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Shahbub Alam, Kamal Uddin, Jafor Ali, Nazmul Huda, Abul Bashar Bhuiyan
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 13, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v13i1.1734

Abstract:
Bangladesh is now playing a role model in conventional microfinancing programs in the whole world. Though the financial sectors of this country cover both conventional and Islamic modes. There exist some limitations of conventional microfinancing operating by NGOs. The Islamic microfinancing programs are not enhanced in comparing conventional microfinancing due to a lack of proper policy formulation. Most people are practicing Muslims and want to avoid interest. The Islamic financial institutions have emphasized women's empowerment through shariah-based microfinancing and achieving sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Islamic microfinance for empowering women and achieving SDGs in Bangladesh. The methodology of this study is based on secondary data including existing relevant literature and annual reports of different financial institutions. The findings of this study show that Islamic microfinance institutions perform a significant role in empowering women as well as attaining SDGs and have a broader scope to flourish more by applying their various investment modes. This study will help to promote shariah-based microfinancing in the future and transmit microfinance systems to other countries of the world. This paper also tries to recommend some strategies and policy options to promote shariah-based microfinancing to reduce the challenges to ensuring women's empowerment and attaining SDGs.
A.R.S. Ibn Ali, Jowel Rana, Shamsun Nahar, N Hosna Ara Tesha, Imtiaz Md Shihab Jabir
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 13, pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v13i1.1799

Abstract:
Nowadays, the market is very competitive due to rapid digitalization and globalization where the sustainability of every business depends on organizational performance. The better performance of the company relies on corporate social responsibility which helps to create goodwill in the fierce market. Corporate social responsibility is a crucial issue for every organization to develop the performance that assists to stay in the aggressive market. Basically, organizational performance depends on the reputation of the organization which moderates the relationship between customers, community, and employees’ in organizational performance. The main objective of this study is to reveal the contributions of corporate social responsibility’s dimension on organizational performance. Data have been collected from different sources like the Scopus database, Google Scholar, Research gate, ABDC, emerald, etc. The major dimensions of CSR are community, customers, employees, organizational commitment, and reputation which have significant and positive impacts on organizational performance. For this study purpose, the dimensions of CSR are adopted from the previous extensive literature review. In this study, the conceptual model has been proposed based on the previous literature. This study could help to corporate managers to maintain organizational performance through corporate social responsibility (CSR).JEL Classification Codes: L25, M14, L32.
Navid Jun Nu Rain, Dipu Roy, Mijanur Rahman Molla, Abdullah Al Mamun, Azizul Islam Nayeem
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 12, pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v12i1.1685

Abstract:
In the era of globalization, every company is changing their marketing policy due to gradually increasing competitors in the existing market where social marketing is changing and maintaining the behavior of people a society. Nowadays social marketing is not a new concept in Bangladesh, especially in the banking sector. The main objective of this study is to analyze the uses of the societal marketing concept of a private Bank Limited. In this study, the quantitative and qualitative method is followed by the authors. To identify the social marketing concept qualitative and quantitative method is used in this study. A non-probability convenience sampling method has been used for the study purpose. In this study, the targeted population was executives and customers of a private Bank Limited, Jhumjhumpur Branch, Jashore. Both primary and secondary data have been used in this study where primary data was collected from the survey questionnaire and the secondary was collected from different journals, newspapers, books, websites of banks, etc. For the study purpose, 100 sample sizes were taken and the researchers have used the Five-point Likert scale technique as sample scaling where 5=Strongly Disagree, 4=Disagree, 3=Neutral, 2=Agree, 1=Strongly Agree. From the study, the authors suggested that the use of societal marketing is profitable for the marketer because it can easily grasp customers’ attention.JEL Classification Codes: M33, M40.
Bani Amin Molla, Mijanur Rahman Molla, Syed Akib Hoque, Autoshi Ray, Medul Mia
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 12, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v12i1.1674

Abstract:
Nowadays, business activities are drastically changing their services through using technology. Moreover, the banking activities are performed in a digitalized way where the customers get better services through online services. Digital marketing is the medium of the internet, mobile devices, social media, search engines, and other electronic devices to reach consumers. Through using digital technology banks perform billions of transactions to reach the customers in this current competitive market and it helps them to make it easier and shorter and more comfortable. The main objective of the study is to analyze the uses of different types of digital marketing tools of of a private commercial bank limited. This study was quantitative and exploratory in nature.  A non-probability convenience sampling method has been used in this study and the employees and experts of private commercial bank limited were the population. Primary data have been used where the primary data were collected from respective respondents through survey questionnaire. The sample size was 100 and Five-point Likert scale has been used where (‘1=strongly agree’ and ‘5= strongly disagree’) in this study. The findings of the research suggests that using digital marketing tools are more effective than any other traditional marketing tools in the bank.JEL Classification Codes: M38.
Mijanur Rahman Molla, Fahima Sultana Lima, Sk. Md. Hassan Tareq
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 12, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v12i1.1556

Abstract:
Nowadays, people rely on social media for advertisements, news, information tourist places promotion, especially on Facebook. For this reason, Bangabandhu memorial museum uses social media marketing techniques to attract tourist attention. Social media marketing can increase tourists and share different information types important for any tourist place. At present, people make a tour by knowing about the site through social media. So, the researcher insists that social media marketing techniques are more effective for Bangabandhu memorial museum. This paper has five steps: the first steps of this project paper have introduction, methodology and literature review. The second step has formatted the conceptual framework. The third steps of this project have some objectives that identified by the researcher that which used for attracting dark tourists for Bangabandhu memorial museum, analyzing the uses of social media marketing for attracting dark tourists which collected from questionnaire survey that was operated by a huge number of executive & employee of Bangabandhu memorial museum and face-to-face interview with the tourists. And the fourth steps show the significant findings of the research paper. The last steps of the project paper are recommending some guidelines for Bangabandhu memorial museum and further research. By this research, researchers identify the uses of Facebook marketing for attracting dark tourists by Bangabandhu memorial museum. Because nowadays, people are more familiar with Facebook and have more potential to promote dark tourism spots through social media. If Bangabandhu memorial museum properly uses Facebook marketing, they can increase tourists. So, promoting these dark tourism spots on Facebook is the most popular social media platform technique. So, Facebook media can increase dark tourists for Bangabandhu memorial museum.
Afroza Chowdhury
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 11, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v11i1.1400

Abstract:
Groundwater is one of the vital rechargeable natural capitals, which serves as the main water source around the globe. In Bangladesh, about 79% of the cultivated area relies on groundwater irrigation. The perspective piece is intended to scrutinize the irrigation decisions and groundwater use in Bangladesh from published sources. The paper points that the reason behind the excessive groundwater mining is imbedded in the heavy dependence of Bangladesh on irrigated dry season rice to feed its huge populaces. Bangladesh has obtained rice self-sufficiency by foregoing environmental costs. The farming communities as a whole rarely adopted water-saving modern technologies and keep paddy fields abundantly irrigated as the marginal cost of irrigation is near zero. The irrigation water price is commonly pre-negotiated on the basis of per unit area for the whole crop season without considering the volume of water. The perspective suggests that the ignorance about the importance of groundwater and the consequent over-extraction cannot be stopped without thorough policy reforms. Bangladesh should move toward institutionalizing irrigation, design a participatory framework involving all the stakeholders in a water management network and piloting efficient water models across the country.
Ali Arshad, Abul Bashar Bhuiyan, Aza Azlina Kassim, Jafor Ali, Muhammad Saad
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 9, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v9i1.1252

Abstract:
The fundamental aims of this study to construct a new framework between Microfinance Institution’s (MFIs) financial sustainability and social, economic and household women empowerment in Malaysia. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approach. The study used available online empirical recourses by the name of Microfinance Institution’s (MFIs) sustainability and sustainable and social, economic and household women empowerment in different online database sources such as Google Scholars, Springer Link, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, Emerald full text, Scopus, and EBSCO HOST etc. The summary of literature review revealed that it is the unique goal of MFIs for poverty reduction mission through ensuring of financial sustainability while contribution impact in the society. It has also revealed that it is the way the social mission of poverty alleviation through serving the poorest has been overshadowed by profit motive. However, profit orientation of the microfinance industry also emphasis on profit earning. The present study will be recommended for policy considerations for the successful and effective operation of microfinance programs by providing the necessary guidelines for the proper utilization of loan for women borrowers in Malaysia.
Syed Irfanul Hoque, Minhazul Abedin, Mohammad Sohel Chowdhury
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v10i1.1308

Abstract:
The demand for blood transfusion is rising gradually. Therefore, volunteer blood donors are needed to save the lives of patients. There are lot of volunteer donors in every society. But, the main problem people face is finding such donors at the right time. To locate potential blood donors, we collected data from the Maizbhandari Shah Emdadia blood donors’ group, which consists of 700 active volunteer blood donors. This study aims to choose potential volunteer donors efficiently at the emergency time from the Maizbhandari Shah Emdadia blood donors’ group based on their past data. We have developed two models, namely descriptive and predictive models, using data mining techniques. The descriptive model analyzes data patterns and explores the donors’ behaviour. A data mining clustering algorithm was used to develop the descriptive model. The underlying factors of donors' intention to donate blood were identified and evaluated using this descriptive model. These factors were then utilized to develop the predictive model, which in turn assists to predict whether a donor will donate blood or not during an emergency. The findings of these two models will assist the clinical experts in locating potential volunteer blood donors within the shortest period and thus save valuable lives.
Ajani Oludele Albert, Fakunle Sunday Olutayo
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 8, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v8i1.1110

Abstract:
Several studies have presented solid waste generation and management in urban centres as an engineering and technological concern. These studies neglected culture as the basic determinants of all happenings in human society; hence, the cultural facets of solid waste generation and management were rendered insignificant. As culture provides the context within which all human activities take place, culture was envisaged in this paper as a driving force for public perception, decision making and participation in solid waste generation and management in urban centres. Therefore, this study adopted both meta-analysis and meta-synthesis to pinpoint and discuss some theoretical key cultural factors and social practices influencing municipal solid waste generation and management. It identified trends and relationship between findings from the available empirical and theoretical studies. This paper discovered in the available relevant literature that cultural factors such as customs, belief and attitude of the urbanites that promoted their preference for food packaged with non-biodegradable material and the ways they conducted social practices resulted in solid waste generation. Lastly, methods and the cost of solid waste disposal, individualism and nonchalant attitude of people were found as the factors militating against proper management of solid wastes.
Oluwadamisi Tayo-Ladega, Taye Mohammed Abdullahi,
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 7, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v7i2.1073

Abstract:
An effective and quality health care service is one of the fundamental visions of every government to its citizenry because it is only the healthy people that can be governed and will value developmental projects. Citizens having access to quality health services translate to significant development in modern society. Therefore, the provision of adequate funds for the sector is essential. However, the Nigeria health care sector is currently confronted with colossal issues that should be surmounted to enhance effective and quality health care delivery to the citizens. This study is rooted in the evidence of appropriate works of literature in the financing of public health care services in Nigeria. From the extant works of the literature surveyed, it was revealed that public health care services in Nigeria are financed by revenue that is accrued from public tax, funding from donors, health insurance, and direct payments made by individuals. Furthermore, public health service is mostly financed by direct payments made by individuals with the government. The most perturbing issues combating public health care financing are direct payments made by individuals, poor government funding, health care policy defects in implementation, and corruption scandals. On this note, the study recommended an effective and robust government funding of public health, implementation of sound health care policies, efficient monitoring of public funds utilization, and discouraging foreign medical trips. JEL Classification Codes: A19, B10, B25, C10, C53.
Rabiu Nurudeen Mohammed
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i4.916

Abstract:
The study examines postgraduate student’s information seeking behavior in the faculty of management sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria. Information play critical role in human daily activities such as school life, work, marital life and any other kind of scenario. The concept of information seeking behavior has attracted researchers’ attention and has been of great concern to stakeholders in the academia. Academic libraries avail information from different sources and formats. Objectively the study examines postgraduate students’ information seeking behavior in order to understand students’ information seeking behavior and provide guide to improve the quality of education and performance. Survey research design were use and the population consist of the entire postgraduate students in the faculty of management sciences at Bayero University, Kano, due to difficulty to reach all the population, purposive sampling were applied which result to the selection of (200) respondents comprising of (50) respondents from each of the four departments and questionnaire were issued to them. From the findings it is obvious that in the course of carrying out their studies postgraduate students seek information as a result of activities they engage such exam preparation, dissertation/thesis work, updating knowledge, lecture notes update, personal reading and general reading. However, the result implies that majority of the respondents use library for information concerning exam preparation while the lowest is for general reading to improve their knowledge. The study conclude that postgraduate students do engage in information seeking behaviour for various reasons even though these are hinder by some obstacles. The study recommends the need for management to improve service delivery in the aspect of electronic library, researchers should be guided easily and educated so as to facilitate easy collection of library materials, users should also be guided to enhance easy retrieval of information, continuous training of library staff should be given attention in order for them to be friendly and give quality service to information seekers and finally problem of poor electricity supply should be addressed to make the environment conducive for learning.
Oluwadamisi Tayo-Ladega, Taye Mohammed Abdullahi
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 7, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v7i1.1013

Abstract:
Among several forms of infectious diseases, tuberculosis (TB) cannot be exempted. Even though the treatment of TB is free in Nigeria, the costs incurred by most patients do not reveal the significance of free treatment, and this affects the behavioral pattern of TB patients as a result of the numerous visits of patients to the hospital during the treatment of TB which may or may not yield their expected result. The objective of this study is to examine the behavior of TB patients towards seeking help for their health conditions. The study focused on Kwara and Kebbi States, Nigeria. The findings revealed that most of the Tuberculosis patients were more likely to search for treatment and seek medical advice from secondary health facilities, and they sought treatment first at the out-patient services. The out-patient services are among the secondary health facilities. It is therefore recommended that there is a need for health stakeholders (private and public) to ensure primary health coverage for all patients to prevent the exclusion of certain persons from treatment. This is referred to as inclusiveness. JEL Classification Codes: A19, B10, B25, C10, C53.
Hasan Zaman
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i4.925

Abstract:
Its goal and intent is to examine the structure of capital adequacy, whether or not regulatory regulation is complied with and how shocks from financial and economic stress can be absorbed by the bank's prescription.
, Muhammad Aitmaud Uddolah Khan, Sara Azhar, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed, Sumreen Khurram, Hina Masood, Lubna Farooq
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i3.823

Abstract:
Objectives To evaluate and compare in vitro activity of Ceftolazane / Tazobactum and Colistin against Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methodology After ethical approval this in vitro cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018. Routine samples of pus, wound swabs, blood, tracheal aspirates and urine were collected and received from the in-patient and out-patient clinics. All the samples were submitted for culture and sensitivity testing at the microbiology laboratory of Ziauddin University Hospital, North Nazimabad campus. All the samples were processed according to the provided microbiological procedures, CLSI Guidelines 2018. Results Forty sample from the out-patient clinics represented pre-dominance of Multi Drug Resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (which was found to be 41.2%). On culture and sensitivity testing, it was observed that 60% of the MDR strains of P. aeruginosa were susceptible to Ceftolazane / Tazobactum which was markedly comparable to the susceptibility shown by Colistin (99%).Statistically, P value was highly significant and was found to be 0.0001. Conclusion Colistin showed superior activity as compared to Ceftolazane / Tazobactum against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa. Thus, Colistin has proven to be a possible and important alternative against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa, but due to its narrow therapeutic window and toxicity profile this drug can be used only when there is no working alternative, or the infection is severely debilitating.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 31-39; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i2.747

Abstract:
The economic significance and benefits of foreign trade also known as international trade to the economies of developing countries cannot be overemphasized. Its role and contributions to the gross domestic earnings, employment generation, economic development, and poverty reduction in these underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria, Ghana, Benin Republic, and others have been too glaring especially in agrarian economies with fertile arable land.The main aim of this paper was to examine in-depth the contributions and relationship between international trade and the economic development of developing African countries. Furthermore, this paper recommended stringent macroeconomic policies that when formulated would encourage and increase the multiplier effect of these (foreign) trades. Part of these policies is targeted towards exchange rates, tariffs, import and export duties, subsidies, and actions that promote international trade.The research further concluded that internationaltradeis a key macroeconomic driver that must be encouraged in developing African countries as its multiplier effects have the potentials of driving the needed development goals of these nations. And for this to be achieved, these nations (developing countries) must formulate workable localized macroeconomic policies that suit and drive their interest as against borrowed economic policies from the developed European and Asian nations. Some of the recommendations proffered include adoption of friendly and pro-active export promotion policies, availability of grants, aids, subsidies, and loans, mechanization of the agrarian sector, adoption of flexible exchange rate, etc.This study made use of time series secondary data obtained from the World Development Indicators (WDI) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) of developing African countries for a period between 2000 and 2019. A forecast of 15 years was also initiated using these data to provide a long-term insight into the benefits of these trading activities on the GDP of developing countries.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 6-29; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i2.705

Abstract:
This study aimed at assessing the location and spatial distribution of petrol filling stations along LASU/Isheri Road, Ojo, Lagos state. The objectives are to map out all the petrol filling stations in along Lasu/Isheri road; to examine the volume of traffic along the road corridor; to determine the contribution of petrol filling stations to the traffic volume on the road, and to ascertain the road traffic challenges that are caused by the petrol filling stations (PFS). Geographical Positioning System (GPS) was employed to collect primary data; also, questionnaires and traffic count sheets were employed. The study found that the PFS along the road corridor is clustered with a Z-score of -7.34 and NNI of 0.440285. Also, the maximum peak hour volume was estimated to be 4198.6 pcu/hr. The PFS along the corridor are seen to contribute significantly to the traffic volume on the corridor. Finally, the dominant traffic challenges along the corridor include traffic gridlock which sometimes results into road traffic crashes which are triggered by the concentration of PFS in the study area, the proximity of PFS to a road intersection, overflow of the queue into the roadway, and to a minimal extent parking of tankers along the roadway and lack of setback. This study suggests strategies that can be adopted for locating PFS to ensure the free flow of traffic along the road corridor where they are located.
Lubna Farooq, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed, Muhammad Aitmaududdolah Khan, Anum Mahmood, Zara Khan, Samreen Khurram, Mahnoor Farzand
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i2.594

Abstract:
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease; it causes decay in tooth and leads to unbearable pain and expensive dental procedures. One of potential risk factor that favor the caries process is acidic pH that a person faces usually after consumption of any food or drinks. Various mouth rinses are evaluated to normalize the salivary pH to break the chain of caries pathophysiology. Objective: To evaluate the role of probiotic, baking soda and mineral water rinses on pH of Saliva. Materials and methods: It were a cross sectional study conducted in institute of Karachi from -10 January to 25 June 2020. Out of 150 participants 60 qualified the inclusion criteria and were explained about the procedure of the study after their agreement they were divided into three groups each group comprised of 20 participants. Group 1 was given probiotic mouth rinse; Group 2 was given baking soda mouth rinse and in Group 3 mineral water rinses were given. They were told to rinse the oral cavity before and after the food consumption and pre and post salivary changes were recorded. Results: Significant (p-value = 0.001) change in salivary pH was observed with baking soda and mineral water rinses however probiotic mouth rinse did not show significant (p-value = 0.22) change. Conclusion: Rinsing with Baking soda and mineral water mouth rinses increased the salivary pH to normal.
Adetayo Olaniyi Adeniran, Olufunto Adedotun Kanyio
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 25-32; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i2.185

Abstract:
This study gaudily examines the impact of Artificial Intelligence on aircraft docking, and technophobia that may arise on the part of ground marshallers. Ground marshallers are ground personnel that signal or communicate visually to pilots when docking the aircraft in an airport. Artificial Intelligence is an expert system which can be incorporated in different areas, such as finance, transportation, aviation, and tele-communications. Attitude theory and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) were used to establish the acceptance of Artificial Intelligence. It should be noted that expert systems make decisions which requires human level of expertise. In order to reduce the fear that technology will replace the jobs of human in the field of air transportation particularly with aircraft docking, it is crucial for airport personnel to embrace the upcoming revolution by developing themselves as regard Artificial Intelligence; Universities should prepare the transport students to face the upcoming reality. Also various organizations should put in place necessary resources needed to be part of this revolution which will be fully achieved in the fourth indus-trial revolution and the fifth industrial revolution.
, I.P Singh, M Lawal, P.B Yisa
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i1.179

Abstract:
The study empirically determined the factors that influenced household sugarcane output commercialization in Kwara State of Nigeria using undated data elicited via structured questionnaires complemented with interview schedule from 105 active sugarcane farmers chosen through multi-stage sampling design during the 2017 production season. The collected data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The empirical findings showed poor extension services, inadequate credit facilities, failure of the farmers to utilize their social capital, lack of scientific storage facilities and health-related issues to be the major factors that affected sugarcane output commercialization the studied area. Therefore, the study recommended that the farmers in the studied area should be advised to pool their social capital together in order to become economically viable thereby maximizing the pecuniary economic advantages of sugarcane value chain in the studied area.
K. Roja, G. D.V. Kusuma, B. Ravi Kumar
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i1.178

Abstract:
The condition of working women in India as well as in the entire world in general is considered to be very distressing. Working women in general are subject to discrimination at various levels. The problems and difficulties of working women are multi-dimensional, varying from woman to woman at personal level, and section to section at general level and hence need to be analyzed in depth. There are very serious problems of wages, employment, income and standard of living and sexual harassment among working women. They are not able to get any advantage of social security schemes. Due to their ignorance and illiteracy they are not benefited from present welfare schemes. There has indeed been a growing realization that the women workers form an integral part of the process of national development. This has made the government make continuous effort to give women workers a better deal in spheres of work and to recognize their contribution to the socio-economic development of the Country. However, what has been done remains a drop in the ocean and the women worker remain exploited and unprotected working hours, conditions of work, wages, types of job and other situation is still not favorable to women workers. Women workers have many problems and problems of working women are more serious and server. The present study is an attempt to portray the work related issues in selected hospitals (i.e. GEMS, KIMS, RIMS, GMR).
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i4.406

Abstract:
Introduction:In the era of modern technology mobile phones have becoming popular, especially in teenagers. Besides of its uses there are various undesirable psychological and physical impact on heath. Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to access the link among Excessive Use of Smart Phone and there sleep pattern among Pakistani Adolescents. Materials and Methods: A detailed cross sectional study was performed on a total of 500 medical graduates range between 18 and 24 years who were using mobile phone atleast a year. Self-designed Questionnaire is given to them having details of their frequency and pattern of using smart phone. Sleep quality was analyzed by using Pittsburg Sleep Quality index .Chi square test was also perform to check the link between frequency of mobile phone and quality of sleep.P value < 0.005 were considered as significant. Result: Out of 500 participants, the frequency of mobile phone usage was more in males 70% as compare to females30%. Their age varied from 21to 24 with mean age of 20 ± 1.9 years. Most of students use mobile phone in night 188 (38%)and 202 (40%) participants using mobile phone unlimited. 366 (73%) students mentioned that they start using mobile phone at intermediate level and claimed that no surveillance of the mobile phone being done by the parents . Students who were using unlimited mobile phone reported that they take more than 1 hour to sleep that showed a significant (p-value
, Abdelkader Bensliman,
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 10-21; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i2.310

Abstract:
Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) is an important solar cell material. The critical problem in the a-Si:H-based photovoltaic cell is increasing the conversion efficiency. To overcome the difficulty, higher conversion efficiency demands a longer optical path to increase optical absorption. Thus, a light trapping structure is needed to obtain more efficient absorption. In this context, we propose a complete solar cell structure for which a 1D grating is etched into the ultrathin active absorbing layer of a one-dimensional "CP 1D" photonic crystal a-Si: H characterized by the optimal parameters: period a = 480 nm, a filling factor ff = 50% and a depth d = 150 nm. This was selected by varying the CP1D parameters to maximize the absorption integrated into the active layer. CP1D is suggested as an intermediate layer in the solar cell concentration system. This study allowed us to model the optical and electrical behavior of a CP1D solar cell. After optimization of the geometrical parameters (period and fill factor ... etc.), we concluded that the CP1D led to greater optical gains than for their unstructured equivalent. The simulation clearly illustrates that the electric field strongly affects the electro-optical characteristics of the devices studied, and that it is clear that 1D PC solar cells as active layer have exhibited a high electric field distribution. We have focused on the net on the effect of the active layer and its beneficial role in the sense of expressing the photovoltaic performance of the devices.
Tsvetelina Velikova, Toni Velikov, Georgi Mihailov
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v4i1.196

Abstract:
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases with proteolytic activity against components of extracellular matrix, such as collagen and elastin, which are involved in many biological and pathophysiological processes in humans. There is some evidence for MMPs` role in nephrogenesis, renal damage, and remodeling, such as MMP-7 (matrilysin) and MMP-10 (stromelysin). However, the implication of MMPs in the pathogenetic renal changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to measure the serum levels of circulating MMP-7 and MMP-10 in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease and to analyze the impact of MMP-7 and MMP-10 on the renal disease burden of these patients. In our study, we have evaluated 80 persons – 20 with CKD (II – IV stage), 20 with end-stage CKD on chronic hemodialysis, and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects: 20 with isolated arterial hypertension and 20 healthy persons. The serum samples were tested for MMP-7 and MMP-10 by performing enzyme immunoassay method. Serum levels of both investigated MMPs were most increased in end-stage CKD patients on hemodialysis. The concentration of MMP10 was significantly higher in CKD patients on chroniodialysis than healthy persons (p < 0.001), and patients with isolated arterial hypertension (p < 0.001) and patients at different stages of CKD (p = 0.037). To conclude, it is possible that the increased levels of MMP-10 could be associated with poor prognosis and eventually need for dialysis treatment at earlier stages. We hypothesize that CKD is associated with alterations of MMPs and that may be related to the severity of atherosclerosis in this clinical setting.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 33-42; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i2.186

Abstract:
Acute general putrid peritonitis refers to the severe inflammation of the peritoneum. He is constantly accompanied by jendotoksicheskim shock and progressive multiple organ failure. Macro and micro blood circulation in tissues and organs of the abdominal cavity Portal vein system is blocked from the first minutes the development of pathological process and toxins and nedookislennye metabolic products accumulate in them. For their removal requires efferent methods of treatment, one of which suggests the author of this article. Technical and physical techniques against a backdrop of complex drug therapy perpetrated as cleansing and forcible blood vessels promotion portal system. In this way manage to restore homeostasis. For developing this method, he was extradited to USSR patent (No. 1787036, dated March 7, 1991). To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method of treatment, the author describes the clinical observations.
Adetayo Olaniyi Adeniran, Olufunto Adedotun Kanyio
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 16-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i2.184

Abstract:
This study examines long term forecasting of international air travel demand in Nigeria. Yearly data from 2001 to 2017 were collected from secondary sources. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression was used to forecast the ten years (2018 to 2028) demand for international air passenger travel in Nigeria. The demand for international air passenger in Nigeria from year 2001 to 2017 was compared with the forecast. Calculation reveals that the coefficient of determination R2 is 0.815, while the computed reveals that the coefficient of determination R2 is 0.769, this difference can be attributed to approximations to two decimal places for calculated test. The calculated test and computed test reveals that the error term is minimal and the explanation level is high; hence the prediction or forecast is reliable. The forecast for years 2020, 2025 and 2028 are 5,282,453, 6,342,519, and 6,978,559 respectively which are about 48 percent increase, 78 percent increase, and 95 percent increase respectively from demand in year 2017. The forecast of ten years from year 2018 to year 2028 reveals that there will be more increase in the demand for international air passenger travel in Nigeria. The implication of this increment is that existing air transport infrastructures should be upgraded, and new infrastructures should be procured and installed; airport and airline operations should be reviewed and strategized such that they will meet the expectations of airline and airport users. Other concerned business stakeholders should use this data to plan and invest as there is high tendency for profit making.
Robert Skopec
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i1.181

Abstract:
Chinese scientists won a major victory, by proving that the Majorana fermions – a particle we’ve found tantalizing hints for years – genuinely exists. This discovery has huge implications for quantum computing, and it might change the world. Don Lincoln, a senior physicist at Fermi lab, does research using the Large Hadrons Collider. He is the author of “The Large Hadrons Collider: The Extraordinary Story of the Higgs Boson and Other Stuff That Will Blow Your Mind”, and produces a series of science education videos. To the question: Why is there (in our Universe) something including cancer, rather than nothing? He is giving the simplest scientific answer: We shouldn’t exist at all.
Basavaraj Kawdi, Vrushabha C M
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i2.248

Abstract:
Enduring stresses are one of the key factors in shaping the engineering belongings of parts and structural constituents. This fact plays a momentous role, for example, in fatigue of welded elements. Many different procedures and distinctions of means for measuring residual stresses have been advanced to ensemble various specimen geometries and measurement purposes. The several specific methods have grew over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These matching technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. The purpose of this review is to classify the different methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in the area of residual stress measurement and act as a summary document to aid technique selection between destructive, semi destructive and non- destructive techniques for residual stresses. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for futuredevelopments.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i4.405

Abstract:
This study buttressed on the theories explaining the significance of road infrastructure on economic sustainability. Road infrastructure is essential for banishing hunger, alleviating poverty, and improving the quality of human life. Road transport is a means of transport that offers door-to-door transport which is suitable for the delivery of finished goods to consumers. Road infrastructure has the potentials of transforming subsistence farming into a commercial and dynamic farming system which unlock the potentials embedded in rural areas. Understanding the conditions in which more or new road infrastructure does indeed foster economic growth is crucial for efficient management of road infrastructural project. Neoclassical growth theory, endogenous growth theory, growth pole, and growth centre theory were discussed. This paper concludes that public investment should not be constrained by accounting methods that impede a focus on economic returns, and road pricing strategy should be adopted in Nigeria because of its benefits of spreading demand for road transport, minimizing congestion and overcrowding, improving reliability and delivering benefits to the wider economy.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i1.342

Abstract:
This study conceptualizes how librarians perceive social media in library and information service delivery. The study consults and review previous research on the use of social media to provide service delivery by librarians by librarians. Social media encourages librarians to create new knowledge, ideas, and services and share it across their community of users. Service delivery is the primary function of any university library. Due to the difficult nature of traditional library services, libraries now embrace and adopt some social media tools for service delivery. This research highlighted the opportunities offer by social media to improve service delivery, the study also discuss the categorization of social media, types of social media, applicability of social media, challenges face by librarians when using social media and strategies on incorporating social media when using service delivery. Based on the conceptual review carried out, majority of studies reveals that librarians use social media and ICT in information service library and the most use form of social media is the Facebook, WhatApps and twitter, but, however, they do encounter obstacles in terms when using the social media. The study concludes that librarians actually use social media for library information service delivery, but yet there is a lot of challenges for proper use of social media in library and information delivery. Therefore, the study recommends that university libraries should incorporate more social media to provide effective services to their clients and adequate finance should be provided regularly by the university management to improve the use of social media in information service delivery and finally librarians should render more proactive and more quality social media services to meet the information needs of clients
Sidiq Okwudili Ben
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 9-14; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i3.372

Abstract:
This study has examined the performance of University transport bus shuttle based on utilization using a Single-server queue system which occur if arrival and service rate is Poisson distributed (single queue) (M/M/1) queue. In the methodology, Single-server queue system was modelled based on Poisson Process with the introduction of Laplace Transform. It is concluded that the performance of University transport bus shuttle is 96.6 percent which indicates a very good performance such that the supply of shuttle bus in FUTA is capable of meeting the demand.
B. Vijaya Lakshmi, B. Ravi Kumar
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i3.187

Abstract:
The disruptors in the financial services industry are rewriting the rules, banks used to perform operations traditionally. The financial services industry known for conservative and resistant to change has been challenged by financial technology (fintech) companies that compete by combining digital technology, social media, and big data analytics to replace traditional models with financial products and services enabled by new technology. The present study is an attempt to portray the Role of Fin Techs, Challenges etc.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i1.180

Abstract:
Forensics is a scientific discipline which deals with evidencing of criminal acts, and consists of a series of sub disciplines. One of them is forensic toxicology whose task is to detect the existence of poisons in the human body and existence of poisons in all areas where they should not be. Although rarely happens, the criminal act of Poisoning has to be investigated in accordance with the rules of criminal investigation and, due to the established facts, to raise the indictment and punish the perpetrator.
, A. Rajalingam, J. Latha
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i1.177

Abstract:
A method of improving operating bandwidth of a microstrip patch antenna by simply improving the structural shape, without affecting the size of an antenna is proposed in this paper. Simple calculations proved that Rectangular Microstrip Patch antenna of bandwidth 845.1 MHz can be efficiently transformed into microstrip patch antenna having bandwidth 9147.4 MHz . Two different approaches have been proposed and compared for better results.
, E. Poryazova, Ts. Velikova
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 5-9; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i2.255

Abstract:
Endometriosis is a non-tumor, estrogen-dependent, chronic gynecological disease, which is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrium of the uterus. Endometriosis affects between 10% and 15% of women in reproductive age. It is often associated with chronic pelvic pain and reproductive difficulties. Endometriosis can be classified as ovarian, extra-ovarian or mixed. Adenomyosis is considered, by some authors, as a separate variant of endometriosis. It is diagnosed as the presence of ectopic benign endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium, where the minimal distance from the endometrio-myometrial junction is 2-4 mm. Our study includes 224 cases of women with endometriosis with different locations - in the myometrium (adenomyosis), in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, soft tissues and appendix as well as in combination with other conditions of the uterine body, such as endometrial carcinoma, leiomyomas, endometrial hyperplasia, polyps and atrophy and cervical cancer. There are cases of coexistence of several conditions in the same patient, and we are trying to find the reason behind this.
, Adetayo Olaniyi Adeniran
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v4i1.142

Abstract:
This study assesses passengers’ satisfaction of public transport system in Akure-Owo axis, Nigeria. It was necessitated by the poor nature of transport system which has created impediments to the smooth movement of people, goods and services in some of urban centres in Nigeria. Meanwhile, the importance of public transport in cities of many developing countries lies in the fundamental fact that accessibility and mobility are essential for economic growth and also for effective and efficient movement of goods and services. Twelve bus services were identified. The study was conducted using questionnaires and field observation to collect the required data at the terminals (i.e. Akure and Owo Park). One hundred and twelve (112) questionnaires were administered to the passengers across the two terminals. Descriptive tool such as weighted mean and standard deviation were employed. Also, Gap analysis was used to achieve descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that passengers were not satisfied with the competence of drivers, condition of vehicle, overloading and over-speeding, attitude of drivers, driver’s compliance with road safety rules and order, and the cost charge per trip. Based on the dissatisfactions, recommendations were suggested.
, Nour Abd Alrazzak Abd Allattif, Sabreen Ali Abdalrahman
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v2i1.190

Abstract:
Many cyclic compounds were formatted via multi components reactions and cyclization reaction through many steps with ( various conditions , various starting materials , various components ), in first step , aromatic amine derivative were reacted with ammonium thiocyanate in cyclization reaction to yield 2-aminobenzothiazole derivative , which reacted with formaldehyde and benzaldehyde as a multi components reaction ., then the resulting compounds cyclized with ( semicarbazide , ortho-phenyl diamine , ortho-thiol aniline , ortho- amino phenol ). Investigation of compounds carried out through many techniques ( FT.IR , H.NMR , Mass ) – Spectra , Thermal studies
A. A. M Habeeb, A. A. El-Tarabany
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i3.189

Abstract:
Pollution may be defined as addition of undesirable material into the environment as a result of human activities. Pollution may be of the following types: air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, thermal pollution, radiation pollution and noise pollution. The impact of different pollution as a general on healthy of farm animals are cancer, neurobehavioral disorders, cardiovascular problems, reduced energy levels, premature death, asthma, asthma exacerbations, headaches and dizziness, irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat, reduced lung functioning, respiratory symptoms, respiratory disease, disruption of endocrine and reproductive and immune systems. Exposure to environmental pollutants affected reproductive functions and in particular, produced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, fertility, and fetal health. Exposures to ambient levels of pollutants are associated with low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, neonatal death, and decreased fertility and decrease of sperm quality in males and indicated also that female fertility was also disturbed. The most common disorder of male fertility is the insufficient production of normal sperm, with good mobility in the somniferous tubules. Polluted drinking water by chemicals produced waterborne diseases like, typhoid, liver and kidney damage. In this paper the effects of various environmental factors on healthy, function of animal, fertility and reproductive efficiency are reported.
, G.V.R.K Acharayulu, V.M. Prasad
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v3i1.191

Abstract:
Cost based care is evolving as a resolution to address increasing Healthcare costs, and to address the problem of clinical inefficiencies. ‘Cost based care’ therefore is designed to be patient centric. While ‘Cost based care’ helps in addressing the challenge of rising costs and making the care more affordable, it comes with its own set of challenges for providers as they are paid for better patient outcomes in an evidence based way. In the regimen of ‘Cost based care’ providers are grappling with reduced reimbursements. Providers are also required to track wide variety of measures to make the care more evidence based. Operations transformation for a healthcare systems means that it makes the processes, efficient, flexible and innovative to suit patient centric treatment models. To achieve this transformation by excluding wastes out of system, make the processes much more efficient, implementation of digital systems across the value chain of the hospital have become the area of focus. Shared Services alteration is a subclass of administrational transformation. It is has a lot of potential to smoke out costs, making operational processes much more efficient by rationalizing functions, like Human Resources, Pathology, Radiology, IT and Supply chain services at Hospitals. Administrational transformation aims to flush out costs, bring transformation in revenue cycle, and focus on Patient centric treatment modules. By implementing data visualization dashboards across the services would enable transparency and trust for patients.
Alaa Ali M. Elzohry, Ali M. El Foli
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i2.183

Abstract:
Acute pain is an important fear for most patients and influences their recovery and overall experience. Poorly treated, it could lead to undesirable effects and patient dissatisfaction. Hence, it is important to understand, assess and treat acute pain effectively. Pain management has been transferred from intraoperative into per operative period throughout the emergence of modern anesthesiology. Pain management in postoperative period is one of the most essential components of sufficient post-surgical patients care. The objective of this review is to define and demonstrate the risks and different sequelae of acute post operative pain.
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 4-16; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i3.188

Abstract:
When the animals exposed to the high environmental temperature most of the physiological and biochemical parameters are disturbances. The heat-induced changes in each of thermoregulatory parameters as well as water, protein turnover or balances and hormonal levels may be used for evaluation the animal's adaptability to hot climate. Detection of such phenomena in the animals could be achieved by different indices. Most of indices which may be used for detecting the heat adaptability in animals are reviewed in this article paper.
Gbadamosi Kolawole T,
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v1i2.182

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to access the economic implication of absence of National carrier in the Nigeria aviation industry. The airline industry is the key drive of the travel and tourism industry and also a major contributor to many countries’ overall economy through international tourist arrivals and departures. The study estimate the amount of revenue Nigeria is losing to capital flights for not having a viable national carrier over the past ten years that is from 2007 to 2016.The estimated amount of revenue loss was examined on airlines offering direct flights on Nigeria to London route, in which we have two foreign airlines (British airways and Virgin Atlantic airline)and a Nigeria’s private national carrier which is Med-view airline. The class of tickets and services in each class of ticket being offered by the airlines was examined. The study reveals an estimate of total of over $6 Billion revenue were being lost to hands of foreign competitors over the past ten years with British airways generating closely to $4 billion, while Virgin Atlantic generated over $2.3 billion and Med-view generated over $133 million in the past ten years. The study also reveals that the higher the passenger carried the higher the revenue and vice versa. However, establishing a national carrier by the federal government is imminent which will express Nigeria culture and to better serve passengers especially Nigerians. Finally, banks and other governmental financial institutions should make available enough funds with longer payback period and little interest for both existing airlines to upgrade their services and new entrants to be able to purchase necessary equipment’s to make them competitive in the market.
, Ayo Agunbiade O.T
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i3.356

Abstract:
Airport Capacity generally refers to the ability of an airport to handle a given volume of traffic (demand) and should be assess to ensure they are adequate for lay down Standards. This study was based on the assessment of Airside Capacity Utilization at an International Airport; the Runway is the focus of this study. Capacities are very important and this dictates the level of patronage made by airlines at the Airport. Murtala Mohammed International Airport (MMIA) as a case study was examined; the domestic and international traffic flow well assessed on a daily basis, over a period of sixteen (16) years, to determine the traffic intensity of the airport was obtained from Federal Aviation Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) and Nigerian Airspace Management Agencies (NAMA). This experimental research involved the estimation of the traffic flow, installed capacity of the Runway, the intensity of traffic on hourly, daily, monthly bases. The model adopted for the research was Queue Theory. Findings show that the domestic wing generates more traffic flow than international wing of the Runway. The through put at the Runways shows that the runway is adequately utilized to accommodate existing traffic, expansion in the form of construction will not be necessary.
Nemah Sahib Mohammed Husien, Rajaa Abd Alameer Gafel, Noor Dia Jaffer
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 4, pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v4i1.225

Abstract:
This literature involved explanation about separation organic components in mixture such as(chromatography ,extraction ,filtration, centrifuge…) , principles of separation , methods of separation ,types of separation , purification of separated compounds , conditions of separation , physical and chemical properties of mixture.
Muhammed Abdel Hasan Shallal
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 5, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v5i1.231

Abstract:
This review gives some information about imidazole ring as a ( ligand , complex , antimicrobial , antimalarial , anticancer , uses , applications , linked with active groups such as Schiff base , azo group , ..).
, Dorian Dikov,
American International Journal of Multidisciplinary Scientific Research, Volume 6, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.46281/aijmsr.v6i1.547

Abstract:
Bladder carcinoma (BC) is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary system in developed countries, and it is also characterized by a high number of recurrences and progression rates despite multimodal treatment. BC is a biological and clinically heterogeneous tumor with a great propensity of divergent differentiation. Around the world, bladder cancer is responsible for 549.000 new cases и 200.000 deaths each year. In Bulgaria, bladder carcinoma is the 18th most common neoplasia. Our results on 105 proven bladder carcinoma cases confirmed that this tumor arises at 70 years at average (60-90 years), it affects men predominantly and there was no difference regarding the nationality of patients. In conclusion, it remains a diagnostic challenge.
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