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Results in Journal International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review: 40

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M. Rokonuzzaman, Yuta Hattori
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i4.136

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: This research aims to identify the susceptibility of Bangladesh's coastal areas to natural disasters related to climate change and raise vigilance in the region. Methodology: We have conducted a survey of farmers in eight coastal Unions to identify the impact of climate change and the ability to implement coping mechanisms and their family size and income level. Face-to-face interviews, in-depth case studies, and focus group discussions were carried out in the survey. We further summarized the effect and recent consequences of cyclones, the major disaster in the country that are followed by flooding. Main Findings: The finding of the study reveals that the shelters are insufficient to accommodate the dense population and will be a crowded space under the influence of COVID-19, further raising the vulnerability of those affected by a disaster. The coping mechanisms implemented were the storage of rainwater and groundwater and empowering women to produce dairy products and sustain the household income. The experts’ opinion to counteract the climate change was adaptation and mitigation. Since building resilience requires a fair budget and global support, we focused on adaption, considering three adaptive approaches: accommodation, protection, and retreat. Among those, considering the densely populated nature of Bangladesh, improving accommodation and protection were the feasible solution to be proposed. In conclusion, people's livelihood activities could be diversified by providing need-based training and motivations. Research Implications: One-fourth of the total population lives in the coastal areas in Bangladesh, which frequently faces tropical cyclones, storm surges, coastal erosion, and sea-level rise that cost enormous loss to the crops, livestock, forestry, and human selves. The biodiversity of the Sundarban, one of the most vulnerable ecosystems, is also at risk of those natural disasters. The novelty of the study: Climate change is posing major threats to Bangladesh's coast. This study's findings will help individuals recover from the effects of climate change and prepare for the future.
, S. M. Ferdous Azam, Adam Amril Jaharadak
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i4.117

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The microfinance industry has been developed significantly last two decades. It is fast becoming a household name globally and one of the key contributors to social-economic development. The Sustainability of the microfinance industry depends on several factors and encounters numerous challenges. The purpose of the study is to examine whether there is a relationship between risk management and the sustainability of the microfinance industry in Sri Lanka. Methodology: A simple regression analysis is used to demonstrate a connection in which one independent variable is predicted to influence one dependent variable. The study included 376 microfinance women borrowers from three districts in Sri Lanka, and the cluster sampling approach was used. Primary data was gathered using surveys, while secondary data was collected from CBSL, MFI annual reports, and the Microfinance Information Exchanger (MIX). Main Findings: The study findings reveal that effective risk Management has a significantly positive relationship with the Suitability of the Microfinance Industry in Sri Lanka. Research limitations/implications: The study was limited to three districts out of 25 districts in Sri Lanka, and the sample frame was selected from three leading MFIs that agreed to participate in the research. The availability of time for this study was limited and could not permit the consideration of all MFIs and the entire country. Novelty/Originality: The study concludes that MFIs should have a proper and effective risk management process, but it should be adequately handled and communicated to borrowers. It implies that proactive risk management is essential to the long-term Sustainability of microfinance institutions (MFIs).
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 08-15; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.122

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: School decision-making promotes school autonomy and success. Today’s contemporary approach supports the idea that operative school functioning and development are characteristically accomplished when there is decentralized decision-making. Hence, the purpose of the study is to find the balance between decision-making in a centralized and decentralized structure in a school based system. Methodology: An extensive search of major databases was undertaken, which identified 35,822 studies on the subject, wherein 9 met the inclusion criteria. Employing a systematic literature review, data were extracted and analyzed using thematic analysis. Two themes arose from the analysis of the studies, such as decision-making as a school-based management practice and decision-making towards school performance. Main Findings: Studies on decision-making in school management from a sociological approach. It also highlights the need to mix centralized and decentralized techniques to improve education. Following are some debate points that might want more research: (1) school principal decision-making and (2) school running expense and spending decision-making. Research Implications: The study's findings will aid in improving staff performance and community comprehension of schooling. Increased participation of internal and external stakeholders can boost school autonomy and accountability. The novelty of the study: As a school-based management technique, the correct balance of centralized and decentralized decision-making might enable schools to function at their best while corporations attain peak performance.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.113

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study is to examine whether government health expenditures have an impact on the health sector performance in Nigeria for the period (1979-2019). Methodology: The study employs the expo facto research design. The annual time series data were sourced from World Development Indicators (WDI) and the Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) for several years. The dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) estimation method is employed to measure the coefficient of the parameters to test the four hypotheses developed. Main Findings: The findings of the study indicate that capital health expenditure and recurrent health expenditures are positively related to the performance of the health sector proxy by life expectancy rate but statistically insignificant. However, capital health expenditure is statistically significant to life expectancy. Research Implication: It was recommended that priority need to be placed on government capital spending on health such as building and equipping of health centres in every community to enhance accessibility to health centres in Nigeria. The novelty of the study: There is a need for an adequate mechanism to be put in place by the health sector to check the stealing of public funds and punish those who misuse and divert such funds. This can promote the generation and prudent utilization of revenue to equip our various health centres ahead of eventualities like the COVID-19.
, Ramesh B, Saravana K, Rajashekar C
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.111

Abstract:
Purpose of the Study: Financial literacy is the main challenge for the rural population of India. It also plays a vital role in the economic outlook. In India, many poor people do not have a bank account, and only a few understand the concept of financial literacy. Due to lack of financial literacy many rural poor experience financial anxieties hence the present study was taken up to know the financial anxiety and resilience behavior among rural poor. Methodology: The present study adopted the descriptive research design 62 respondents were selected for data collection from poor rural households by adopting the purposeful sampling technique in the Kodigenahalli Gram Panchayat jurisdiction. The present study was carried to assess the level of financial anxiety and its relationship with socio-demographical aspects. Main Findings: The present study found that financial anxiety is experienced by the rural poor, and there is a correlation between education, occupation, number of household members with financial anxiety of the respondents. Implication: The researcher proposed the need for Social Work Intervention to address financial anxiety and financial literacy. The novelty of the study: The present study has described the level of financial literacy and financial anxiety that exists among the rural poor in Karnataka (India) and explored the scope of Financial Social Work in addressing financial literacy and financial anxiety. Financial Social Work changes the conversation about money. It provides a different way of thinking about money and it offers a better way of working with clients around the role of money in their lives, problems and issues.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.108

Abstract:
Purpose of this study: In accordance with the current world economy, building climate sustainability resiliency is very important under the physical risk and transitional risk mitigation. This classification of climate risks could have an enormous positive impact focusing on ESG (Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance) goal achievement during the post-COVID pandemic situation focusing on climate risk issues. The European Green Deal has also increased the EU’s climate ambitions. In addition, global cooperation on sustainable finance has increased and the international context has changed. The financial sector will play a critical role in our transition to sustainability.The strategy of this study aims to support the European Green Deal aims, as well as an inclusive and sustainable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic consequences. Methodology: In this study, the relative carbon risk and absolute carbon risk is shown based on the dynamic common factor model. The graphical representation of absolute versus relative carbon risk is measured in this time series data based research on the ten years timeline of 2010 to 2019. Main findings: The study shows the graphical figure regardingregion-wise dynamics of the relative and absolute carbon emissions risk in an average by adopting the dynamic common factor model throughout the global level by obtaining the Kalman filtering tool. Research limitations/Implications: Lack of resources of primary data is the main creating hindering effect that is faced in this study. This article portrays the increase in CO2 emissions leading to consequences of climate risk also accelerating these problems within the regions and countries mentioned in this research. Novelty/Originality: Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the developed nations, as well as emerging economies, are facing vulnerability in the area of financial, governmental, environmental to be sustainably resilient. This is the high time of detecting these problems and taking precautionary measures by the policymakers and government in the economic sector by adopting implementable methodologies. This study may benefit readers by advancing the existing knowledge or creating new knowledge in this subject. The current study reflects the situation of forthcoming researchers who intends to study as well as interested in this particular area.
, Khalid Helal
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.103

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to examine the causes of seaport congestion at Chittagong seaport. Seaports are vital instruments of international trade and a key to the economic growth of any country. Seaport congestion is a significant issue faced by most of the seaport. Shipping lines carry the cargo from one seaport to another; seaport congestion faced at the one port has a detrimental effect on the economy and trade of the country. Methodology: This study used the survey-based data collected design through convenience sampling from the port employees. The collected data were analysed with SmartPLS 3.2.1. Main Findings: The results of importance-performance matrix analysis (IPMA) reveals that the three most important factors causing the congestion at seaport are information technology, equipment, and time. Research implications: The study findings advocate that seaport authorities need to improve the information technology use at the seaport as well as the equipment utilised for handling the cargo. However, congestion issues can only be resolved by taking a holistic approach and involving all the stakeholders to improve the Chittagong port efficiency as well as bringing trade growth for the country. The novelty of the study: Current work is that the data was collected from one seaport only but the analysis supported the arguments that the seaport equipment, labour, and customs significantly contributing to the seaport congestion. However, the impact of the infrastructure and information technology is insignificant on the seaport congestion as perceived by the study respondents.
, Shamim Akhter, Abrar Hussain Qureshi, Komal Khan
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 10-14; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i2.69

Abstract:
Purpose of Study: The aim of the study is to identify and build an appropriate learning model for elementary school students that will ensure a quiet learning environment. Methodology: This research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches, as well as research and development techniques. The research was divided into two stages: exploration and experimental studies. Meanwhile, 50 learners, thirteen educational tutors, and six persons from the literacy program administration were chosen for the analysis by purposive sampling. Main Finding: According to the findings of the study, problem-based learning contributed to an increase in literacy in an entrepreneurship literacy program. Research Implication: The study's findings revealed that PBL implementation was anchored in a learning program and learning management. The discovery also aids in the development of the curriculum's learning methodologies, learning resources, learning media, and learning evaluation. Novelty/Originality: It is critical to increase literacy abilities in order to read, write, and assess problems. This research examines and describes the problem-based learning technique for developing literacy competency and assisting readers in improving their reading skills.
Chinyere Okore, Stephen Asatsa, Maria Ntarangwe
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 1-09; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i2.102

Abstract:
Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of social skills training on enhancing self-concept of teenage mothers in Kibera. Because teenage pregnancy is considered as a global issue. A large proportion of teenage mothers give up on themselves and struggle with negative emotions resulting from societal stigma, rejection and isolation from friends and families, which can lead to poor self-concept. Methodology: The study was anchored on person centered theory of Carl Rogers and Bandura`s social cognitive theory. Mixed method sequential explanatory design was adopted for the study. The target population was 150 teenage mothers. Quantitative data was collected from participants using self-concept and social skills questionnaires. An interview guide was used to collect data from one social worker and one school administration for the qualitative study. The data were analyzed utilizing narratives and correlations. We used SPSS version 21 to examine the first round of quantitative data. After analyzing the quantitative data, individuals with mean scores between 1.0 and 2.5 were chosen for the qualitative investigation. Main Finding: The study found out that social skills training has improved self-concept of teenage mothers in Kibera. The qualitative study revealed that teenage mothers go through psychological and emotional challenges in the hands of their parents. The study generally concludes that self-concept of teenage mothers is being affected by lack of psychological support, forgiveness and acceptance from the family. Intervention suggested included being emotionally present, psychological support, and love by parents to teenage mothers. Research Implication: The study's findings suggested that rules on guidance and counseling services for parents and teenage mothers be strengthened in order to improve assertiveness. It is critical for social workers to focus on policy development in low-income households, particularly in the area of education, in order to prevent adolescent pregnancy. Novelty/Originality of this study: Based on the findings, this study proposes a novel approach to dealing with teen pregnancy and offering psychological support. In addition, the parents provide social support and love.
Aminnudin Saimon, Nazatul Aineena Abdul Latif, Nazihah Abd Rahim, Ainul Insyirah Mohd Yusoff, Nur Syazani Hanis Mohammad
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i1.99

Abstract:
Purpose of Study: The pandemic that hit the world at this time has led to the existence of new terms COVID-19 in society. This study aims to find out the use of new terms in the COVID-19 press conference. Methodology: This study is a quantitative study that uses a survey method which is a questionnaire used to identify new terms in the COVID-19 press conference and examine the level of student knowledge of terms in the COVID-19 press conference. Main Finding: A total of 200 students from four public universities were selected using stratified random sampling. The findings of the study found that UIAM students make a higher comprehensive, followed by UPSI, UKM, and UM students. The total is 3952, UIAM students take the first as 1001 comprehensive of COVID-19 terminology followed by UPSI (998), UKM (995), and UM (958). The terms of R-Naught, Surveying Activities, and Triaging is the newest terminology not understood by all students from all chosen universities. The final finding shows that students comprehensive are really good toward the new terminology of the COVID-19 pandemic. Research Implication: The implication from this research would like to give some more information to the community about terminology. This research also enhanced the lexicon of the Malay language, thus helping the Malay language to subscribe and describe the new terminology to the other fields. The novelty of This Study: Based on the research, this paper is the new novelty would like to seek comprehensive students toward the COVID-19 terminology.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 07-11; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i1.98

Abstract:
Purpose of this study: In view of the global financial crises and the ensuing consequences, this research presents the utility of demonstrating an assessment that can forecast the Bangladeshi financial market’s well-being by analysing episodes of economic crises which may prevent market distress. By graphically demonstrating eventual economic episodes in the financial sector, this study sets out to illustrate the chronological scenario of economic turning points. The scope of this research is to study the vulnerable aspects of financial instability in Bangladesh and seek possible remedies. Methodology: The Bangladeshi financial market regimes will be constructed based on Hamilton's Markov Switching Model (1989). This paper is the first attempt in utilising a standardised methodology found in business cycle literatures so as to determine the turning points of economic episodes in the Bangladeshi financial dynamic cycle. Main Findings: This study examines the financial crises and economic distress experienced by banks as forms of economic vulnerabilities. Thus, it describes the financial regimes of transition period movements in the context of the vulnerability of the Bangladeshi financial market sector using the Markov Switching Modeling (MSM) Approach and shows ways to possibly achieve recovery. Research Limitations/Implications: This research focuses on the current financial episodes of the economic sector’s dynamic movements in a condensed area, while the selection of a broad financial arena of parameters results in more significant and robust outcomes. Novelty/Originality: Further studies are needed to define and measure the financial cycle concept and its relationship with business cycles, as well as to delineate dynamic models that can offer substantial probabilistic assessments regarding changes in financial cycle regimes. This can significantly develop the capability of the financial market supervisory authorities to forecast macro-prudential systemic risks and to avoid or reduce the consequences of economic crises. This current study provides a platform for future studies in similar fields.
M. A. Obomeghie, Ugbomhe O. Ugbomhe
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 1-06; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i1.77

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The intensity of globalization has resulted in the near collapse of most manufacturing industries in Nigeria. Most products from Nigeria industries lack the ability to compete with similar products from developed countries. Such appalling competitiveness of the Nigeria economy has bequeathed untold hardship on the citizens of Nigeria. The rationale for undertaking this study is to determine globalisation's brunt on Nigeria's economic competitiveness empirically. Methodology: The Least Square method was employed to analyse the data collected from various statistical agencies such as the Nigeria statistical bulletin, World Economic Forum report and the United Nations Industrial Development report. The data collected is for the period spanning 2006 to 2017. Microfit 5.1 Statistical software is used in the analysis. Main Findings: The findings of the study shows that there is a negative relationship between globalization and Nigeria global economic competitiveness. The results further indicate that Nigeria’s participation in the global arena has not yielded the desired benefit associated with globalization with respect to the country’s competitiveness. Research limitations/implications: The study adds to earlier works on economic competitiveness as a sound pillar of globalization by carving out an empirical analysis of Nigeria experience with globalization. The implications of the study's findings show that Nigeria's innovation strategies significantly lag behind the innovation strategies in developed countries. Novelty/Originality of this study: This work put-forward a useful awareness into the existential challenge facing Nigeria and other developing economies in terms of equal capacity to confront their developmental problems as a result of globalization. The study further provides a pathway for Nigeria’s economic managers to overcome such challenges with dynamic strategies to achieve the desired benefits of globalization.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 09-18; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i4.76

Abstract:
Purpose of this study: In the aggregate industrial sector, government intervention to influence demand within the economy is generally counterproductive, while the optimal policy is to concentrate on supply-side reforms that help the economy become efficient. The objective of this study was to construct a unique industry cycle indicator for Bangladeshi aggregate firms within this industrial sector. The specific objectives were to assemble a unique industry cycle indicator which recommends early signals of a firm’s industrial vulnerability, identify industry cycle indicator turning points and evaluate the predictive performance of the industry. The industry cycle indicator model demonstrates the macroeconomic fluctuations in the industrial sector. Methodology: The industry cycle indicator was constructed following the approach of the Conference Board (2000). The result wasthen tested for robustness with a macro-stress test. Lagged independent variables were used in this study to allow early predictions by the ICI for the year in which the financial crisis happened. Main Findings: The industry cycle indicator model underplays the role of aggregate industrial efficiency in influencing the economic cycle. By forecasting directional changes, this leading indicator allows policymakers to be made aware of revolutions in the financial industry and to undertake early precautionary steps to prevent vulnerability. Here, the constructed industry cycle indicator demonstrates a remarkable lead time of around 6 months for predictions and outperforms by the leading against the reference series. Research Limitations/Implications: The industry cycle indicator model rejects the Keynesian approach and also rejects monetarism. It tends to be associated with neo-classical economics. The ICI generally assumes that shocks to productivity lead to economic fluctuations. In other words, a temporary fall in output is an inevitable consequence of a drop in productivity within the industrial sector. It also leads to adjustments to this new equilibrium and enables resources to discover more productive uses. Novelty/Originality: This research demonstrates that enhanced knowledge of components of the macro-prudential policy framework combined with the existence of a certain degree of standardisation of the macro-prudential tools and indicators is essential. This can significantly develop the capability of the financial markets supervisory authorities to forecast systemic risk and to avoid or reduce the consequences of industrial crises. The present study reflects a situation for upcoming researchers who intend to study and develop their interests in this area.
, Noraini Othman
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 1-08; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i4.78

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: An individual’s support for change is a critical factor in successfully and effectively implementing change. Therefore, identifying possible antecedents and mechanisms leading to one’s behavioral support for change is necessary. The study aims to unpack this avenue of research empirically by examining the role of both person and context as factors in promoting behavioral support for change. Methodology: Data was collected from 292 academic staff members of six public sector universities in Pakistan via cross-sectional means. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect responses from the desired sample. SPSS 25 and AMOS were used to analyze the data for its relevance to the objectives of the study. Main Findings: Results revealed a positive impact of change-efficacy on academic staff members’ behavioral support for change. Moreover, change-valence provides an effective intervening mechanism to translate the effect of change-efficacy on both dimensions of behavioral support for change, that is, compliance and championing behavior. Research limitations/implications: The study contributes to the existing literature on organizational change, particularly in the university setting, by examining and empirically validating the factors of both person and context as significant predictors of behavioral support for change among academic staff. However, more research is needed in other organizational and work contexts to further apply the study’s implications within these diverse contexts. Novelty/Originality of this study: The study offers useful insights for senior university officials intending to build support for change by enhancing academic staff levels of efficacy and positive expectations regarding such change and enables them to successfully execute the change-related tasks into viable actions.
Negesse Asnake Ayalew
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 01-11; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.53

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime as an offense against the state. and is not allowed the participation of the victim and the community and also win-loss outcome. Scholars have established the concept of restorative justice which views crime as a violation of the relationship among the victims, offenders and community. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to assess the legal and institutional basis and practice of restorative justice in Ethiopia. Methodology: This study employs a qualitative research approach and descriptive research design. The population of this study includes the victims, offenders, criminal justice system components and traditional dispute resolver. Data was collected through document review and the interview of five individuals selected through the purposive sampling technique. The collected data was then analyzed thematically. Main Findings: The results show that different governmental institutions such as the house of federation, peace minster, police, court, general attorney, and reconciliation commission have a legal recognition to apply restorative justice values and principles. Meanwhile, traditional conflict resolution mechanisms and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms have defector recognition to resolve criminal cases. Research limitations/implications: The models of restorative justice in Ethiopia entail compromise, withdrawal of charge, probation, pardon, amnesty, plea bargaining, shuttle diplomacy, suspect rehabilitation and reconciliation based on different laws. Therefore, the house of people representative should enact a comprehensive law on restorative justice. The police and general attorney should create awareness about restorative justice. Novelty/Originality of this study: Restorative justice has many benefits, but the concept itself has not been studied in detail. This study is the first of its kind to examine restorative justice in detail in the context of Ethiopia.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.68

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study is motivated by the increasing public discussions about loot boxes. There are similarities between loot boxes and gambling. Digital games often cross the line between skill-based games and gambling. Methodology: The presented data in this study is based on an online survey from July 2019 in Germany, Hungary, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Main Findings: This paper discusses the public acceptance of a possible loot box regulation. Often, the probabilities of items inside loot boxes are not shown. This paper discusses the acceptance of mandatory showing of loot box probabilities and finds that there is a major agreement to the possible increase of transparency. Research limitations: The presented data only applies to Germany, Hungary, South Africa, Thailand, the UK, and the USA in July 2019. Findings from this study cannot be transferred to other countries. There might be further regional differences in other countries. Further research of consumer preferences for possible regulations can help in determining useful regulations for digital games with loot boxes. Novelty/Originality of this study: Knowledge in this research field is still limited. There are yet adequate studies that explore consumer preferences concerning game design. This applies especially for the field of consumer preferences concerning the showing of probabilities of virtual items inside loot boxes.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.65

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: In Development as freedom, Amartya Sen confirmed the crucial "instrumental" role of five kinds of freedoms in the promotion of capabilities and therefore in the process of human development in general. These are political freedoms, economic facilities, transparency guarantees, social opportunities, and protective security. This paper has three empirical objectives: 1) to measure the effect of instrumental freedoms on capabilities, 2) to verify if this effect becomes stronger once instrumental freedoms are interconnected, and 3) to verify whether this relationship is moderated by the level of economic development achieved by each country. Methodology: To achieve these three objectives, this article confronts the second-order construct of "instrumental freedoms" (as an exogenous variable) with five first-order constructs (as endogenous variables). The five endogenous latent variables reflect the capabilities of health, education, housing, employment, and communication and mobility at the level of the sixty countries selected as the analysis samples. The estimation of the hierarchical structural model is done using the partial least squares approach and the repeated indicator method. Main Findings: This study highlights three major results: 1) The existence of a significant effect of instrumental freedoms on the five relevant capabilities selected. 2) When instrumental freedoms interconnect, they reinforce each other and their effect on human capabilities becomes stronger. 3) The multi-group analysis suggests that instrumental freedoms positively and significantly impact human capabilities in the same way in both developed and developing countries. Research implications: Freedom plays a "constitutive" and "instrumental" role in the development process. To provide people with the freedom to live according to their aspirations, public policies must be empowering. In other words, they should improve the instrumental perspective of at least three essential freedoms: political freedoms, economic facilities, and transparency guarantees. Novelty/Originality of this study: Apart from the works which attempted to operationalize Amartya Sen's capability approach, the relationship between instrumental freedoms and human capabilities has not been the subject of empirical studies. This paper is intended as a contribution to this field of investigation.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i3.74

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study stresses the vital role of pink marketing in the creation of women loyalty. The study revolves around the fundamental question: Does the pink marketing mix of Maybelline New York beauty products have any critical effect on women's loyalty in the Kurdistan Region? Methodology: The article applies an analytical-descriptive approach. The data were composed by a questionnaire circulated to 125 women consumers at local shopping malls in Erbil province, Iraq. Statistical tools were used to test and analyze the data using SPSS software. including: descriptive statistics to provide a comprehensive description of the sample in terms of demographics. Arithmetic mean and standard deviations to judge the response of sample items to study variables, Cronbach Alpha to ensure the validity of the study, and Pearson correlation coefficient test to recognize the nature of the relationship between the variables studied. Main Findings: The result showed that pink marketing mix does have a positive relationship with loyalty. Pink product, Pink price, Pink promotion, and place all have modest to weak correlation with loyalty. Research limitations/implications: This article focused on small group of women shoppers and one brand of cosmetics in its survey thus, the findings can't be comprehensive to cover the whole region due to the restrict movement because of COVID 19 outbreak in the region. Novelty/Originality of this study: The findings of the study donates to a full comprehension of viable pink marketing mix for achieving women shoppers' loyalty precisely in the cosmetics and beauty supplies industry, and propose a direction to marketers on how to move women shoppers to be loyal.
, Thomas Onimisi Abaukaka, Muhammad Kabir O. Momoh
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v3i3.88

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The study aims to investigate the implications of free trade areas for poverty, household welfare and economic development in Nigeria. Methodology: This study employed a fully modified least squares (FMOLS) regression technique. The income per capita and unemployment out of many macroeconomics indexes were employed in this study to measure welfare and poverty implications of free trade area respectively. To enable the study, determine the policy and decision-making implications of the free trade area on Nigeria economy, historical data were drawn from the central bank statistical bulletin for 27 years. Main findings: The estimated results revealed that the income per capita (welfare) model demonstrated a fair view of free trade scenarios as indicated by the explanatory variables; export contributions to gross domestic product and foreign direct investment contributed positively to the welfare of the individual. Besides, the study also found foreign direct investment and export contributions to gross domestic product to have a negative relationship with unemployment, which implies a reduction in the unemployment rate in Nigeria. Research implications: This study documented that households’ welfare will be increased by free trade area, while unemployment will also be reduced by participating in free trade area. Based on study findings, policies makers, academia, researchers, the and government will find the study relevant in making policies that promote foreign direct investment, export contributions to the growth of the economy and gross domestic product such as reduction in tariff, simplifying trade regulations, increasing the availability of credit to exporters, creations of duty drawback, improving cooperation among economic actors and overall structural changes which will have positive implications on the households welfare, poverty and economic development. The novelty of the study: The relevance for free trade area as one among economic policies to promote the welfare and reduce poverty among nations is gaining momentum globally especially African continent. Given the paucity of studies on this area, the study is undertaken as a framework to determine what the implications of free trade areas will be among the African continent.
Idris Abubakar, Obansa S.A.J
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i2.62

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The study was motivated by the high prevalence of hypertension and its associated costs of financing drugs to treating the disease. Hypertension has become a source of worry to the sufferers and caregivers given its direct and indirect cost implications. The study specifically estimated the direct average cost of treating hypertension and verified its catastrophic effect on the sufferers in Nigeria. Methodology: To achieve the objective, the study undertook the review of related literature on the burden of hypertension. It utilized the primary method of data collection by administering structured questionnaires to the target respondents in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital and National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Data were descriptively analyzed using frequency and percentage with the aid of SPSS version 22. Main findings: The result revealed that the average annual cost attributable to hypertension treatment is N145, 086.12 per patient. The study documented that 191(82 percent) patients undertook personal health spending. Hypertension financing was discovered to be catastrophic among 30.5 percent of the least income patients. Therefore, it concluded that the average cost of treating hypertension was high among urban dwellers and catastrophic among the least earners. Research Implications: The findings will be relevant for the policy framework for government relating to healthcare financing and the establishment of intervention schemes that will alleviate the burdens associated with hypertension among the sufferers. Health planners and administrators will immensely benefit from the study as the study revealed the knowledge of treating hypertension for planning purposes and reference points for both researchers and academics. Novelty of the study: Knowledge relating to the direct cost of treating hypertension annually for intervention purposes is limited. Therefore, to touch lightly upon this, the study attempted an estimation of the average annual direct cost of treating hypertension and its associated burdens to the sufferers through a survey investigation. Findings, therefore, will advance the existing knowledge on the burden of hypertension and the policy of healthcare interventions.
Jossy Ijie Ikhayere, Abdurrauf Idowu Babalola, Muhammad Yelwa
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i2.63

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study investigated the effect of substance abuse on the real growth rate in Nigeria between 1993 and 2017. The study specifically examined the period-based impact of substance abuse prevalence and rehabilitated individual drug addicts on the actual growth rate of the Nigerian economy. Methodology: Autoregressive distributed lag and co-integration/bound test techniques were employed to analyze the data obtained. In between, correlation analysis and preliminary tests were carried out. Main findings: The study found out that substance abuse and rehabilitated drug individuals have a significant impact on economic performance. While substance abuse has a significant negative impact, rehabilitated, individual drug addicts have a significant positive impact. However, in the long run, there was no indication of a significant impact on the Nigerian economy. Research limitations/implications: This study will be of use to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and most drug control programs in many countries. The Ministries of Economic Planning to examine the extent to which drug abuse has had an economic impact. Novelty/Originality of this study: Economic analysis showcasing the effect of drug abuse prevalence and rehabilitated individuals on economic performance is quite scanty. This work creates a good reference point in areas of health economics and macroeconomics generally. It allows readers to know the genesis of drug trafficking and abuse in Nigeria.
Nour Eddine Aguenane
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i2.57

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study has three objectives: a) to draw up a typology of the 10 regions of Morocco according to their level of human development; b) to develop a synthetic regional indicator, and c) to measure the extent of regional disparities in terms of human development. Methodology: The analysis uses statistical indicators from the household panel survey conducted in 2017 by the National Human Development Observatory in Morocco. The Principal Component Analysis (conducted using the SPSS statistics V23 software) is used to draw a typology of regions according to their level of human development. It is also used to develop a regional composite indicator. As regards the measurement of the degree of regional inequalities, the Gini index is adopted. Main Findings: The typological cartography and the composite index developed showed the coexistence of three strata of regions with three levels of human development: low, medium, and high. The calculation of a fairly strong Gini index raises the gravity of these inequalities. The main sources of inequality are an inequitable distribution of living standards and unbalanced access to basic social amenities. Research implications: Today, in Morocco, an ad hoc committee responsible for the new development model is collecting, arranging, and structuring the recommendations of the various actors and drawing up their conclusions. The present study is a contribution that aims to place the human being at the heart of this model. The eradication of regional disparities in terms of human development, particularly in terms of standard of living and access to basic equipment is a priority. Novelty/Originality: This paper examines regional disparities through the prism of human development. The works which have dealt with this subject at the level of Morocco have focused on income as a standard for measuring inequalities. This study does not abandon income, but it aims to be multidimensional as soon as it integrates other no less decisive dimensions on people’s lives.
, Alaa S. Jameel, Abd Rahman Ahmad
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i2.58

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This study aims to apply organizational commitment and job satisfaction as an indicator to stimulate organizational citizenship behaviours. Methodology: The data collected by a questionnaire survey conducted among a group of hotel employees in Baghdad, Iraq. The 200 questionnaires distributed, the researchers received 149, were valid responses. The data were analyzed by AMOS software after ensuring validity, Reliability, and model fit. Main Findings: The results revealed that organizational commitment and job satisfaction play a positive and influential role in changing the organizational citizenship behaviours among hotel employees. Also, organizational commitment has a stronger impact on improving the behaviour of employees than job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: The study contributes to human resource managers as it reveals the influential role of firms' commitment and job satisfaction on altering staff behaviours towards organizational citizenship. Therefore, it is understood that more variables need to be considered, such as psychological contract and employees' empowerment. Novelty/Originality of this study: The finding can fill the gap in the literature related to this article in the Iraqi setting, where studies about organizational citizenship is not existing in this context.
Anam Bhatti, Hamza Akram
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review pp 1-09; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i2.52

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Internet buying is raising phenomena rapidly these days. A peep in the exponent progress of players in the trade specifies that there is still an enormous reservoir of marketplace potential for e-commerce. The convenience of internet buying raised the interest of sellers and traders to attention to this area. The advanced level of the internet has changed the nature of trade. Internet buying is critical in these days, and it is associated directly with consumers. Therefore, the present study determines the relationship between risks and online shopping behavior while moderating by subjective norms. Methodology: Data was collected by students that buying online, 550 sets of questionnaires used for valid coding and analyzing analysis. Collected data analyzed by using SPSS and Smart PLS to test hypotheses. Results reveal that risks have decreasing effects, and subjective norms enhance online shopping behavior. Main Findings: The way of information sharing has been changed, domestically, and globally. E-commerce changed our life and the smooth, best solution for a hectic lifestyle—furthermore, this study contributing to knowledge and this topic understanding. The deductive approach and research were quantitative. In addition, the main aim of this study to examine the influence of financial, convenience, privacy risks influence online shopping behavior with the moderating role of subjective norms. Research limitations/implications: The scholars put their best enthusiasm to contribute to OSB, but static some boundaries in this study. The study attention on online users only, scholars, but disregard non-users. Coming reviews should focus on consumers and non-users and deliberate other elements. In this study, use moderator, upcoming studies can study mediator. Novelty/Originality of this study: Convenience, financial, privacy risks, online shopping behavior, and subjective norms are the variables of current research. The present study reflects a situation for upcoming researchers who want to study and interested in this area. It can be inferences because of its consequences. This research will be helpful for Govt. to make policies and sellers.
Negesse Asnake Ayalew
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 2, pp 14-24; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i1.50

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The police have the responsibility of balancing the protection of the public from harm with respecting the human right of the suspect during the prevention and investigation of crimes. However; it is difficult to strike absolute balances since it is determined based on government police is due process or crime control model especially the case of special investigation techniques, which are the covert means of investigation of serious crime and criminals based on the principles of legality, necessity, proportionality, and adequate safeguard. The purpose of this doctrinal article is to evaluate the role of special crime investigation techniques for drug trafficking in Ethiopia. Methodology: Data were collected through document review and interview crime investigators, who were selected purposively since they have a direct relation. This is qualitative research and descriptive design. The collected data were analyzed thematically. Findings: The findings of this research revealed that there are some provisions of special investigation techniques in FDRE criminal justice policy, anti-human trafficking, and smuggling of migrant proclamation. However, these legal bases are not comprehensive such as the types of special investigation techniques, who conduct it, and how long the requirements to conduct these were not answered. Application: Therefore, the house of people representative should enact all-inclusive law on special investigation techniques for human trafficking in Ethiopia. The general attorney also should create awareness to the public about it. Novelty: Human trafficking investigation is challenging ous in Ethiopia, and nobody studied it. Therefore, this study may use as reference material for students’; the government may use it as input for policy and lawmakers.
Ghazali Bello Abubakar
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 2, pp 1-06; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i1.41

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: This paper examines the span period of time that has passed since when terrorist group, loosely known as Boko Haram otherwise Jama'at ahlus-Sunnah lid-Da'awat wal-Jihad (the people committed to the teaching of Prophet, for provocation and Jihad), launched atrocities against innocent civilians mainly in the dominant Muslim northeast Nigeria as an ostensible process of paving the way for the implementation of Shari'ah law in the country. Methodology: Qualitative data analysis is applied to conduct this research. Books, journals, and research reports compiled on Boko Haram atrocities were consulted as sources of information. The Indo-Nigeria bilateral ties on the economy and intelligence guide this research to the conclusion. Finding: On one side, this study concludes that the fertile ground of the ongoing crisis is championed by the rampant poverty, disparity in the distribution of wealth, and a high rate of illiteracy. While in the other, it finalizes that the long-term experience India has on terrorist-related activities within its territories equip her to develop soft landing-approaches that hold various attacks carried out by the insurgents so much undermined. It nevertheless, finalizes that the alleged relationship between the sect and some top political elites and even some higher-ranking security officers began against a backdrop of faceless insurgents. However, Nigeria's domestic pressures, including poverty, illiteracy, religio-tribalism as well as regional sentimentalism, among other factors that bolster the heavyweight size and bulky of the insurgency in the region. Application: This work is most usefully crucial for both students and readers those that develop an interest in African Studies, International Relations, and Conflict resolution as well. Novelty/Originality: Boko Haram claims that waging war against the current leadership of Nigeria seized by corrupt individuals and forged Muslims is obligatory. As India faces similar threats and thus passes through experience of dealing with terror insurgents, this paper aims at exploring how India and Nigeria can multiply efforts to fighting the Boko Haram sect.
Negesse Asnake Ayalew
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 2, pp 07-13; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i1.49

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: One of the modus operandi of criminals such as terrorist, emotional, mentally ill person to achieve their need is held person hostage, especially government officials, investors, and tourists. The police also used to force to secure peace and security, but now the police use the hostage negotiation team to save the life of hostage-taker and hostage. These hostage-takers take innocent hostage persons as means of negotiation, which may terrorize everybody, such as an investor, tourist, and vulnerable group, which have a negative impact on the development and peace of the country. Additionally, the right to life is the mother of other human rights. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the practice of hostage situation and its resolution Methodology: Data were collected through document review and interviews of police and victim, who were selected purposively since they have direct relation. This is desktop research and descriptive design. The data were collected through document review and media review. The collected data were analyzed thematically. Finding: The result of the analysis data shows that there is a hostage situation in Ethiopia, and the response of the police is the use of force than the negotiation team. Application: The police should establish a hostage negotiation department with professional negotiators. The governments also should enact negotiation policy and strategy in Ethiopia. Novelty/Originality: There is a hostage situation, and its resolution lacks clear guidelines in Ethiopia, and nobody studied it. Therefore, this study may use as reference material for students'; the government may use it as input for policy and lawmakers.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 2, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v2i1.51

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The activities of women represent an untapped source of economic growth in any developing economy, and entrepreneurship is one way of using that vast pool of human resources as intermediaries for wealth creation. For this reason, the strong linkage between financial sector services and women entrepreneurship has continued to generate tremendous interest among researchers, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders both at the national and international levels. The primary goal remains how to deepen financial inclusion of women to enhance their participation in entrepreneurship activities. Methodology: The study thus examines the influence of financial support services on the performance of women entrepreneurs in Jos, Plateau state. The study adopted a descriptive research design and applied multiple regression techniques for empirical analysis. Findings: Findings from the analysis revealed that financial credit awareness has a positive and significant impact on the growth of women entrepreneurs in Jos metropolis. This is basically because most women entrepreneurs have received invaluable business information from the financial sector, which has gone a long way to impact positively on the development of their business in Plateau state. Similarly, access to credit had no significant influence on the growth of women entrepreneurs in Jos metropolis. Lack of collateral, inadequate income statement, and high interest charged on loans made access to credit difficult for women entrepreneurs residing in Jos metropolis, and thus, it has stagnated their business growth. In addition, financial guarantor has an insignificant impact on the growth of women entrepreneurs. Application: Based on these findings, financial institutions should strive to reduce the stringent conditions attached to loan guarantors to ensure easy accessibility of credit by women entrepreneurs to realize a significant impact on their entrepreneurial contribution to the productivity in the state. Novelty/Originality: There is need for the government to develop a policy that will enhance credit assurance services and improve financial information infrastructure for financial accessibility of women-owned businesses in Nigeria
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i3.39

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Amidst soaring use of excellent physical assets, there is a less clear understanding of their weight on service delivery. Drawing on the contention that quality services delivery relies on excellent physical assets, the study aimed to establish how physical asset management practices affect quality service delivery in local governments in the mid-north sub-region of Uganda. Methodology: The study used a cross-sectional design with a quantitative approach. A sample of 131 respondents was targeted and obtained using simple random and purposive sampling of physical asset managers in local governments. Collected data using a self-administered questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively (descriptive and inferential statistics) using Statistical Program for Social Scientists (SPSS Ver. 23). Main Findings: Findings revealed that there was a positive correlation between physical asset management practices (rho.506) and quality service delivery. Accordingly, it was concluded that physical asset management practices, measured in terms of lifecycle planning, risk management, information management and performance management significantly affected quality service delivery in local governments in the mid-north sub-region of Uganda. Research limitations/implications: The study used a quantitative approach in two local governments with probable missed out on qualitative aspects aside difficulty in generalizability. However, it enlightens theoreticians and practitioners in ensuring proper execution of physical asset management practices in engineering, infrastructure, estate, finance and above all public procurement; for the provision of quality services desired and expected by the different stakeholders. Novelty/Originality of this study: This study parallels those in developed countries which reveal that success in quality service delivery is a result of using excellent physical assets. However, in developing countries studies are nearly nonexistent. Essentially, there is a paucity of research addressing the subject creating a need to study and systematically document elevation of delivery of quality services using excellent physical assets.
Negesse Asnake Ayalew
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 92-100; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i3.42

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: the study aims to pinpoint the status of arbitration confidentiality in Ethiopia. Methodology: Data were collected through document review and interviews of professionals who were selected purposively since they have a direct relation with the arbitration cases. Finding: The finding of this research shows that the legal basis, scopes, application, and limitations of duty of confidentiality are full of debate. Application: the Ethiopian parliament should enact new arbitration laws by taking a lesson from the New Zealand Arbitration Act and WIPO arbitration rules. Disputing parties should fill these gaps through their confidentiality contractual. The Court control and support to arbitration proceedings should be limited and confidential. Any person publication of arbitral awards should be without the identity of disputing parties. Novelty: even if arbitration has many benefits, its application is low in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study may use as reference material for students’, disputing parties, and also the input for police and lawmakers
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 80-91; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i3.43

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Cyclone is a common disaster in Bangladesh because of affecting the coastal area almost every year. The intention of this paper is to explore the vulnerability to cyclone and the possible way of mitigating vulnerability in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is a content analysis of qualitative research and has been conducted on the basis secondary data, collected through content analysis and historical method of data collection on the basis of title and objectives. Main findings: Only socio-economic factors aren’t responsible for making and rising vulnerability in coastal areas, rather physical, environmental, geographical setting and cultural factors are responsible. Besides, after cyclone there are various problems to take proper steps, the author has discussed a process of emergency action after cyclone and argued that the collaboration between government and NGOs can mitigate vulnerability. Applications of the study: This study is useful for them who want to know about vulnerability to cyclone in the coastal area of Bangladesh and the Governmental and Non-governmental organizations. Originality of the study: The author has concluded that this study will help to take step to reduce vulnerability to cyclone and to whom who would like to help to vulnerable people of the coastal area of Bangladesh and study on vulnerability.
Nkechinyere Uwajumogu, Ebele Stella Nwokoye, Innocent Ogbonna, Mgbodichimma Okoro
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 61-72; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i2.32

Abstract:
Purpose: The danger inherent in anchoring the growth prospects of an economy on a single product has long been established and for decades now, Nigeria has remained a mono-product economy with all her foreign exchange earning possibilities anchored only on oil revenue. The paper sought to investigate the imperatives of gender equality in expanding the economic base of Nigeria. Methodology: Based on the assumption of increasing returns to scale for the manufacturing sector and constant returns to scale for the primary sector, it apparently follows that a country’s manufacturing output will grow faster (or slower) than that of the rest of the world if it had an initial comparative advantage in manufacturing (or primary) sector as hypothesized by the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis. Employing Engel-Granger and Error Correction Model in an endogenous growth framework were used in this study. Main Findings: This study found that the existing gender inequality has negative effect on the drive to diversify the economy by reducing the potential pool of human capital and promoting gaps in opportunities. Applications: These programmes will help on female self-employment, increased ratio of female to male labour force participation rate and a reduction in the ratio of female to male in vulnerable employment should be included in policy formulations. Novelty/Originality: The efforts should be sustained that totally remove or reduce to their barest minimum all patriarchal tendencies that exploit the female gender and place them at unequal gender relations. It is also recommended that social institutions such as social protection mechanisms should be entrenched as an avenue to reduce the vulnerabilities faced by women.
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i2.33

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: The study aims is to examine the effect of trade openness on inflation rate in Nigeria. Methodology: Time series data were collected from secondary sources. EViews10 (statistical software for data analysis) ware employed to analyze the data collected. Findings: The results revealed a cointegrating and one-way Granger causality between inflation rate, and trade openness. In addition, both the short-run and the long-run results demonstrate a significant and negative relationship between inflation rate and trade openness in Nigeria. Application: The study is paramount to the government and policymakers in dealing and taking a decision regarding consumer price index and trade openness in Nigeria. We conclude that the government should work towards full diversification and diversion of the economy from oil export, control, and management of the degree of trade liberalization and the extent to which goods enter the country, and the control of money supplied. Novelty/Originality: The study accorded to debate on the inflation rate, and trade openness in Nigeria looking, at both short-run and long-run effects, before few accessible studies focused on impact, and trade openness was not measured as the value of net export divided by gross domestic product. Finally, the paper contributed to the scanty of the literature.
Shazma Razzaq, Nadeem Maqbool, Waseem Ul Hameed
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i2.34

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Microfinance institutions (MFIs) are delivering various services of microcredit, savings as well as insurance. The key objective of microcredit is to decrease the poverty level and for empowering the women as well as other poor people under various developing countries. There is the various factor which effects on the demand of microcredit. Therefore, the objective of the current study is to explore the factors which affect the demand for microcredit. Methodology: In this conceptual study, the qualitative research technique was used. The data were collected from previous research studies and companies’ websites. Main Findings: It is concluded that numerous factors may influence the demand for microcredit by the various borrowers. These comprise the interest rate, the relationship between lenders as well as borrowers, different government policies, gender differences, prospective beneficiaries, the creditworthiness of the borrower, transaction cost, limited access to credit, economic condition and the availability of information. Applications: This helps analyze the barriers which the borrower and lender must face in operating the microcredit. In this way, microfinance institutions can take help from this study by considering these factors during the distribution of credit. Novelty/Originality: The findings of this research study fulfilled the theoretical gaps in the literature by identifying the different fact which may help to revise the poverty level. Future research studies may focus on these factors, which may help to increase the economy and reduce poverty in southern Punjab, Pakistan.
Chidera Rex Obiwuru
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i2.38

Abstract:
Purpose of the study: Nigerian government has pursued myriads of poverty alleviation programmes for the ultimate purpose of mitigating poverty in the country. However, amidst the programmes, poverty still rabidly refused to get mitigated. Thus, the objectives of this study would be (a) to pinpoint some capital reasons for the persistence of extreme poverty in the country; and (b) to provide some panaceas to the issue. However, before this, the study would look at some poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria. Methodology: This is exploratory research that is based on secondary research method. Data used were generated from textbooks, online newspapers, journal articles, organizational reports, etc. Findings: Findings of this study demonstrate that erraticness of programmes/policies, corruption and mismanagement, hypocrisy on the part of World Bank and IMF, imitation of other countries’ policies without proper consideration of the peculiarities of the Nigerian society/system, political deception and interference, etc. are responsible for the mushrooming of poverty in Nigeria even in the midst of poverty alleviation programmes. Application: This study will be of great help to Nigerian potentates/leaders and organizations who sincerely want to tackle the issue of poverty in the country. It will enable them to see the reasons for the unsuccessfulness of past and present poverty alleviation programmes in the country and the way out. Novelty/Originality: The study will be highly useful to students, lecturers and future researchers in the field of political science, mainly in Nigeria. For future researchers, particularly, the study will serve as a springboard for further research on the hindrances to the success of poverty alleviation programmes in the country.
, Muhammad Shakir
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i1.24

Abstract:
Purpose: The passive attitude of a child is a common problem as far as communication is concerned which have long been considered a central concept of social psychology. The current study investigates the causes and fear of children at early grade student. The objectives of the study were (a) to identify the reasons of the passive attitude of children at primary level; (b) to determine the elements involved in creating a passive attitude in the students at primary level; (c) to assess the causes of the passive attitude of students at primary level. Methodology: The nature of this research was descriptive while the survey method was used to gather information. All the learners, parents, teachers of government primary schools of district Bahawalpur were the population of the study. Sample of 592 participants (teachers 125, students 366 and parents 101) was selected through using convenient sampling techniques. The questionnaire was used as a research tool for teachers, parents, and students. Main Findings: Findings of the study demonstrate that punishment, scolding, steering, speaking loudly, beating, Burdon of homework and strictness were considered the major causes of passive attitude among students. Most of the teachers were of the view that students feel fear when the teacher scolds them and student’s hesitation level increased. Applications: This research study fulfilled both objectives of the study. The results of the study disclosed that majority of the students; teachers and parents opined that strictness of the teachers, punishment, de-motivating attitude of teachers, Burdon of homework, curriculum, the teaching method of teacher, lack of attractive environment, home environment, crowded classrooms and lack of teachers friendly relationship with students. All these become the reasons for shy and poor confidence in the children. Originality: In the future, this study will be helpful for the teachers and parents, how to deal with children and seeks their behaviors, As well as, this study will helpful for researchers to investigate each reason and developed the curriculum. Similarly, a policymaker can use this study to develop the rule and regulation for their institutions.
Ebong Mbuotidem Sampson, Victory Udoh, Nsidibe Mbuotidem Sampson, Comfort Abraham, Joseph Ogbobula
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i1.29

Abstract:
Purpose: This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental and socio-economic effects of timber harvesting as well as to identify the drivers increasing the rate of timber exploitation in Imo River Estuary, Eastern Obolo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Methodology: It was conducted in five Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed to select a total of 300 respondents composed of 60 randomly selected respondents from each of the five LGAs. A structured questionnaire was used in collecting information from the respondents. Data acquired from the field was subjected to statistical and econometric analysis which included percentages, frequencies, Likert scale rating, exploratory factor analysis, and Chi-square, Main Findings: The major finding of this study was that the major cause of timber exploitation in the study area was unemployment, absence of forest regulations, unstable government policies, lack of trained officials, and high cost of timber products. The application of the Factor Analysis Model in this study showed that loss of biodiversity, the disappearance of forest cover, damaging of immature trees and non-wood forest products are the highest environmental effects of timber exploitation in the study area, loading far higher than the stated 0.3 decision score value. Among the social effects, high cost of farm labor is the most severe of social effects in the study area, while the increased cost of wood and forest product and high cost of living ranked highest among the economic effects. Applications: The study will be of great importance to environmental policy makers, conservationists, researchers, and Geographers in Nigeria. It will contribute significantly to knowledge build-up in relation to restoring the sanctity of threatened forests in Southern Nigeria. Novelty/Originality: The Niger Delta region of Nigeria where this study was carried out is often synonymous with militancy and the problems of environmental pollution. However, this study veers from these already known challenges to peculiar drivers of the depleting forests in this area. The study, therefore, will contribute to the scanty literature related to the subject matter within the study area.
Ghazali Bello Abubakar
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i1.28

Abstract:
Purpose of the study:Centrally, this article aims at exploring the effects of the convulsion toward Egyptian domestic politics and democratic transition. However, it tries to examine whether the spring was for a political freedom or a merely evasive move to saddle brotherhood on governorship. Methodology:Qualitative data analysis is the approach applied while carrying out this study. Various books, journals and research reports on Egyptian as well as Middle Eastern politics were consulted as sources of information. Current political events in Egypt and other neighboring countries were followed. Findings:It concludes that democratizing a dominantly Arab and Islamic nation such as Egypt seldom hit the target. More so, the spring’s ends those were meant for better Egypt have not yet been achieved. Application:This research is useful especially for students or readers want specialize on Egyptian or Middle Eastern politics from the shadow of political changes in the region. Novelty/Originality:The jasmine revolution witnessed across the Middle East and North Africa is the subject matter of this study. The Middle East region, which is the focusing area of this research was popularly dominated by tyrant leaderships especially in the pre-revolution time. This study finds its originality from the fact that lack of freedom and political rights galvanized anger among the Arab youths: from Tunisia to almost all over the region. However, this contributes to the scary literature related to this area speciafically democratic transition that happened for the first time in Egypt.
Mohammad Fazlul Kader,
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i1.23

Abstract:
Purpose: Bangladesh is a country that is consisted of various ethnic groups. After the 46 years of freedom, Bangladesh remains under the title of a developing country with numerous afflictions. Rohingya is one of such misery. They face mass killing, execution, forced labor and deportation or denied them the most basic of human rights and rendered them stateless. The main purpose of this study was the causes of the Rohingya refugee crisis and find out the implication of their statelessness. Methodology: It was both descriptive and exploratory research in nature (Interview Schedule and Case study used for data collections). This study analyzes from theoretical frameworks, Migration theory to figure out the Rohingya crisis and their impact on local peoples. Main Findings: This study is an attempt to find out local people view on causes of Rohingya refugee crisis and the implications of their statelessness. Applications: According to the findings of the study, around 93 % of local peoples think that Rohingyas are the original citizens of Myanmar and the causes of their persecutions in Myanmar were mainly religious and their political economy. Originality: In the future, this study will be helpful for the background study of the Rohingya Refugee crisis.
Shafiq Ahmad, , Muhammad Mohsin Rashid
International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Review, Volume 1, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.36923/ijsser.v1i1.22

Abstract:
Purpose: Previously there are many studies that focused on risk management in general context and little attention was paid on how supply chain risks management effects an organization profit and performance. The main aim of our study to explore the effect of supply chain risk management on organization performance in national foods Manooabad Muridke district Sheikhupura. Methodology: This study conducted in National foods Manooabad Muridke. Data were collected by using questioner from the employees of National foods Manooabad Muridke. SPSS 22 (Statistical package for social sciences) was used to analyze the collected data. Main Findings: This study is an attempt to check the effects of supply chain risk management variables to the performance of the organization. Three main supply chain risk management variables were identified namely, supply chain risk identification, supply chain risk sources and supply chain risk mitigation. We find that risk register method is mainly used for the identification of risks in the supply chain at any level. The most important risks of our study that are supplier risks, environmental risks, political risks, markets risks, warehousing risks, and financial risks. In mitigation strategies that are good to mitigate the risk in supply chain risk avoidance measures, risk control measures and risk cooperation measures. Applications: We concluded that it is important for an organization to identify risks proactively as early as possible in the decision-making process. Different types of risks need to be identified in all process of supply chains. After all the identification of risks, the organization needs to be mitigated these risks by using different mitigate strategies plan. Originality: In the future, this study will be helpful for many organizations which deal with food items consumed by people. As in this study, we worked on supply chain risks and their management before many studies were conducted generally on risk management so this study especially focused on supply chain risks. There is a need to conduct more study in this regard in different industries so better information available to people to control risks in supply chain management.
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