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Results in Journal Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions: 18

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Geferso Amenti Teka, Buta Derese Desalegn, Said Adam Sheikh, Duguma Geleta Merga
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 035-047; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001018

Abstract:
Background: The novel coronavirus is a rapidly spreading respiratory disease that has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a global public health emergency. The use of face masks has been recommended by the WHO and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as a standard prevention method for transmission of COVID-19. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine face mask utilization and associated factors in combating the COVID-19 pandemic among government employees in Akaki district administration offices in Akaki District, Oromia, Ethiopia, 2022 Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from December 1, 2021, to February 15, 2022, on 385 government employees working in Akaki district administration offices. After obtaining consent from the study participants, data were collected using pretested, self-administered, and standardized questionnaires adapted from other studies. After the data was collected, it was entered into Epi info version 7.2.6, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 26. A logistic regression model was computed to measure the association between the predictor and outcome variables. A p - value of.05 with a 95% CI was used as the cut-off point to declare the level of statistical significance. Results: The study showed that the magnitude of good practice for facemask utilization was 213 (53.5%) (95% CI: 1.50, 1.60) for preventing COVID-19. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of using face masks among male employees (AOR = 0.275; 95% CI: 0.137, 0.555), employees aged 20-29 (AOR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.065, 0.481 ), employees aged 30-39 (AOR = 0.260, 95% CI: 0.109, 0.623), employees of less than five family size (AOR = 0.549, 95% CI: 0.303, 0.995), work experience at 6-12 (AOR = 0, 32, 95 CI: 0.120, 0.450), poor knowledge about face mask use (AOR = 0.504, 95% CI: 0.302, 0.844), and employees with a negative attitude (AOR = 0.430, 95% CI: 0.256, 0.721) were factors significantly associated with face mask utilization. Conclusion: The magnitude of facemask utilization was low (53.5%) compared to other studies. The results of the study showed that age, sex, household family size, work experience, poor knowledge, and the negative attitude of employees toward facemask utilization were among the factors significantly associated with facemask utilization.
Kogo Haruki, Yamashita Yuh, Murata Jun
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 027-034; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001017

Abstract:
We investigated the associations between circulatory dynamics and Body Composition (BC) of the peripheral lower limbs with Exercise Habits (EHs). We surveyed the EHs of 34 healthy older adults (6 men, 28 women) and measured their BC and skin perfusion (SP). SP did not correlate significantly with any other variable. Participants with established EHs had a lower body weight and Fat Tissue thickness (Fat-T) than those without. Multiple logistic regressions with the presence or absence of an EH as the dependent variable and BC values as the independent variables established Fat-T as a significant variable. Sex was independently associated with soleus muscle thickness, Fat-T, Bone Density (BD), and leg segmental water. Age was independently associated with Fat-T and BD, and body mass index was associated with Fat-T. EHs were not independently associated with any of the BC measurements. Physical characteristics and EHs have minimal influence on peripheral circulatory dynamics.
Ehsanifar Mojtaba, Rafati Mehravar, Yavari Zeinab
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 016-020; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001015

Abstract:
Environmental and behavioral factors are very important for exposure to airborne SARS-CoV-2. Indoor environments are related to infection events, including super-spreader events and outbreaks. Indoor, poorly ventilated, and crowded areas, such as restaurants, cinemas, and bars can be effective in the accumulation of aerosols full of viruses, especially if people are in conversations and stay there for a long time period. At longer distances (more than 1.5 meters), small aerosols that can stay in the air for a longer period of time are dominant. The super-spreader events in which people have been infected at a distance away show that this remote transmission occurs. The exposure risk to longer intervals is likely to be more in domestic environments and indoor spaces that lack sufficient ventilation. Layer interventions are of fundamental importance. Therefore, it is important to take preventive measures as much as possible and follow them as carefully as possible, because no intervention alone will be effective in eliminating the risk. These include spacing, lining, hand hygiene, filtration, and ventilation.
Utami Amalia Tri, Wahidmurni, Walid Muhammad
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 021-026; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001016

Abstract:
Introduction: In the spirit of maintaining health and seeking medicine to cure a disease, the question of halal and haram still needs to be answered. This coincides with the words of the Prophet Muhammad SAW “Verily Allah does not make your healing in what He has forbidden you” (HR. Imam Bukhari). The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of religiosity, perception, knowledge, and attitudes of Muslim doctors on the use of halal drugs in Indonesia. Materials and methods: This quantitative research method with correlational type examines the relationship between religiosity, perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors that are shared online using google form. Data was measured using a Likert scale. A five-point Likert scale was used for statements: Strongly Disagree: 1, Disagree: 2, Uncertain: 3, Agree: 4, and Strongly Agree: 5. The sample size used was 435 Muslim doctors. The data obtained were then processed using the SmartPLS 3.0 application. Results: The results obtained are that there is a relationship between the religiosity of Muslim doctors on perceptions so as to encourage intention so that there is a change in behavior in the use of halal drugs in Indonesia. In addition, there is a relationship between knowledge and attitudes so as to encourage intentions that cause behavioral changes in the use of halal drugs in Indonesia by Muslim doctors. In fact, every practice depends on the intention, therefore it is important to maintain the intention, which in this study is influenced by perceptions and attitudes so that charity will result in commendable behavior that is blessed by Allah SWT. In addition, there is also a need for education about halal drugs that are appropriate to be taught at the medical faculty of Islamic universities in Indonesia.
Ehsanifar Mojtaba, Yavari Zeinab, Motaghedifar Mohamad Reza, Rezaei Mehdi
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 011-015; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001014

Abstract:
Due to extensive COVID-19 prevention measures, millions of tons of chemicals penetrated the natural environment. Alterations of viruses in the environment, the neglected perceiver of environmental fluctuations, remain obscure. Chemicals especially trihalomethane restrained the virus community diversity. Segments of SARS-CoV-2 RNA have been detected near hospitals that suggesting the environment as a missing link in the transmission route. Human viruses lurking in the environment were potentially activated by pandemic prevention chemicals, warning an overlooked burden to human health. This letter warns of the risk of activation of human viruses in the environment following the overuse of COVID-19 prevention devices and emphasizes the long-term monitoring of environmental viruses in the post-pandemic period.
Wubet Gashaw Mehiret, Zimamu Libsuye Yalgaw
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 3, pp 001-010; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001013

Abstract:
Background: For the prevention of respiratory infection similar to the current pandemic COVID-19, face masks are considered an effective method. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable virus that continues to disrupt livelihoods, particularly those of low-income segments of society, around the world has poor knowledge towards facemask at the same time has huge gape towards attitude which affects the behaviors. Therefore this study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards facemask use amid the COVID-19 pandemic among public transport drivers in Debre-Tabor town, Ethiopia, 2021. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 407 public transport drivers in Debre-Tabor town from July to August 2021. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique after proportionally allocating the sample size from the total number of public transport drivers, and finally, study subjects were elected continuously working in Debre- Tabor Town public transport drivers. The data were collected by trained data collectors using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interview administered questioners and an on-the-spot observational checklist. The collected data were checked, coded, and entered into SPSS version 23, and for data cleaning and analysis. Result: A total of 407 drivers responded to the questionnaire with a response rate of 96.4% were participated in this study. The mean age was 32.75 years (range: 19-45 years). Among them majority was male 383(94.1%) and the majority of 177(43.5%) were Bajaj drives. Among the responders, 114(28%) used radio to gather information, and 41(10.1%) drivers where were caught by COVID-19, but, only 30(7.4%) were vaccinated COVID-19 vaccine. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding facemask use among these drivers were 368(90.4% [95% CI: 87.7-93.1]). 163(40% [95% CI: 37.5% - 43.2%]), and 23 ((5.6%) [95% CI: 3.7% - 8.3%]) Regarding facemask use against COVID-19 infection respectively. Conclusion and recommendation: The current study was able to demonstrate 90.4% of drivers had good knowledge. Positive attitude and practice levels of face mask use among drivers were less than half of them or 40%, and 5.6% respectively. There is a high supply of Surgical Face masks but poor attitude and practice. Almost all of the participants don’t wear a face mask despite having good knowledge about the transmission routes of COVID-19. The government COVID-19 prevention task force or health sector should be continued their awareness creation to bring behavioral change for the implementation of the COVID-19 prevention method, especially facemask.
E Peters Grace, Victor Assi, E Oko Nnabuike, J Peters Etete
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 021-024; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001011

Abstract:
Background: The endemic nature of poliomyelitis in Nigeria was a source of concern to many given the global efforts aimed at eradicating the scourge. In this study, the factors that influenced the eradication of this malady in South-South Nigeria (Akwa Ibom and Cross River State) were investigated. Four null hypotheses, drawn on these factors (including culture belief, religious difference, language and the prevalence of ethnic conflict) guided the investigation. The main thrust of this study was to examine how socio-cultural factors negatively influenced the eradication of polio in the study area. Methods: Through stratified random and purposive sampling techniques, 600 adult men and women who had children were selected for the study. A structured questionnaire constructed by the researcher was used in data collection. Data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test statistical tools. Results: The findings were that cultural belief and religious affiliation exerted significant influence on the people’s effort towards polio eradication. Conclusion: The study indicated that the low use of health services by the people was brought about by variation in these variables. Among other things, it was suggested that continuous awareness campaigns be carried out to educate the people on the need for immunization anchored in science and technology.
Al Zahrani Ali M, Ali Hatim M, Ahmed Shaza A, Abdelakher Ahmed M, Al Zahrani Asma A, Bakhribah Hatoon
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 025-030; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001012

Abstract:
Introduction: Cancer treatment and prognosis depend heavily on early detection. Survival in the early stages is excellent for almost all types of cancer. Unfortunately, in Saudi Arabia, a large number of cancer patients present with advanced disease, resulting in a poor prognosis. There are three levels of delay in the management of cancer patients. The first level is the time between the first cancer-related symptoms and the presentation to the health facility, the second level is from the presentation to the diagnosis, and the third level is between the diagnosis and the treatment. This study aims to determine if there is a delay, at what level and to study the factors causing such delays. Materials and methods: Two hundred cancer patients who presented to the Armed Forces Hospital Southern Region, Oncology Department, were interviewed from January 1st to June 30th, 2018. The interviews were conducted by trained physicians familiar with the questionnaire’s contents. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: a demographic section and three more sections to identify factors causing the delay at the three levels from the patients’ perspectives. All data were analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Results: The mean patient age was 63 years. A total of 112 patients were female and 88 were male. The most common cancer type was breast cancer (27.5%). Among the patients, 61% were illiterate and 25.5% had elementary school degrees, 86% expressed little or no general medical knowledge about cancer. More women than men paid attention to cancer symptoms (70% vs. 54%). 75% of the patients presented to the first health facility after 2 months from the first appearance of symptoms (level 1 delay). Only 2% of the patients presented within one week. 50% of the patients received a diagnosis after visiting two health facilities. All patients were diagnosed at hospitals. 40% of patients used alternative medicines, 70% of whom thought this was the cause of their delayed presentations. 67% had their diagnosis confirmed within one month (level 2 delay), and 66% started their definitive treatment within one month (level 3 delay). 75% of the patients blame themselves for the delay. Educational level (p = 0.03), knowledge about cancer (p < 0.01), and the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with delayed presentation of patients to the health facility. Conclusion: There is a delay in the presentation of cancer patients (level 1) in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. Educational level, knowledge of cancer symptoms, and use of complementary and alternative medicines are the main causes. There were no delays in diagnosis and start of treatment (level 2,3).
Gomes Rafael Senff, de Lima Passoni Luiza Cardoso, Sirigatti Ricardo,
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 015-020; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001010

Abstract:
Objective: The study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of the homeless population and report the social impact on healthcare services provided by a voluntary initiative during one-year of follow-up. Method: This is an investigational study, carried out in an important capital-city of southern Brazil, which included 509 individuals in 2019. Findings were divided into three segments: sociodemographic, substance use/abuse and impact on healthcare. Results: The sociodemographic profile found was predominantly male, white, single, heterosexual, educated in elementary or high school, in regular use of legal and/or illegal substances, and living as homeless for less than a year. The impact of assistance provided on the perception of individuals who returned in subsequent actions was evident. Conclusion: The significant increase in the number of homeless people in large urban centers can benefit from the support of non-profit organizations to address the deficiencies faced in accessing basic health services. Based on this, we seek to advance in the development of new policies that improve local healthcare for the vulnerable population, to be more assertive to their needs.
Pagolu Koteswara Rao, Raghava Rao T
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 007-013; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001008

Abstract:
Background: In India, the genetic disease is a disregarded service element in the community health- protection system. This study aims to gauge the accessibility of services for treating genetic disorders and also to evaluate the practices on deterrence and management services in the district health system. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of selected health amenities from 454 medical officers (MO’s), 94 accredited social health activist (ASHAs) workers, 86 multipurpose health assistant-female (MPHA-F), 34 multipurpose health assistant-male (MPHA-M), 14 multipurpose health supervisors-female (MPHS-F), 10 multipurpose health supervisors-male (MPHS-M), 6 multipurpose health extension officer/ community health officer (MPHEO/CHO), 10 public health nurse (PHN), 45 lab technicians (LT’s) working in the government health sector and 254 in the private health sector, 409 nursing staff working in the government health sector and 995 in the private health sector, 15 primary health centers (PHC’s), 4 community health centers (CHC’s), 1 district government hospital (DGH), 3 referral hospitals (RH’s). From the side of private health institutions 25 corporate hospitals (CH’s), 3 medical colleges (MC’s), and 25 diagnostic laboratories (DL’s) were conducted. Results: The findings show that adequate staff was in place at more than 70% of health centers, but none of the staff have obtained any operative training on genetic disease management. The largest part of the DH’s had rudimentary infrastructural and diagnostic facilities. However, the greater part of the CHC’s and PHC’s had inadequate diagnostic facilities related to genetic disease management. Biochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic services were not available at PHC’s and CHC’s. DH’s, RH’s, and all selected medical colleges were found to have offered the basic Biochemical genetics units during the survey. In 24% of CH’s, the basic biochemical units are available and 32% (8 out of 25) of DL’s have the advanced biochemical genetics units by study. Molecular genetics units were found to be available in 28% (7 out of 25) of DL’s during the study. About 6 (24%) diagnostic centers of cytogenetic laboratories were located in the Visakhapatnam district under the private sector. Conclusion: The district health care infrastructure in India has a shortage of basic services to be provided for the genetic disorder. With some policy resolutions and facility strengthening, it is possible to provide advanced services for a genetic disorder in the district health system.
Casamayor Leiza Claudia Elvira, Pérez Yero Julio César, , Chávez Miguel Brayan
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 2, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001007

Abstract:
Introduction: Suicidal behavior in teenagers constitutes a health problem that, given the necessary measures of social isolation taken by the global emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic, must generate timely actions for its prevention and control from the public health services. Objective: To propose an action plan for the prevention of suicide in teenagers of the Remedios municipality, subjected to voluntary home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the “XXX Anniversary” Teaching Community Polyclinic of the municipality Remedios. We worked with the population of 25 teenagers between 12 and 19 years old who made suicide attempts in the period 2019-2021. The empirical methods used were: bibliographic and documentary review, participant observation, focus group, semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Results: The suicide attempt was common in female teenagers aged 17 to 19 years not identified as risk, the lack of motivation due to the study activity and the previous suicide attempts by ingesting psychotropic drugs without serious intention of dying predominated. The most frequent psychological disorders were emotional disorders, stress, depression, irritability, apathy and insomnia. Actions are presented for the prevention of suicide and promote behaviors that contribute to mental health in the context of COVID-19. Conclusion: The prevention of suicidal behavior in teenagers in conditions of social isolation due to COVID-19, must include actions that facilitate the coping with stress, intra-family communication and resilience.
, Ka Thomas, Mg Olujide
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 035-046; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001005

Abstract:
Maternal mortality accounts for most deaths in agrarian communities of Nigeria due to poor access to midwives services and inadequate Skilled Birth Attendants (SBAs). The Midwives Service Scheme (MSS) was established to engage more SBAs and advocate better utilization of pre and post-natal care services. Studies have focused on maternal mortality reduction, however, information on underlying factors that predispose MSS target beneficiaries to its utilization is scarce. Therefore, utilization of MSS among women farmers in southwestern Nigeria was investigated. A four-stage sampling procedure was used. Three states from southwestern states (Oyo, Ogun and Ekiti) were randomly selected. Thereafter, ten Local Government Areas (LGAs) from eighteen LGAs that adopted MSS programme in the selected states were sampled. Also, 30% of the MSS facilities in the sampled LGAs were selected, resulting in 13 MSS facilities. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select 20% of registered women farmers in the selected 13 MSS facilities to give 207 respondents. Interview schedule was used to collect data on respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics, Maternal Health Information Sources (MHIS), Maternal Health Information Seeking Behavior (MHISB) and utilization of MSS. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. About (55.6%) of the respondents had formal education. MHISB and effectiveness of MSS was rated low by 53.2% and 55.6% of the respondents, respectively. MSS was moderately utilized by 64.7% of the respondents. The MSS utilization was 49.24 ± 11.39 (Oyo), 45.08 ± 9.28 (Ogun) and 44.00 ± 10.71 (Ekiti). Respondents’ education (χ2 = 12.85), family size (r = 0.02), monthly income (r = 0.48) related positively and significantly (r = 0.27) to MSS utilization.
, Birlie Tekalign Amera, Tasew Sheganew Fetene, Amare Abraham Tsedalu, Tibebu Nigusie Selomon, Tiruneh Chalie Marew
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 026-034; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001004

Abstract:
Background: Corona virus disease is a highly infectious disease caused by the newly innovated corona virus. An emerging respiratory disease was abbreviated as COVID-19, after it has been first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. Ethiopia Ministry of health initiated multidisciplinary approach to tackle COVID-19 of which awareness creation is the main. The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors towards prevention of novel corona virus among clients in Debre Tabor general hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study design was conducted in Debre Tabor General hospital from May 15 to May 30, 2020. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered into epi data version 4.4 and exported to SPSS window version 25 for analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression was fitted. Odds Ratios with 95% Confidence interval and p - value ≤ 0.05 were considered to assert significance. Result: A total of 345 clients were analyzed and the response rate was 96.4%. The mean age was 32.95 with S.D ± 13.18 years. Majority of the respondents were male (75.7%). Among the study participants 54.2% with (95% CI: [49.0, 59.2%]) and 49.0% with (95% CI: [43.5, 53.4%]) have good knowledge and god practice on COVID-19 preventions respectively. Sex AOR: 4.33 (2.06, 9.09), family size AOR: 2.49 (1.01, 6.15 and heard from social media AOR: 2.78 (1.21, 6.39) were significantly associated with knowledge of respondents. Knowledge AOR: 3.11 (1.59, 6.10) was significantly associated with practice of clients. Residency and those heard from TV were significant variables for both. Conclusion and recommendation: In this study the overall knowledge and preventive practices of the respondents were found to be low. Sex, family size, residency and sources of information were associated factors for knowledge. In addition to this knowledge was significant factor for practice. Health education programs aimed at mobilizing and improving COVID-19 related knowledge and practice intend to be strengthened.
Fakhari Ali, , Dehkharghani Keivan Fakhari
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 023-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001003

Abstract:
Physician-patient communication is the most basic element and vital skill of physicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and establishing diagnostic protocols. As the risks of contagion and viral infection are higher in physicians and health workers, front line soldiers inpatient care units, so they should establish strict protective measures. However, patients value greatly face to face and close relationships with their doctors, including facial interviews and physical examinations. So social and physical distancing between physician and their patients can be remarked as a bigger toll than the risk of COVID-19 contagious.
Jabbaripour Pooneh, Somi Mohammad Hossein, Roshani Ali,
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions, Volume 1, pp 018-022; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.jcmhs.1001002

Abstract:
Background: The Islamic religion has emphasized the importance of health and well-being, and Muslims have recognized the value of a good and healthy life based on Islamic recommendations. Health-oriented lifestyle is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that is the purpose of this study to investigate the Islamic lifestyle. Methods: In this review study, we tried to explore practical strategies in Islam through access to credible sources in the form of a descriptive article on achieving a healthy lifestyle in nutrition. For this purpose, using keywords and electronic and manual searches in authentic Islamic and medical sources, information was searched and collected to answer the research question. Results: Based on the results of the reviewed studies, the guidelines of Islamic religion and beliefs are mainly based on improving lifestyle factors and dietary habits. It has been emphasized that adherence to the Islamic dietary guidelines and lifestyle, may lead to less risk of diseases. Conclusion: Given the availability of valuable nutritional resources and instructions in Islam to prevent and combat nutrition-related diseases, these theories can be applied and prevent from spreading and creating malnutrition-related diseases; the guidelines of Islam on healthy lifestyles in nutrition can be recommended to the world as a basic strategy.
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