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Results in Journal Taikomoji kalbotyra: 118

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Loreta Vaicekauskienė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 183-208; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.13

Abstract:
This paper describes the social value of the global English language as identified in the investigations of various communities worldwide and shows how the social meanings of English relate to each other in a broader ideological field universal for today’s locally global world. The notions of indexical field (Eckert 2008) and bivalent indexicality (Cotter, Valentinsson 2018) are applied in the analysis. The aim of the study is to synthesize results obtained by different researchers from different ideological and communicative contexts and to explore the indexical potential of English, including its local varieties and mixed speech styles. The study is based on a qualitative analysis of a corpus of secondary sources, consisting of a total of 74 scholarly publications from the Expanding Circle communities, which were published in English in 1990–2020 (most of them during the second decade of the 21st century).In total, more than 50 social meanings of the global English language have been identified. It is likely that the abundance of social associations with English is due to the strong first-order indexes. Hence, the social meanings were grouped into the following nine indexical categories based on the presumed first-order sociocultural indexicalities: British and American culture; International sphere; Technologies, science and education; Economic and social status; Personal capital; Youth; Popular culture and media; Urban sphere; and Male. Positive social meanings dominate the indexicalities, but for some of them, bivalent indexicality (presence of contradictory positive and negative values) has been recorded. Although there is much overlap between these relative categories, the constellation as a whole is interpreted as a complex of several separate and multivalent indexical fields. It is to be hoped that this study not only illustrates that the notion of indexical field is applicable for analysis of the imagined global community of users of English, but also provides a broader ideological context for further research of the social meaning-making potential of the global English language.
Violeta Miliun
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 99-115; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.8

Abstract:
This study investigates functions of code-switching based on the model proposed by René Appel and Pieter Muysken. Code-switching is an interesting sociolinguistic phenomenon characteristic to bilingual and multilingual communities. It involves the use of different languages within the boundaries of a single sentence or between sentences in one specific domain or discourse. It is an individual language choice determined by such factors as the topic, the situation, the participants of a conversation, their interrelationship, emotions, and demonstration of one or more identities. On this basis, Appel and Muysken (2005) identified six functions of code-switching: referential, directive, expressive (related to identity), phatic (metaphorical), metalinguistic and poetic. This paper sets out to achieve several goals: (a) to find out which of these functions appear in the Facebook discourse of young people originated from Šalčininkai district, (b) to identify the main types of functions in girls’ and boys’ profiles, and (c) to study the frequency of the functions with regard to the variable of gender. The research material consists of 1 048 posts and comments published in 2017–2018 and obtained from 30 Facebook profiles. The dataset represents young people aged between 20 and 30 years, with Polish as their school language. Facebook posts and comments are investigated from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. The research results show that functionally code-switching is similar in both girls’ and boys’ Facebook discourse. On the profiles of both genders, the number of functions is identical, but the frequency of these functions varies. In the datasets of both genders, the most predominant function is directive, which appears when languages change depending on the language chosen by the interlocutor. This research could be informative for sociolinguists who investigate electronic discourse of young people from South East Lithuania and for those who focus on how environment influences the emergence of different linguistic codes on Facebook. The research could also stimulate greater interest of sociolinguists in the conversational features of residents in Šalčininkai district.
Eglė Vaisėtaitė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 116-132; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.9

Abstract:
Sociolinguistic research shows that Lithuanians in the diaspora notice changes in their mother tongue, especially vocabulary. Therefore, there is a need to study L1 vocabulary attrition in the Lithuanian diaspora. Since one of the main directions of current emigration is Ireland, this article seeks to answer the question of whether the signs of vocabulary attrition can be observed in the language of the first generation of Lithuanian emigrants living in Ireland, and to provide some insight into what factors might influence this trend. This paper describes and analyzes the results of the vocabulary size test of 100 Lithuanians living in Ireland and the answers to the questions of a sociolinguistic survey. The survey involved adults who left Lithuania at the age of 12 or older and consider Lithuanian as their mother tongue. The data of the target group are compared with the data of Lithuanians living in Lithuania (LL) (100 respondents). The results of both groups are compared by applying the T test, and the influence of sociolinguistic factors on vocabulary is estimated by applying regression analysis.The results have revealed that the Irish Lithuanian (IL) vocabulary is smaller than that of Lithuanians living in Lithuania (in average 60,300 and 62,100 words, respectively), and this difference is statistically significant (p = 0.048). The empirical analysis has revealed that education does not affect the size of the IL vocabulary but is significant for the LL vocabulary. The difference in vocabulary size between the IL and LL groups is mainly due to the results of those with higher university education, while the results of those with lower education are very similar in the two groups. However, the IL vocabulary positively correlates with the age of the respondents at the time of the survey (p = 0.01) and the age at the time of emigration (p = 0.006). Thus, it can be assumed that the IL vocabulary continued growing while the respondents were still living in Lithuania, but after emigration their L1 vocabulary stopped increasing. Lack of communication in Lithuanian with people in Lithuania has a negative impact on the respondents’ L1 vocabulary. Considering these results, it can be argued that there are signs of vocabulary attrition in Irish Lithuanian L1.
Eglė Žurauskaitė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 82-98; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.7

Abstract:
The paper aims to reveal the process of face and power construction in the context of political TV debates in Lithuania and to analyse face threatening acts (FTAs) in terms of propositional content and orientation to the addressee’s face. This study adopts the qualitative content analysis approach to analyse 360 minutes of political debates broadcasted before the 2016 Lithuanian parliamentary elections. The current paper presents the concept of impoliteness, which is later applied in the empirical analysis to address two main objectives: (a) to analyse the process of face and power construction in political TV debates and (b) to study FTAs in terms of propositional content and orientation to the addressee’s face. The results of the study have revealed that politicians seek to get more power by producing FTAs towards their opponents; a zero-sum game metaphor can be used to describe this process. Also, the analysis of FTAs has demonstrated that politicians tend to apply both negative and positive impoliteness strategies. The analysis of FTAs in terms of propositional content has shown that politicians are mostly described as the ones who are lying, hiding the truth, and have performed wrong and ineffective actions in the past. This suggests that participants in Lithuanian political TV debates seek to damage their rival’s face in a way which does not harm their own face by applying indirect – positive and negative – impoliteness strategies and by negatively describing their opponents’ professionalism and general competencies.
Réka Sólyom
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 72-81; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.6

Abstract:
By employing a functional-cognitive frame, this paper, in which neologisms derived from English are analysed, focuses on the semantics of new Hungarian terms of quality assurance (quality management in general). Although the importance of unambiguous terms in scientific communication is often emphasised (Temmerman 2002: 211), it has been observed that the presence of conceptual metonymies and metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson 1980, Panther and Thornburg 2003, Kövecses 2015) also fosters understanding of technical languages. The author’s previous research in the field of the semantics of Hungarian neologisms (e.g. Sólyom 2014a, b, 2016) has also revealed that the presence of metonymies and metaphors has a significant impact upon the process of meaning construal. The present research assumes that various metonymic and metaphorical meanings occur in the semantics of novel Hungarian terms of quality assurance. To attest this, examples from a questionnaire filled by Hungarian quality engineers in 2018 will be analysed. Another question addressed in this paper is whether there is a mental reason for the fact that although there are colloquial Hungarian words and expressions for describing the processes of manufacturing, experts in the field do not use them, but rather employ neologisms with English roots. Indeed, this is how specialists distinguish technical terms from everyday expressions.
Jogilė Teresa Ramonaitė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 164-182; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.12

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the results of a sentence repetition task performed by Lithuanian L2 speakers of different language proficiency levels. This paper focuses on a set of targeted verb forms included in the task because they are less likely to occur in free production. The different forms the speakers produced are analyzed by considering their correspondence (or not) to the targeted form, by comparing the speakers among each other with respect to their learner variety and by comparing the task results to the repertoire of the same speaker in the free production data. In multiple cases of failed re-production, the analysis examines what the targeted forms were substituted with and tries to identify possible reasons for such substitution. This analysis confirms the general inability of the basic variety speakers to distinguish between morphologically different forms and the dominant trend showing that L2 learners are more meaning-focused than form-focused. The analysis also shows growing implicit knowledge, or at least gradual passive acquisition, of the less frequent forms as the speaker advances in the post-basic continuum.
Robertas Kudirka
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 21-32; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.2

Abstract:
This article is one part of the research of adverbs in Lithuanian slang. Although there is no systematic and comprehensive research into the Lithuanian language slang, slang is commonly believed to be chaotic and have no grammatical system. The purpose of this article is to morphologically examine the derivatives formed with suffix -ai from the adjectives with suffix -iškas and from the primary adjectives without suffixes. The material (79 adverbs) is collected from the dictionary of Lithuanian slang and the dictionary of non-standard Lithuanian. The study aims to identify the systematic morphological features. To achieve the aim the research words are classified according to their suffixes, their origin is determined and morphological analysis is performed.The research reveals that a foreign language unit that emerges in the context of another language undergoes assimilation - it is transformed in one way or another by adapting it to the linguistic system. In Lithuanian slang, adverbs with the suffix -ai are mostly made up from hybrid adjectives of Russian origin with the suffix -iškas. There is also a number of adverbs formed from English hybrid adjectives. A few are derived from semantically neologic adjectives. The majority of suffixal -ai derivatives that are formed from primary adjectives are Russian origin. Adverbs which are derived from the adjectives with the suffix -iškas always retain the accent in the root: this pattern is common to all slang adverbs. All forms of adverbial degrees have accented suffixes. The findings of the reseach reveal that the morphological features of the studied slang adverbs have undergone certain transformations and follow the regularities of the Lithuanian language system: the slang adverbs copy derivative models of the standard language.
Inga Hilbig
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-20; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.1

Abstract:
The article seeks to investigate the main reasons that cause inharmonious early bilingualism in inter-ethnic Lithuanian emigrant families. The data consist of extracts from 25 semi-structured interviews with Lithuanian women and Facebook comments of such emigrant mothers. Firstly, the study identifies the reasons why some informants themselves do not speak Lithuanian in their families, which leads to their children not even being able to understand it. These reasons can be lack of knowledge about the nature of early simultaneous bilingualism with a minority language, weak or negative attitudes towards Lithuanian and / or Lithuania, urgent need to fully integrate, influence of non-Lithuanian speaking partners, dominance of the majority language over bilingual mothers, and children’s passive bilingualism or insufficient comprehension skills. On their part, children can be growing up passively bilingual because of the minority language input shortage, not enough possibilities and real need to practice it in their daily lives, and because mothers tolerate bilingual conversations with certain discourse strategies. Finally, this paper examines the factors determining underdeveloped or attriting competences in the minority language. Children might be able to participate in very simple colloquial conversations in Lithuanian but cannot express themselves more freely in it or on different topics. They lack higher quality and more various input, e.g. through books or films in the Lithuanian language. They protest against minority language classes, where they could have a chance to learn to read and write in the minority language and further develop their skills. The analysis has revealed a variety of different reasons and their complex combinations that contribute to inharmonious bilingualism with Lithuanian as a minority language. They are objective and subjective, primary and secondary, sociolinguistic, psychological, pedagogical, and maybe some other reasons. A crucial role is played by mothers’ negative emotions in the face of struggles and children’s resistance, which also negatively affects success in bilingual child-rearing.
Loreta Vilkienė, Laura Vilkaitė-Lozdienė, Rita Juknevičienė, Justina Bružaitė-Liseckienė, Kinga Geben, Birutė Ryvitytė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 33-38; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.3

Abstract:
The idea of this paper arose in a reading group of several colleagues at the Faculty of Philology of Vilnius University after a discussion of a review article published by the editors of Language Teaching. Titled ‘Replication studies in language learning and teaching’ (2008), the paper focuses on replication studies and argues that they should be promoted and valued no less than original research. The participants of the reading group agreed that replication studies, understood here primarily as replications of quantitative research, are indeed an important issue that could be of interest to the broader community of applied linguists in Lithuania. The present paper argues that attempts to replicate earlier studies, which are very scarce or non-existent in Lithuania, deserve more attention both from novice and mature researchers. Replications are particularly valuable in developmental studies where replicating a study over a period of time allows the researcher to obtain data for continued analysis. Furthermore, a replication of a published study that deals with data collected in one country offers an opportunity to verify its findings in a different context and this way consolidates our understanding of phenomena under study. Finally, replication is an invaluable learning method to a novice linguist, be it a senior undergraduate or postgraduate student. Thus the authors of this paper would like to promote the idea of replication research in our community as well as encourage everyone interested make use of the increasingly growing amount of open access data available on the internet.
Vitalija Kazlauskienė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 39-49; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.4

Abstract:
The noun phrase (NP), one of the key elements of a sentence, can reveal the characteristics of a learner’s linguistic competence. The present study focuses on actual decomposition of NP in the predicate construction. This is when the attribute elements of a noun phrase are included in the predicate construct as factor-actualized determinants. In this position, the copula verb is merely a grammatical means of allowing the attribute to become a predicate (Gaulmyn, Basset 1991: 177).The aim of the study being a more thorough investigation of the criteria and peculiarities of producing this type of predicate constructs in learner language, the present research is based on the empirical material from the Lithuanian learner corpus. The paper briefly discusses the concept of the predicate construction and describes the process of compiling the learner corpus as well as the principles of data selection. The analysis of the NP in a predicate construction is then presented, and the characteristic cases from the corpus data are examined. The main limitation of the present study is related to the scope of the learner corpus. Having summarized the results of the quantitative and qualitative research, the following conclusions were formulated. The learner language is dominated by NP predicate constructions with an adjective more often than a noun. As to the verb conjunction, the typical attribute verb être ‘to be’ was the only one widely used in the corpus under investigation. The analysis of the corpus data also revealed a number of specific errors that are typical of the learners’ written language. In general, the predictive constructions in the learners’ language are characterized by the omission of redundancy tags in the grammatical categories of gender and number. The analysis of the learner corpus provided a broader look at the NP in a predicate construction, highlighting the simplicity, conciseness and repetition of this construct. The results of the study are important for a more comprehensive description of the learners’ language, for solving problems in foreign language analysis, and for contributing to the quality of teaching and learning the French language.
Vilija Tauraitė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 50-71; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.5

Abstract:
The primary goal of this paper is to examine the coverage of the 2008-2009 economic crisis in the Lithuanian online media as well as its relationship to the actual economic situation and perception of media consumers. The theoretical basis for this research is made up of the theories of agenda-setting and framing. The coverage of the media is assessed on the basis of the corpus of economic reporting in 2006–2014 in two Lithuanian media sources, the news agency BNS and DELFI news website, by analysing the volume and the tone of the reports. The coverage in the media is then compared to some statistical economic indicators.The main findings of the paper are the following:1. The coverage of the crisis in the media reflected rather accurately the actual situation: the fluctuations of the volume of the reports largely followed the timeline of the main events of the crisis. The correlation between the reporting tone and industrial production index as a gauge of the economic situation was rather high, which supports the adequacy of the coverage. The relationship between the reporting and economic indicators was found to be stronger in the case of the BNS than in DELFI.2. Negative reports were found to be dominating over positive ones. It is partially inevitable due to the context of the crisis, but the effect of the general media negativity bias cannot be ruled out either.3. During the year of the worst economic situation, the number of the reports of both highly negative and highly positive tone increased, but the volume of the two extremes decreased with the improvement of the economic situation. This might suggest that the media was aiming to counterweight the flow of very negative news during the crisis.4. On average, the tone of the BNS news agency coverage was more positive than that of DELFI. The factors behind this trend could be the linguistic features of the reporting style (usage of intensifying modal words as well as negatively or positively image-evoking lexis) and the intention to attract attention from the audience.5. Certain asymmetry was noticed in the public reaction to the coverage of the crisis in the media as media consumers reacted more rapidly and for a longer time period to the deterioration in the reporting tone than to its improvement.6. The correlation to media coverage was stronger in the case of the consumer sentiment indicator rather than in the case of the indicator for consumer behaviour (retail trade turnover index).It should be noted that the analysis was limited to only two media channels, so the inclusion of other media channels, especially television, could make such research more informative. Further research could include an additional corpus of reports with such keywords as “recession”, “recovery”, “growth”, “unemployment” and similar items. An analysis of the effects of linguistic factors alone on the reporting tone could also provide some interesting insights. Research on the coverage tone in relation to different subjects (economy, companies and political events) could be another valuable addition to the study.
Veronika Girininkaitė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 148-163; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.11

Abstract:
In order to show how research on historical epistolary language can contribute to sociolinguistics and applied linguistics, the present article examines some examples of late 18th-century letters. The research sample includes letters written to Vilnius University professors in that period (now archived in the Vilnius University Library), where the authors of the letters use code-switching or write in a language other than what we would nowadays think of as default. The cases under investigation have revealed that the use of an unusual language could be motivated by pedagogical goals, whereas code-switching could be caused, among other factors, by the need to refer to new realities or to clarify meaning; it could also be used for rhetorical expression (poetic function of language). The article is also important in that it presents accidentally detected instances of code-switching that are generally hard to identify in historically distant letters, e.g. Polish elements in French, Lithuanian and Russian elements in Polish texts. The article is intended to stimulate interest in the research on archaic manuscripts and to enrich the existing knowledge about the linguistic environment of the old Vilnius University.
Eglė Krivickaitė-Leišienė
Published: 16 June 2020
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 133-147; doi:10.15388/taikalbot.2020.14.10

Abstract:
The paper aims to analyse and compare children’s acquisition of phonotactic patterns in two regional areas in Lithuania: Southern Samogitia and Western High Lithuania. The sample of the study consisted of 48 children: 24 children living in Kelmė (representing the Raseiniškiai subdialect of Southern Samogitian) and 24 children living in Kaunas area (representing the Kauniškiai subdialect of Western High Lithuanian). The data was collected using a non-word repetition test task in Lithuanian.In general, since in Lithuanian dialects vowels differ more than consonants, the pronunciation of vowels serves as one of the main criteria used to define dialects. The main dialect divisions are based on the variants of the stressed diphthongs uo and ie when they occur in the non-final position in a word. In the Samogitian subdialects, the vowels o and ė are pronounced as uo and ie (for example, kuoje [= koja] and dieti [= dėti]); the diphthongs uo and ie are pronounced as long vowels ū and ī.The results of the current research have disclosed that some features of the Raseiniškiai subdialect of Southern Samogitian prevail in children’s language. For example, instead of the vowel o, children employ uo: geluoša [= geloša], talabuosa [= staligosa]; instead of the vowel u, they opt for uo: lasmuove [= lasmuvi]; and instead of the vowel e, they tend to use ei: šveila [= švela].The results of the research also demonstrate that Lithuanian children apply the typical universal strategies of pronunciation simplification, mostly substitution and omission; other strategies, such as consonant assimilation, metathesis, sound migration to another syllable, and sound addition, were much less frequent.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 44-56; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19177

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-118; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.16847

Abstract:
The paper deals with the effects of prescriptivism on the Lithuanian language. The research includes one domain of language use – radio and television, and one aspect of language – lexicon, in the period between 1960 and 2010. The investigation is corpus-based and focuses on the use of words that are classified as “incorrect” by the Lithuanian norm-setters. The study is important both as a discussion of the impact of prescriptivism on language change in general, as well as of the indirect influence of media on language, since media can affect the symbolic evaluation of specific language forms.The paper consists of five chapters. The first chapter “Review of the research” discusses the theoretical assumptions and concepts needed for further analysis: it gives an overview of studies on the effects of prescriptivism conducted in Lithuania and elsewhere, presents the concepts of second-level indexicality and style, and outlines the key characteristics of media change in Lithuania that are relevant to the study. Studies on the success of prescriptivism do not give a definite answer as to whether prescriptivism works. Institutionalisation and a high degree of stigmatisation of the corrected language forms can be listed among the factors that increase its success; prescriptivism is likely to be less successful when the “forbidden” language forms are too convenient to be given up, or when prescriptivist rules are too complicated for lay language users and the rules contradict each other. In the case of media, the effect of prescriptivism is said to be weakened by media commercialisation.When applied to the analysis of non-standard words, first-order indexicality refers to situations when the non-standard forms are used as value-free instances of ordinary speech, in already established meanings; in these cases, the speakers are not aware that they are using “incorrect” forms. Second-order indexicality refers to cases when non-standard words are used for additional function, e.g., to express a speaker’s particular identity or to construct a certain (informal, friendly) speech style. The concept of style, referring to the social differences between individual speakers, is used to analyse the use of words in concrete situations. The paper gives an overview of three sociolinguistic concepts of style that are relevant in this study: style as a degree of formality (e.g., when the speaker accommodates to the formal context of the media and uses less non-standard words); as audience and referee design (e.g., use of non-standard words in programmes for young audiences); and as a speaker design (e.g., play with language by the programme host in order to construct a fun persona).In the study of non-standard lexis, it is important to account for certain features of Lithuanian media development, such as the Soviet period, which was characterised by the use of newspeak, and the commercialisation of the media in the contemporary period. Accordingly, the paper analyses the uses of incorrect words as a part of newspeak and their use for the entertainment-related purposes such as language plays in present times. The paper also addresses the transitory period of radio and TV development, which has features from both the previous and the later periods, as well as some unique characteristics of language use.The second chapter “Radio and TV speech in the prescriptive discourse” presents an analysis of the metalinguistic discourse on media speech produced by Lithuanian prescriptivists from the pre-war period up to now. The analysis shows how this discourse preserved the same dominant idea about media’s role in language standardisation. On the one hand, during this whole time, radio and television were approached as responsible for teaching listeners and viewers the “correct language”; on the other hand, simultaneously, the language of radio and television was perceived as failing to conform to the prescriptive norms set by the norm-setters. The huge societal shifts that happened during this time did not make a major influence on this discourse. It remained very stable during different periods of time. The social, cultural and political changes in society and the media were taken into account only by adjusting the argumentation – by presenting patriotic, moral, ideological or legal motives that were meant to justify the language prescriptions.The third chapter “Research methods and data” presents the Corpus of Radio and TV speech, the concept of non-standard words, and the sources of prescriptivist corrections used in the analysis. The corpus of radio and TV speech includes data from 1960 to 2011 and is constructed in a balanced way to represent the periods of Lithuanian radio and TV development (Soviet, transitory, contemporary), as well as programme genres (talk programmes, information programmes, journals/features/documentaries). The speakers are coded into six types: news reader/voice-over, talk show host, expert, celebrity, hero and vox populi. For the analysis, the non-standard words that are classified as “incorrect” in the normative tradition of the Lithuanian language were coded. These include old (mainly, Slavic) and new (mainly, English) loans, the so-called hybrid words (that have a borrowed part), semantic loans, translations, as well as some lexicalised uses of words and some lexicalised syntactic constructions. Two types of words are analysed – individual lexical words and functional words. The latter include various fillers and discourse markers, as well as pronoun constructions with tai (e.g. kažkas tai ‘some(body)’). Non-standard words were identified from older and present style guides, including the database of language corrections created by the State Commission of the Lithuanian Language.The fourth chapter “Change in the number of...
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 4-7; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19174

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-3; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19172

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 57-93; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19178

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 114-118; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19182

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Nevinskaitė
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 94-97; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19179

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 8-19; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19173

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 20-37; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19175

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 38-43; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19176

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 108-113; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19181

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Laima Nevinskaitė, Giedrius Tamaševičius
Published: 20 December 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 98-107; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.19180

Abstract:
Aims to publish articles of theoretical and empirical research, précis, reviews of books and articles, and academic essays on issues of applied linguistics.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 75-96; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17233

Abstract:
Gender representation in textbooks used for teaching English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) has been analysed extensively and in various countries since the 1980s. According to most studies (e.g. Hellinger 1980; Porreca 1984; Ansary and Babaji 2003; Pihlaja 2007; Lee 2016), females tend to be underrepresented and depicted in stereotypical ways, which risks reinforcing gender clichés in students (Britton and Lumpkin 1977; Peterson and Lach 1990). To date, only a few studies (Brusokaitė and Verikaitė-Gaigalienė 2015) have focused on gender representation in teaching materials used in Lithuania; moreover, teaching materials other than textbooks remain underexplored. Using corpus analysis tools and criteria adapted from previous analyses of gender representation and language use in textbooks, this study takes a both quantitative and qualitative approach to the analysis of two EFL exercise books and two EFL test books published in Lithuania between 2005 and 2017 and currently available on the Lithuanian book market. More precisely, areas of investigation were the numerical visibility of males and females, stereotypical contexts in which characters appear, and strategies used by the authors to make the language more gender-inclusive. The results show that males are more visible numerically: not only are there more male than female characters in all four books, males are also more likely to be named first in paired constructions. With regard to stereotypical contexts, both males and females tend to be represented in traditional gender roles: males are typically represented as leaders, the breadwinners of the family and the main decision-makers; females, on the other hand, are depicted as working in stereotypically female professions or in the home domain, and they are more often described as weak, fearful and in need of assistance. Moreover, there is very little variation with regard to the traditional image of a family, typically consisting of a mother, a father and two to three children. As for the use of gender-inclusive language, the use of certain (e.g. naming both male and female pronouns when referring to a person of unknown gender), yet not all available strategies (e.g. singular they) could be observed. These findings suggest that the authors were heavily influenced by the strategies that exist for the Lithuanian language. The language used in the four books can, therefore, be said to differ to some extent from both actual language use (Pauwels 2001; Romaine 2001; Baker 2010) and the language used in teaching materials employed in countries where English is spoken as a first or second language (Jacobs 1999). Finally, this article recommends authors of future teaching materials to pay more attention to the representation of males and females and to also give importance to deviation from what is generally seen as the norm. Arguably, this would provide children with a more truthful picture of contemporary British and North American societies, and help to teach them that diversity is a positive feature.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 39-74; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17232

Abstract:
Using dialectometric methods and instruments, the article analyzes one of the new dialectal derivatives – the geolect of Pasvalys, located in the northern part of Eastern Aukštaitians of Panevėžys. The aim is to find the strong and weak dialectal features of this geolect and to identify its dominant dialectal variants. 10-hour recordings and 60 simple-structure sentences reflecting the primary, secondary and tertiary dialectal features have been analyzed in order to achieve the research aim. The recorded sentences were uttered by nine respondents of three generations: the oldest, the middle-aged and the youngest. The respondents live in the regions of Joniškėlis, Pasvalys and Daujėnai, which are interconnected by the strongest, closest, densest and the most complex socio-cultural networks. The dialectal data, which includes the recorded sentences transcribed by IPA, was statistically calculated and quantified using the tools of the Gabmap software. The network pseudo map, reference point pseudo maps, cluster analysis pseudo maps and differential dialectal features were analyzed. The quantitative data analysis has shown that the dialectal variant used in the regions of Joniškėlis, Pasvalys and possibly Daujėnai is affected by the processes of convergence. The most stable dialectal features are used in the region of Joniškėlis. They (as well as the forms of standard language) change or supplement the dialectal features of the subdialects of Pasvalys and Daujėnai spoken in the eastern part of the area of Eastern Aukštaitians of ​​Panevėžys (the direction of its spread is the eastern part of the area of ​​the subdialect) and form the basis of the dialectal features of Pasvalys geolect. Both stable and changing primary, secondary and tertiary dialectal features were found in the speech of the respondents of all the three-generations. The change of dialectal features, or convergence, is the strongest in the youngest generation. It is similarly strong in the middle-aged and in the oldest generations. However, in the speech of young people, most of the primary dialectal features coexist with the secondary and tertiary ones. Thus, the formation of Pasvalys geolect is based on the more stable (rather than changing) strong variant used in Joniškėlis, which is marked by a high degree of vitality.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 292-344; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17240

Abstract:
This article compares the language ideologies of language experts (both academic and non-academic) in online news media in Lithuania, Norway and Serbia. The results will reveal that language is understood in diametrically opposed ways amongst Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts on the one, and Norwegian academic experts on the other hand. Lithuanian and Serbian academic experts are influenced by modernist ideas of language as a single, homogenous entity, whose borders ideally match the borders of an ethnic group. Norwegian academic experts function in the public sphere as those who try to deconstruct the modernist notion of language by employing an understanding of language as a cognitive tool that performs communicative and other functions. On the other hand, non-academic experts in all the three countries exhibit a striking similarity in their language ideologies, as the great majority expresses modernist ideals of language.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 124-154; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17235

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present a pilot study which applies the framework of Corpus Pattern Analysis (CPA, Hanks 2004) to analyse some Lithuanian verbs which form part of the basic vocabulary. CPA draws on the insights of the corpus-driven language analysis and contextual and functional theory of meaning: a meaning of a word is associated with a specific lexical and grammatical environment, e.g. corpus patterns which represent an interconnection of lexical and grammatical elements. The CPA procedure is one of the several corpus-driven methods differing from the pattern grammar (Hunston, Francis 2000) in the way that CPA not only uses typical grammatical categories (e.g. word classes) but also introduces semantic values (e.g. semantic types) to distinguish different senses of a word. Semantic types are often the main separator of meanings, especially when two verb senses are associated with the same grammatical pattern. Concerning learners’ dictionaries, CPA could provide learners with more detailed usage data, and this could lead to a better understanding of meaning differences, important both for language reception and language production. After introducing the CPA methodology, we present the CPA analysis of two Lithuanian verbs, namely, the inductive procedure followed to observe and define meaning-related patterning. We also discuss the problematic issues related to the application of CPA as identified in this study and mentioned by other CPA practitioners. First, observing and defining corpus patterns is a challenging task for lexicographers, especially because of the pattern / meaning division and generalizations related to semantic types. The second problematic aspect is automatization in the process of pattern recognition. The third issue relates to foreign language learners as a target group: meaning-related patterning observed in the data has to be presented in a learner dictionary in a user-friendly way.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 226-258; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17238

Abstract:
This paper introduces the first version of the Lithuanian database of free association norms. This is an attempt to provide an open-access resource, which would be helpful for psycholinguists, linguists, computational linguists, and students. This version of the database includes 277 cue word forms. The responses were collected from 304 participants. In total 15,612 association pairs were recorded. The paper presents the procedure of collecting free associations and additional data available for researchers. It also provides a list of all cue words with their five most frequent associates and some summary statistics.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 259-291; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17239

Abstract:
By focusing on public communication, the current study aims to investigate how the concepts of solidarity and equality have influenced the norms of public communication in the West (Scandinavia) and what differences can be found in the context of Lithuania, where the late modernity did not follow the same patterns as in Western societies. This comparative study takes a diachronic approach to the use of the pronouns du/De and tu/Jūs and other address forms in Danish and Lithuanian. We examine these forms in view of democratization processes and the decreasing level of formality in the two societies. The question in focus is how address forms are used in Lithuanian and Danish dialogues in TV-series, which represent everyday communication between strangers in the second half of the 20th century and the 21st century. The empirical data for the research consists of two Danish series ”Ka' De li' østers?” (1967) and ”Bedrag” (2016-2019), as well as two Lithuanian TV-series ”Petraičių šeimoje” (1964-1972) and ”Giminės. Gyvenimas tęsiasi 3” (2017). The study covers almost six last decades and analyzes different forms of address that speakers use to meet the appropriate level of formality in daily conversations. The results have revealed significant differences in the development of Lithuanian and Danish societies and formal communication. The data indicates that Danish dialogues have become less formal over time, public communication emphasizes equality of interlocutors and does not mark differences in social status. Communication between Lithuanians remains formal; the results suggest that the choice of strategies in Lithuanian dialogues between strangers correspond to those used by Danes in the second half of the 20th century. However, it may be assumed that the process of informalisation in Lithuanian public communication is still in progress.
Viktorija Kavaliauskaitė-Vilkinienė
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 97-124; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17234

Abstract:
The paper aims to discuss the expression and development of politeness speech acts, i.e. greeting, saying goodbye, thanking, usage of the word please, apology, congratulation and wishes, in the speech of a Lithuanian boy, aged 1;6–2;7, and a girl, aged 1;8–2;8. The source of data contains two corpora of transcribed conversations of the children mostly interacting with their mothers (about 20 and 27 hours of recordings are transcribed). The corpora are developed by scholars of Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. One of the foci of analysis is to discuss the expression and development of the above-mentioned politeness speech acts and common pragmatic errors regarding the usage of politeness formulas in the children’s speech. Another focus is the investigation of the socialization strategies applied by the parents. Based on the current research by different scholars, the article raises the hypothesis that Lithuanian children in the second or third year of life acquire the majority of politeness speech acts as discussed in this paper. The analysis revealed that at the beginning of the observation children lacked communicative competence to use politeness speech acts in a pragmatically appropriate way. They confused situations when to use politeness formulas of thanking, apology and the word please and lacked the knowledge of how to use politeness adjacency pairs. The study also shows that the repetition of parents’ politeness formulas was common. Furthermore, the appropriate use of spontaneous and pragmatic greeting and saying goodbye was observed first, and only later the usage of thanking and the word please appeared. However, only few examples of other politeness speech acts (i.e. apology, congratulation and wishes) were observed in the corpus. Therefore, further research is necessary. The results demonstrate that at the beginning of the third year the children used most of the politeness speech acts appropriately. An early acquisition was affected by children’s familiarisation with politeness routines taught by their parents. The parents directed and prompted their children to repeat politeness formulas, elicited them by questions or performatives and sometimes taught children to be polite by producing metalinguistic comments. Current research seems to indicate that other Lithuanian children could demonstrate similar developmental patterns of politeness speech acts and make similar pragmatic errors as well as being similarly socialized to use politeness formulas.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-38; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17231

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to investigate linguistic and non-linguistic conversational strategies and their realisations, employed by five year olds in peer interactions. 5 hours and 49 minutes of recorded children’s talk were used for the analysis. The data were processed using Transana software, and qualitative conversation analysis was applied. The analysis reveals that children are more inclined to use conversational strategies that motivate cooperation and solidarity rather than competition or dominance in a conversation. Dialogues mostly involve comments and questions, followed by repetitions of both speaker’s own or the interlocutor’s words. Jokes are also used to maintain or restart conversations and to support or restore friendly relationships. Strategies that break the symmetry of conversation are rarely applied. The conversation is sometimes interrupted when opposing the partner or establishing a leader role. Silence as a conversation strategy also serves to communicate disagreement with partner’s statements. Overall, the research subjects appear to be pragmatically competent interlocutors, adhering to the main principles of adult conversation: able to wait for their turn in conversation, choose and change its topic appropriately, involve the interlocutor in it or regain his/her attention if needed, and solve communicational break-downs and conflicts. However, the results presented are to be confirmed by further studies and through more various child-to-child conversations.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 154-181; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17236

Abstract:
This paper aims to answer the question about the vocabulary size of an adult native speaker of the Lithuanian language and to check which sociolinguistic factors have a significant impact on the size of the vocabulary. The material for this study consists of 132 responses given to a sociolinguistic survey and a vocabulary size test. The data was analysed using the statistical R-Studio program. T-test and regression analysis were also applied in the research. Participants of the study were divided into two age groups (the younger and the older) as the adult age range is very broad. In total, the younger group consisted of 68 participants: 31 females and 37 males. The average age of this group is about 22. The older group consisted of 64 participants: 30 females and 34 males. The average age of this group is about 49. The study has revealed that the vocabulary of a younger native speaker (about 22 years old) is about 57,490 words and that the vocabulary size varies between 42,021 and 72,703 words. It has been found that the vocabulary of an older native speaker (about 49 years old) is about 60,770 and that the vocabulary size varies between 46,690 and 76,705 words. Regression analysis data shows that such factors as education, knowledge of foreign languages and reading fiction have a significant impact on the size of vocabulary. The study has also revealed that the size of the vocabulary is significantly larger for participants with a Master’s degree. Furthermore, the vocabulary size is larger for those individuals who know several languages which may not necessarily share any vocabulary with the Lithuanian language. Regression analysis data also indicates that reading fiction can significantly influence the size of vocabulary and that the vocabulary is larger for those participants who read sometimes, often or daily. It must be noted that the sample of participants in this study is relatively small, so all the findings and insights need to be verified by expanding the study groups.
Published: 15 January 2019
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 182-225; doi:10.15388/tk.2019.17237

Abstract:
The article analyses, how the Lithuanian school education system teaches to understand language and evaluate linguistic phenomena (linguistic diversity, different language forms and varieties) as well as language functions (communicative and function of identity). Basis of the research are the newest Lithuanian language textbooks for the last two gymnasium grades (11-12th grades), published since year 2000. Using qualitative analysis method it is being investigated, what notion of language is presented to the pupils, how much the descriptive approach to language of contemporary linguistics and knowledge about language are present in the textbooks, and to what extent there still exist attitude of the so-called traditional (prescriptive) grammar and ideas of language corrections. Language teaching at school serves double function – on the one hand, school teaches literacy, where language is understood as a tool for creation and analysing of texts. On the other hand, language in itself is a study object, about which pupils at school receive a certain understanding. Therefore, the question arises, what notion of language is being formed in the Lithuanian education system on the gymnasium level through teaching material – Lithuanian (native) language textbooks. Does the teaching material for the last two – 11-12th – grades provide knowledge about language of contemporary science, as it might be expected in the education of the 21st century? Do the pupils get introduced to science-based notion of language, as it is accepted in current linguistics, which is a descriptive science, that seeks to study and describe all the aspects of a language descriptively, based on facts, without prejudices and evaluations. Or is it on the contrary being followed the notion of language, which is characteristic of normativity and prescriptivism and which is rejected by contemporary linguistics as not scientific. The research analyses five Lithuanian language textbooks for 11-12th grades, published after year 2000, which have been selected for the analysis using the database of textbooks and other teaching materials (https://www.emokykla.lt/bendrasis/mokykis/vadoveliu-db/naujausi-vadoveliai). The main question, that is being raised with this research, is whether and to what extent scientific or non-scientific notion of language is being formed in school language textbooks, what attitude is predominant, and which notion of language is prevalent, if different attitudes exist. The method of the research is qualitative discourse analysis of the textbooks, using the qualitative data analysis program NVivo. The results of the textbooks’ analysis show, that non-scientific notion of language is dominant in the Lithuanian education system. The majority of the analysed textbooks represent this notion. The main characteristics of this notion, visible in the textbooks, are prescriptivism, romantic images of language, ideology of linguistic nationalism. However, besides the dominant normative approach to language, the scientific, descriptive approach is also visible in the textbooks, though to a lesser extent than the normative approach. One of the analysed textbooks is different from the rest ones with its exceptionally descriptive approach to language as a study object.
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 24-40; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17244

Abstract:
Cette étude interpelle une problématique incontournable tenant à l’enseignement à l’université, à savoir l’adaptation continue aux exigences du marché du travail, ce qui se traduit au niveau des contenus par une mise en concordance des objectifs d’enseignement avec les compétences professionnelles requises. Au niveau de l’enseignement d’une langue étrangère à des fins professionnelles, cette mise en concordance implique, entre autres, l’intégration de la dimension interculturelle dans les contenus dispensés afin de munir l’étudiant des compétences nécessaires pour qu’il/elle puisse (inter)agir dans le contexte multiculturel actuel du marché du travail. Dans ce contexte, cette étude propose, dans un premier temps, un retour théorique sur les concepts culture et interculturel envisagés comme des balises significatives dans l’enseignement actuel des langues étrangères et qui précisent, par les compétences spécifiques à atteindre, les nouvelles exigences auxquelles l’enseignement d’une langue étrangère doit satisfaire. Notre recherche se poursuit par un retour sur les spécificités de l’enseignement d’une langue étrangère à des fins professionnelles et fournira une proposition concrète d’alignement des contenus enseignés dans le cours Langues modernes (français) pour la filière de médecine de notre université aux objectifs de la compétence interculturelle. Une proposition de programme contenant des activités visant l’interculturel articulées autour des contenus initialement proposés pour cette spécialisation sera avancée. Developing intercultural competence in teaching French for professional purposes at university Our study investigates an essential problem related to university teaching, namely continuous adaptation to the labour market standards and requirements, which at the curriculum level involves a correlation between learning objectives and competency profile requested and expected in the professional world. With respect to foreign language teaching for professional purposes, this correlation implies, among other things, the integration of intercultural dimension in the contents taught in order to provide the student with necessary skills and enabling him/her able to efficiently (inter)act in today’s multicultural labour market, and finally meet the needs of contemporary world. In this context, our research firstly offers a theoretical approach to the concepts of culture and interculturel, which are envisaged as landmarks in today’s foreign language teaching philosophy and which specify, through their specific objectives to be achieved, new standards that foreign language teaching must comply with. Our study also offers a theoretical framework to the particularities of foreign language teaching for professional purposes. This enables us to reformulate the initial objectives associated to foreign language for professional purposes by integrating the objectives related to the development of intercultural competence. Finally, this study also proposes a concrete course content of medical French based on the course already delivered to the students studying medicine in Dunarea de Jos University of Galati. The course has been remodelled so as to meet the objectives of intercultural competence. In doing so, we firstly analysed the topics included in the course content with respect to aspects related to culture or intercultural communication, and afterwards we provided a list of cultural- and intercultural communication-oriented topics that could be articulated around the already proposed content of a French course for medicine. This proposal is also accompanied by a series of methodological recommendations that should be taken into consideration prior to designing a course for medical French. Key words: French for professional purposes; culture; intercultural; competence; teaching and learning.
Daiva Repeikaitė-Jarmalavičienė, Miroslav Stasilo
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-2; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17242

Nabila Bedjaoui
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 3-23; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17243

Abstract:
L’Algérie est le deuxième pays francophone après la France. 132 ans de colonisation ont été suffisants pour implanter cette langue dans l’esprit des Algériens. Après l’indépendance, les français ont certes quitté l’Algérie, mais ils ont laissé derrière eux leur langue qui s’est immiscée jusque dans la langue arabe, et est devenue de la sorte une partie de l’identité du locuteur algérien. L’avènement de l’arabisation, a fait basculer la balance, en imposant l’utilisation de la langue arabe, seule, dans tous les domaines et dans toutes les institutions. Le français est devenu langue étrangère, voire étrange, dans certaines parties du pays. L’université n’a pas été épargnée par ces changements de statut opérés sur la langue française. L’étudiant algérien trouve, désormais, des difficultés à l’appréhender. De ce fait ses études ne se déroulent pas dans de bonnes conditions. Une prise en charge de l’enseignement de la langue française à l’université algérienne s’impose. Algerian students and the French language Algeria is the second largest French - speaking country after France. 132 years of colonization were sufficient to implant this language in the minds of Algerians. After leaving Algeria, the French left behind their language, which has interfered in the Arabic language, and has thus become part of the identity of the Algerian speaker. The advent of arabization has tipped the scales, imposing the use of the Arabic language in all areas and in all institutions. In some parts ofthe country, French has become a foreign language. Algerian students find it difficult to understand. The situation of French has become rather cumbersome. Therefore, it becomes essential to preserve French at Algerian universities. Key words: Algeria; arabization; French; education; specialty; level.
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 59-74; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17247

Abstract:
Cette étude prend en considération quelques extraits de discours scientifique / académique (trois contributions parues le volume du colloque Enseigner la littérature à l’université aujourd’hui qui s’est déroulé à l’Université Aix-en-Provence, du 10 au 12 mars 2011) qui plaident en faveur de (continuer) l’enseignement de la littérature, afin de faire ressortir quels sont les arguments enchaînés et la typologie du raisonnement argumentatif utilisé pour gagner l’adhésion du public. En outre, cette analyse du discours rend possible le parallèle avec des exemples de discours ordinaire (la section de commentaires qui suit l’article « Pourquoi il faut continuer d'enseigner les classiques de la littérature ? » écrit par Catherine Marle-Guyon et publié le 23 mars 2013) où des locuteurs, dont l’appartenance socio-professionnelle n’est pas toujours présentée et, si elle l’est, elle n’est pas vérifiable, introduisent leur position en mobilisant des ressources linguistiques qui seront, elles-aussi, soumises à notre analyse. De surcroît, en prenant comme cadre théorique général le modèle dialogal de l’argumentation (Plantin 2005, 2010), cette étude vise à répondre aux questions suivantes: a) quels sont les points faibles et les points forts du contexte socio-économique qui favorisent ou, au contraire, entravent l’étude de la littérature ? b) dans quelle mesure le couple « discours / contre-discours » est-il actualisé dans le corpus sur l’enseignement de la littérature? Discourse and counter-discourse on the teaching of literature at university The fact that the teaching of literature goes through a period of questioning and reconsideration is no longer a novelty: numerous conferences, scientific publications and opinions of non-specialists disseminated through media point to an epistemological crisis in the teaching of literature in general, and to a didactic and methodological crisis in the teaching of French literature to foreign learners, in particular. In this context, this study takes into account several cases of scientific/ academic discourse, namely, three contributions published in the proceedings of the conference Enseigner la littérature à l’université aujourd’hui which took place at Aix-en-Provence University, France, 10–12 March 2011. These contributions argue in favour of (continuing) teaching literature and are discussed in this study in order to highlight the arguments and the typology of argumentative reasoning used to gain and/or to strengthen the audience’s commitment. In addition, this discourse analysis makes it possible to draw parallels with examples of ordinary speech, as seen in the comment section that follows the article Pourquoi il faut continuer d'enseigner les classiques de la littérature? written by Catherine Marle-Guyon and published 23 March 2013. In the comment, the speakers, whose socio-professional status is not always identifiable, express their attitude by mobilizing linguistic resources, which will be subjected to our analysis, too. Moreover, taking the dialogic model of argumentation (Plantin 2005, 2010) as a general theoretical framework, this study aims at answering the following questions: (a) what are the strengths and weaknesses of the socio-economic context favouring or, on the contrary, hindering the study of literature? (b) to what extent do the notions of discourse/ counter-discourse find practical anchorage in the corpus of the teaching of literature? In this study, the counter-discourse does not refer to the stance against teaching literature (because any reasonable individual, researcher, teacher or not, is aware that literature is necessary for education and human fulfilment), but to the stance against certain arguments wrongly rooted in the collective consciousness that would justify the study of literature. Key words: literature; argument; counter argument; type of reasoning.
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 75-85; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17248

Abstract:
En Roumanie, l’enseignement du français langue étrangère au niveau de licence se réalise dans le cadre des deux filières: Langues et littératures ainsi que Langues Étrangères Appliquées (LEA). Initiée il y a plus d’une vingtaine d’années, la filière LEA a connu un réel succès auprès du public étudiant roumain et fonctionne actuellement dans plusieurs universités à côté de la formation littéraire traditionnelle. A travers une analyse panoramique de quelques documents de référence utilisés dans les universités roumaines (plans d’enseignement et fiches des disciplines), nous nous proposons de parvenir à une meilleure projection du cours de Pragmatique que nous assurons dans notre université, avec une sélection des contenus, méthodes et supports didactiques qui illustre mieux les principes de la filière LEA et qui offre à nos diplômés des compétences professionnelles appropriées au marché du travail actuel. Ce travail liminaire est une première exploration des fiches de formations dans lesquelles on retrouve des thèmes liés à la pragmatique. What pragmatics are we currently teaching (2017) in Romania in applied foreign languages study programmes? In Romania, French as a foreign language at the undergraduate level is taught in two study programmes: Languages and Literatures and Applied Foreign Languages (LEA). Initiated more than twenty years ago, the LEA programmes have been a real success with Romanian students and, alongside traditional courses in literature, are currently implemented in several universities. Having analysed some key reference documents of Romanian universities (mainly syllabi and course descriptions), I propose how to achieve better results in a course on pragmatics offered at the University of Piteşti. My proposals focus specifically on the selection of contents, methods and teaching aids aimed at equipping our students with professional skills appropriate to the current job market. Key words: course description; language and literature; LEA; syllabus; pragmatics.
Iryna Smouchtchynska
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 86-103; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17249

Abstract:
Le but principal de cet article est de montrer les principaux problèmes de la lexicologie moderne aussi que d’améliorer l’enseignement de la lexicologie comme cours universitaire en tenant compte de nouvelles théories apparues à la fin du XXe siècle. L’enseignement moderne exige l’introduction de nouveaux termes comme éponymie, énantiosémie, méronymie, etc., et la révision des théories et des thèmes dits classiques comme polysémie, évolution sémantique, formation du mot, emprunt. L’auteur se propose de montrer le développement des théories et des approches lexicales au cours des XXe et XXIe siècles. On estime qu’il faut fournir aux étudiants des renseignements sur les nouvelles orientations et les différentes méthodes existant dans la linguistique contemporaine, avant tout sémiotiques, cognitives, discursives, contrastives, même si elles sont présentées sous diverses versions parfois contradictoires. En même temps, une consultation des manuels de lexicologie montre que plusieurs phénomènes connus restent en marge de leurs études, il s’agit avant tout du calque, du mot international, de l’occasionnalisme, de l’archaïsme sémantique, etc. Donc, l’emploi et la définition corrects du terme, la précision de ses particularités au sein de son paradigme sont indispensables pour l’étude lexicologique contemporaine. L’approche principale est de présenter le vocabulaire français en tant que système spécifique d’unités nominatives. Teaching FFL lexicology: opening new approaches The main aim of this paper is to show major problems of modern lexicology as well as to improve the teaching of lexicology at the university by taking into account new theories that appeared at the end of the 20th century. Modern education requires the introduction of new terminology such as eponymy, enantiosemy, meronymy, etc., and the revision of the so-called classical theories and themes such as polysemy, semantic evolution, word formation or borrowing. It is also essential to introduce several topics and approaches including, above all, field theory, connotation theory, the problem of the concept, cognitive semantics, prototype theory and stereotype theory, linguistic and cultural aspects, semantic universals, etc. We seek to identify the main problems posed by the study of French vocabulary, to show the development of theories and lexical approaches during the 20th and the 21st centuries. It is thought that students should be provided with information on the new orientations and methods existing in contemporary linguistics, primarily semiotic, cognitive, discursive and contrastive, even if presented in different or even contradictory versions. At the same time, an overview of lexicology textbooks shows that several rather well-known phenomena remain on the margins of study; these include calques, international words, occasionalisms, semantic archaisms, etc. Therefore, adequate definitions of terms and their use, precise identification of their peculiarities within relevant paradigms in contemporary studies of lexicology are indispensable. Key words: lexicology; French; teaching; approach; theory of the word.
Emilia Munteanu
Published: 8 August 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 41-58; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17245

Abstract:
A l’ère de la mondialisation, l’accès illimité à l’information modifie de plus en plus le rapport des jeunes gens mais surtout la vision des adultes du troisième âge à l’égard des barrières de l’apprentissage. De nos jours, de nombreuses institutions d’enseignement et des ONG proposent aux derniers une large panoplie d’activités dans le but de leur faire acquérir de nouvelles compétences et capacités linguistiques, culturelles, techniques, artistiques, etc. En tant que formateurs en FLE, nous avons cherché à briser les barrières qui séparent les générations et à favoriser la communication entre adultes au-delà des frontières géographiques, culturelles, linguistiques à travers un projet européen PLALE. Réunies autour du coordinateur italien de Pavie, cinq autres institutions partenaires se sont proposé de partager leur expérience dans l’enseignement-apprentissage des langues par le jeu théâtral. Pendant deux années, des professionnels et des apprentis de la langue provenant du système formel universitaire se sont servis de leurs compétences didactiques et de leur expérience liée à l’emploi du jeu théâtral pour transformer le contexte non formel de l’Ecole populaire d’arts et de métiers de Bacau en Roumanie en un laboratoire pour l’expérimentation de nouvelles techniques et méthodes d’acquisition par les adultes des connaissances en L2. Le déroulement du projet et la création d’un spectacle théâtral joué à Bacau par les apprenants par les apprenants adultes des six partenaires nous ont permis de faire l’apprentissage d’une pédagogie vivante mais aussi de l’andragogie et de prendre conscience du rôle des relations intergénérationnelles pour assurer la santé de la société actuelle. Breaking barriers, or teaching and learning French by playing drama In the era of globalization, due to unlimited access to information, the relationship and the attitude among the young people have increasingly modified. In addition, the adult’s point of view regarding traditional limits of learning has also changed. Nowadays, more and more institutions of teaching and NGOs are proposing to them a variety of activities which offer them a possibility to develop not only their computer skills but also linguistic, artistic and cultural abilities. As foreign language teachers, we have tried to create a connection between generations, so as to ease the communication between adults which would not have been possible without the existence of a European project. Entitled PLALE or Playing for Learning, it integrates five partners from France, Spain, Portugal, Germany and Romania coordinated by an Italian specialist from Pavia. The specialists’ purpose is to share their experience in the field of foreign language teaching and learning through drama. Key words: European project; pedagogy; andragogy; language teaching and learning; theatre performance; relations between generations.
Published: 21 March 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 68-85; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17444

Abstract:
The current article analyzes the variability of length of /i/ and /u/ in stressed word endings characteristic to Lithuanian residents of Vilnius. Some Vilnius residents of Lithuanian origin pronounce these vowels as long or semi-long, though in written language they are written as short vowels. In the Lithuanian standardization ideology, such variability is characterized negatively and is referred to as the lengthening of the word ending. It is socially stigmatized, associated with the speech of uneducated Vilnius residents, speakers that belong to the working class, have a lower social status, or are affected by a Slavic language. The main goal of this survey was to identify the length of the stressed /i/ and /u/ in word endings and to determine with which social categories their longer variants correlate in Vilnius speech. A computerized sound analysis programme was applied to study 800 variants of /i/ and /u/ vowels, which were selected from interviews with 40 Vilnius city dwellers of different age, gender, professional activity, and social status. The analysis has revealed that in the Lithuanian speaking community of Vilnius the length of stressed vowels in word endings functions as a marker of speaker’s age, professional activity, and educational background. A statistically significant higher average length of /i/ and /u/ is typical of those Vilnius residents who are older, educated, and work in traditional industries or manufacturing, but not for service providers.
Eglė Jakelienė
Published: 21 March 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 1-25; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17441

Abstract:
This paper examines and compares Danes’ and Lithuanians’ code-switching on Facebook. Currently Facebook is one of the most popular social media platforms, where a lot of human communication occurs. The language on such platforms is similar to spoken language in its informality, yet it is written and is therefore at least somewhat planned. This research was carried out by collecting status updates and their respective comments from Facebook profiles of six well-known people (three people from each country) and their followers. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analyses, it seems that the way Lithuanians and Danes switch codes is mostly universal and used to achieve similar purposes. The most common foreign language for code-switching in each dataset was English. Both Danes and Lithuanians switched between their respective native and foreign languages in order to mark discourse, emphasize a point, attract reader’s attention, show identity and refer to a different context. However, while code-switching between the native language and English was used for all these purposes, other languages were chiefly used to refer to different cultural contexts. In the future, more research on how Lithuanians code-switch on Facebook could be carried out, possibly focusing on smaller groups of people, and thus being able to make ethnographic observations.
Published: 21 March 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 26-44; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17442

Abstract:
The article analyses Lithuanian metaphorical legal terms, which account for about 8.8 per cent of all legal terms in Lithuanian. Based on formal linguistic attributes, four main groups of metaphorical terms were identified: (1) terms with a metaphorical headword, which subsumes two groups distinguished according to the part of speech: (a) noun metaphors, e.g. įstatymo spraga ‘a gap in the law’, teisės šaltinis ‘source of the law’; (b) verb metaphors, e.g. laikytis įstatymo ‘to keep to the law’, paremti įstatymo projektą ‘to support a bill’. In this article, differently from a fairly well-established tradition of Lithuanian terminology, verb-based phrases with a special meaning are also classified as terms; (2) terms with a metaphorical subordinate constituent, e.g. sunki bausmė ‘heavy punishment’, juodoji rinka ‘black market’; (3) metaphorical expressions, e.g. Delavero efektas ‘Delaware-effect’; (4) metaphorical compounds, e.g. pilnametystė ‘full age’. The paper has identified four trends of metaphoricity in Lithuanian legal terms (1) conceptualising legal issues as things or objects (67.04 per cent of all metaphorical terms), e.g. duoti parodymus ‘to give evidence’, įstatymo ribos ‘limits of law’, tuščias grasinimas ‘empty threat’; (2) conceptualising legal issues as humans or animals (18.59 per cent), e.g. sąžiningas procesas ‘fair trial’, diplomatinis imunitetas ‘diplomatic immunity’; (3) conceptualising legal issues as objects or humans (12.88 per cent), e.g. bylos sustabdymas ‘stay of proceedings’, aukštesnioji instancija ‘higher instance’; (4) conceptualising legal issues as some natural phenomena (1.63 per cent), e.g. teisės šaka ‘branch of law’. The conceptual metaphor analysis has shown that the target domain of legal metaphors mostly includes abstract concepts referring to legally regulated human activities and relations. The most productive source domain of these metaphors includes (1) objects of the material concrete world around us, mostly things, their attributes and functions, and human actions closely linked to them, and (2) living beings with their physical and mental characteristics.
Published: 21 March 2018
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 45-67; doi:10.15388/tk.2018.17443

Abstract:
Vagueness is a controversial issue, which was long stigmatised by both researchers and laypeople and largely neglected in linguistics until the publication of Channell’s (1994) study, which demonstrated that vague language (VL) is a multi-faceted phenomenon of high pragmatic importance. The present study focuses on one of the most central categories of VL in Lithuanian, i.e. vague quantifiers, which can be defined as non-numerical expressions used for referring to quantities, e.g. daug (“a lot”), mažai (“little/few”), keletas (“several”), or šiek tiek (“a little bit”). The meaning of quantifiers frequently encodes some evaluative content concerning the significance of a quantity. The evaluative function is an important and intended speaker’s message, expressed by choosing a vague expression, and is lost if reformulated into a precise expression. A systematic account of this pragmatic category has not been carried out yet in Lithuanian, and the vast majority of research on vague quantifiers focuses mainly on English with only very few exceptions. VL is omnipresent and is used in all discourse types, but to a different extent and for different purposes; therefore, this investigation has a two-fold aim: (a) to determine the distribution of quantifiers in different discourses including spoken interaction and a variety of written texts (i.e. academic texts, newspapers and magazines, publicist texts, administrative texts, and fiction); and (b) to overview when and why vague quantifiers are prioritized over precise numerical references. The data for this investigation has been obtained from the Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language (tekstynas.vdu.lt), which is a reference corpus comprising over 140 mln words; it represents five major discourse types analysed in this paper. The present analysis has been carried out within the framework of corpus linguistics, pragmatics, variationist sociolinguistics, and discourse analysis; it is primarily quantitative, but to explain some dominant tendencies in the results, it also deals with some qualitative aspects. The findings obtained from spoken and written discourse have revealed that quantifiers are distributed very unevenly in the two modes of language; the results have also shown some dramatic differences in the use of quantifiers in different written texts. Their distribution and functions depend on the formality of quantifiers and their semantic type. Multal quantifiers (i.e. those referring to large quantities) are emphatic, whereas paucal quantifiers (i.e. those referring to small quantities) are mainly used for mitigation and are more prone to soften the effect of negatively loaded lexemes. Importantly, quantifiers are used for persuasion since they evaluate a quantity and convey the speaker’s interpretation of its significance. They can be important in discourse structuring, in shaping interpersonal relationships, and as a face-saving strategy. Due to the large variety of communicative functions that quantifiers can perform, they are an important category in second language teaching and should be adequately dealt with in lexicography.
Published: 18 February 2017
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 199-299; doi:10.15388/tk.2017.17453

Abstract:
The article analyses the notion and ideology of language formed at the state level in Lithuania and Denmark. The aim is to examine the notion of language and the understanding of language functionality conveyed in the documents of language education policy and ideology emerging in them, also the purposes raised for language education. The official language education policy formed by the state exerts direct influence on language teaching at school and on the students’ formation of the notion of language. Therefore, the questions raised in this research are aimed at identifying what is implemented with the official language education policy, how much attention is devoted to developing the students’ communicative, argumentative skills and skills of independent critical thinking, and how much the policy focuses on the advocacy of national ideology and identity. The data of the research includes national language education policy documents which determine the implementation of language policy in the system of education of Lithuania and Denmark. The following aspects have been analysed: language functions as presented in the education policy documents: the communicative function and the function of national identity; the formation of ideology of nationality through language education; the formation of standard language ideology in language education policy; also the students’ linguistic competences to be developed at school. The results have shown that the notion of language emerging in the Lithuanian language education policy documents encompasses ideologies of standard language, language correctness and linguistic nationalism. The main goal of the Lithuanian language teaching is the implementation and strengthening of a single standard language norm and the formation of the notion of language as a protector and disseminator of national identity. However, the aim to develop language as a communicative tool as well as to develop the students’ critical thinking is also identifiable. The main goal of the Danish education policy is the development of the students’ communicative language function, critical-analytical thinking, and the formation of the notion of language as a means of communication, as well as of the notion of linguistic variation.
Published: 18 February 2017
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 31-45; doi:10.15388/tk.2017.17446

Abstract:
Twin language is considered to be a unique object of scientific studies in psychology, linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and speech therapy. Twins tend to lag behind singletons in their language development, but the causes are still unknown. There are many factors affecting the development of twins’ language such as low birth weight, genetic factors, gender, amount of input, intensive interaction between the twins themselves, less interaction with adults than singletons, and many other factors. A commonly held belief is that twins develop their own autonomous and unique communication, also known as ‘secret language’, or ‘private language’. The specific twin language is unique for each pair of twins and cannot be understood by others, not even by their parents.The purpose of this study is threefold: 1) to present a unique Corpus of Lithuanian Twin Language; 2) to discuss the main principles of the Corpus development and methodological issues; and 3) to present the results of pilot research in the Lithuanian twin language.The analysis is based on longitudinal data of one pair of heterozygous twins (a girl and a boy) from Kaunas. The twins’ speech was recorded 2-4 times per week in natural daily situations; (around one and a half hour of recordings per month). The data collection was started when the twins were two years and five months of age. The data was collected by their parents under the supervision of linguists from Vytautas Magnus University.The results of our research attest to manifestations of twin secret language, including the reaction of their parents. In the future, a complex analysis of twin language will be carried out. The results will hopefully be useful to researchers, teachers, speech therapists and anyone interested in atypical language acquisition.
Published: 18 February 2017
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 73-108; doi:10.15388/tk.2017.17448

Abstract:
The paper delves into the situated usage of mixed speech produced by adult Lithuanians at work, the environment hardly ever sociolinguistically researched in Lithuania. By mixed speech, Lithuanian speech interspersed with occasional insertional elements from other languages is meant. The study aims to see how more diverse linguistic resources that are now available in Lithuania are used to construct and negotiate social relations and social identities in the talk at work. The case study, which is a part of an ongoing larger scale project on Lithuanian workplace discourse, draws on digital audio recordings of naturally occurring spontaneous conversations between employees collected by a volunteer in a media-related company in Vilnius. The recordings containing elements of languages other than Lithuanian (English and Russian) have been transcribed and analysed using Interactional Sociolinguistics (IS), an in-depth qualitative approach that combines the application of the interpretive methods of discourse analysis with insights into social and cultural issues. The paper argues that mixed speech in Lithuanian workplace discourse is creatively used as group or individual stylistic choice to construct certain social images and to perform various functions: for instance, mixed speech containing Russian insertions, slang and swear words serves as an index of belonging to the group (or a community of practice), whereas English is a necessary tool for doing well in a contemporary work environment and presenting oneself as an expert in one’s professional field; English insertions tend to be employed when things need to be quickly and efficiently done while Russian is still used more extensively for off-task talk, such as small talk, gossiping, humour and jokes, which constitute an integral part of the talk at work. It can be hypothesised, however, that the range of functions performed by English insertions is gradually expanding as the command of Russian among co-workers is decreasing. The study depicts mixed speech as a means of negotiating social identities of a friendly and supportive colleague, a skilled and experienced professional, a creative, playful and adaptive communicator, and an open-minded, educated and sophisticated person.
Published: 18 February 2017
Taikomoji kalbotyra pp 176-198; doi:10.15388/tk.2017.17452

Abstract:
The article describes the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian, its structure, compilation stages (collection of the recordings, transcription, and grammatical annotation), and the methodology of data collection and digitalization; in addition, it discusses the possibilities of corpus application in the research of natural language usage and the research, which has already been carried out, using the corpus data. At present (2017), the corpus, which is freely accessible for internet users, contains 226,174 word forms. The users of the online corpus version can perform search of a word or a word form and obtain data on the frequency of the form in the whole corpus or its part as well as see grammatical information about it. In 2016-2017, the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian was supplemented by new data resulting from the implementation of the project “Contemporary Spoken Lithuanian: A Corpus-based Analysis of Grammar and Lexis” (LIP-085/2016) financed by the Research Council of Lithuania under the programme of the State Lithuanian Studies and Dissemination Programme for 2016–2024. The project will also create a new internet access, which will provide more possibilities for the users. The updated corpus consists of 256 conversations (383,587 words) produced by 1,086 speakers (659 females and 427 males), whose age ranges from 3 to 81 years. When developing the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian, much attention was paid to its composition, i.e. the proportions of the corpus. In order to improve the universality and suitability of the corpus for a more varied analysis, the principle of a balanced corpus was maintained; therefore, several criteria were taken into consideration when collecting the data: the nature of spoken language (private vs public speech) and structure (dialogues vs polilogues), different communication situations (direct vs indirect (e.g. a telephone conversation), demographic indicators, and social relations among the interlocutors. Therefore, in 2018, users of the updated version of the corpus will be able to filter results according to different categories, such as gender, age, place and structure of the conversation, and perform a more detailed search. It is expected that when the users are provided with more possibilities to analyse corpus data on the internet, the amount of spoken language research will increase comprising different areas of lexis and grammar.
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