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Maqsood Hayat, Shehzad Khan, Muhammad Faizan Malik
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 466-480;

The aim of this study is to examine the fundamental factors that affect the understanding level of corporate social responsibility (CSR) across South Asian countries. CSR was measured by seven dimensions defined by ISO26000 and number of other indicators (e.g., education, religion, region) were employed to figure out cross-cultural impact. This research unveiled the basic but general trends about the concept of CSR. Majority of the respondents prioritized accountability, transparency and respect for stakeholder interests. Overall trends regarding every CSR dimension are leaded by master students and followed by doctoral students. On average scale, the followers of all the 3 leading religions (Buddhism, Hinduism and slam) in the region have similar inclination towards CSR concept; however, Christianity shows incomparable results. Bhutan is the only country where most educated people (PhD students) has given less importance to CSR actions as compare to other students’ groups. Overall, this study explores no perceptible discrepancies in the trends and pattern of CSR within South Asian region. This research presents the ground level understandings from the potential workforce (students) about the widespread concept of CSR. These results affirm the claims that educational institutes and course contents taught in South Asian region are still lagging behind in the race of literacy. Academia should not only upgrade their teaching method but also the course content in order to build the capacity of their potential workforce to resolve any problem in future. The results of this study are also important for international agencies, government and non-governmental organizations and other relevant institutions to understand the basic ‘know how’ of customized CSR approach across the countries.
Muhammad Shah, Farooq Hussain, Azmat Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 446-452;

Sleep is increasingly being an integral part of a training routine rather than a stagnant state of inactivity, and as a controllable factor that can modify performance for elite athletes. Athletes report high rates of sleep disturbance especially during intense workloads which directly affects athletic performance and may predispose individuals to injury. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of sleep and the various risk factors associated with it among Pakistani athletes. From February to April 2020, a cross-sectional, multi-center study was conducted involving athletes aged 18 and up, of either gender, from various cities in Pakistan... A validated Urdu version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) instrument was used to identify sleep quality. Out of 205 participants, n=84 athletes were bad sleepers based on PSQI score. Of whom, the majority were males n=75 (89.3%), and having age group of 18-30 years n=71 (84.5%). Binary logistic regression demonstrated no statistically significant association between any of the factor and PSQI score. The study found a disturbing quality of sleep in a considerable number of athletes. Therefore, interventions should be done to improve sleep quality so that the performance of the athletes can be improved.
Shaukat Ali, Iftikhar Ali, Saddam Hussain
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 428-435;

Tenses are one of the vital essentials of grammar. Command over the English language demands a thorough understanding of tenses. Although much research has been conducted on the teaching of the English language in the context of Pakistan, little has been dug out about the problems faced by students regarding the applications of tenses. This paper investigates the perceptions of both students and teachers of the difficulties in the applications of tenses facing ESL learners. Data were collected from 150 students and 30 teachers of government high schools through a structured questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the students are confronted with many difficulties in the application of tenses consisting of using future indefinite tense instead of the simple present tense regarding its use for scheduled future activities, using present continuous tense instead of a simple present for the permanent situation in the present, using future indefinite tense for planned future activities and so on. The results also indicated that the difficulties were caused by inappropriate teaching methodology, lack of speaking environment inside the classroom, translations from the mother tongue into English and vice versa, much focus on rules and teaching sentences and expressions as isolated units rather than an integral part of the discourse. In the light of the results, it is recommended that while teaching tenses, teachers should focus both on rules and applications of tenses. English should be taught more as a language than as a mere body of rules. Moreover, teachers should be properly trained in teaching tenses.
Muhammad Hashim Darya, Nisar Ahmed Khaskheli, Muhammad Rafique Daudpoto
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 436-445;

The First Aid Training among society has a huge effect in limiting the proportion of injuries. The pupil's dynamic in sports is practically on the danger of having wounds due to a pool of fundamental information to oversee sports wounds. This exploration study was led to determine the capability of the program on first aid training of the Pupils of schools. Seventy volunteer students were chosen arbitrarily for First Aid Training from government model secondary school Bhakkar, Punjab-Pakistan. At first, the medical aid information and abilities of the students have evaluated arbitrarily 70 game dynamic students. After that fourteen-day, First Aid Training was directed, through proficient Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) for those school students. After the fruition of First Aid Training, an overview was directed to know the adequacy of Training through a survey. The gathered information was dissected on (SPSS) rendition 20 the frequencies, rates, and t-test was performed. This examination demonstrated that First Aid Training improves the abilities and information on the students about First Aid.
Farooq Hussain Dr, Muhammad Shah, Azmat Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 460-465;

The study examined to analyze the different levels of pre-competitive anxiety for inexperienced and inexperienced athletes. The pre-competitive anxiety factors were evaluated with the help of competitive state anxiety inventory – 2 (Urdu version). CSAI-2 questionnaire is composed of twenty-seven items having three subscales e.g. cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence. A sample of 360 athletes was taken through a stratified sampling technique for the examination of pre-competitive anxiety levels. The data of 360 athletes were further stratified into two sets of 180 experienced and 180 inexperienced athletes between the ages of 16 to 27 years. The questionnaire was distributed one hour before the start of the competition. T-test has been used to assess the data collected for investigation. The results displayed a significant difference in somatic, cognitive aspects of anxiety and self-confidence among the college-level experienced and inexperienced athletes.
Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sheeraz
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 453-459;

This study explores the linguistic variation of periodized data of Pakistani press editorials in comparison with American press editorials. Most of the previous research studies conducted on Pakistani English, in general, and press editorial, in particular, compare Pakistani English with British English. No study compares Pakistani press editorials from a period to American press editorials. To trace the influence of American English on Pakistani English, this study explores the phases of Pakistani press editorials that resemble or differ from American press editorials. Biber’s (1988) multi-dimensional modal was used as a theoretical framework for this study. It exploited a diachronic corpus of Pakistani press editorials which was divided into three temporally distanced phases: 1947-1951, 1971-1975, and 2012- 2016. The Biber tagger was employed to annotate grammatical features. To draw a comparison, Nini’s (2015) MAT results of the American (Brown) corpus were utilized. The regression method was used for the computation of factor scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to draw a comparison between the diachronic data of Pakistani press editorials and American press editorials. The findings indicate that phase 3 of Pakistani press editorials is the closest to American press editorials in producing informational and explicit discourse. Phase 1 of Pakistani press editorials and American press editorials are quite close in non-narrative and abstract style in their discourse production. Moreover, phase 2 of Pakistani press editorials and American press editorials with a small difference in mean scores produce overt expression of persuasion.
Zaigham Ali, Ammar Hussain, Zubair Ahmed
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 414-427;

The purpose of this research is to break down the monitoring process to explore the problems which impede cost efficiency in contract monitoring in a developing country, such as Pakistan. This research investigated the issues and challenges to the cost-efficient and effective implementation of project monitoring systems in public sector construction projects in Pakistan. This study uses the transaction cost economics (TCE) lens, to explore the project monitoring process of construction projects, 25 interviews with Engineers and Associate engineers were conducted from public sector construction projects. Qualitative research was performed, and thick qualitative data has been coded, categorized, analyzed, and concluded. The study concluded that in principle, project monitoring contributes to reduced transaction costs, depending on how efficiently governance arrangements are made. Hurdles related to weak governance in the organization significantly increase the post-contract transaction cost (TC). As a result of the analysis, multiple issues have been identified from the study such as Political realities, capacity building, resource constraints, administrative issues, mutual dependency, and department coordination has a direct influence on the TCs in construction projects. The result of this study provides a deeper understanding and clear roadmap of the ongoing monitoring practices and processes in the public sector construction projects. It identifies the problems and issues of the monitoring process in the construction industry of developing countries which potentially causes to increase in the total project cost.
Gouhar Pirzada, Yaar Muhammad Dr, Yasmeen Aman
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 390-401;

This research study explores the perceptions of single women at their mid-career stage in the education sector of Pakistan. The Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) has been used as a theoretical framework to interpret the research data gathered through semi-structured interviews with five participants (single women) working in public and private sector educational institutes in Pakistan. The interviews covered four main aspects, out of which three aspects were borrowed from KCM (Balance, Authenticity, and Challenge) and an additional aspect of Perceived Organizational Support (POS). The result of the study supported all four aspects. Data gathered on these four aspects reflect five major themes (satisfaction, balance, challenge, development, and support) that were common in the responses of all participants. This research provides useful insights and an in-depth understanding of single women’s mid-career perceptions in Pakistan’s education sector in a male-dominated society.
Arjumand Rauf, Yaar Muhammad, Ayesha Saleem
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 402-413;

Since independence, Pakistan has been struggling to deal with its two focal phenomena. One is the culture of elite governance whereby precious chosen few can influence all societal and administrative segments of the country, and the second related to the issues in the realization of human rights. The realization of fundamental, social, cultural, and political rights depends upon how the ruling elites perceive it. Keeping in view the scenario, this qualitative study was set to explore the perceptions of elite students regarding status and issues in the realization of human rights in Pakistan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five purposely selected students from elite schools. Thematic analysis revealed that most students have a superficial understanding of human rights. Though they believed that hierarchies, corruption, religious extremism, and nepotism should come to an end for the beginning of a just society, their discourse held class interest. Transparency, accountability, and good governance were not stressed. A society with equal human rights requires participation by elites which is characterized by a greater sense of social justice, humanity, responsibility, and accountability.
Shaukat Ali, Saddam Hussain, Iftikhar Ali
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 382-389;

This study exploits John Milton's poems "On His Blindness, and "Methought I Saw My Late Espoused Saint" for teaching speaking skills to ESL learners. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design consisting of a treatment group (TG) and a comparison group (CG). CG was taught through conventional language text whereas TG was treated with the aforementioned poems. The main focus of the study was to observe the language learning behavior of the students of both TG and CG during language learning activities. The study therefore employed observation field notes beside the speaking type pretest and posttest as tools of data collection. The thematic analysis of the observation field notes indicated that the students of TG were confident, motivated, involved in, and excited about the language learning activities. On the contrary, the students of the CG were found to be hesitant, passive, and demotivated during the language learning venture. Consequently, the students of TG performed significantly better than that of CG on the posttest. The study recommends that poetry should be utilized for teaching the English language in general and speaking skills in particular.
Ibtasam Thakur, Asmaa Azeem, Moafia Nadar
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 352-364;

The contemporary study was descriptive in nature and by method it was exploratory. It is primarily conducted to unfold diverse learning modalities of students with hearing impairment (SHI) at elementary grades level. The objectives of the study were to investigate (a) diverse learning modalities of the hearing-impaired students (b) learning modalities of hearing-impaired students from different socioeconomic status (c) learning modalities and difference in their age group (d) learning modalities and difference in their hearing loss (e) school wise difference in learning styles (f) grade-wise difference among learning modalities. For qualitative data, twelve teachers and administrators were interviewed in the first phase and in the second phase, quantitative data was collected through a questionnaire from 220 students with hearing impairment, enrolled in elementary grades in different special education schools of Lahore. Researchers collected data through convenient sampling. 220 students (male & female) were selected as a sample from seven schools of hearing-impaired children. The research tool were semi-structured interviews and a five-level Likert scale, both tools were constructed by the researchers that covered the following learning modalities, visual, aural, reading/writing & kinesthetic /tactile. For data collection from students, the researchers also took help from sign language interpreters for effective results. The researchers started this research with the vision that the results shall significantly help the academic instructors not only at the school level but also at higher education. Cronbach Alpha of the tool was .873. One Way ANOVA was used to find out the mean difference. The major finding was that visual and kinesthetic/tactile learning modalities for executing teaching and learning processes were practiced in all schools for the teaching and learning processes and socioeconomic status was not reflecting any key concern in determining the learning modalities.
Muhammad Shakeel Ur Rehman, Ihsan Ullah Khan, Abdul Karim Khan
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 338-342;

The study employed the theoretical approach of indigenization by Kachru in Ahmed Ali’s Twilight inDelhi. Indigenization is one of the fundamental components of decolonization adopted by post-colonial linguists to familiarize a local language in a race against the dominant language of colonizers (Kilickaya, 2009). Through this tool of indigenization, post-colonial writers and more specifically, Ahmed Ali represented the native culture, flora, and fauna of the sub-continent in the selected work to bring about a reconciliatory approach between the languages of the colonizer (English) with the language of inhabitants of the sub-content (Urdu). Therefore, the novelist indigenized the English language by weaving and embedding indigenous figures of speech, local terminologies, idioms, proverbs, and translation of compacted concepts of English and Urdu languages into each other in an endeavor to combat with the western thought. Hence, the article delves into the novel to unfold the multicultural reconciliatory approach that is possible only at the time when the voices of the indigenous language and culture are accommodated by the dominant language and culture of the colonizers. Arguably, the portrayal of reconciliation of the two languages and cultures in the sub-continent during the rule of the British in the novel may introduce a more pluralistic approach to survive in the modern world of globalization. The findings may help reach a better understanding between an indigenous language and an international language in the same culture in which local culture and language get equal manifestation.
Syed Abdul Waheed, Nadia Gilani, Saira Zafar
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 365-374;

Pursuing doctoral studies after the commencement of the dissertation is exceptionally challenging. Doctoral students meet several times to seek feedback from their research supervisors, and they observe supervisory attitudes very closely. Responding to supervisory feedback is one of the challenges that must be addressed for qualifying the dissertation successfully. The present study aims at how doctoral students respond to the supervisory feedback and how the feedback can be improved because of participants’ perspectives on the feedback and supervisory behavior. Narrative research was employed for grasping a better understanding of participants’ understanding of supervisory feedback and attitudes. Thirteen doctoral students were approached through maximum variation purposive sampling who was pursuing a doctoral degree in various physical and social science disciplines in different semesters at public and private universities of the Punjab province in Pakistan. The data were collected through conversational interviews to examine the in-depth understanding of doctoral student’s storied experiences. The main themes emerged from the thematic analysis were; responding to the feedback, supervisory attitudes, and relationship and improving supervisory feedback. The emergent themes were described and interpreted through significant words, phrases, and statements of the participants. The study has implications for the improvement of supervisory feedback and bringing reforms in doctoral studies.
Liaqat Iqbal, Sahibzada Aurangzeb, Farooq Shah
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 375-381;

Researches often endorse discussion, dialogues, and other learning tasks for the promotion of fluency, critical thinking, reasoning, and ability to evaluate and justifying. Keeping in view the Pakistani context, especially, the local context, it is not clear what type of classroom practices prevail in the region and what reflections teachers have about the use of such practices. Taking Bakhtin's and Vygotsky's ideas of dialogism and learning as a social entity, the present study aimed at knowing the teaching practices of English language teachers from the perspective of dialogic teaching and also at exploring how do teachers reflect on such a teaching approach. For this purpose, English Language Centers of district Mardan were taken as data sources where twenty classrooms were observed for classroom practices and the concerned teachers were interviewed for their reflections. It was found that the teachers use of dialogic teaching having positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts of dialogic teaching include creativity, thinking ability, confidence building, and other social impacts. It has little negative impacts that include challenges for the teachers in terms of behavior problems and control of talks.
Iram Parveen, Muhammad Uzair-Ul-Hassan, Humaira Zainib
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 343-351;

To safeguard the rights of women for professional and social adjustment in a society, higher education institutions can play a vital role. This study was designed to find the factors that affect the professional and social adjustment of women employees concerning gender discriminating culture in higher education institutions. Women employees from 4 universities were conveniently taken as a sample of the study. The sample size was (n=160). Inferential statistics; t-test and one-way ANOVA were used. The study concluded that women employees were satisfied with: recruitment and selection process; assignment of wages; workload; leaves rules; promotion process; dealing of head and professional development practices, while, they were not satisfied with: duty hours; career development; decision-making process, existing co-working environment and social adjustment. No effect of age, qualification, designation except experience on professional as well as on social adjustment was significantly observed.
Mamona Yasmin Khan, Syeda Aeliya Raza, Farhana Yasmin
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 317-329;

Communicative approaches and methods are still found to be inadequate in addressing the pedagogical issues of EFL learners. In developing countries, there is a dire need for EFL teachers to make the students understand and deconstruct ideologies embedded in the English language. The study sets out to define and explore the ways and dimensions of Critical Discourse Analysis that will assist EFL teachers to reveal and teach power constructions embedded in language. This study focuses on The Ideological Square Model of CDA proposed by Van Dijk (2000). Following a mixed-method approach, twenty tweets of Donald Trump are selected through random sampling dated from 27th May to 5th October 2020. The analysis reveals that Trump’s tweets expose polarization, use of pronouns (54% in-group pronouns, and 46% Out-group pronoun) emphasize positive In-Group representation. These ways expose the stances of extreme power use, criticism, and discriminatory attitude towards Out-Group and reveal that the centralizations of all authorities are entitled to In-Group that holds the status quo. The research implies that EFL learners will be better able to aware of ideological constructions of language by the CDA in teaching. This study can be expanded by adopting CDA as a teaching tool in EFL classes, which can be used to expose and deconstruct many other ideologies like, Feminism, Racism, and Marxism etc. that are rooted in language.
Faria Shaheen, Ghulam Ali, Kanwal Zahra
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 330-337;

The present paper focuses on the construction and production of gender identities through discursive mechanisms during the process of translation. It also attempts to focus on the various discursive strategies used by the translator in the phenomenon of translation. The data comprise Louis Brown's book 'The Dancing Girls of Lahore' and its Urdu translation by Pakistani male writer and translator Dr. Naeem Tariq. The theoretical and conceptual framework for the present research is based on three dimensional model by Farahzad (2012) in the light of Critical Discourse Analysis. The data related to feminist discourse in both the source text and the target text is selected through the purposive sampling technique. The analysis of the present paper reflects the position of the translator through his lexical and grammatical choices in the process of translation. The findings of the present study reflect the position of male translators and expose the socio-political structure of Pakistani patriarchal society. This study provides various dimensions to explore feminist translations for future researchers.
Zia Ur Rehman, Abdul Khaliq Alvi, Zaeem Ahmad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 303-316;

This research aims to check the mediating role of resilience between the relationships of hope with life satisfaction. Hope and mindfulness are independent variables and life satisfaction is the dependent variable. This is cross-sectional research and data was collected from 350 employees of an engineering company randomly. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses are performed for testing the hypotheses of the study. Results indicate that hope has a direct positive impact on life satisfaction and resilience respectively. Moreover, resilience is partially mediating the relationship of hope with life satisfaction. The current study considers only the employees of Mott MacDonald Group. Current research is a case study on Mott MacDonald Group, so cannot generalize the results on other types of industry and describes only a few predictors of life satisfaction. Future researches will also conduct on the same kind of engineering firm for generalization. In future researches, some other variables as predictors and outcomes may also include for explaining the phenomenon of life satisfaction. It is also beneficial to conduct this kind of research on sectors like the textile sector, banking sector, and telecom sector. Life satisfaction is very supportive for the organizations to maintain balance in work and lives of employees which may result in dedicated employees. The proposed research model of life satisfaction is satisfactorily supported by empirical tests.
Majid Khan, Amjad Reba, Khisro Kaleem Raza
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 292-302;

Kant stated that education is to develop a sound mind in a sound body. Following a descriptive survey in a quantitative framework, the current study aimed to analyze the perception of students at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa about the availability of sports facilities and their utilization. A multi-stage sample of 300 students was taken from12 urban Secondary schools of district Peshawar. A questionnaire was used for the collection of quantitative data having five-point Likert scales. Kruskale Wallace H test and Mann-Whitney U test were used as inferential statistics for finding the differences in the groups. The study found that most of the secondary school students participated in sports activities. The majority of schools were having sports facilities, however, fewer students were having sports facilities outside their schools. It was suggested that if students are provided with proper sports facilities and proper guidelines, it will have a significant impact on their physical development and academic achievements.
Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Amir, Saira Bano
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 286-291;

Security has been one of the greatest concerns of Afghanistan for a long but this aspect gained great momentum in 1979 upon the Russian intervention in Afghanistan. It became a common phenomenon in the entire world in September 2001 when the Pentagon was hard hit by the terrorist attacks. This led to the establishment of a democratic government in Afghanistan Vis Vis the need for an increased security system. With the transition of the NATO forces from Afghanistan in 2014, the Afghan National and Defense Security Forces were assigned the task of maintaining security in the country. Main objectives of the study circle around challenges before the ANDSF, its achievements, and the future of the ANDSF. This paper focuses on the current status of the ANDSF in the security paradigm of the country since security is still a big challenge before the government.
Muhammad Ramzan, Abdul Karim Khan, Ihsan Ullah Khan
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 280-285;

This paper aims at analyzing Shadad Zeest Hashmi’s poem ‘You are chained’ with a special focus on the foreground. The tools of foregrounding i.e. parallelism and deviation are surfaced that attract the attention of the reader for hidden messages related to the socio-political scenario of Pakistan, Kashmir, and India. Thus the miserable plight of the Kashmiris is encompassed through stylistic devices which are peculiar to Hashmi’s poetry. Foregrounding is the tool through which one can analyze a piece of literature having so many deviations and code-switching. The main aim of the study is to bring to the fore the local poets writing in English. The research is based on this intention to strike the attention of new researchers to criticize as well as to appreciate our local poets for their encouragement. On the other hand, research on Pakistani literature in English is an emerging area of investigation that is why, it is hoped, that this paper will prove to be an encouraging step ahead for future scholars.
Romana Jabeen Bukhari, Tahira Asgher, Sana Tahir
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 36-44;

The poetry of Khawaja Ghulam Farid has a world of meanings. Contemporaneously in the West, there was a parallel line of poets who were greatly influenced by Eastern thought and philosophy in their Transcendentalist poetry. Their poetry also contains ideas about the reality of God. Ralph Waldo Emerson is considered as ‘The Father of Transcendentalism'. The present study attempts to explore how far the poetic thought of Khawaja Farid is reflected in the transcendentalist poetry of Emerson who is the leading poet of this movement. The affinities between the mystic philosophy of the Unity of Being embraced by Khawaja Farid and Transcendentalist Monism have been traced and it has been explored how this philosophy places man about God. This comparative study highlights the philosophical and spiritual affinities between Khawaja Farid and Transcendentalist Emerson and points out the differences of thought as expressed through their respective poetry.
Maqsood Hayat, Shehzad Khan, Kiran Alim
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 1-15;

The study aims to explore the CSR's structure over some time (2016-2019) and draw a distinct pattern about the MNEs operating in Pakistan. Content analysis was used to extract the contextual meaning from the available data to set up the foundation for further research questions and draw a basic CSR prototype through an inductive method to develop a theory. CSR's structure is scattered and irregular in Pakistan. The exact pattern and involvement in specific dimensions are not defined, and the tendency is not identical even in the same industry. All enterprises operating in Pakistan need to exercise the updated corporate governance styles, practice both local and international CSR standards to achieve maximum corporate benefits. CSR concept is a 'time & space' sensitive phenomenon and receptive to domestic culture and institution, especially in developing countries. This research study has tried to sketch a fundamental and general but exact pattern of CSR activities observed within MNEs working in Pakistan.
Sajjad Ahmad, Sana Aziz, Umar Sajjad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 16-21;

In translation and cultural studies, the issue of (in) visibility of translator has taken its firm grounds especially after the publication of Venuti’s (1995) The Invisibility of Translator and its subsequent row of arguments and counter-arguments for and against the theoretical perspective as given in the book. The current research paper is an attempt to have an overview of Venuti’s and his critics’ arguments and add to the existing discussion of (in) visibility of translator, foreignization, and domestication of translation and projection and preservation of source culture during the act of translation by resisting the linguistic and cultural hegemony of English. This paper has, broadly, three main divisions of ideas: a firstly brief overview of Venuti’s arguments; secondly, a brief overview of Venuti’s most recent critics’ arguments like Pym, Tymoczko, Baker, Cronin, and Shamma; and thirdly the researchers own arguments about the issue based on the detailed analysis of previous literature. Conducting a close reading, as a popular method of analysis in qualitative research methodology, of the literature related to the issue of visibility of translator, the researcher has tried to suggest that the act of translation, during the voluntary act of foreignization, adds a concocted essence to the real spirit of the literary piece of work which neither remains beneficial for the assertion of the individuality of the source culture nor it helps very much in the resistance of the dominating language and culture. At the cost of aesthetic pleasure, the foreignization method also entails the sacrifice of literary meanings and effects.
Asfandyar Shah, Sajjad Ahmad, Umar Sajjad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 22-29;

The present study focuses on feminine writing in the context of Pakistani English writings. This study aims to explain one of the main strands of feminism i.e. l’ecriture feminine which means feminine writing. The current study is based on the representation of l’ecriture feminine in Uzma Aslam Khan’s novel, Thinner than Skin. The researcher has collected the data from the selected novel and made an in-depth analysis of the characters and scenes of this novel. Female body parts are pictured by the narrator at different points in the novel. Female characters remain the center of discussion in the selected narrative. It is identified from the discussion that all the major elements of L’ecriture feminine are portrayed in the text of the novel.
Niaz Ali, Miss. Rafia Naz Ali, Miss. Johar Wajahat
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 30-35;

This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of articles 25A and 37(b) in closing the gender gap in Pakistan's KP province. This stated Article explains the right to free and compulsory education up to the secondary level. The literature review has shown that two types of factors can affect achieving the goals defined by articles 25A and 37(b). Article 25A provides constitutional efforts to provide free and compulsory education in the chapter of fundamental rights. Article 37(b) enjoined the respective institutions' obligation to remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory education to the secondary level within the minimum possible period. Clause (f) of the same Article declares how the State will enable Pakistani citizens to participate in national life through education. These claims were named as "efforts." The efforts are under human control. Some factors act against these stated efforts, known as "circumstances," which are natural and out of human control, such as gender gaps, poverty, Pashtunwali culture, etc. In Pakistan, the "efforts" are made to achieve the stated Articles' targets. Still, no policy was developed to answer the "circumstances." This attitude extends hurdles in educating KP girls. Suggestions were made to eradicate these "circumstances" entirely or partially to the extent possible. If these "circumstances" were removed, the girls' ratio of gross enrolment rate would be at least at a high level as boys, and thus the vision explained by the stated Articles can be achieved.
Khushbakht, Sadia Irshad, Abdus Samad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 154-167;

The current study aims to understand the narrative of #MeToo in Pakistan as formulated by Pakistani Twitter users. Although the #MeToo movement emerged as a movement of women empowerment against the issues of sexual harassment and domestic violence, however today in the 21st-century women are still struggling with longstanding abuses and sexual harassment. The current study has explored how in the patriarchal society of Pakistan, the narrative of #MeToo is not acceptable and manipulated by certain societal forces for personal gain. Similarly, this research has also understood the influence of dominant discourses on the narrative of #MeToo. Through the use of Van Dijk's (1998), Ideological square, as a theoretical lens, the results of the study argue that the narrative of #MeToo is badly exploited subjugated by patriarchal notions to manipulate women empowerment in Pakistan. Two domains of the #MeToo movement have been explored i.e. Sexual harassment and Domestic violence through the current study and the results have revealed that in the patriarchal society of Pakistan domestic violence is given weightage over sexual harassment. Furthermore, Patriarchy has argued that the #MeToo movement is a movement of fame, to which the proponents of the #MeToo movement referred as Fame: A Blame Game to the movement. Lastly, the recommendations are offered as well.
Nosheen Swar, Samina Malik, N. B. Jumani
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 51-59;

An institution that works for individuals or is fretful with fulfilling the requirements of students may have a climate where the teachers sense an assured egotism and self-importance, have their place in that organization. Various factors are involved to get the highest competence and output from the teachers i.e. service safety, positive institutional climate, and good income. The self-confidence of professors and a positive university climate play an important role to give the students a quality education. This study identified the university atmosphere and examined the influence of the university environment on the confidence of professors. A mixed-methods approach was used to perform the study. The initial seven plus ten declarations on the tool signify the exposed environment, and the preceding seven plus ten avowals represent the confined environment. A self-developed morale scale and face-to-face meetings were steered for data collection. The population of the study was 4210 teachers and 350 heads of departments in Punjab province. The sample was 35 leaders, 255 male and 171 female teachers from public sector universities in Punjab, using proportional, and stratified random sampling techniques. Tested the readability test of the revisions with participants, the null hypotheses were tested. Both data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analytical tools that followed the content analysis technique. The results showed that most public sector universities in Pakistan have an open climate like a closed university climate. However, it was found that noteworthy variance existed in the ethical level of teachers working in open and closed atmospheres.
Hashmat Begum, Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah, Samina Begum
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 79-82;

Abu al Hasan al-Ashari is measured to be a great as well as famous scholar of theology. He competed with philosophers with the power of his knowledge. He was a famous religious scholar of the Abbasi period. During the heyday of Islam, two schools of thought became famous. One school of thought became famous as the Motazilies and the other discipline of thought became known as the Ash'arites. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari remained a supporter of the Mu'tazilites for forty years. Then there was a disagreement with Mu'tazilah about the issue of value. Imam al-Ghazali is one of the leading preachers of his Ash'arite school of thought. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari inherited a passion for collecting books. As a child, he used to collect books from his hobby. Sometimes there are very difficult places in the path of knowledge, only a real student can pass through these places safely. He has been remembered by the Islamic world in very high words. There was a student who drank the ocean of knowledge but his thirst was not quenched. And the thirst of a real student is never quenched. Attempts have been made to review his life, education, and services in the Islamic sciences.
Khalid Hussain Abbasi, Ashfaque Ali Banbhan, Najia Shaikh
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 83-96;

This study aimed to explore the composition of BODs committees in PIACL. Secondary data from Annual Reports, Act, Rules and Regulations of the corporation in general and SECP recommendations i.e., the codes of CG in particular were collected. Data were analyzed in MS-Office 2016 version using MS-Excel and MS-Word. Obtained results are, the BODs can exercise their powers to form the board’s various committees, but at the same time BODs must execute their responsibilities focusing on objectives of the corporation and larger interest of stockholders in good faith and judgment, especially executing authority for the establishment of AC. BODs must confirm that none of the member's interests conflicts with the objectives of the committee. The Principal Finance Officer (CFO), inside audit officials, and officers like the chief cooperating officer (CEO) do not represent AC. However, one member of the committee must hold ample knowledge related to finance, but this does not mean that a member of the board who is linked either with financial matters or audit operations is appointed on the committee. Results further indicated that in PIACL different committees of BODs have been formed where a director in the finance committee is also appointed as member or chairman in AC in contrast to SECP codes. Similarly, various BODs have been made part of the AC, HR, IT, Procurement, Marketing (Brand and advertisement) committee. Whereas, practically it is very uncommon that an individual possesses expertise in IT, HR, Marketing, and Finance fields simultaneously as these are diverse fields, how come a person can be an expert of all disciplines at the same time? Hence, the appointment of directors in multiple committees at the same time raises a lot of questions about the independent working or decision-making of such committees.
Shehla Gul, Naushad Khan, Nasir Khan
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 60-70;

This study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of the presence of women in the National Assembly of Pakistan. It analyses the effect of the inclusion of women in the legislative bodies on the policies and laws of the country. With increasing demand and participation of women in politics the question of the impact of women presence in the legislative bodies arises. This study makes an analysis of the bills introduced by women members in the National Assembly and categorizes it under different headings. The study concludes that women members were more interested in resolving issues of women and piloted women related agenda to the floor of the house but this concern does not ensures any substantive change in policy making due to the influence of other variables i.e. method of election on reserved seats for women and party affiliations etc.
Nosheen Sarwat, Raza Ali, Tariq Iqbal Khan
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 135-143;

When individuals are under stress, they cannot fully expend all their energies at work because they are distracted due to stress. This concept is termed stress-related presenteeism. The primary purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship of challenging job demands (i.e., workload) and hindering job demands (i.e., cognitive job demands) with stress-related presenteeism, and the subsequent relationship of stress-related presenteeism with psychological well-being, by using the job-demands resource model and conservation of resource theory. Data (n=211) were collected in two-time waves from bank employees of three major cities of Pakistan. The collected data were analyzed by using bootstrapping mediation analysis. Findings revealed that workload was negatively associated with stress-related presenteeism, whereas cognitive job demands were positively related to stress-related presenteeism. Stress-related presenteeism also mediated the relationships of challenging job demands and hindering job demands with psychological well-being. Implications for managers and recommendations are discussed towards the end of this study...
Tahira Asgher, Anum Hanif
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 120-134;

The eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted every field of life. But its highly adverse effects were observed in the educational field. By taking into account the seriousness of COVID-19 at a global level, almost all the countries temporarily closed the physical education system that made especially higher education learners suffer at a higher rate. HECs of the different countries instructed teachers to shift physical education to the online learning teaching method (OLTM). Pakistani learners and teachers of Higher Education also adopted this innovative educational system but they faced some problems. So, the present study aimed to investigate the expediency of OLTM and problems related to it in the context of Pakistan’s Higher Education System through Online Questionnaires and Interviews. The findings of the study revealed that OLTM didn’t prove beneficial for Pakistani learners and teachers of higher education and they faced various physical, social, economic, and psychological problems.
Nayab Waqas Khan, Mehak Muneer, Huma Iqbal
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 144-153;

This research explores Pakistani newspapers Editorials’ lexical, morphological, and social aspects of the coronavirus Pandemic in Pakistan under the light of the Critical Discourse Analysis angle. The focal idea is to discover the etymological decision and rhetorical questions utilized in a revealing pandemic, and how did the columnists shape readers' minds and thoughts through their words. The CDA has been used as a theoretical framework for analyzing the data. Information for this examination includes 15 Editorial randomly gathered from 100 newspapers in Pakistan. Results demonstrated the exploitation of terminologies has been shown inconvenience, fear of contagious disease, death, fear of touching, and outbreak among people. The bogus information was additionally found in newspapers. Contradiction among newspapers was found while presenting data. This social change brings ultimately a linguistic change in the world. The English language is the language of overcoming gaps among nations, but this time it had correspondingly ushered in a new vocabulary to the general populace. For instance, new vocabulary, acronyms, synonyms, compounding, etc. Social change is parallel to linguistic change, and it is a paramount theme of lexicography. The local newspapers advocated a massive outbreak of the coronavirus and expected a second wave of this pandemic that was frustrating for the educational sector on top. The newspaper editors manipulate thoughts through forceful lexis usage to influence the thought, and opinions of Pakistani people.
Muhammad Bilal, Nasim Ullah Khan, Syed Qasim Shah
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 71-78;

This study, Freedom, and Desire: A quest for a spiritual journey in the novel by James Joyce, describes the journey of the main character of the story from his adolescence to the best way of conceptualizing the dynamic, multilateral relationship between individual experience and socio-cultural scope, since it recognizes the causal significance of culture but also recognizes individual choice and changes. The researcher examines the true desire which enables him to embrace his creative spirits “the actual experiences” which also symbolize freedom. This claim is formed by contemplating how many historical shifts in the socio-cultural context, i.e. the increase in freedom of choice, the shift in interpersonal patterns, the loss of traditional values, the loss of religious understanding, and the increasing conflict between the desire for individuality and the complexity of achieving it, have led to changes in the essence of true intentions and modern personhood. For this research, a qualitative method is adopted in the framework of Locke on Freedom (2015). It also points out and aims at the need to establish a new perspective on the provision of spiritual treatment in the field of freedom and desire, which focuses on improving the particular spiritual journey of the person, rather than simply reassuring spiritual distress. A man should not have to restrict himself to limited ideas, for this one has to go beyond limitation to change his mind which is the ultimate reality of advancement in life.
Tauqeer Hussain Hakro, Khalid Hussain Abbasi, Hakim Ali Mahesar
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 97-105;

The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices over the employee turnover intentions of the NGOs sector in Sindh, Pakistan. A questionnaire survey, adopted from prior studies for data collection was used to carry out current research. The questionnaire was based on close-ended questions, having a seven-point Likert-type scale. The convenient sampling (an item of non-probability sampling) was used to collect data. A total of 180 questionnaires were distributed among employees of the NGOs sector, out of which 121 questionnaires were considered fit for data analysis and further interpretations. Initially, the data was processed in SPSS version 22.0 for analyzing descriptive statistics, whereas, the model was tested in SEM Smart-PLS. The organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices were the significant predictors to reduce employee turnover intentions. While HRM practices and supervisor behavior contribute to decreasing employee turnover intentions. Furthermore, this study explained the interconnection of various factors such as, organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices that cause employee turnover intentions, which were realized by actual employee turnover. The investigation provided explanations about why NGO employees intend to quit. Referring to empirical findings of current research, it is highly likely that NGOs might be able to reduce employee turnover. This research addressed specific circumstances of NGOs that cause high employee turnover, particularly in Sindh, which may be generalized at the country level.
Rabia Khan, Sajjad Ahmad, Ali Ammar
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 45-50;

This paper is an attempt to prove the assumption that William Golding is a failure who claims to have written his novel Lord of the Flies on the idea of human nature. He considers that he wrote about human nature in general, but he is a Western and has those ideas of being superior to other people. He takes all his characters from among the English boys. Not a single character who is shown as civilized belongs to a marginalized race. This act of Golding reveals his ethnocentric attitude. He does not bother to include a female character in this novel. All his characters are male. It shows his androcentric nature. Though he tries to put the evil like every man whenever he wants to show the brutality or savagery of a human, in the form of his chosen English boys, he portrays them as the hunters of Africa or paints them with mud. In doing so, he is affiliating savagery with the blacks and Indians. Thus, he propagates the same stereotypical concept of “Orients” as uncivilized and savages. Golding relies solely on the biological factors of human nature. He ignores to consider any social problem for the conflict of the two groups of boys. These social factors may include political system, religion, or Marxism. This research work has proved that Golding’s self-critique of human nature in the novel is a failure on his part.
Naila Iram, Shamsa Aziz, Fouzia Ajmal
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 114-119;

Sleep is a physiological process essential to humans for their normal functioning. Sleep habits and problems are also influenced by physical, mental, and environmental factors such as age, gender, job, lifestyle, emotional tension, and noise. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of sleep disorders on students' academic achievement at International Islamic University Islamabad. The objectives of the study were to: find out the causes of sleep disorders among university students and explore the effect of sleep disorders on the academic achievement of students. This study was quantitative in nature and a survey was done for data collection. The sample of the study consisted of 80 students of the Faculty of Social Sciences suffering from sleep disorder and residing in hostels. Researchers used a self-developed three-point scale for data collection. The validity of the instrument was checked through experts' opinions while the reliability of the instruments was checked through Cronbach's Alpha. The collected data were scored, tabulated, and analyzed making use of descriptive and inferential statistics i.e. mean scores and t-test through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21). Results showed that late-night socializing and stress related to exams, assignments, and tests were the two top major causes of students' sleep disorders and there is a great effect of sleep disorders on the academic achievement of students.
Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Waseem Ishaque, Rimsha Zafar
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 106-113;

The current study focuses not only on developing leadership but also emphasizes the crucial role of employing the concept of followership effectively. The reason for this is that the leadership concept in the organization may not be effective without followership. Therefore, to obtain exemplary leadership, followership has to be inculcated, and that of courage embedded in it. The current study applied to reverse the lens approach in leadership and hypothesized the relation between courageous followership and exemplary leadership. The sample size of 255 was used for this research, chosen by employing convenience-sampling techniques due to Covid-19 conditions and restrictions. The data were screened and then using SPSS did analysis. The results show that courageous followership had an impact on exemplary leadership, meaning that courageous followers would promote exemplary leadership practices in the organizations, which can be very useful for organizations to understand and promote.
Syed Raza Shah Gilani, İlyas Khan, Shehla Zahoor
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 251-258;

It is a fact that the doctrine of Militant Democracy is essential to protect society from the threat of terrorism. On the other hand, we should not ignore the element of its interpretive nature, which means that there is an apprehension that the states having a poor human rights record may use it to achieve their ulterior motives while damaging the fundamental rights of the individual. In Europe, the ECtHR and domestic courts at the national level are duty-bound to save these fundamental rights. Hence, the doctrine of proportionality is an essential tool to check the militant democracy measures on the fundamental freedoms and human rights. To understand the authenticity of the doctrine of proportionality, it is essential to establish its origin and stages of evolution, because this will enable me to explore the use of this doctrine, which is adopted by many nations, before analyzing its use in the UK’s legal system.
Sami Ullah Khan, Abdus Samad, Amar Yasir
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 168-173;

This paper aims to focus on finding and highlighting the misanthropic aspects and their effects on the characters in the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. The misanthropic perspectives in the novel have been premeditated deeply. Misanthropy has been implemented on the characters. The characters like, Old Major, Napoleon, Squealer, and others have been studied to manifest the misanthropic attitudes in it. Old major is the father of misanthropy in the novel Animal Farm and gives the idea of rehabilitation in the animals' lives and Napoleon accomplishes it. The disgusting behavior of the animals leads to revolution. Misanthropy affects humans' lives and they become homeless. The findings of the paper are that the animals possess disgusting behavior against humans. The paper concludes that the whole novel is replete with misanthropy and it is the very aspect that has been probed by this article. Eventually, misanthropy proves to be a nightmarish dream for animals of the Animal Farm and a complete disillusionment they expect from the revolution.
Sajjad Khan, Ghulam Safdar, Tufail Ahmad
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 189-194;

The current research study aimed to explore the role of radio clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic in Swat. The study was a content analysis based and radio programs were examined that how radio programs are playing role in creating awareness among the public about the coronavirus and what sort of information is disseminating to educate the people to save themselves from this hazardous disease. Data of one month from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, was collected about radio programs about the public health of Radio Pakistan Swat. Furthermore, researchers made codding sheet to categorize the data. The findings of the study showed that almost all the programs emphasized keeping social distance, regular hand washing, wearing face masks, and stay home to secure themselves from being infected from coronavirus. The overall study concluded that community radio is playing a vital role in public awareness and education especially in rural and remote areas of Pakistan.
Muhammad Javed, Israr Rasool, Ghulam Mustafa
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 195-199;

Pakistan is blessed with rich natural resources in which water resources are the major ones. Yet the level of this important resource has been reached at an alarming level due to myriad factors such as misuse, mismanagement, and politics in water sectors at both levels national and international. The study is presenting an overview of the state of the Indus Water Treaty, Indus River Basin, and conflict between India and Pakistan in the wake of the Indus Water Treaty (IWT). The focus of the study is to reveal the hegemony of India on international waters and its relations with the outer world. Moreover, the research study has presented root causes of the water crisis, hydro politics in the South Asia region, the hegemony of India on international waters. Water management policies and co-operation mechanism is required between Pakistan and India to cope with the challenge of water shortage.
Rimsha Zafar, Wajeeha Ghias, Muhammadi Sabra Nadeem
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 266-274;

In today’s world, understanding the concept of followers is as important as the concept of leaders in the organization. Building the concept of followership and leadership, this study used the reversing the lens approach in leadership study and hypothesized that the relationship between courageous followership and authentic leadership enhances in the presence of organizational climate as moderator. The target sample for this study was graduate students from different universities in twin cities of Pakistan i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad (N= 171). This sample was chosen by convenience-based sampling due to Covid-19. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS and moderation analysis was also applied to this study. The results supported the hypotheses of the study by concluding that the organizational climate act as a moderator and influences the relationship between courageous followership and authentic leadership. Focusing on developing a good organizational climate will boost the impact of courageous followership behavior and authentic leadership in the students, and this would create a balanced and progressive society. Future researchers might need to consider the courageous followership behavior development and its role in enhancing authentic leadership in different work settings.
Nasar Iqbal, Abeera Shoukat, Saleem Akhtar Khan
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 182-188;

The Postcoloniality of Pakistani Literature in English is manifest in all the works produced both by the local and the diasporic writers representing the nation. Multifarious postcolonial dimensions of these literary yields, ranging from the personal exilic agonies to the collective traumas triggered by displacement, have been explored. Among these sociocultural dimensions represented in the creative works and theorized in the critical works, the notions of the Third Space and exilic consciousness remain the central ones. Invoking Homi Bhabha’s theoretical articulations on the issue, the researchers engage with Nadeem Aslam’s Maps for Lost Lovers for an understanding of the condition of the characters oscillating between the native and adopted cultures. This is a qualitative study and the method of textual analysis has been used. Through a thorough analysis of the text of the novel, the perplexing positionality of the characters living in the third space, as represented by Aslam, has been exposed and critiqued. To contribute to the understanding of the Pakistani diasporic community’s problem, the findings have been located in the broader cultural context.
Kinza Sadique, Muhammad Asif
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 223-231;

The book of Gold leaves by Mirza Waheed aims to present the interconnectedness of memory and trauma in making the survival of an individual complicated. Memory of any incident makes it traumatic when it returns with haunted effects. Remembrance of traumatic incidents makes survival complicated by creating a distressing situation for the devastated self by switching the timeless past into the present through Bakhtin's chronotopic images of time and place. Struggle to re-memorize the event through narration is like denying the traditional concept of indescribability of trauma and narration is equal to re-live that moment and be at that place again in the memory when places turned into traumatic sites and time ceased. Time becomes circular and these sites become a referent of that devastating time according to Caruth, it is the trauma of survival rather than the death that pinches most. Waheed's book of Gold leaves is a part of Kashmiri literature, explores the struggle to gain freedom and identity through collective losses. Intriguing situations of lockdown and bombings are enough to create hollow identities. Thus Words, being semantically analyzed, heighten the trauma of survival through the Spatio-temporal spectrum.
Imran Khan, Karim Haider Syed
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 259-265;

A systematic investigation of the steps that Russia has taken after 9/11 to improve strategic relations with Pakistan gives an idea of ​​why it is moving so carefully towards Pakistan. Now it has become important to see what kind of steps Russia has taken to further enhance strategic relations with Pakistan. In June, 2014 the Russian leadership began negotiations to provide Pakistan with state-of-the-art war helicopters to combat drug traffickers (Ullah, 2014, p.1). This development has taken as a surprise in the international community and certainly is not one that can be easily overlooked. The United States and Europe are looking disturbed and some experts have made suppositions that Russia is maneuvering the withdrawal of NATO forces by increasing instability in Afghanistan to increase its role in the aftermath of the withdrawal of NATO forces. In the new situation, Pakistan will have to be strengthened at the front of foreign policy so that it can better cope with the state of affairs that can emerge after the withdrawal of NATO forces. Some experts believe that Russia no longer wanted to make things one-sided and want to increase the role of other stakeholders of the region in the solution of Afghanistan. In the past Russia has paid extraordinary attention to India and ignored Pakistan. These experts believe that Russia now wanted to create a balance of power in the region through cooperation with Pakistan and is trying not to give too much to any one country in the world. Talks between Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan and Russian President Putin during the SCO summit in June 2019 were highlighted in the national media of Pakistan and Russia as well as in the international media (Pakistan eyes new horizons with Russia, 2019).  The history and nature of Pakistan-Russia relations have been very unique and interesting. Pakistan and Russia relations teach the lesson that elements like sentimentality, friendship, and enmity have no place in international relations. In the modern state system, these are the national interests, based on which the two states can come closer to each other and work together to achieve their goals by putting their difference of past behind the scene.
Khisro Kaleem Raza, Niaz Muhammad Aajiz, Alam Zeb
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 275-279;

The study in hand aimed to determine the effects of integrative pedagogy over the academic performance of secondary school students in the subject of Chemistry. The study was conducted in an experimental framework following the Solomon Four Group Design. A total sample of 120 students of 10th class was randomly taken from 4 private sector Secondary Schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The sample was divided into 4 groups, each having 30 students. Giving a randomized treatment to the groups, two groups were taken as experimental while two were taken as controlled. One experimental and one controlled group were pre-tested for Chemistry subject performance through objective achievement tests, while others were not pre-tested. Both experimental groups were taught through integrative pedagogy while the controlled groups were taught through the traditional method for three months. After regular monthly post-testing, the triplicate data revealed an 11-point average increase in the academic performance of chemistry students in both the experimental groups in comparison to the controlled groups.
Saadia Saleem, Farhana Khursheed
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 200-207;

This study is based on an intervention of the connected classroom to seek out the teaching faculty shortage alternative. Two Government colleges, rural and urban colleges, coordinated for the intervention of the connected classroom through a software application ‘Skype.’ The urban college serves as the host institution. The urban college teacher delivers lectures to two classes simultaneously, through ‘Skype’ for rural students and face-to-face class interaction for urban colleges. The experiment was continued for four months to teach chemistry subjects. A focus group discussion was arranged for the class students after the successful completion of the connected classroom experiment. The data collected from the focus group discussion revealed that the participants enjoyed and appreciated learning through the experiment of the connected classroom, and they were satisfied at the end of the intervention. They expressed the learning through the connected classroom can be a useful alternative for the colleges facing the problems of shortage of teaching faculty. Students were happy that they got the opportunity of the connected classroom at the right time, and they completed their course well in time even when the teachers were not physically present there in the college. They consider the connected classroom is vital to reduce the distresses of poor village students. They say the permanent implementation of this strategy can assist and help rural students during the non-availability of teaching faculty.
Abdul Waheed, Muhammad Iqbal Majoka, Shawana Fazal
Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), Volume 2, pp 174-181;

This study was carried out to explore the implementation of quality enhancement initiatives at the university level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main focus was on the aspect of quality teaching. The study covered the following research objectives: to examine teachers' training and preparation for enhancing the quality of classroom teaching; to find out facilities and resources provided for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching; to analyze classroom practices taken by teachers for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching. Data were collected from 68 heads of department and 258 faculty members of the related departments. The sample of the study consisted of two hundred fifty-eight (258) University teachers and sixty-eight (68) Heads of Department. Two research instruments were used for data collection one for faculty members and the other for heads of department. The data were analyzed using the mean score, percentage, and chi-square test. The findings of the study revealed that need-based training facilities for university teachers and smart classroom facilities are slightly imparted in the universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study also recommends that quality facilities, resources, and need-based training programs may equally be provided for quality teaching-learning processes in all the public sector universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
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