and great companies. In our study we evaluated the applied motivators on the examined company, based on the evaluation of the workers. Therefore, if a certain motivator is not effectively applied, we assume that it is not present within the work place. Secondly, we conducted a correlation analysis between the assessment of the motivators used within the company at hand and some influences on employees’ behavior – Engagement, Turnover intentions and Psychological tension. The study was conducted among 451 workers from the company, which operates in the railway industry, within 10 days in June 2020. We concluded, that the most applied forms of motivation in the company is with a social direction. We managed to prove a strong relationship between the applied forms of motivation with engagement, propensity of staying in the company and psychological tension. There were significant interactions between the three outcomes as well.
Doaa Salman, Mohab Kamal, Omnia Basyoni
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 53-63; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.4

Abstract:
The real estate and construction sector is a lucrative activity to attract investment on both the internationally and national level. The secret behind continuous investment refer to the other tradable sector which still not competitive and the return of investment is still provide marginal benefit. A status quo accelerates the currency devaluation – especially in countries that are facing trade deficit – the devaluation of the currency has been a common phenomenon during the past sixty years and the real estate present an attractive pool to keep the value of human wealth. In countries that are characterized by increasing the population growth rate consequently the demand for housing pushes the government towards developing new cities and a new capital to absorb the demand. In Egypt the governments built new governorates to absorb the notable increase in the number of population from the centre of the delta to new sites. This strategy helps in, creating new jobs, in order to be able to fulfil the increase in population thus decreasing the crowding effect and minimize wasting resources and opening new opportunities. This paper attempts to analyse the demand and supply side key drivers for steel and cement industry. It investigates how these industries will sustain despite the oversupply status. The current situation presents a future challenge and the paper argue is this sector is going to face market failure. Furthermore, the paper highlight the possible opportunities under the current challenges and assessing the role of the government’s regulations and policies after the recent economic reform and provide possible solutions to keep these industries sustainable.
Olga Kostadinova
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 77-93; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.6

Abstract:
Religious tourism, both everywhere in the world and here in Bulgaria, is the oldest type of tourism. The people of the past were extremely religious, so by undertaking pilgrimages, they hoped to be healed physically or mentally, to be purified, and thus to come closer to God. Drawing a parallel with today’s practice of religious tourism in the country, it should be noted that it is becoming more and more profane and alien to true worship. The spiritual and material cultural heritage of Orthodoxy in Bulgaria as an object of pilgrimage tourism provides great opportunities for development in the country. The purpose of this study is to present the results of a study on the communication policy of monasteries in southwestern Bulgaria as a factor in the development of religious tourism in southwestern Bulgaria. The survey was conducted among visitors to monasteries in southwestern Bulgaria through the use of questionnaires and structured interviews on site when entering or leaving religious sites.
Christiana Agiannidou, Ruska Bozhkova
Economics & Law, Volume 3, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v3i1.1

Abstract:
The present work is a contribution to the term of Inter-cultural education that presents enormous interest worldwide and more in the countries of Southern Europe. One of these countries that face intensely the migrant problem, is Greece. The number of refugees’ children who finish up a school level in Greece, and in the same time they try to survive is extremely high. For this reason, the aid of supported structures of education for foreign students in Greece, is needed. However, the importance of the intercultural education in Greece with the simultaneous reduction of funds on Greek education, caused a lot of discussions. As an outcome it is aimed to observe the opinions and the attitudes of teachers that are involved in the intercultural educational process in Greece. A parallel research will be carried out also the in public elementary schools of Chios island, that entertain foreign students. Finally, from the results of this research, would try to infer safe conclusions from specific assumptions.
Dilyana Yaneva
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.3

Abstract:
The analytical activity aims to increase company’s competitiveness and establish its strategic position in the business. Timely diagnosis of threats, identification of key success factors and competitive advantages enables company management to constantly review its marketing goals and strategies by taking proper and timely strategic marketing decisions. In this regard, the main objective of the article is to examine the characteristics and main directions of marketing analysis, emphasizing their importance in the process of strategic marketing decision making. A survey was used as a main method for collecting primary data. The evaluation of the studied indicators is performed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The obtained results show the underestimated role of the environment analysis in the companies’ marketing activity and its necessity in decision making for a long-term development and prosperity. The conclusion includes a summary concerning the overcoming of these problems.
Doaa Salman, Dina Seiam
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 14-23; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.2

Abstract:
The aim of this research paper is to discuss market failure of Thomas Cook and analyse the reasons behind the market failure of Thomas Cook Group and how outdated technology, having high debts, and did Brexit lead to its collapse. Further on analysis of the reasons for failure supported by literature review across different economic schools has been elaborated. The paper provides clarification to the characteristics of the airlines and their entry barriers taking into consideration the tour operator. Further, it is described how Thomas Cook collapse affected Africa and Europe. Lastly, the conclusion is about the losses occurred in Thomas Cook Company, how other firms can avoid failure and the direct negative impact of the BREXIT on the company.
Avgustin Milanov
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 62-70; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.6

Abstract:
The present paper regards the opportunities of forecasting of some key indicators in the “Request for Information” (RFI) and “Request for Proposal” (RFP) processes in the supply chain at the Bulgarian mobile telecommunication operators. The presented hereby forecasting is based on the use of the Holt-Winters method for exponential smoothing in the presence of additive and multiplicative seasonality and is made or indicators: “number of contracts”, “number of contracts with savings” and “number of the issued purchase orders”. The lowest “Stationary R square”, “R square” and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage of Error) values are used as measurement of accuracy and for selection of the best fit models that are applied. It is also important to point out that the measurement is being done for the so-called “bottle necks” or “narrow places” in the RFI and RFP processes. The purpose of this bottle-neck forecasting is to provide timely point for “Go/Not Go” decisions point for these very same process and thus to result in an improved risk management in the form of risk aversion and risk minimization.
Ivaylo Ivanov
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.5

Abstract:
Modern hotel bookers claim to switch moods to the digital distribution model of hospitality services. A survey conducted in Bulgaria among frequent travellers reveal their attitudes when making a hotel room reservation. Taking into account the implementation of contemporary digital technologies in everyday life this article is observing the main distribution channels that are used in hotel industry. Compared are the preferences of the different age groups using a questionnaire distributed among them. Online Travel Agencies (OTA) platforms and hotels both compete and collaborate to attract customers in the worldwide web. The results of the survey reveal an ongoing process of digitalization even in sectors highly dependent on human capital. The need for remodelling market strategies of travel companies and adjusting their business performance while taking into account the trends and expectations of consumers is visible. Digitalization of the hotel reservation process in Bulgaria and the domination of Booking.com as a leading OTA confirms the fact that the domestic hotel sector follows modern world tendencies.
Veselina Kanatova-Buchkova
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 71-83; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.7

Abstract:
The article deals with the questions connected with different court procedures on damage claims grounded in State and Municipalities Liability for Damages Act (1989) result of illegal acts of Bulgarian administrative bodies. The article designates the specific issues of the state liability including the issues connected with the new regulation of the court liability for violation of the European Union law.
Doaa Salman, Abeer Rashdan, Layla Amr
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 33-49; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.4

Abstract:
This paper attempts to critically analyse the driving factors that affects Egyptian female employability in the digital sector. On the other hand, investigates the challenges that female face in the business world, in the light of the entrance of Egypt in the digital era and governments efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals. Currently, Egyptian females have a better chance than ever in becoming entrepreneurs. The aim of the paper is to analyse some of the factors that affect female as employers and draws a clearer image to what factors could help increasing female employability in Egypt during the period from 1991 to 2019. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test to check stationarity of variables. On the basis of results of ADF test, ARDL approach of cointegration was applied. Results show that internet ratio has positively affected female employability, while laws have not affected it significant. Finally, conclusion and policy recommendation are proposed. Based on the study findings that show that female opportunities on Egyption labour market need to be accompanied with schools and universities education development in order to equip them with digital knowledge and skills necessary in the digital era. Also, government policies and laws are still needed to consider female as an engine to growth.
Musa Sakanko, James Obilikwu, Joseph David
Published: 30 December 2020
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i2.1

Abstract:
The vital role of foreign direct investment has been widely studied and documented in the economic literature; however, the argument remains largely on identifying the main determinants of FDI to developing countries. It is on this note, the quantitative research method was adopted to investigates the asymmetric relationship between aggregate institutional quality and foreign direct investment in Nigeria using the Nonlinear Autoregressive Distributive Lag (NARDL) model on quarterly time-series data from 1999 Q1 – 2019 Q4. The bounds test obtains revealed that long-run co-integrating relationship exist among the variables. The NARDL result shows that both in the short-run and long-run aggregate institutional quality have asymmetric and a statistically significant effect on foreign direct investment. The study recommends that the government should establish or strengthen the quality of institutional indicators and legal framework to assure confidence in the system to motivate Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow.
Ivan Geshev, Nikolay Marin
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.1

Abstract:
The article aims to reveal the nature and specifics of the alternative method of modern banking ‘Hawala’, which makes it on the one hand, extremely convenient for use by organized criminal groups, and on the other, difficult to be investigated and proven. The authors trace Hawala’s historical roots, referring to the ancient customary law, and point out the strict rules on which it operates. It highlights that, with the development of information technologies, the Hawala systems’ principles have found a new application, from which organized criminal groups benefit. The article clarifies how the Bulgarian legislation incriminates money laundering and the possible use of the ‘Hawala’ system for this and other criminal activities. Attention is paid to the Bulgarian experience in the investigation of a network of persons involved in the use of the Hawala method for concealing, particularly serious crimes. The conclusion is made that the Hawala phenomenon poses a serious threat to the rule of law in any country, and the Bulgarian legislation needs to be adapted in order to provide effective mechanisms to counter such non-conventional type of crime.
Boryana Milusheva
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 69-77; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.7

Abstract:
The research examines the issues related to the chosen methods for termination of employment contracts in “Perfumery Douglas Bulgaria” OOD. Based on the analysis of the normative regulation as well as the results of the conducted research, summaries, conclusions and recommendations for improvement in the company and in the Labour Code of the Republic of Bulgaria are made. Debatable questions are also raised for discussion on the basis of which a proposal is derived for a change in the National Revenue Agency (NRA) Register of Employment Contracts.
Mariela Bogdanova
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 55-61; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.5

Abstract:
The current topic focuses on the new social vision and challenges after the adoption of legislation on the social and solidarity economy in Bulgaria, as well as on the opportunities for access to financing and institutional support for social enterprises. The progress made is seen in a broader perspective, including not only statistics on the number of social enterprises self-identified, but also proven social added value and entered in the Register of social enterprises. Tracking the challenges is in the context of the process and the employment and human resources options and the provision of a supportive environment for the sustainable development of social enterprises. Although 2019 has emerged as a strong startup community, we still don’t have startups for social entrepreneurship. This, of course, does not mean that Bulgaria lacks successful models of social enterprises that provide employment for persons from different vulnerable groups and answer questions related to the social impact and benefits of applying the principles of the social economy. The European Union today, more than ever, emphasizes its new social vision, based on opportunity and solidarity.
Andriyana Andreeva, Galina Yolova, Diana Dimitrova
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 43-48; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.3

Abstract:
The paper aims to identify key aspects of the essence of eHealth (digital hospitals, clinical information systems, computerized medical records, telemedicine) as a priority European policy and how it is reflected in the national legislation of Bulgaria. In this sense, the aim of the study is first to highlight the typical European trends in the development of eHealth through continuous and well-established processes of application of digital technology to healthcare and their incorporation into the Community policies as a legal framework, and second to analyze national processes and stages of digitalization of healthcare and the health insurance system in terms of the creation of functioning and adequate eHealth. Based on the analysis performed, the authors have drawn conclusions about trends in and legal effects of the regulatory framework related to the efficiency of healthcare and the effective management of the health insurance systems.
Larisa Shemyatikhina
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.4

Abstract:
The article considers the corporate memory of the organization as a modern management tool. Intuitive management of a modern organization comes to a new basic competence and the main competitive advantage of business in conditions of innovation and crises – knowledge management. Corporate memory of a modern organization as a structural element of knowledge management allows to increase efficiency of use of the experience of the organization itself, to ensure transition of corporate knowledge when changing generations of managers and employees of the organization, to reduce costs of access to sources of information.
Valentina Goleva, Vesela Mircheva
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 16-42; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.2

Abstract:
The study examines the role and place of the two major political institutions, namely government and parliament, in the preparation and adoption of the state budget. The importance of the state budget for the implementation of the political program for the management of the government, as well as the need for its public discussion in the parliament, is substantiated. That is why the annual state budget is adopted in the legal form of the law and the legislative procedure for its adoption is followed, focusing on its specifics. An analysis is presented of the position of the state budget in the budget system of the Republic of Bulgaria, and in particular – in the consolidated fiscal system. The legal regulation of the budgetary process is also examined, and its stages are monitored.
Gergana Yocheva
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 62-68; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.6

Abstract:
The contemporary understanding of development of enterprises of industrial sector is particularly associated with their need to be sustainable. This article presents the essence and varieties of a sustainable development of enterprises, as with regard to them, the main task is to achieve sustainability of economic development. The objective of this article is to show the relation between the strategies and policies of sustainable development, as nowadays, in the modern dynamic world, they are in a direct relation. The efforts of industrial enterprises should be aimed at the establishment of prerequisites for their successful creation, growth and development, in order to become sustainable economic entities.
Nikol Nikolova
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 78-87; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.8

Abstract:
Stalking is a relatively newly criminalized type of behavior that should be brought to public attention and awareness. Through a review of statistical data, the relevant anti-stalking act, media portrayal and social impact, the article aims to provide an overview of Japan’s response to stalking acts. In Japan, stalking is listed as a criminal offence punishable by imprisonment with work and fines. It can be concluded that almost all victims receive additional guidance, however, this has been criticized as insufficient. Statistical studies with a wider scope should be introduced, while the law should be revised regularly and expanded to include clinical therapy for perpetrators.
Svetlana Tsonchovska
Economics & Law, Volume 2, pp 88-95; https://doi.org/10.37708/el.swu.v2i1.9

Abstract:
The process of creating and approving the final dedicated layer of “Allowable Areas” is a complex factual set of administrative and procedural actions by the administration that assists farmers to declare their plots with which they want to participate in the relevant support campaign. In view of the fact that the final order of the Minister of Agriculture, Food and Forestry is, by its legal nature, an individual administrative act which affects the rights and legitimate interests of individual farmers in the course of their activities to one degree or the other, it is also subject to of judicial review of its legality.
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