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Afsana Mimi, Ali Imran, Tahrima Haque Beg, Sazidur Rahman
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 17-28; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1733

Abstract:
This research investigates the initiatives and actions taken by the Government of Bangladesh and institutions to attract women into e-commerce and introduce these women as financially independent. The existence and power of women in Bangladesh are very weak, and this is due to dependency, lack of education, and skills. To remove these obstacles and empower women through e-commerce, the Government and different institutions are taking various initiatives and actions as they can contribute to the development of Bangladesh. This study evaluates how Government and other institutions are working to introduce e-commerce as a strong tool for women's economic independence in Bangladesh. The Government is taking action to provide direct funds, introducing simple policies, tax exemptions, easy business space, transportation assistance, and many other ways. Different organizations are also working to assist the Government of Bangladesh in empowering women through e-commerce. The policy recommendations could be helpful for The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh to mitigate its challenges and make this sector more profitable.
Afsana Mimi, Ali Imran, Jasia Mustafa, Tahrima Haque Beg, Sazidur Rahman
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1723

Abstract:
This research investigates the efforts taken by the women for introducing themselves as financially independent through e-commerce from the perspective of Bangladesh. After the outbreak of COVID-19, women of Bangladesh suffered a lot in case of – loss of jobs, lower wages, lower educational support, lower access to information, and deterioration of mental health due to depression and anxiety. At this bad time, e-commerce has shown women a new way of survival and gained economic independence. This study is for evaluating how e-commerce becomes a strong tool for women's economic independence during the period of this pandemic. Though there are some obstacles, e-commerce is opening the door to women’s success. Bangladesh is a developing country where most people think that the only duty of women is cooking and looking after children but e-commerce is giving the opportunity to the women to work at home and become financially independent. The policy recommendations for encouraging women in e-commerce and mitigating their challenges could be helpful for The Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh in making this sector more profitable.  JEL Classification Codes: L81.
Muhammad Mostofa Hossain, Luqman Haji Abdullah
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v9i1.1667

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has direly smacked over 200 countries, threatening global economic growth that has adversely been peeved by the outbreak. It has patterned jeopardizes globally encompassing economic recession, probable high unemployment rate, mounting the poverty line and death of over 2.5 million people. Meanwhile, the second peak of the pandemic is infuriating many countries which may result in around 13% to 32% projected global trade downgrade. Alike, the South Asian economy is suffering from a dire hit of the pandemic and undergoing an atrocious economical mishap. It resulted in a potential decline in the economy than in a normal downturn which materialized different rebounds in habitual succession. Islam safeguards all necessities to authenticate people’s well-being. Protecting ‘life’ and ‘wealth’ from those necessities means securing the human being from natural and human-made shocks. Islam, therefore, represents a set of principles to exile the shocks like the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper aims to highlight the Islamic framework and policy responses using its financial tools to get rid of the pandemic crisis in South Asia, especially in the Muslim countries of the reign.JEL Classification Codes: A10
Nor Effuandy Pfordten, Jafor Ali, Norhaila Bt. Sabli, Kamal Uddin, Abul Bashar Bhuiyan
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1551

Abstract:
Quality Higher Education transforms human life into meaningful human resources. Moreover, it brings qualitative changes in humankind and socioeconomic development with the help of extended knowledge and higher skills. But, most of the traditional student loan mechanisms are based on interest (riba) therefore, many devout Muslims are struggling with traditional student financing, as interest (riba) is impermissible in Islamic shariah. This study aims to analyze student financing concepts based on shariah perspective and to evaluate the shariah issues that are associated to its application. The present qualitative study adopts mostly relied primary and secondary sources of Islamic shariah such as Quran, Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Islamic scholars’ views. The deliberations evolve at reviewing on the shariah concept of Qard-al-hassan, Qard-bil-ujrah, waqf (Islamic trust bank), and takaful. Finally, the present study highlights that the higher education financing based on the shariah concept could also be generalized into education financing that would be interest(riba) free and acceptable to the Muslim community at large.
Indra Bahadur Malla Thakuri, Govind Nepal
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.149

Abstract:
Nepal is endowed with the majestic Himalayan ranges, including Mt. Everest, which is 8848 m, is the world’s highest mountain peak. Nepal is renowned world-wide as a prime tourist destination due to its unparalleled natural beauty; diverse bio-diversity; ethnic, lingual and social diversity; and historical and cultural wealth. There are many lakes, rivers, mountainous areas, museums, national parks, historical places, greenery forests, cultural heritages which become attractions to the tourists in Nepal. Rural setting is one of the most potential areas to promote the rural tourism where tourists can have opportunity to observe the rural setting, culture, life-style, social relationship, hospitality etc of rural people in Nepal. So, the study has developed the community oriented rural tourism development model covering the stages of development. The study was conducted in Lamjung, Tanahu and Nawalparasi districts among the home-stay operators, tourist experts and other tourism related stakeholders. In-depth interview was done with the respondents to collect their opinion about the best model of rural tourism. The study has developed the Community Oriented Rural Tourism Development Model (CO-RTDM) which has explained the seven stages of development.
Fouzia Perveen, Afaq Ali Khan
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1454

Abstract:
This research paper aims to find out the relationship between Official Development Assistance and sustainable development in Pakistan. Time series data was taken for the period of 42 years (1976 -2017). Sustainable Development is a dependent variable for which proxy variable of Adjusted Net Savings has been deployed. ODA (% of GNI), Inflation, Per Capita GDP and Trade (GDP %) have been used as explanatory variables. Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test has been applied to examine the nature of the data as time series data may contain unit root problems. ADF test confirms mixed order of integration for the selected variables, hence Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach was applied to find out the long-run relationship among the considered variables. Estimation of Error Correction Regression resulted in a significant long-run relationship between ODA and Sustainable Development. ECM Regression also signifies the negative and significant value of the speed of adjustment term confirming that the model is stable and convergent towards the equilibrium. Overall results of this study confirm a positive and highly significant relationship between ODA and the measure of sustainable development in Pakistan. Therefore it is recommended that attention should be given to drawing on foreign assistance and it should be subject to the transparent and efficient practices applied in the Aid Allocation. It significantly improves the overall welfare of Pakistan.
Syed Irfanul Hoque, Asif Mahbub Karim, Rabiul Hossen, Dina Arjumand
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 8, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v8i1.1295

Abstract:
Telemedicine provides healthcare services to the patients through the adaptation of a telecommunication system, as opposed to the face-to-face conventional way of visiting a hospital and doctor's chamber. In the new-normal situation during COVID 19, telemedicine is a new way forward in the absence of conventional appointments with doctors to ensure regular health services. It is important to evaluate patients' satisfaction with service qualities and their perception of telemedicine service. The study proposed a conceptual framework based on the e-SERVQUAL model and TAM model to evaluate the service qualities and customers' satisfaction. Data has been collected through a telephone questionnaire survey from the patients through the psychiatric department who have received healthcare services provided by Maizbhanderi Foundation. Data has been analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23 according to the patients’ responses on the service qualities including responsiveness, reliability, information quality, empathy, ease of use, perceived usefulness, and their satisfaction with the telemedicine service. The study used Spearman Rank Co-relation to evaluate the co-relation of service qualities with customer satisfaction following the conceptual framework of the study. The result shows a positive co-relation of service qualities with customers’ satisfaction. The study will help to determine the customers' satisfaction with service qualities using technology. 
Candace M. Pohl, John R. Slate
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1281

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the degree to which economic status was related to Discipline Alternative Education Program placement assignments for Grades 8 and 9 Black boys and Black girls who were at-risk during the 2017-2018 school year. Inferential statistical analyses of Texas statewide data revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in the number of Discipline Alternative Education Program placement assignments by the economic status of Black boys and Black girls at both grade levels. Grades 8 and 9 Black boys and girls who were at-risk and who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to statistically significantly more of these exclusionary discipline consequences than their counterparts who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 8 Black boys who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to these exclusionary discipline consequences two times more often than Grade 8 Black boys who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 8 Black girls who were economically disadvantaged were assigned to these exclusionary discipline consequences two-thirds more often than Grade 8 Black girls who were not economically disadvantaged. Grade 9 Black boys and Black girls who were economically disadvantaged were assigned these exclusionary discipline consequences one-third more often than their non-economically disadvantaged peers. Implications and recommendations for future research were discussed.
Sultana Akter
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 10-24; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1171

Abstract:
To understand the financial condition of a firm, it is mandated to evaluate the financial fitness of a firm, whether manufacturing, trading and service rendering etc. The main purpose of this research is to measure the financial fitness of leading pharmaceutical industries and listed on the stock exchange in Bangladesh. This study employs a sample of seven companies from pharmaceutical industries in Bangladesh where Altman’s Z-score model is used to assess the financial fitness of those companies by the prediction of whether they will go into bankruptcy within the next two years. By applying the model, it is revealed that SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Renata Limited and IBN SINA Pharmaceutical Limited are in a very good position with higher Z-Score. Beacon Pharmaceuticals Limited and Ambee Pharmaceuticals Limited are heading toward good scores. But ACI Limited and Beximco Pharmaceuticals Limited are financially unhealthy and there is a possibility of going into bankruptcy in the near future. The finding of the study suggested the main reason for such a situation is that the performance of companies is differed by declining market value of shares, falling total asset turnover, inadequate proportion of EBIT to total assets and insufficient liquid assets etc. JEL Classification Codes: G33, G53, M10.
Syed Irfanul Hoque, Nayeb Sajjadah Nasheen, Muhammad Ali Asgor, Ariful Islam
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 7, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v7i1.1030

Abstract:
Due to the pandemic situation, the whole world is in turmoil. The educational activities are being conducted via an e-Platform in Bangladesh. Social awareness and creativity enhancement Programs have also been limited from the wide range of conventional mode to virtual mode. In the meantime, many Social organizations and educational institutions have failed to manage their regular activities due to lack of technological support. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the success of social awareness and creativity enhancement programs through the e-Learning platform. In order to measure the success of the program a quasi-experimental research design has been applied. In order to collect data, a well-structured creativity, and awareness scale has been adapted. A questionnaire has been administered twice with the same sample. Once before the program offered and again after their participation in the program. The test-retest reliability of the scale would also check with a minimum of α=.80. Therefore, the findings of the research will show how much the effectiveness of those activities increased. This study will assist the social workers, teachers, students and concerned authority in operating creativity enhancement related co-curricular and non-credited program through self-regulated distance learning in a developing country.
Emmanuel O. Okon
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 6-19; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.150

Abstract:
The growing disconnect between the improving macro-economic indicators and the growing descent into poverty of over 170 million Nigerians is clearly anindicative of the fact that economic growth in Nigeria is non-inclusive as the country may have only attained what is known as growth without development. Using a purely descriptive and analytical methodology, this paper shows that inclusive growth is the growth that generates employment opportunities and reduces the depth and severity of the incidence of poverty. However, people with disability have in many cases been denied of job opportunities in Nigeria. This paper argues that the country cannot have inclusive growth unless disability is made an integral part of her growth. Considering that the economic inclusion of people with disabilities is a cross-cutting issue, successful results require complementary activities in multiple sectors. However, inclusion of people with disabilities in work/employment can lead to greater economic self-sufficiency. Though it should not be promoted as the only option for economic inclusion, self-employment can be a good alternative, especially in a country like Nigeria where there is a general dearth of opportunities for formal sector jobs. In that regard, this paper suggests that microfinance institutions should extend credit and other financial services for self-employment of people with disabilities. Better still, specialized microfinance should be established for people with disabilities to provide supporting or complementary services.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i2.865

Abstract:
This paper employs an extended production function to examine the relationship between central government debt and economic growth in Italy. The results show that the threshold of the central government debt ratio for Italy is estimated to be 105.00%, which is greater than the 90% debt threshold proposed by Reinhart and Rogoff. Besides, a higher growth rate of labor employment or investment/GDP ratio would raise the growth rate. Hence, the debt threshold proposed by Reinhart-Rogoff underestimates the debt threshold for Italy. The finding suggests that the debt ratio of 131.09% in 2019 is well above the debt threshold and is likely to be unsustainable.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 13-30; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i2.851

Abstract:
Self-control is by all explanations a basic worth affecting how others see us and how we see ourselves. The basic aim of the study is to elaborate the vice versa relationship among the factor to test whether certain psychological variable which increases the satisfaction with life. Component of happiness with the influence of locus of control is correlated with each other which is we find in this research. The participants in the study were 307 students of the different institutes who fill questionnaires through snowball sampling. This had a significant huge relationship with the locus of control. In this study, we use a different technique to find the relationship with data. Firstly we test the reliability of the questionnaire which is used by the different researcher in their research article after this we find the correlation which shows the positive result among the variable. Subsequently, MANOVA and other test were applied in this research to emphasize how self-control plays a major role to enhance the level of happiness which discovered the true meaning of satisfaction. This study recommended that if students and people are good at self-control elements in different situations then they will be happier and satisfied with their life. Moreover, the investigation uncovered that self-control has emphatically corresponded with Happiness, regularity feeling, and satisfaction with life. Research on happiness has caused it conceivable to better comprehend human behaviour in different parts of life.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i2.844

Abstract:
Since the outburst of Covid-19 in China, the world economy is passing in a turmoil situation. Undeniably the economy of Bangladesh is also grappled by the severe public health crisis of the Covid-19. As the public health emergency is heavily interconnected with economic affairs, it has impacted each of the pillars of the economy of Bangladesh. The main purpose of this paper is to make evaluations of the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy of Bangladesh. This study is based on an empirical review of the recent study works, reports, working papers of home, and abroad regarding economic crisis. The review findings of the paper revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic have significant impacts on the different indicators of the economy of Bangladesh especially, Readymade Garments Sector, Foreign Remittance, Bank and Financial Institutions, Food and Agricultures, Local Trade, Foreign Trade (Export and Import), GDP (Gross Domestic Product), SDGs (Sustainable Development Goal), Government Revenue and Employment etc. This study suggested that as Covid-19 still surfacing all over the world so some steps should be ensured by the government agencies of Bangladesh to mitigate possible threats for the economy.
Mohammad Gias Uddin, Mohin Uddin
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 39-54; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i1.580

Abstract:
The main objective of this examine is to explore the elements that influencing the digital economic system and E-government courting. Commonly, the examiner is to analyze the impact of demographic variables are gender and schooling stage; as well as digital infrastructure, virtual readiness, virtual content material, and offerings on the digital economy in Malaysia. A minimum overall of 384 questionnaires could be disbursed to the goal respondents to collect the sample information. Four hypotheses helping to the developed to survey the particular targets of the examiner. Demographic variables expected to have a high-quality enormous relationship with the virtual financial system. Last however now not least, the findings of the look at shall offer statistics to E-government to understand what factors will affect the virtual economic system. Except, it shall additionally provide useful information for E-government to higher fit their people’s needs. The elements decided to boom high-quality dating among E-government and virtual financial system in Malaysia.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 1, pp 50-58; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v1i1.148

Abstract:
This paper studies the role of contemporary Islamic movements towards social and political changes of the 21st century. Contemporary Islamic movements is a modern phenomenon; it is rooted in the historically and spatially recurring cyclical phenomena of "reform" (Islah) and "renewal" (Tajdid) which provide the models and symbols that link modernity to authentic elements of Islamic teachings. The study employs secondary source as a method of data collection. Based on these past rejuvenations, contemporary Islamic scholars are interacts with modern cultural, social, political and religious circumstances. While emphasizing the Unitarian and Universalistic character of Islam, it is also coloured by local variations. Some observers see Islamic movement as part of a trend in contemporary Islam toward a more orthodox and doctrinally homogeneous type of religion based on the sacred source-texts. This trend views local expressions of Islam as deviations from orthodoxy and seeks to suppress them. Modern means of communication have accelerated this process by opening up the periphery to the penetration of the centralizing forces. In this view, Islamic movement is more radical wing of the wider movement which also includes madrasah based traditional groups and Sufi type reform movements.
Able Shibinya Zhizhi, Emmanuel Okokondem Okon
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.153

Abstract:
The contemporary Nigeria has become a theatre of genocide, bloodshed and insecurity over the past years due to the carnage activities of terrorist groups. Terrorists of various groups and camps unleash havoc on the Nigerian populace. Though these groups are numerous, one of the most noticeable and deadly group is Boko Haram. This paper attempts to investigate if this group is one of the major security challenges confronting Nigeria today. The result reveals that a number of factors, including bad governance and religious and political manipulations, and the long and porous borders of Nigeria promote Boko Haram activities. As such, there is significant relationship between Boko Haram insurgency and national security in Nigeria. This paper recommends that at all levels of government, governance should be taken as a serious business especially in the area of provision of security and public goods such as improved infrastructure and the creation of the enabling environment needed for investment that would in turn creation opportunities for employments which will lead to reduction in poverty.
Stanley Edebiri Egharevba,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 4, pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v4i1.211

Abstract:
Nigeria is endowed with vast human and material resources to engender development but it still continues to luxuriate within the confines of a top speed in reverse to oblivion. As its relics, neocolonialism has given birth to industrialization, urbanization and militarization of the political process which generally has created “sudden billionaires” on one end of the ladder (elected or appointed public officials) and extremely poor masses (unemployed graduates and depressed masses) at the other end of the ladder. This paper basically exposes the developmental retrogressive outlooks of the masses due to primitive capitalist accumulation by the few elites who have piloted the affairs of the nation.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i1.240

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the influence of bank credits on the Nigerian economy using time series data covering the period from 1980 to 2017.Gross domestic product was used as proxy for the economy while credits to the private sector, public sector and prime lending rate were used as proxies of Banks credits. Unit root test was used to test stationary which reveals that all the variables were stationary at first difference. The regression analysis result shows that credit to the private sector have positive effect on Nigerian economy while credit to public sector and prime lending rate have negative effect on the Nigerian economy. The result of co-integration test presented reveals that there exist among the variables co-integration which means long-run analysis. It is recommended that, policy makers should focus attention on long-run policies to promote economic growth such as development of modern banking sector, efficient financial market, infrastructures.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 10-20; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i1.242

Abstract:
The study examined the determinant of private sector credit and its implication on economic growth in Nigeria. The fluctuation in the supply of money and credit is the basic causal factor at work in cyclical process; when money supply falls, prices decrease, profit decrease, production activities become sluggish and production falls and when money supply expands, price rise, profit increase and the total output increases and finally growth takes place. The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between Private Sector Credit and Gross Domestic Product. Data were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Simple regression analysis was used to achieve the stated objective. It was revealed in the determinant of credit supply equation 1 that there was significant relationship between Total credits to private sector and money supply in Nigeria. It was also discovered in the Private Sector Credit and Economic Growth Equation 2 that there was significant relationship between private sector credit and economic growth in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that there should be persistence increase of money supply to Nigerian economy in order to increase the flow of credit to the real sector of the Nigerian economy, financial institutions should distribute more credit to the real sector for productive purposes in order to increase Gross domestic product.
, Abdur Rakib Nayeem, ,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 30-38; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i1.554

Abstract:
Organizations nowadays are increasingly impacting in using strategic management to improve their performance; this study has mainly focused on the impact of strategic management on the performance of Choppies Enterprises. Choppies Enterprise Botswana-based Choppies is an investment holding company operating in the retail sector across sub-Saharan Africa. Its operations are food and general merchandise retailing as well as financial services transactions supported by centralized distribution channels, through distribution centers and logistical support assets in Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Zambia. This study focused on the strategic management of Choppies Enterprises. The main research problem was to make an in-depth analysis of its competitive strategy and how to implement it. The main research method was qualitative research by analyzing their company data, annual reports, and making interviews with the manager, staff, and customers in Botswana shops. The result shows a clear image of the process of strategic management by Choppies' case. Some recommendations made for Choppies help to improve their sustainable developments and support a vivid example for many companies. In the theoretical part, it described the definition, process, benefit, and challenge of strategic management. In the practical part, an exhaustive analysis of the company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats was made by using the detailed figures.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 71-79; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.156

Abstract:
There is no doubt that Nigeria’s foreign policy is indeed outdated. This is evidenced in the fact that we now live in different times. Though Nigeria’s role in Africa still remains significant, however, the time “Africa” was made the centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy, was a time when many countries in the continent were struggling to throw off the yolk of colonialism. And the adoption of such a policy was to stand in solidarity with those nations that were struggling to achieve or gain independence. And today, no single country in the continent is under foreign rule or direct control, and the times now call for a review of Nigeria’s foreign policy to reflect the nations current circumstances and realities among the committee of states across the globe. And there is no time than under the present administration of President Muhammadu Buhari. The Buhari administration must look critically and make an assessment of how and which way to direct Nigeria’s foreign policy. The responsibility appears to be binding on President Buhari’s administration having been neglected or not given the required attention by many previous regimes and administrations. The confidence of Nigerians in President Buhari’s vision, promises and commitment to change and general progress/ greatness of Nigeria seems to justify such expectations in the area of foreign relations and policy. There is need for Nigeria to be more involved in world affairs and to seek observer status in certain supranational institutions including the E.U, NATO and the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) in this era of globalisation, and the accompanying system of interdependence. This paper tries to provide a guide with regards to the review of the foreign policy of Nigeria by President Buhari to reflect the realities and challenges of the times in which we are living. The paper argues that Nigeria must be a global player despite being a regional power in consideration of its pottentials and position in the scheme of things, drawing lessons based on Realist theories in international affairs and conduct as well as the experiences of certain states like Japan as models for foreign policy development.
Lucky Anyike Lucky, Achebelema Damiebi Sam
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 80-92; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.157

Abstract:
This study adopted the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics survey to examine poverty and income inequality in Nigeria. The objective was to examine the rate of poverty and income distribution in Nigeria using the Lorenz curve and Gain coefficient. Food poverty line, absolute poverty line, subjective poverty measure and dollar per day poverty line were used to measure poverty while Gani coefficient was used to measure income inequality. Findings reveal that significant proportions of Nigerian population are living below the poverty line adopted in this study. The study also found that there is wide gap between the rich and the poor in Nigeria. The study recommend implementable polices to reduce poverty and reduce income inequality in Nigeria.
Agilebu Ogechi Michael
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 45-59; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.363

Abstract:
This study examined the effect dividend decision and economic value added of quoted manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The objective is to examine if dividend decision have any effect on economic valued added of the Nigeria firms. Cross sectional data was sourced from financial statement of 15 quoted manufacturing firms. Economic valued added was proxy for dependent variables while dividend yield, dividend payout ratio, retention ratio and dividend per share were proxy for predictor variables. After cross examination of the validity of the pooled effect, fixed effect and the random effect, the study accepts the fixed effect model. Findings revealed that75 percent variation from the fixed effect results on economic value added of the manufacturing firms. Beta coefficient of the predictor variables found that dividend yield have negative effect on economic value added while dividend per share, dividend payout ratio and retention ratio has positive and significant effect on economic value added of the quoted manufacturing firms. It’s therefore recommend that constant dividend decision should be maintained among the quoted manufacturing firms and retention forms should be properly invested and the investment environment should be well managed to increase economic value added through the dividend decision channel.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.347

Abstract:
Different ways have been proposed to measure income inequality; there is no best way to calculate the inequality index that expresses income distribution as it is. Popular inequality indices provide information about some points on the distribution function and analyze the inequality of income without reference to the amount of the budget needed to improve the income distribution. In this paper, we propose a set of “Deciles Implied Inequality Indices”. By using this index, we can show how much transfer payment is needed as a redistribution policy to achieve a desired income distribution consistent with the perceived economic goals of the society. That is, we try to find a fiscal-compensation-based index for reducing inequality. By using “Deciles Implied Inequality Indices”, we may measure how much income (tax and subsidy) may be redistributed to reach the targeted income distribution policy.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 8-11; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.327

Abstract:
The ancient city of Kano that is now located in north western Nigeria was an important player in the Trans-Saharan trade that flourished before the advent of the Europeans. The Trans- Sahara trade also predates the Danfodio Jihad that established the Caliphate system across northern Nigeria. The trade was seen to have involved many of the Sahel states in present times, but most importantly cities that distinguished themselves in the production of various commodities like Timbuktu, Gao, Djenne and Sijilmasa in Morocco. Since the demise of such trade, many cities that have hitherto been part of it, have lost relevance in the economic affairs and have been struggling to create new economies and have not been able to do so in modern times. Kano had been the economic base of northern Nigeria and its economy had supported the entire north of Nigeria as a result of the Trans-Sahara trade. Kano became known for trade across the Sahel and the Sahara for its textile and other services that include dyeing of clothing that were sent to as far as Morocco. The paper takes a look at the ancient Sahel economy and Kano’s involvement and insists that for the economy of Northern Nigeria and that of Kano to be revamped, a new strategy will have to be developed. This strategy will look at reviving the ancient trade links that existed before and make for the construction of infrastructure, industries and necessary tourism potentials available. And that it is only by doing so that Kano as city will take its proper place among cities like Timbuktu and Gao, and impact on the economy of Northern Nigeria and by extension the Nigerian nation.
, Okhakhume Aide Sylvester
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.362

Abstract:
The care of mentally retarded children is often stressful experiences for family members, as the child grows up and disability becomes quite noticeable by others, parents face a very distressing predicament of social embarrassment and stigma, they require more attention and time while at the same time the need for special equipment, and medical care increases; implicating financial income and capability of the care providers. The aftermath effect on the care provider(s) most often is restrictive and disruptive to economic, social or emotional deficiency. The study examines the influence of socio-demographic variables on care burden of care providers of non-mentally and mentally retarded students in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted cross sectional research design across types of job, social support, religion, ethnicity and age. A total number of 100 care providers participated in the study (50 care providers of non-mentally retarded students & 50 care providers of the mentally retarded students). The instruments that were used was Care Givers Burden Scale developed by Zarit et al (1980). The result of the study revealed that demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, education level, job type, religion and ethnicity) do not jointly predict burden of care among care providers of mentally retarded students in Ibadan metropolis. [F(7,43)=1.722;p>.05], but revealed that demographic variables jointly predict burden of care among care providers of non-mentally retarded students in Ibadan metropolis. [F(7,43)=2.39;p<.05], and finally revealed that social support had significant influence on burden of care among care providers of mentally retarded students in Ibadan metropolis [t(98)= 11.13; P<.05]. The study therefore concludes that demographic variables jointly predict burden of care among care providers of non-mentally retarded students not mentally retarded students. While social support was found to significantly influence burden of care among care providers of mentally retarded students in Ibadan metropolis.
Niaz Murshed Chowdhury,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.326

Abstract:
Bangladesh is the 2nd largest growing economy in the world in 2016 with 7.1% GDP growth. This study undertakes an econometric analysis to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. This result indicates population growth adversely related to per capita GDP growth, which means rapid population growth, is a real problem for the development of Bangladesh. Malthus’s prediction is that population increases so rapidly and outstrip the food supply due to the operation of the law of diminishing return, which is proven wrong because of technological improvement, human capital development and so on in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has reduced its population growth by about 67% between 1979 and 2017 using different preventive checks suggested by Malthus and Mill. Bangladesh has been suffering from environmental degradation, loss of arable land, loos of agricultural land biodiversity loss and deforestation. As a consequence, the climate has changed dramatically, and species are in danger and extinction. Bangladesh Economy is growing with improving living standard at the cost of environmental degradation.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 49-61; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i1.283

Abstract:
Based on the working in different fields of sciences for a long time, a solution to change the structure of banking products as a solution to economic crises is proposed. By sharing the risks economically this solution can make economic integrity among all economic sectors.In this paper, we are going to introduce a new Islamic financial institution with elaborated economic and financial characteristics. «Non-Usury Bank Corporation» (NUBankCo) is defined in a way that depositors are the shareholders of the Bank. This corporation is a new kind of shared ownership corporation, which its shareholders are deposit holders and their deposits work as corporation’s equities. The defined bank can perform non-usury operations, and by designing a behavioral model, it is shown that NUBankCo can draw an environment that the welfare of society is to be maximized. Mobility of deposit resources in NUBankCo is less than conventional banks, and there are fewer conflicts between large and small shareholders/depositors and limits the emergence of shareholders’ cartels and thus huge sudden outflow of funds which creates bankruptcy crises.
Ogunyemi Joseph Kayode, Dare Funso David,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i1.251

Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of trade diversification on economic growth of ECOWAS countries. The study has looked at the determinants of exports and imports in some selected ECOWAS countries. The selected ECOWAS countries are Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. The employed a model form of the GMM estimator was adopted but the empirical validation shall be based on ordinary panel regression. The study revealed that the activities of the main sector when rated as a percentage of the gross domestic product is a significant factor that influences the exports and imports in these selected countries. This means that the activities done in the main sector of these economies have significant effect on the value of exports and imports. The activity of the main sector is huge and voluminous enough to accommodate some level of significant imports in order to assist production which will also be exported. The study has also revealed that the service sector is also a significant factor that influences the exports and imports of these selected ECOWAS countries. Many experts are imported into the service sector of these countries and thus these served as a significant factor that possess influence on the performance of exports and imports in the countries. There is a negative and weak correlation between primary exports and service as a percentage of GDP. Invariably, it can be said that the level of primary exports may not be related with the service sector, thus, the association is expected. The main sector performance is found to be positively correlated with the primary exports in the selected ECOWAS countries. The author then suggested that there is urgent need for ECOWAS states to place more emphasis on the exports of manufacturers’ products and make efforts to reduce concentration on exports of primary (agriculture and fuel) products. This will help improve their international trade performance especially with respect to reducing term of trade losses and unfavorable shocks in foreign earnings. Also, the region should focus on production of products for domestic need; in doing this, the ECOWAS states will escape the trap of homogenous export and foster more intra-trade links. The region should see production as major objective rather than exports; this enhances industrial activities and innovations in the region. This attempt retains economic gains of resource within the region and foster economic well-being, the critical mass of ECOWAS challenge is weak productive capacity, this has accentuated the progress of the member states and the sole cause of social and economic evils within the region. ECOWAS should see exports as originating from domestic sufficiency.
, Aham Kelvin Uko
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 33-48; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i1.261

Abstract:
This study investigated the role of financial structure in explaining economic growth dynamics in Nigeria using annual time series from 1981-2017. The study employed the vector error correction model (VECM) in the analysis of the data. As lead up to financial structure and economic growth relationship analysis, the competing theoretical views of bank and market based financial system and economic growth were explored. The result of the study showed that economic growth, financial development variables and the underlying control variables are cointegrated. The result of the economic growth effect of financial development showed that stock market and bank-based have a significant effect on growth. This implies that both bank-based and market-based matter in explaining economic growth dynamics. On the relationship between financial structure and economic growth, the study revealed that economic growth, financial structure and the underlying control variables have a long run relationship. The study also revealed that financial structure which captures the combination of stock market-based and bank-based has a positive significant effect on growth. A significant coefficient of financial structure implies that financial structure matters in explaining growth. Therefore, the study posits that the overall financial structure is the most useful way to assess the financial systems since both bank and stock market system matter in explaining economic growth as against bank-based versus market-based debate. Based on the empirical evidence, the study therefore recommends that there should be continuous holistic reforms of both banking and stock market simultaneously, as the development in one sector has a neglect effect on the other.
, Aisien Leonard Nosa
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 3, pp 32-43; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v3i1.206

Abstract:
Several studies have found a negative relationship between unemployment rate and output growth rate. But such has not been ascertained concerning upper middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Hence this paper examined this relationship using Panel Least Squares and Ordinary Least Squares estimation techniques based on annual series data from 1991 to 2017. The paper observed that the average output growth rate for upper middle-income countries in SSA in the period of the study was 6.36% while that of the unemployment average rate was 15.87%. The results of the panel Least Squares estimation reveals the existence of negative relationships between unemployment rate and output growth rate. In the country specific study, results from Botswana, Gabon, Mauritius and South Africa shows a positive relationship between unemployment and output growth rates revealing a case of non-inclusive growth. However, Equatorial Guinea and Namibia data on unemployment and output growth had negative relationships. The counter factual analyses conducted on the unemployment variable in term of some percentage reduction indicated that as more persons are employed there will be an increase in output growth. The findings, therefore suggests that the government should create more jobs based on labour intensive industries in upper middle-income countries in SSA, that the ratio of output growth needed to maintain stable level of unemployment rate could be sustained when there are boost in economic activities. Countries in upper middle-income in SSA that exhibited positive relationship between unemployment rate and output growth rate should concentrate more on how to increase the level of output growth rate through the boost in economic activities. Governments of these upper middle-income countries should have good policy mix focused on the reduction of unemployment at all levels.
, Emmanuel Okokondem Okon
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 52-66; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.154

Abstract:
An economic system is comprised of the various processes of organizing and motivating labor, producing, distributing, and circulating of the fruits of human labor, including products and services, consumer goods, machines, tools, and other technology used as inputs to future production, and the infrastructure within and through which production, distribution, and circulation occurs. Natural environment refers to climate, weather, and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The natural environment is an important component of the economic system, and without the natural environment the economic system will not be able to function. Hence, in recent years economists have started treating the natural environment in the same way as they treat labor and capital as an asset and a resource. Composting is a biological conversion of heterogeneous organic substrate under controlled conditions, into a hygienic, humus rich and relatively bio-stable product that conditions soil and nourishes plants. The use of compost as a soil conditioner, a fertilizer, or a growth medium has, of course, significant environmental benefits. However, there are also negative impacts on the environment associated with making and using compost. The overall aim of this study is to understand the physicochemical changes such as temperature, conductivity, pH, loss in weight and moisture content that occur during the co-composting of Prosopis Africana shell with cow dung and to assess the way in which these factors influence the quality of the resulting compost and the environment.
Emmanuel O. Okon
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 20-32; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.151

Abstract:
Over the last half-century, Nigeria has become one of Africa’s three giants along with Egypt and South Africa, thereby gaining considerable clout on the regional and global arenas. It is Africa’s largest oil producer and recent finds ensure Nigeria’s significance in the energy market for the foreseeable future. But the country has an inability or an unwillingness to distribute economic resources and development programs equitably. The primary objective of this paper is to find out whether economic condition leads to domestic terrorism in the country, as the contemporary Nigeria society is engulfed by terrible acts of Terrorism. This paper uses annual data for the time period 1970-2016 and the multivariate regression results suggest that government expenditure hinders terrorism, whereas macroeconomic policies foster it. Possible reasons for the outcomes and the policy implications of the findings were discussed.
Emmanuel Okokondem Okon
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.152

Abstract:
Growth in the labor force is one of the determinants of a nation’s maximum sustainable, or potential, rate of economic expansion. However, in the period of study in this paper, the relationship between women’s participation in the labor force of Nigeria and economic growth is inverse and insignificant. This is attributed to the level of economic development, social norms, education levels, fertility rates and other factors. From policy perspectives therefore educational opportunities for the girl child should be extended to the nooks and crannies of the country so as to enhance socio-economic family planning techniques and methods to reduce the burden of women in the labour force. In the same vein, employers should be encouraged to give all gender equal opportunity and chance to pursue their potentials especially if they have potentials required for a particular job. However, particular attention should be focused on men by enlightening them on the essence of encouraging their spouses on any career they may choose as long as it does not affected the family in any way.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 67-70; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i1.155

Abstract:
This paper aims to analyse Turkey’s relationship with other states in the Black Sea region, and takes a look at reasons behind the formation of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation that was spearheaded by Turkey. The paper also highlights the importance of the region and the struggle by outside powers for influence in the region. These powers include Russia and the United states, alongside Turkey.
Rev Canon Charles Ugochukwu Okoro, Fortune Bella Charles
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 21-31; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.360

Abstract:
This study examined the effect of exchange rate variation on Nigeria economy. The objective was to investigate how Naira exchange rate variations against key currencies affect the country’s real gross domestic product. Time series data was sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Real gross domestic products were modeled as the function of United State commodity currency, British commodity currency, Japanese yen currency, Chinese yen currency and French franc currency. The ordinary least square method was used as data analysis techniques. The study used cointegration, unit root, and granger causality test and error correction estimate to study the dynamic effects of commodity currencies on financial market. The study found that naira exchange rate variation with the currencies can explain 65 percent variation on Nigerian real gross domestic products while the remaining 35 percent estimation can be traced to external variables not included in the model. The estimated f-test proved that the model is fit while the estimated DW statistics found the presence of positive serial autocorrelation among the variables. The estimated beta coefficient of the variables revealed that commodity currency of US; Japanese yen and Chinese yen have positive and significant effect on Nigeria real gross domestic products while British pound and French Franc have negative effect on Nigeria real gross domestic products. From the co-integration test, we found at least two co-integrating equation from the trace test and maximum eigenvalue. The granger causality test found unidirectional causality from real gross domestic products to Chinese yen and from French Franc to real gross domestic products. The study found that in the long run, Japanese and Chinese yen and French Franc have negative long run effect on Nigeria real gross domestic products; while United States dollar and British Pound Sterling have positive long run effect on Nigeria gross domestic products. The study recommended amongst others that Monetary and macroeconomic policies should be properly articulated with an impregnable feedback loop, implemented to the letter, and a quarterly examination of the impact on the Naira should be regularly engaged, evaluated, interpreted and ensure that the results and possible remedial action(s) get to the appropriate authority timeously so as to ensure well informed decision(s).
Lukman Suleiman, Mansur Saidu Adam, Usman Dahiru Jibrin, Umar Buba
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 1, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v1i1.144

Abstract:
The main aim of this study is to determine the important of business education managerial skills in overcoming the problems of economic recession in Nigeria. Literature was extensively reviewed in relation to business education, managerial skills and economic recession, on that note the concept of business education was discussed by different literature. Furthermore, five (5) importance of business education were identified in relation to the economic development and the nation’s dwindling economy. The study went further and identifies different kind of managerial skills needed by business education students, these skills were found to be very essential in promoting the Nigerian economy and also serves as a way of eradicating the dwindling economy of any given nation.
, Umar Buba, Lukman Suleiman, Adamu Ladan Adamu
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 1, pp 45-49; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v1i1.147

Abstract:
The study was conducted to find out the relevance of vocational skill acquisition programmes for employment in an era of dwindling economy in Bauchi metropolis. Two research questions were formulated for the study. An 11 items questionnaire was developed and used to get responses from the trainees. A descriptive survey was employed for the study. The questionnaire was validated by two experts from Vocational and Technology Education Department. Mean statistical tool was used to analyze the data collected. The result of the study indicated that the most important objectives of vocational skill acquisition programmes were to enable youth to acquire vocational skills that would provide gainful employment as well as raise their standards of living. Also the trainees perceived the relevance of skill acquisition programmesas centers for imparting marketable skills that focus more on practical aspect than theory. It was recommended that training courses should be relevant to the need of the sectors and target group. Those training centers should serve as places for providing employment opportunities to the public since our economy is declining and government opportunities are less because of scarce resources.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 1, pp 15-44; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v1i1.146

Abstract:
This study investigates the factors that limit women’s participation in Nigeria’s politics using case study period between 1999 and 2015, among these factors are socioeconomic development, the country’s cultural heritage, historical legacies and institutional designs. The study employs secondary source as a method ofdata collection. The study reveals that the patriarchal system and male domination of the society, which relegates women to subordinate role, has created women’s inferiority complex and alienated them from the mainstream politics in Nigeria. The Nigerian political culture of thuggery and gangsterism has made the political terrain too dangerous for most women to venture into mainstream politics. Besides, the stigmatization of women politicians by fellow women discourages the political participation of the former while religious beliefs and institutional arrangements that restrict women to family responsibilities in the country coupled with lack of genuine and decisive affirmative action to encourage women’s political participation, have created a legacy that limit women’s political participation in the country as a whole. Consequently, the study emphasizes the need to address those factors that entrench women subordination in Nigeria’s politics. These include, among others, the reformation of all religious, statutory and customary laws and practices that perpetuate women’s subordination in the country and the explicit specifications and modalities of affirmative actions on women’s political participation and clear guidelines for implementations in the Nigeria constitution.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 2, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v2i2.143

Abstract:
This study is designed to highlight the important role of the growing role played by the equitable economy and solidarity in building a balanced and integrated into the society, characterized by the values of solidarity in the framework of the spirit of the voluntary contribution and the spirit of the personal initiative, as well as the principles of equity and social justice that seeks this economy established and consolidated, the study found that the pilot experiences for both the state of Canada, Ecuador, Brazil, Finland, France, Spain, the reputation and excellence by relying primarily on the legal framework for this sector and organized the second degree of integration of all segments of society in the form of labor organizations for each category but every geographical region, the study recommended in the end to adopt the principle of integration and horizontal and vertical cooperation between these organizations in order to achieve effectiveness More competitive.
Clement A.U. Ighodaro,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 4, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v4i1.212

Abstract:
The paper empirically examines the dynamics of exports and economic growth in Nigeria using time series data for 1970 to 2017. The Vector autoregressive model (VAR) was used to investigate the long run and short run relationship between exports and economic growth as well as some selected variables. The result shows that there exists a stable long run relationship among economic growth, exports, capital expenditure on education and social services. Also, the Granger causality results reveal that export Granger causes economic growth and not the other way round. This means that an increase in economic growth may result from increase in export, but increase in economic growth does not necessarily lead to increase in exports. The Impulse Response Function (IRF) shows that a one standard innovation in exports will lead to permanent positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. This therefore supports the exports led growth hypothesis for Nigeria.
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 3, pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v3i1.195

Abstract:
There are many Muslim architectures built by women patron which called Bibi/Begum in Bangladesh during mediaeval period as Binat Bibi Mosque architecture at Dhaka. It mentioned women's contribution financially. This research paper is trying to show women empowerment through architecture which built by name in Bangladesh during mediaeval era. It is a preliminary qualitative survey report and tries to understand how housewives inspired to makes/commissioned for constructing monuments. Besides, what was the position of them in the Royal court or their society as well as Bibi/Begum contribution in mediaeval Muslim mosque architecture of Bengal and by name monuments of tomb architecture formation?
D.Srinivasa Rao, N. Sreedhar, B. Ravi Kumar
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 3, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v3i1.137

Abstract:
The handloom is a traditional craft work of India and it provides employment opportunities to lakhs of people in the rural and urban areas of our country. In the world women constitutes approximately 50% of the total population but society is still male dominated one. In India women contributed substantially to the economic growth of the country.The relationship between gender and the economy has considerable importance in Indian society. In general attitude of the people women are second grade citizens and they are makers of food, pickles, papads, masalas etc,. But their role is very important in every economic activity, either it is household work or cultivation or industry or service sector etc,. Like the other sectors the role of women weavers is very much important in handloom sector. Handloom sector is unique in India. The handloom weaving is household profession, followed by generations. In these households, women play an important role. Handloom sector is the only manufacturing sector in which women producing for women.
, Richardson Kojo Edeme, Queen O. Chukwuma
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 3, pp 18-22; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v3i1.197

Abstract:
This study seeks to test for the validity of the Solow growth model using cross-country panel data. Panel OLS analysis was adopted following an extensive review of recent and related literature with output-side of the real GDP as the dependent variable with other variables like population, capital stock and employment as the independent. However, population and capital stock are positively impacting the output with statistically significant value, while employment is not an important variable in the model even though it exhibits a negative and statistically significant effect to the output. In conclusion, the estimation result conforms the postulations of the basic Solow and augmented Solow growth model thereby validating the Solow model across-countries.
Adekunle Olatumile
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 5, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v5i2.361

Abstract:
Africa has been tagged a festival continent as year in year out, towns and villages witness cultural festivals throughout the year. These festivals are mostly concerned with resources conservation and utilization. The adoption of Western Model of conserving biodiversity in the trickle-down fashion has failed to yield reasonable result; whereas traditional festivals epitomize indigenous people’s respect and reverence for, and pragmatic understanding of, their natural environment. The quest of conserving biodiversity for sustainable development therefore calls for the integration of traditional festivals in sustainable resource management framework. In spite of the invaluable potentials of traditional festivals in biodiversity conservation as an indigenous resource management system, it has not been given a prominent place in the modern day scientific resource management framework. Using ethnographic research design, the paper exploits the natural resources conservation potentials of Osun-Osogbo and Argungun fishing festivals in Nigeria. Data are collected from archival, ethnographic and internet materials, as well as text books, pictures and information through interviews and observations. The paper presents an analysis of ways through which policy frameworks can benefit from festivals and how a wide audience can be reached with biodiversity conservation messages for the purpose of creating awareness. The paper develops a framework for ecosystem based adaptation, using indigenous festivals for the purpose of replicating it in every other community where such festivals do not exist and integrating it in festivals that are not based on natural resource conservation.
, C. Nkalu Nkalu
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 4, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v4i1.207

Abstract:
In recent times, street food vending has become source of livelihood to some urban dwellers and has offered economic benefits to vendors and nutritious foods for the urban dwellers, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the operations and existence of street food vending in Nsukka urban area and examine its effects on sustainable life.. Demographic profiles of vendors, their food safety knowledge, constraints in proper handling practices, the emergence of street food vending, its socioeconomic impact, nature and problems facing street food vendors and their impact on sustainable life were assessed using a closed ended questionnaire. It was found that street food vendors have existed in Nsukka urban area overtime and their emergence was consequent upon the quest for a better life. Also, street food vending has impacted positively on sustainable life in the area through being a source of employment and provision of essential services to the dwellers.
Ibrahim Suleiman, Sambo Abubakar, Hamza Shehu Mohammed
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 1, pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v1i1.145

Abstract:
This paper studies the policy reforms in the Nigerian health sector and potentiality of the sector towards poverty reduction in the country. The study investigates the contribution of health in the process of poverty reduction by various governments in Nigeria. The study employs secondary source as a methods of data collection. The study reveals that health sector reform involves more than just improvement in health or health care. It is a process motivated by the need to address fundamental deficiencies in health care systems that affect all health care services. Health sector reform in Nigeria is based on the poor health status of the population and the poor rating of the health system itself. The study reveals that Nigerian health status was ranked 187 out of 191 countries by WHO in 2000. The infant mortality rate, the under-five mortality rate and the maternal mortality ratio are some of the indicators that are often used to compare health status of populations. Nigeria’s figures on each of the three indicators are some of the worst in the world, even by the standard of developing countries. The health sector reform was one of the social sector reforms undertaken by the Obasanjo administration, with the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) providing the overall national development framework. The NEEDS, itself, has four major goals: wealth creation, poverty reduction, employment generation and value re-orientation. Consequently, the study look at the contribution of the health sector reform towards reduction of poverty in Nigeria.
, Nelson C. Nkalu
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 3, pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v3i1.205

Abstract:
Safe and clean environment is an essential requirement for maintaining life on earth and creating human friendly environment is one of the most important issues in the world today. The concern of this paper is to examine household preference and willingness to pay for waste management services. The population of the study is made up of the households in the Nsukka urban where simple random sampling techniques was employed to select 25 households from each of the six town in Nsukka urban, employing binary modelling using probit model to estimate the impact of both cultural and demographic factors and economic factors on household willingness to pay for waste management service. The result revealed that demographic factors such as age, household size and education have great influence on household willingness to demand for waste management in Nsukka urban area. Also, economic factors such, income level of the households, awareness of the household about the environment, impact of waste management service and cost of waste management service has positive significant impact on household willingness to pay for waste management services.
Agun Tolulope Francisca,
American Economic & Social Review, Volume 6, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.46281/aesr.v6i1.536

Abstract:
The study investigated the level of job search skills among undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Osun state and determined the predictive ability social media on job search skills. It examined the influence of the social media on job search skills of undergraduates of the university, Further, it investigated the influence of demographic variables (sex, age and level) and area of specialisation on job search skills of the undergraduate students. These were with a view to providing information on the factor that could improve the job search skills of O.A.U undergraduate students.The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised 26,000 undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State as at 2016/2017 academic session. The study sample comprised 496 students were selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Out of the thirteen faculties, four faculties were selected using simple random sampling technique. Four departments were selected from each of the selected faculties using simple random sampling technique. Purposive sampling technique was used to select graduating students (Parts 4 or 5) from each of the faculties selected. One hundred and twenty-five undergraduates were selected from each faculty, using convenience sampling technique. An instrument titled “social media of Job Search Skills” was adapted from existing standardised instruments and used to collect data. Data collected were analysed using percentage, frequency counts, mean, standard deviation, linear regression, and ordinal logistic regression.The result showed that 21.4%, 55.6% and 23.0% of undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University students demonstrated low, moderate and high levels of job search skills respectively. Also, the predictive ability of social media showed that social media (0.323, p< 0.000) had a significant influence on students’ job search skills. The study concluded that social media could improve the job search skills among undergraduates of OAU.
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