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Oluwafemi Ojo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.102

Abstract:
Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder that presents in women of childbearing age. The affected patients present with spontaneous pneumothorax, chylothorax, hemoptysis, and slowly progressive dyspnea. There are poor awareness, knowledge, and records about this disease in Nigeria. Case presentation: We report a case of pulmonary LAM in a 43-year-old woman who presented with progressive shortness of breath with recurrent hemoptysis and pneumothorax. Her imaging and Vascular endothelial growth factor level were in keeping with LAM. The typical features in the current case include the patient's age, gender, radiologic features, and VEGF- D value. Conclusion: There is a need for a high index of suspicion for LAM in women of child-bearing age with cystic lung diseases. There is also a need for registries for rare lung diseases in Africa.
Manmak Mamven, Ifeanyi Ucha, Oluseyi Adejumo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.125

Abstract:
Objective: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by a state of chronic inflammation which is associated with poor cardiovascular disease outcomes. The study determined the prevalence of elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as surrogate markers of inflammation and their association with some cardiovascular risk factors among pre-dialysis CKD patients. Method: This was a cross-sectional study to determine and compare the prevalence of elevated NLR and PLR. The correlation between these surrogate inflammatory markers and some cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. P-value of < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: This study involved 51 pre-dialysis CKD patients and 51 controls with mean ages of 50.96±11.42 years and 48.31±9.83 years, respectively. The prevalence of elevated NLR was significantly higher in the CKD group (35.3% vs13.7%; P=0.010). In the CKD group, there was significant negative correlation between NLR and eGFR (r= -0.393; P=0.004), hemoglobin concentration (r= -0.543; P=<0.001) and HDL (r= -0.292; P=0.037). There was significant positive correlation between NLR and PLR (r=0.669; P=<0.001), TC:HDL (r=0.334; P=0.017), AIP(r=0.289; P=0.042) and LDL:HDL (r=0.320; P=0.020). There was significant positive correlation between PLR, NLR (r=0.695; P=<0.001) and AIP (r=0.283; P=0.047). There was significant negative correlation between PLR and estimated GFR (r=- 0.448; P=0.001), hemoglobin concentration (r= -0.596; P=<0.001), serum albumin (r= -0.388; P=0.005), serum HDL-C (r= -0.387; P= 0.005). Conclusion: NLR and PLR were significantly higher in pre-dialysis CKD patients and were associated with cardiovascular risk. They should be routinely used to identify those with high cardiovascular risk.
Oluwafemi Ojo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.124

Abstract:
Objective: Vaccination rates among risk groups vary between different countries. There are gaps in the implementation of the acceptable recommended guidelines on adult pneumococcal immunization in Nigeria. This study aims to evaluate the barriers for physicians in recommending pneumococcal vaccines. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 97 physicians. Self-administered questionnaires were sent electronically to the physicians to understand the barriers to adult pneumococcal vaccine recommendations among adult physicians in Lagos. The sample size was based on estimation using the Cochrane formula. Results: Ninety-seven (97) physicians completed the questionnaire with a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The mean age of the responders was 39.54±6.2 years. About 73(81.1%) of physicians recommended the pneumococcal vaccine and most physicians recommended the vaccine for patients with chronic lung diseases. The common barriers for vaccine recommendation include: unavailability (53; 54.6%), poor reminder systems (43; 44.3%), inadequate insurance coverage (33; 34%), and Vaccine shortage (31; 32%). Conclusions: This study suggests that the majority of physicians recommend pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The major barriers to vaccination include poor access, availability, and cost. There is a need to increase access, cost, and availability of pneumococcal vaccine if the narrative must change.
Adebayo Adewole, Adegboyega Fawole, Munirdeen Ijaiya, Abiodun Adeniran, Adeshina Kikelomo, Abiodun Aboyeji
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.99

Abstract:
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the rate and predictive factors for successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, and measure maternal and neonatal outcomes of VBAC following one previous cesarean delivery. Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study, sixty women with one previous CD (subjects) who attempted VBAC and another sixty without previous CD (controls) carrying singleton cephalic fetuses matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age were compared. The primary outcome measures were successful vaginal delivery and its predictors. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 22.0), and p<0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 1768 deliveries, 105 (5.9%) had one previous CD; 57.1% (60/105) attempted while 61.7% (37/60) had successful VBAC; 23 (38.3%) had failed VBAC and repeat CD, while 14 (23.3%) of the control group had CD. The significant predictors of successful VBAC were cervical dilatation ≥4cm on admission (p=0.003), maternal age >35 years (p=0.019); and augmentation of labor (p=0.020); while previous vaginal delivery (p=0.108), parity (p=0.706), BMI (0.240), and inter-delivery interval (p=0.265) were not statistically significant. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were not statistically different among women who had successful VBAC after one CD compared to women without previous CD. Important morbidities following VBAC included uterine rupture (3.3%) and primary postpartum hemorrhage (6.7%). There was no peripartum hysterectomy or maternal death; the perinatal mortality rate was 16.7/1,000 live births for women who attempted VBAC while no perinatal death was recorded among the controls. Conclusion: VBAC is safe, and its outcome is comparable to women without previous CD.
Boladale Mapayi, Ibidun Oloniniyi, Morenike Folayan
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.104

Abstract:
The global pandemic of the coronavirus has resulted in a disruption in life as we know it, with massive effects on tourism, the healthcare system, and the global economy at large. Many countries, initiated measures to curtail the spread of the virus with non-pharmaceutical interventions such as lockdown, quarantine, social distancing, and movement restrictions. These measures while preventing the spread of the virus may have triggered another pandemic, albeit a silent one. This article reviews the burden of domestic, sexual, and gender-based violence in Nigeria highlighting the factors that may have interplayed with the lockdown to worsen the situation in Nigeria. This article also focuses on measures to strengthen medical, legal, and supportive responses to survivors.
Ime Ani, Adeola Adeola, Nnenna Ajuzie, Miriam Sam-Okere
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5, pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.130

Abstract:
Objective: The study assessed nutrition knowledge and attitude of final year medical and nursing students and inter-professional collaboration with dietitians in the management of patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study of all final year medical and nursing and Babcock University students collected quantitative data using a structured questionnaire that contains sections on nutrition instruction hours, knowledge, attitude, and barriers to nutrition. Data obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Statistics were significant at p<0.05. Result: A total of 159 students participated in the study, 73 medical students and 86 nursing students. The proportion of those who had good, average, and poor knowledge scores were 50.3%, 39%, and 10.7% respectively. The attitude towards nutrition was positive. There was no significant relationship between nutrition knowledge and nutrition instruction hours during pre-clinical (P=0.368) and clinical years (P=0.245). Conclusion: Significant proportions of the students had good nutrition knowledge, however, there were gaps in knowledge in clinical nutrition; nutritional management of diabetes, hypertension, and renal diseases, respectively. There was a high positive attitude towards nutrition among the students but nutrition education was not perceived as sufficient to adequately prepare them for nutrition care of patients. Insufficient training for doctors and nurses, lack of confidence in the efficacy of the intervention of dietitians/nutritionists, and Lack of interest from patients to see the dietitian were the prominent barriers to inter-professional collaboration with dietitians/nutritionists.
John Imaralu, Funmilayo Oguntade, Chimaobi Nwankpa, Olumuyiwa Adelowo
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v5i1.109

Abstract:
Background: Intra-peritoneal drainage dates back to the time of Hippocrates when long bone tissue, metal, and glass tubes were employed. The benefit of routine intra-peritoneal drainage however remains debatable in contemporary times. Retained drains may be outward manifestations of more sinister or latent complications and how an entrapped surgical drain is removed, may determine the occurrence of further complications. Case Presentation: We report here the case of a 32-year-old primipara who had a retained improvised peritoneal drain, which was inserted during the cesarean section for continued oozing of serosanguineous fluid. Omental tissue found at laparoscopy, to have plugged a fenestration in the drain, was promptly relieved. A loop of the Fallopian tube was however later observed trapped in another fenestration and herniating into the stab incision of the drain tube towards the exterior, this was freed with an atraumatic laparoscopic grasper and drain tube retrieval completed under laparoscopic visualization. Conclusion: Insertion of the peritoneal drain during cesarean section should be carefully considered, when necessary; it should be done with the most appropriate drainage systems. Retrieval of the peritoneal drain is a risk factor for visceral herniation. Entrapped drains should be retrieved, under direct visualization, to prevent iatrogenic injuries.
Nafisat Usman, Benjamin Dominic, Bilkisu Nwankwo, Awawu Nmadu, Nanben Omole, Oyiza Usman
Published: 30 June 2022
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.38029/babcockunivmedj.v5i1.118

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence of workplace violence and associated factors in secondary health facilities in Kaduna Metropolis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study where a semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 177 health workers who were selected by multistage sampling. The Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23 and results were presented using frequency tables. The Chi-square test was used to test for association between independent and dependent variables. Fisher’s Exact Test was used where more than 20% of the cells had a value less than 5. The level of statistical significance was set at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The results showed that 114 (64.4%) of the respondents had experienced workplace violence; the form which was experienced by most of the respondents was verbal abuse 100 (87.7%). Most (92; 80.7%) of the respondents did nothing following the incident. Most of the respondents believed that lack of bed space 89 (50.3%) and long waiting time 119 (67.3%) are largely responsible for violent situations. There was a statistically significant relationship between the experience of workplace violence and respondents’ age (p=0.001); sex (p=0.00146); cadre (p=0.0012) and work experience (p=0.00483). Conclusion: Most of the respondents had experienced violence in the workplace but did not pursue further action. Training health workers on the means to identify volatile situations and address workplace violence is crucial to ensuring the reduction in the prevalence of harmful incidents. The safety and protection of health workers are integral to the adequate functioning of health systems.
Saheed Olanrewaju Jimoh, Grace Gwabachi Ezeoke, Olayinka Rabiu Balogun, Ademola Popoola, Abiodun Suleiman Adeniran,
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.90

Abstract:
Background: Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle mesenchymal tumor, usually of uterine origin but may rarely develop in the vaginal walls. Case presentation: A case of 40-year-old para 5+0 woman with anterior vaginal wall leiomyoma is reported. The presentation mimics that of uterovaginal prolapse and hence presents a diagnostic challenge. The unusual appearance of the protrusion, failure to reduce at any time even while lying down, and complete absence of urinary symptoms raised the suspicion of a rare case. The diagnosis was made through examination under anesthesia, cystoscopy, and biopsy. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen confirmed vaginal wall leiomyoma. The patient had complete excision of the mass without any complications. Discussion and Conclusion: Vaginal wall leiomyoma is a rare benign vaginal lesion that can easily be misdiagnosed. Diagnosis involves critical clinical evaluation, especially during pelvic examinations. Any vaginal protrusion should be approached with a high index of suspicion, especially in patients of reproductive age.
Omobola Ojo, Adeyinka Adeniran, Olayinka Goodman, Bisola Adebayo, Esther Oluwole, Bironke Olasubomi, Yetunde Kuyinu
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.82

Abstract:
Background: Laboratory healthcare workers do handle a wide range of potentially dangerous materials which exposes them to numerous hazards. This study aimed to assess the practices of laboratory health care workers towards safety, infection control and the associated factors to its practices. Case Presentation: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 181 laboratory healthcare workers in all registered 33 laboratory facilities in Ikeja Local Government Area in 2017. Data were collected with pre-tested, structured self-administered questionnaires. Data analysed with SPSS version 20 and p-value of < 0.05. The mean age of respondents was 35.0 ± 2.45 years, most of whom were females (57.7%) and married (61.1%). The majority (98.9%) demonstrated good knowledge of infection control. A total of 62.3% identified hand washing as the most important infection control practice while HIV and Tuberculosis were diseases respondents majorly considered as high risk of contracting. A total of 84.6% of the respondents showed good practices. Limited availability of personal protective equipment in the laboratories was a major barrier identified by 98.1% of respondents. Respondents displayed good knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control. Discussion and Conclusion: Barrier to infection control was the limited availability of personal protective equipment. Therefore, concerted efforts should be mustered to ensure continuous training and retraining with the provision of personal protective equipment.
Adeola Adetola, Taibat Motunrayo Oduneye, Ahmad Olayinka Abdulsalami, Tirzah Alfa, Oluwatosin Olatunji
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 71-77; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.73

Abstract:
Objective: The study assessed the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities among patients attending the dietetics outpatient clinic of the hospital. Methods: The prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities were assessed in this retrospective study from the available in the outpatient clinic of the Dietetics Department in University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State. Age, gender, occupation, religion, height, weight, diagnosed diseases were extracted from the record of individuals who presented at the clinic over 72 months. Data obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Result: A total of 3248 patients’ records were assessed. Of these, 1174 (36.15%) patients met the criteria for obesity according to their recorded BMI; 614(52.3%) had obesity class I (BMI 30–34.9), 343(29.2%) had obesity class II (BMI 35–39.9) and 217(18.5%) had obesity class III (BMI ≥40). Obesity was significantly higher amongst females than males (p<0.05). The most prevalent single co-morbidity was diabetes 22.3%, while the most prevalent double co-morbidity was hypertension/diabetes 22.9%. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity amongst patients was significant. Diabetes and hypertension were the most dominant co-morbidity. Interventions should be developed to combat the increasing prevalence of the diseases and these should involve educating the public and clinical management of the diseases upon identification.
Oluwadamilare Akingbade, Ogechukwu Emmanuel Okondu, Matthew Akinola, Julius Olatade Maitanmi, Khadija Abubakar, Daniel Durodoluwa Faleti, Chinyere Florence Chigeru, Tolulope Deborah Oladimeji, Eyitomi Alao, Esther Nnennaya Umahi, et al.
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 112-119; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.83

Abstract:
Objective: Good nutrition is important in promoting health and is dependent on the quality of food eaten. Little has been researched on the dietary practices among the workforce in Nigeria. This study aimed at assessing the dietary knowledge, practices, and factors influencing dietary practices and work productivity among the non-medical staff of Universities. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 398 non-medical staff of Babcock University who were selected using the multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21) to compute frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations. Nutritional knowledge, dietary practices, and barriers to work productivity were assessed. Inferential statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age among respondents was 38.68±11.04, with the majority being female 54.6%. of the respondents (61.1%) of Yoruba origin, about three percentiles (66%) were members of staff while (34%) were faculty members. The computed level of knowledge and dietary-based practices scores were (2.57±0.61) and (3.64±1.44) respectively, indicating poor knowledge and dietary practices, while the barriers that influence work productivity among workers (11.34±5.286) were high at 87.2%. No significant association was found between nutritional knowledge and dietary practices of staff and faculty (p=.154), but a significant association was found between dietary practices and work productivity of staff and faculty (p=.019) Conclusion: Health education and promotion of good nutrition should be incorporated in the workplace, interventions that will improve work productivity among workers are also encouraged. This will culminate in a well-fed and healthy workforce.
Omobola Ojo, A Ahmed, Tanimola Akande, Gk Osagbemi
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 120-132; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.88

Abstract:
Objective: Health facilities utilization among Nigerians is affected by access to hospitals and, availability of personnel. This study compared the predictors of health service utilization in rural and urban areas of Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State. Method: A cross-sectional study, involving 250 rural and 250 urban respondents selected through multi-stage sampling techniques. Quantitative data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Qualitative data collection was done with an FGD guide. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square, t-test, and z-test were used to test for significance. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of urban respondents was 37.1±7.9 years and 42.6 ±13.7 years for rural. Utilization among the urban respondents were 71.2%, and 89.2% among rural (z-score = 27.93; p-value = 0.01). Health services factors such as waiting time (Adjusted OR=1.012; p-value=0.989) were found to be a strong predictor of utilization among urban respondents compared with the availability of drugs (Adjusted OR= 1.696; p-value=0.407) and availability of drugs (Adjusted OR= 1.696; p-value=0.407) which were the strongest predictor among rural respondents, though they were all not statistically significant. Other factors identified were lack of staff 46.5% among rural and lack of drug 26.1% among urban communities respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrated higher utilization among the rural community. Knowledge of available health services was important for utilization; waiting time, and availability of drugs were major predictors of health service utilization among urban and rural communities respectively.
Olusoji Daniel, Janet Bamidele, Ayisat Abiola Gbadebo, Adetunji Ojo, O Adeyemi
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 140-150; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.92

Abstract:
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 knowledge, perception, and preventive practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 339 primary health care workers in Ogun state using self-administered questionnaires. Knowledge of COVID-19 was graded as good with a minimum score of 75% while perception was graded as good with a score greater than the mean scores. Preventive practices were categorized as good with minimum scores of 75%. Associations between knowledge, practice, and categorical variables were assessed using the chi-square test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05 Results: The mean age of respondents was 42.30 ± 8.73 years. The major source of information on COVID-19 was health training (99.7%). A total of 50.7% had good knowledge of COVID-19 while 42.8% had a good perception of COVID-19. The majority (92.9%) had good COVID-19 preventive practices. Length of years in service was significantly associated (p=0.024) with knowledge of COVID-19. Conclusion: About half of the health care workers had good knowledge of COVID-19 while the perception of COVID-19 was poor. However, preventive practices carried out among the healthcare workers were good. Efforts should be made to further improve the knowledge and perception of primary health care workers as they play a vital role in the delivery of health care services in the state.
Ayodeji Tella, Amosu A.M
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 133-139; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.93

Abstract:
Objective: This study assessed the effect of a health-risk reduction training program on waste-pickers waste-handling practices in dumpsites in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 60 waste-pickers recruited by multistage sampling technique divided into intervention and control group. There was a baseline assessment of waste-handling practices in both intervention and control groups using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Thereafter, health-risk reduction training was given using lectures, and demonstrations. Three months after the intervention, another assessment of the same waste-pickers was conducted with the same instrument. Waste-handling practices and knowledge responses were measured on a 54-point rating scale and 17-point rating scale respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23 to generate descriptive and inferential. Results: At baseline, the waste-pickers in the control group had a mean waste-handling score of 17.80±6.89 while the experimental group had a mean of (17.97±5.47). After the training program, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean waste-handling score of the experimental group (47.30±3.28; p= 0.000) while there was no increase in the mean waste-handling score of the control group (17.80±6.89). This significant increase in the mean waste-handling score of the experimental group (53.83±0.38; p=0.000) was also observed at 3 month follow-up period. Conclusion/Recommendation: The health-risk reduction training was effective in improving the waste-handling practices of waste-pickers. It is recommended that waste-pickers should be trained on proper waste-handling by the government.
Mojirola Martina Fasiku, Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Matthew Olumuyiwa Bojuwoye, Abdullahi Ahmed, Medinat Omobola Osinubi, Omotosho Ibrahim Musa, Gordon Kayode, Tanimola Makanjuola Akande
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 78-85; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.84

Abstract:
Objective: The elderly usually require assistance and sometimes have unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. This study assessed the unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living among the elderly in rural and urban areas in Kwara Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. Methods:  Cross-sectional data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires from 300 elderly using the multistage sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used to analyze data, and the level of significance was predetermined at a p-value less than 0.05. Results: Overall, 60% of the elderly in the urban than rural group (46%) had unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. The prevalence of unmet needs for assistance with basic activities of daily living in the rural areas ranged from 0.0% (eating) to 70.8 % (bathing) and 0.0% (eating) to 68.8 % (transferring) in the urban areas. The prevalence of unmet needs for instrumental activities of daily living ranged from 16.7% (handling finances) to 59.3 % (cooking) for those in the rural areas. However, the range was from 33.3% (transportation) to 75.0% (taking medications) in the urban areas. The urban respondents had higher unmet needs for assistance with telephone use than rural respondents. (p=0.004*). Conclusion: The elderly in the urban areas had a higher prevalence of unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living. The government must address the needs of the elderly through a policy to prevent unmet needs for assistance with activities of daily living.
Abdulmumin Ahmed, Gloria Imhonopi, Temtitope Soyannwo, Omogola Ojo, Mojirola Fasiku, Abiola Temitope-Oboh, Abiodun Abdulsalam, Ifeoluwa Osindeinde
Published: 31 December 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 97-106; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i2.85

Abstract:
Objective: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a major public health concern. Frequent hospital visits are needed on the part of the patient to achieve decreased prevalence, the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and viral suppression. Patient satisfaction is needed to achieve the aforementioned outcomes of care. This study, therefore, was conducted to assess clients’ satisfaction and perception of the quality of HIV/AIDs services and to elicit factors associated with dissatisfaction. Method: A cross-sectional survey was done using a systematic sampling method to select the study population. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression at a p-value set at < 0.05. Results: Most of the respondents (34.4%) were within the age range of 36- 44years. The mean age was 42.1± 11.5years. The overall satisfaction was 85.6%. The majority of respondents (95.2%) affirmed that the quality of care received was good. Unavailability of HIV educational materials was shown to predict clients’ satisfaction more than other factors with 3.545; 95% CI: 1.519 - 8.275; p = 0.003. Likewise, clients who perceived health workers to be non-accepting and judgmental are 3.6 times more likely to be unsatisfied with HIV services provided compared to those who do not (3. 580; 95% CI: 1.264- 10.141; p = 0.016). Conclusion: The study demonstrated impressive overall clients’ satisfaction with services provided at the health facility and the quality of care. Attention must be paid to the availability of HIV materials and training and retraining of staff to reduce stigmatization and discrimination against patients.
John Ogunkoya, Akolade Idowu, Charles John Elikwu, Titus Oyedele, Akindele Ladele, Kemi Tuta, Emmanuel Fikayo Bamidele
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.68

Abstract:
Coronavirus infection became a global pandemic in March 2020. The number of hospitalized cases in Nigeria and Ogun State has been on a steady increase with a concomitant rise in Mortality. This necessitates a coordinated and a more systemic approach in the management of this deadly disease. As a result of the potential effects of the disease on the socio-economic development of Ogun State, the state government granted Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo the permission to diagnose, admit and manage cases in line with Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)/World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. This led to the establishment of a molecular laboratory and a COVID-19 task force to oversee the treatment of confirmed cases of COVID-19 disease. This protocol is developed to serve as a template for the diagnosis, admission, treatment of cases of COVID-19 diseases presenting for care in the hospital and to prevent the spread of the disease among healthcare workers within the hospital environment.
Ademola Adedoyin, Sunmonu Gbolahan Fadahunsi, Medinat Omobola Osinubi, Ahmed Abdullahi, Gloria Bosede Imhonopi, Tolulope Soyannwo, Paul Akinsola Akinbode
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.49

Abstract:
Objectives: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a public health issue with more than 25 million deaths since 1990. As of 2019, Nigeria has a national prevalence of 1.4% among 15- 49 years and about 1.9 million people living with HIV, according to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. This study assessed the factors responsible for unsuppressed viral load among patients accessing care at Federal Medical Centre HIV Clinic in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Methods: The study design was descriptive cross-sectional. Data was collected using the qualitative method; an In-depth interview was conducted among 20 virally unsuppressed HIV patients currently on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) at Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta. The participants were purposively selected. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Although almost all the participants were aware of HIV, their knowledge of HIV was inadequate. Non- adherence to drugs, side effects of medications, the psychological effects of the disease, forgetfulness, and combination of anti-retroviral drugs with local herbs and alcohol were the associated factors of viral non-suppression among the patients. Conclusion: Scaling up psychological care services using Short Message Services (SMS) to improve viral suppression is, therefore, strongly recommended.
Olutomiwa Omokore, Nwachukwu Nwachukwu, Oreoluwa Fuwape, Adetomilayo Arijeniwa, Abiola Adekoya, Akolade Idowu
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 54-59; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.75

Abstract:
Background: Primary hypothyroidism can lead to hyperprolactinemia through several mechanisms in both men and women, manifesting as galactorrhoea, loss of libido, and infertility in both sexes, as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea in women, and as gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction in men. Case presentation: Here presented is a 28-year-old Nigerian woman with a history of recurrent bilateral painless galactorrhoea of 12 years’ duration and persistent low mood. Physical examination was unremarkable. The hormonal assay revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone, elevated serum prolactin, low thyroxine, and low triiodothyronine levels. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed normal findings. A diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia secondary to primary hypothyroidism was made. Pharmacological therapy began with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and a dopamine agonist: 75 micrograms of levothyroxine daily and 0.5 micrograms of cabergoline twice weekly for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of pharmacological therapy, hormonal assay revealed values within the reference range with significant symptomatic improvement evidenced by cessation of galactorrhoea and low mood. Conclusion: Primary hypothyroidism has been proven to be one of the numerous causes of hyperprolactinemia and it could be unheeded in a patient who does not present with the typical signs and symptoms of primary hypothyroidism.
Adebayo Akadri, Omobolanle Akadri
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 23-32; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.63

Abstract:
Objective: Lifestyle modification is an essential component of self-management of diabetes mellitus. This study assessed adherence to diet and exercise recommendations and elucidated the factors that influence adherence in patients living with diabetes. Method: A cross-sectional study involving 300 patients attending diabetes clinics in some selected hospitals in Ogun State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on the socio-demographic characteristics, and PRECEDE factors of lifestyle-modification adherence in the study participants. Pearson’s correlation and Chi-square test were used to assess the association between the variables, while binary logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of adherence to dietary recommendations. Results: The mean age of the study respondents was 62.7 years. The proportion of respondents who adhered to dietary and exercise recommendations were 87.8% and 45.6% respectively. There were no statistically significant linear relationships between scores for each PRECEDE factor and scores for adherence to diet and exercise. Respondents’ age, body mass index, and duration of illness had a statistically significant association with adherence to diet (P< 0.001, P=0.021, and P=0.041 respectively). On logistic regression analysis, participants 60 years and older had a higher likelihood of adhering to dietary modification than younger participants [AOR=2.6, P < 0.001]. Conclusion: The adherence of patients living with diabetes to dietary recommendations was satisfactory while adherence to exercise recommendations was very poor. There is a need for health care workers, especially at the primary and secondary levels to implement strategies that will enhance reinforcing and enabling factors for exercise adherence.
Titilayo Olaoye, Catherine Agbede, Fredrick Oshiname
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 14-22; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.57

Abstract:
Objective: This study examined the perception and practices relating to Hepatitis B infection among In-school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 in-school adolescents selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were elicited using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions relating to respondents' risky practices, and a 35-point Hepatitis B perception scale. Descriptive statistics, as well as Chi-square statistics, were generated using IBM SPSS Version 23, and the significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 14.31 ± 1.73years and slightly over half (51.7%) were females. Less than half (45%) of the adolescents perceived themselves to be susceptible to Hepatitis B infection, while 31% perceived Hepatitis B infection to be a serious disease. Almost half (49%) of the adolescents had unfavorable perceptions. The most common risky practices among the respondents were sharing skin-piercing instruments with their family members (79%) and friends (68.7%). There are significant associations between sex (gender) and risky practices such as the practices of unsafe sex (X2= 9.11; p=0.10); having multiple sexual partners (X2= 12.08; p =0.02); and sharing skin-piercing instruments (X2= 5.52; p=0.01) with more males reporting the above practices than females. Conclusion/Recommendation: To minimize the identified risky practices and unfavorable perception, educational intervention programs aimed at promoting Hepatitis B virus preventive behaviors and increasing the level of perception of vulnerability and seriousness of HBV infection among in-school adolescents should be conducted.
Oluwafolahan Sholeye, Tamra Runsewe-Abiodun, Peter Otenaike
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.72

Abstract:
Objective: Breastfeeding is a cost-effective and evidence-based public health intervention for the control of childhood malnutrition and its consequences. Partners’ support and attitude towards breastfeeding is an important determinant of breastfeeding initiation, continuity, and outcome. This study assessed the perception of breastfeeding and its support among male students in Sagamu, Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 male undergraduate students in Sagamu, selected via systematic sampling. Data were collected with the aid of a structured, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 21.0, with results presented as frequencies and proportions. Result: The mean age of respondents was 20±3.5 years. All respondents felt it was important for women to breastfeed their infants; 42% of respondents felt breastfeeding interfered with work; 20% felt women should be entitled to paid maternity leave; 85% will support efforts to promote breastfeeding in public; 95% will encourage their partners to breastfeed while working outside the home; 92% will assist their breastfeeding partners with household chores. Conclusion: Respondents had a good perception of breastfeeding and were willing to support its practice at home, work, and in the community. Adequate engagement of men in nutrition education activities will be most effective in promoting and protecting breastfeeding.
Ekpereonne Esu, Utibeabasi Ekanem
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.56

Abstract:
Objective: Rapid urbanization and industrialization in the many low- and middle-income countries means that there is a growing demand for the welding industry. Previous studies in Nigeria, and other low- and middle-income countries have reported a significant discrepancy between awareness and consistent and appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE). This study assessed the awareness and utilization of PPE among small-scale welders in Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: This study was conducted in Calabar South Local Government Area using a descriptive cross-sectional design. Data collection was with an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire, and an observation checklist was used to monitor the use of PPE among small-scale welders. Results: One hundred and sixteen small-scale welders were surveyed with a mean age of 34.9 ±9.1 years. Almost 90% of respondents had completed at least primary education. Eighty-one respondents (69.8%) were aware of PPE. Three-quarters of respondents (61/81) knew PPE protected the user from injury. The most frequently identified type of welding PPE among the respondents aware of PPE, were safety goggles (38.3%), hand gloves (25.9%), safety boots (19.8%), and coveralls (9.9%). 83.6% had access to PPE at work. However, only 14.4% reported using PPE consistently. Observation revealed that the PPE most frequently used, sunglasses, were not the recommended welding goggles. Conclusion: The low utilization of PPE calls for stricter enforcement of occupational health and safety regulations among welders in the informal sector, including implementing PPE awareness programs.
Oghenekaro Egbi
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 60-70; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.76

Abstract:
Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of kidney impairment (KI) and associated factors among HIV antiretroviral treatment (ART) - naïve patients in Bayelsa State in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH) using case notes of patients who presented from 2011 – 2020. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were retrieved. The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Epidemiology (EPI) Collaboration formula and Cockcroft Gault equation were used in estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) respectively. KI was defined as eGFR < 60 mls/min. Results: The prevalence of KI was 13.8%. Up to 59.5 % had CrCl below 90mls/min. KI showed significant association with age >45 years, married status, presence of co-morbidity, and high HIV RNA load. However, only age was independently associated with KI {AOR 3.4{CI 1.2- 9.6 p = 0.018)}. Conclusion: The prevalence of KI was 13.8% while up to 50.5% had reduced CrCl. Age < 45 years was the only determinant of KI though ‘being married’, having co-morbidities and high viral load also showed significant association. There is a need for regular assessment of renal function in HIV- infected patients.
John Ogunkoya, Oluwatosin Yetunde Adesuyi
Published: 30 June 2021
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 4, pp 33-37; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v4i1.65

Abstract:
Background: The diaphragm is one of the most important muscles of respiration in the body separating the abdomen from the thorax. Abnormalities of the diaphragm could be congenital or acquired, morphological or functional while pulmonary infection e.g. pulmonary tuberculosis, is implicated in its etiology. Case presentation: A 63-year- old man with six weeks history of cough productive of yellowish sputum. Chest X-ray showed a uniform well-circumscribed opacity in the right lower lobe abutting on or in continuum with the right diaphragm consistent with a diaphragmatic hump. Sputum Gene Xpert was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chest CT scan revealed bilateral lymph node enlargement with hyperdense lesions in the anterior basal segment of the right lower lobe and medial bronchopulmonary segments of the right middle lobe. He was treated for 6 months with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Discussion: The incidence of the diaphragmatic hump on chest radiograph worldwide and among Nigerians is unknown. The association of diaphragmatic hump with chest infection has been well document. The association of diaphragmatic hump with pulmonary tuberculosis is uncommon. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical clinical and radiological presentations. Such prompt diagnosis will aid the treatment of the disease.
Charles J Elikwu, Tinuade A Ajani, Victor U Nwadike, Babtunde Tayo, Chika C Okangba, Opeoluwa A Shonekan, Azubuike C Omeonu, Bibitayo Faluyi, Blessing I Enyi, Faith O Nwamannah, et al.
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.32

Abstract:
Objectives: The Human Immunodeficiency virus causes an infection of public health importance with about 71% of the global burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, 3.2 million people are living with HIV, and 838,000 - 1.3 million of the cases are found among youths. Although Non- Occupational Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a safe and efficacious method of HIV prevention, it remains an underutilized prevention strategy in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the awareness level of nPEP after sexual and other non-occupational exposure to HIV among undergraduate students of a private University. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 395 undergraduates’ students. Data was collected by pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaires. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 software program and Frequency distribution tables with percentages and cross-tables were used for data description. Results: About 42.8% were aware of nPEP. Most of the respondents 361 (91.4%) knew that PEP is to be given after HIV exposure risk following sexual intercourse. Although 79.5% of the respondents indicated that they will see their physician after unprotected sexual intercourse and other non-occupational exposure to HIV, the majority neither knows about nPEP initiation time, 247 (62.5%) nor its duration, 286 (72.4%). Conclusions: A low level of awareness was observed among our study participants, therefore, consistent health education and promotion of nPEP will improve its awareness, uptake, and possibly reduce the prevalence of HIV among our youths.
John Ogunkoya, Afolashade Oluwole, Ezuduemoih Daniel, Osaze Ehioghae, Oyebimpe Ajiboye
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 45-54; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.50

Abstract:
Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism is total or partial obstruction of one or more divisions of pulmonary arterial vasculature. It is a common disease presentation that is well studied and documented in the United States of America and Western Europe. It is often the result of part of a thrombotic lesion in deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis) elsewhere in the body most commonly the lower limbs and the pelvic region. There are few documented cases in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa as a result of poorly equipped hospitals and poorly trained health care personnel. Case presentation: Twenty-Nine (29) cases were seen in a Private Tertiary institution in Ogun State, Nigeria. Computerized Tomography with Pulmonary Angiography had helped to confirm these cases, with prompt intervention thereby reducing morbidity and mortality significantly. Only 3(three) mortality was recorded out of 29 cases seen between July 2016 and June 2020. Discussion and conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism is not uncommon in Nigerians and black Africans as available data previously suggested. All hands must be on deck to identify potential cases and investigate at-risk individuals who have clinical symptoms that are often misdiagnosed as other disease entities.
Kelechukwu Onuoha, Goodness Ajaero, Mathias Orji, Omotayo Salami, Omobowale Omotola
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.44

Abstract:
Background: Untreated or inappropriately treated, calcaneal fractures can result in arthritis, chronic ankle pain, and ankle deformity which can significantly impact the lifestyle of affected patients. Even though calcaneal fractures are common among those with multiple injuries, they can easily be missed, and not treating them would significantly impact on the patient negatively. Case Presentation: This article is a retrospective recall of the six patients seen with calcaneal fractures that were treated in our hospital between 2010 and 2018, they were mainly multiply injured and the advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol helped to delineate these fractures, the use of modern-day operative and non-operative methods of management and rehabilitation were employed. Discussion and conclusion: Calcaneal fractures are mostly associated with high-energy trauma which includes falls from heights or vehicle accidents with almost 50% soft tissue involvement. This is similar to cases presented in this paper as all the patients were either involved in road traffic accidents or had fallen from a height, however, soft tissue destruction manifesting as open fractures were absent in our series. Calcaneal fractures are rare and can easily be missed as patients may present as multiply injured. Prompt and adequate Rehabilitation is important to improve function.
Adekunle Adetayo, Modupe Adetayo, Oluwatosin Shokunbi, Adesola Oyelese
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.38

Abstract:
Objective: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a haemoglobinopathy that causes several clinical complications. Unripe Carica papaya has been shown to possess antisickling activity that could reduce these complications. This study aimed to examine the presence of antisickling and sickling-reversal activities of aqueous extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of C. papaya fruit at different stages of ripening. Methods: Unripe, partly ripe, and fully ripe fruits were quantitatively screened for some phytochemicals using standard methods. Blood samples from sickle cell patients were used to investigate antisickling and sickling reversal activities of aqueous extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of the fruits. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The p-value was set at 0.05. Results: Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and polyphenols were found in varying concentrations in C. papaya fruit at the different stages of ripening. All extracts and fractions showed antisickling and sickling-reversal activities with the ethyl acetate fraction of partly ripe C. papaya being most effective. Conclusion: The study showed that C. papaya fruit at different stages of ripening contains antisickling and sickling-reversal activities which may help reduce the associated complications of SCD when consumed by affected individuals.
Doyin Ogunyemi, Oluwatoyin Theresa Ogunmefun, Esther 3. Oluwole, Adeola Ekundayo
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.45

Abstract:
Objectives: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic continues to expand among female sex workers (FSWs) who have limited access to and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (HCT). HCT plays a pivotal role in increasing knowledge and awareness to prevent, treat, and control HIV/AIDS. The study objective was to determine the knowledge, attitude, utilization of HCT among brothel-based FSWs (BBFSWs). Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 300 BBFSWs in Lagos State. The respondents were recruited by snowballing after a multistage sampling method was used in the selection of the brothels. The data was collected using an adapted interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. The level of statistical significance was set at p
Esther O. Oluwole, Oghenekaro O. Agha, Adedoyin Ogunyemi, Omowumi Q. Bakare
Published: 31 December 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i2.46

Abstract:
Objectives: Dysmenorrhea is an important health problem which may have a negative impact on female health, school activities and psychological status. This study assessed the prevalence, knowledge, perception and healthcare seeking practices of dysmenorrhea among secondary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria. The pattern of management of dysmenorrhea among respondents was also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 420 adolescents in public secondary schools in Ikeja Local government area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were interviewed using a structured pretested questionnaire. Data was analyzed with SPSS Version 22.0. The level of statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: Mean ± SD age at menarche was 12.3±1.3 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea among respondents was 75.2%. About one-quarter 106(25.2%) had good knowledge and 209(49.8%) had good perception of dysmenorrhea. Only 10% had ever sought health care for dysmenorrhea. A statistically significant association was found between the knowledge of respondents and healthcare-seeking behavior towards dysmenorrhea (p = 0.004). Conclusion: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was high and majority of respondents had poor knowledge. Improving adolescents’ knowledge of dysmenorrhea through health education could positively influence their health care-seeking behavior.
Adesola Adekoya, Musili Bolanle Fetuga, Akolade Idowu, Olufunmilola Abolurin
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 45-48; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.36

Abstract:
Background: The management of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) remains a major challenge in developing countries. Case presentation: We report an adolescent male who was diagnosed with T1DM at the age of 11 years when he presented at a private hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis. He received emergency treatment there and was subsequently referred to our tertiary hospital for expert care. All through the management, there was poor clinic attendance, poor glucose monitoring, poor compliance with insulin therapy, and ultimately, poorly controlled diabetes. Later, he developed diabetic autonomic neuropathy which manifested as unawareness of bladder fullness with secondary enuresis and fecal incontinence. He was also severely malnourished. At his last admission, seven years after the initial diagnosis, he presented with burnt hands and feet, which were injuries sustained from putting his extremities in naked flames when he lapsed into a coma during a religious activity. He received multidisciplinary management but died a few weeks later. Discussion and conclusion: This case is being reported to draw attention to the plight of children with T1DM from the low socioeconomic class in developing countries. In such children, poverty and ignorance may have profound negative effects on the management and outcome of T1DM.
Olufemi Adebawojo, Adebayo Akadri, John Imaralu
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.35

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence and outcome of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State Nigeria Method: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all documented cases of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy between the 1st of June 2012 and 31st May, 2017. Information such as age, parity, booking status, level of education, blood pressure at presentation, urinalysis at presentation, gestational age at presentation, and delivery, mode of delivery, baby’s birth weight was extracted from patients’ case files. Result: There were 1,118 deliveries during the study period out of which 55 (4.9%) patients had hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The mean age was 31.5years ±48.1 and mean parity, 1.2± 1.1. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 180.4 ± 1.88mmHg and 105.1± 1.5mmHg, respectively. Thirty-four (75.5%) of the women had preeclampsia/ eclampsia, while 7 (15.5%) had gestational hypertension. Most women were delivered preterm (22 patients, 48.7%). The majority of them (33, 73.3%) were delivered by cesarean section, out of which 2 (4.4%) were elective cesarean section and 31 patients (68.8%) were emergency cesarean section. The case fatality rate was 1.8%. Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia was the most prevalent t hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. It was more prevalent among primigravidae patients and the most common complication was preterm delivery. Strengthening antenatal care services will enable early identification of cases. Prompt referral of cases for specialist care will help in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with the condition.
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 11-26; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.29

Abstract:
Background: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan city, China. This new virus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. That disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, has been named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the WHO. The outbreak has since spread across the globe, including countries in Africa. Main body: The dominant mode of transmission is from the respiratory tract, via droplets or indirectly via fomites, and to a lesser extent via aerosols. The rapidity with which the infection spread throughout the world was unexpected. The disease has now affected 212 countries, areas, or territories, with more than 2.1 million total confirmed cases and over 144 thousand fatalities as at the time of writing. It, therefore, behooves countries of the world to take firm public health measures for the pandemic is to be contained. Conclusion: Nigeria, with a population of at least 170 million people, is of global interest because a rapid rise in the number of infected people will have serious implications not only for the country but for the whole African continent.%MCEPASTEBIN%
Ngozi Adefala, Kolawole Sodeinde, Abiodun Osinaike, Fikayo Bamidele, Adebola Omotosho
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 49-58; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.26

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards condom utilization and other associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS enrolled in the Virology clinic in Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH) Ilishan, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 285 ART users selected using a systematic random sampling method. The minimum sample size was estimated using the formula z2pq/d2 and a 24% prevalence extracted from a previous similar study. Data were elicited using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, analyzed using SPSS version 20, and presented as tables. The Chi-square test was used to assess associations between categorical variables. The level of significance was set at the 95% confidence interval with a p-value of 0.05. Results: From the total respondents, 180(63.2%) were females, 93.7% had good knowledge, 141(49.5%) believed ARV prevents transmission of HIV and 144 (50.5%) strongly agreed that condom reduces sexual pleasure. Majority 254 (89.1%) were currently using condoms, 131 (46.0%) used a condom consistently, while 108 (37.9%) frequently use a condom during sexual intercourse. The Use of condoms had statistically significant associations with occupation (p
John Imaralu
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.34

Abstract:
Background: Pregnant women are a vulnerable group to the COVID-19 infection; although it is expected that adaptive changes of pregnancy put them at increased risk of adverse outcome from any respiratory tract infection, interventions for the COVID-19 may put them in more danger. Nigeria is one of the leading countries with very poor maternal mortality indices and many other sub-Saharan African nations are in the same boat. Contingency plans need to be put in place to prevent precipitous deterioration in mortality rates occasioned by the dreaded SARS- Cov-2 pandemic. This mini-review of literature and WHO global statistics is aimed to determine the trends in COVID-19 transmission and mortality rates to provide evidence-based information that may enable governments to tailor their interventions to the peculiar needs, of sub-Saharan African populations. Main body: Emerging epidemiological trends on transmission and mortality within Africa and the worst affected regions of the world suggests better outcomes of this infection in sub-Saharan Africa, than in other regions of the world. Also, present data allude to similar outcomes between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The present containment measures of isolation and quarantine, including city-wide lockdowns, may put pregnant women at higher risk of death from other causes rather than COVID-19. The danger posed, is the limitation of access to emergency obstetric care services when pregnant women develop non-COVID-19 complications of pregnancy. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has lower local transmission rates and fatality in Africa, the region where the virus arrived last. While special efforts should be geared at shielding the elderly and infirm from contracting the infection, preventive measures in pregnant women must allow for access to emergency obstetric care to forestall iatrogenic adverse maternal outcomes.
Samuel Dada, Folasade Aina, Mary Oyedele, Daniel Aina
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.40

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the knowledge and determine the level of utilization of Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for the management of PPH among Midwives. Method: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design, using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A total of 198 randomly selected midwives across three health facilities in Ogun State participated in the study. A 10-point knowledge scale was used to assess the knowledge of midwives on NASG. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the level of utilization of NASG among midwives, while Chi-square statistics were used to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables of interest at p
Kolawole Sodeinde, Fikayo Bamidele, Ngozi Adefala, Adedotun Sodeinde
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.24

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to compare the knowledge of men concerning birth preparedness between rural and urban dwellers of Ogun State, Nigeria. Methodology: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 440 men each in rural and urban areas of Ogun State using a multistage sampling method to select participants. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to elicit data about respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of birth preparedness. Knowledge was graded as good and poor knowledge. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20 and presented as tables. Results: The mean ages of the urban and rural respondents were 36.58±6.760 and 37.61±9.788 respectively. The difference in the mean age of urban and rural residents was not statistically significant (t= -1.819, P=0.069). A higher proportion of urban respondents (53.4%) had a statistically significant good knowledge of birth preparedness compared to 30.2% of rural men (P
Emmanuel Fikayo Bamidele, Kolawole Sodeinde, Ngozi Adefala, Abiodun Osinaike, Adebola Omotosho
Published: 30 June 2020
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 3, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v3i1.28

Abstract:
Objective: The research aimed to estimate the level of drug adherence, to determine the reasons for non-adherence, and identify risk factors associated with non -adherence among adult hypertensive clients attending an out-patient clinic in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study of adults with hypertension at a medical outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital. Four hundred and four (404) respondents were selected from November 2015 to April 2016, a validated questionnaire by Morisky Green was adapted and distributed by trained research assistants. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables like sex, marital status, and clinic attendance among the two groups of adherent and non-adherent hypertensive. Information was summarized using frequency tables and cross-tabulations. Binary logistic regression analysis was done. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Optimal adherence was observed in 281(69.0%) of the respondents. Being a female (OR: 1.833; 1.048 -7.205, p=0.034), being employed (OR: 2.099; 1.097-4.096, p=0.03) and regular clinic attendance (OR: 22.26; 12.647 – 39.107, p
Ta Oyedele, At Jegede, Am Adetayo, Bo Sodipo
Published: 30 June 2017
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 2, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v2i1.14

Abstract:
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI), and dental caries and frequency of sugar consumption freshmen undergraduate student in Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,164 students between 15 to 23 years of age. The independent variables for this study included age, sex, socioeconomic status, BMI, frequency of consuming refined sugars between meals and action taken after consumption of refined sugars. Descriptive analysis was used for all the quantitative variables while inferential analysis using logistic regression was used to determine predictors of dental caries. Results: A total of 1,164 students participated in the study, comprising 61.9% females and 38.1% males. The mean age of the participants was 18.13 (±4.99) and mean BMI was 21.68 (±7.93). The prevalence of dental caries was 10.6% and the mean Decay Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) was 0.32 (±1.05). Age and socioeconomic status were the significant predictors of dental caries (p=0.02; p=0.04 respectively). However, there was increase odds of having dental caries in students with normal BMI ((AOR: 1.19; P=0.62), students that consumed refined sugar 3-4 between meals (AOR: 1.27; P=0.28) and students that did nothing after consumption of refined sugar (AOR: 1.43; P=0.51). Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries in this study population was low, older students from middle socioeconomic status had significant caries prevalence and there were increase odds of dental caries in students with normal BMI, and in those that consumed refined sugars 3-4 times between meals.
S Adeyemo, I Adeosun, O Ogun, A Adegbohun
Published: 30 September 2017
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 2, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v2i1.3

Abstract:
Objective: Adverse childhood experience is a known risk factor for risky behavior and negative mental health outcomes. There is dearth of information on adverse childhood experiences among adolescents living with HIV-AIDS in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence, pattern and correlates of adverse childhood experience among adolescents with HIV/AIDS attending two tertiary health facilities in Lagos, Nigeria.Method: Using a cross-sectional study design, 201 adolescents with HIV-AIDS attending out-patient clinics at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos and the Lagos state University Teaching Hospital completed the adverse childhood experience questionnaire (ACE) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The data was analysed with SPSS version 20. Result: The mean age of the participants was 13.88 (± 2.53) years, and 61.7% were males. High levels of adverse childhood experiences ( AC E > 4 ) were reported by 28.4% of the participants. Nearly three quarters (73.6%) were victims of physical abuse, while 48.7% and 11.8% had been emotionally and sexually abused. There was statistically significant association between high levels of adverse experiences in childhood and occupational class of the father (p=0.022), previous history of hospitalisation (p=0.027) and having HIV positive siblings (p=0.009). Conclusion: There is a crucial need for interventions targeted towards prevention of physical, emotional and sexual child abuse, and other forms of adverse childhood experiences.HIV-AIDS, adverse childhood experiences, child abuse, adolescents
Uo Aham-Onyebuchi, Oo Jagun, A Betiku, O Olijide, M Leshi
Published: 30 June 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1, pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i2.9

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors in Ogun State, Nigeria. The prevalence of blindness was also determined. Method: A cross sectional descriptive survey. Participants aged 15years and above were randomly selected from 1125 attendees of different community medical outreaches conducted in 5 Local government areas of Ogun State between August 2012 and March 2013. Participants underwent ocular examination and refraction (automated objective and subjective assessments). Results: The sample consisted of 780 participants. Their mean age was 49.14 (±18.37), and 52.8% were females. About two-thirds [67.7%] had presenting visual acuity [VA] of at least 6/18, while 14.3% were legally blind [VA worse than 3/60].Astigmatism was the most prevalent refractive error [40%] but on conversion tospherical equivalents, hyperopia [28.5%] became the most prevalent error. Apart from refractive errors, cataract and glaucoma were found to be the other major causes of visual impairment amongst the respondents. Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive errors and blindness in the study population was higher than previously documented with hyperopia being the most prevalent spherical equivalent refractive error. An urgent integration of primary eye care into the existing primary health care system for prevention of blindness is advocated.
A Olaleye, E Orji, A Akintayo, J Imaralu
Published: 17 March 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i1.22

Abstract:
Objective: This study was carried out to assess the perception of health workers towards contraceptive methods, determine the proportion of health workers using modern contraceptive methods and identify factors influencing their contraceptive practice. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive survey of 300 practicing nurses in the health facilities within Ile-Ife, Nigeria was done using pre-tested, self-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Results: Most of the respondents were less than 30years, married, multiparous and had practised for more than 2years. Prevalence of modern contraceptive use was 75.2%. Knowledge of contraceptives was poorest for injectables and oral contraceptive pills (32% each). Twenty six percent of respondents believed that contraception should be limited to women who had completed their families, while 32.4% were either uncertain or disagreed with the safety of contraceptives. The commonest method used was the condom, though contraceptive choice varied with cadre of staff. Desire for another pregnancy was the main reason for discontinuing contraception (51.2%). Older age, religion and marriage positively influenced contraceptive use. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of contraception among nurses in Ile-Ife is relatively poor. Ensuring accurate information on contraception among this target group of health workers is an important step towards achieving success in the national family planning programme.
Fao Oguntade, Da Aderinto, Of Salami
Published: 30 September 2017
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 2, pp 55-58; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v2i1.6

Abstract:
Glioblastoma multiforme is the highest grade glial tumour and most common in the astrocytic line. This usually requires craniotomy for tumour biopsy, relief of intracranial pressure and reduction in tumour mass as much as possible. In the anaesthetic management of patient for craniotomy, emphasis should be on the provision of safe and optimal preoperative conditions, preservation of neurocognitive functions and a rapid high quality recovery. Maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), normal intra-cranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral oxygenation (CMRO2) is the mainstay of neuro-anaesthesia and requires a thorough understanding of the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS). We report a case of a 59 year old man with glioblastoma multiforme and features of raised intracranial pressure that successfully underwent craniotomy and decompression of the tumour.
Nc Ogu, Ae Ladele, Do Afolabi, Jo Sotunsa, Fi Ani
Published: 30 June 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1, pp 13-19; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i2.8

Abstract:
Objectives: High blood pressure among adolescents is not as researched as it is among adults, notwithstanding that hypertension in adults is being tracked back to childhood. This study identied the prevalence of hypertension among adolescents, the age related pattern of prevalence and associated risk factors. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among university students who presented for preadmission medical examination. Blood pressuremeasurement was conducted and cut off reading was based on JNC VII classication for hypertension. Results: A total of 952 students had complete data. Participants were aged 14 – 19 years with a mean age of 16.6 ± 1.03 years. Prevalence of hypertensionamong the adolescents was 6.4%. High blood pressure (HBP) distribution was as follows; systolic HBP (54%), diastolic HBP (31.15%) and combinedsystolic and diastolic HBP (14.75%). The risk factors significantly associated with HBP were male gender, obesity, overweight, alcohol, smoking and high blood sugar (p values 0.001, 0.039, 0.001, 0.016, and 0.001 respectively). However family history of hypertension was not significantly associated with hypertension (p=0.053). The majority of the adolescents with hypertension were unaware of the morbidity. Conclusion: Hypertension is identifiable in adolescents and it appears to increase with age. Notable risk factors for hypertension in adults are also associatedwith hypertension among adolescents. Regular screening will improve awareness and help mitigate the complications of this condition.
J Imaralu, Fi Ani, Ao Olaleye, Jo Sotunsa, Oo Adelowo
Published: 17 March 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1, pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i1.23

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the perception of child sex selection and the factors affecting acceptance of assisted reproductive techniques for child sex selection among pregnant women in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional survey conducted among 400 antenatal clinic attendees in the three largest hospitals in Sagamu and its environs in Ogun state. Results: Participants were mostly Yorubas (83.1%), Christians (71.5%) and had tertiary education (52.8%). The male child was preferred among respondents who indicated their choice (84.8%). Relative subfertility before index conception influenced the preference for a male child (p
Franklin Ani
Published: 17 March 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i1.18

Ro Awopegba, O Oladepo, Ob Solademi, Jo Sotunsa, Fi Ani
Published: 30 June 2015
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 1, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v1i2.7

Abstract:
Objective: HIV/AIDS is a pandemic affecting over 3.2 million Nigerians. Over 90% of the African population belong to religious congregation and are often inuenced by the religious leaders. Since health education is a very effective tool in the control of HIV/AIDS, it is expedient to assess the level of preparedness of religious leaders for the prevention of HIV/AIDS so as to maximize opportunities of controlling this menace. This study aims to assess the preparedness of religious leaders to promote and support HIV/AIDS prevention. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study involving 252 religious leaders (Christians and Islamic) from Oyo and Kaduna State Nigeria randomly selected across the senatorial districts of the state. Questionnaire was used to collect information about demographic characteristics, knowledge about HIV/AIDS education/promotion, history of HIV/AIDS training and the level of preparedness of the respondents for prevention of HIV/AIDS. Results: Of the 252 respondents, from Oyo State (122) and Kaduna State (130), majority were male (96%), over 30 years of age (96.6%), willing to be screened for HIV(64.7%) and educated their congregation about HIV/AIDS (51.2%), had minimum of secondary education (89.6%) while 22.6% ever tested for HIV. Though 96.4% acknowledge the need for basic knowledge on HIV/AIDS, only 23.8% wanted to know its presentation while 5.6% wanted to know how to carefor persons affected with HIV. Conclusion: Religious leaders had demonstrated high preparedness for the prevention of HIV-AIDS in this study. However, appropriate and consistent education and promotion is required for the clergy to identify challenges early and be capable of proffering appropriate solution. Key words: HIV, AIDS, Religious leaders, HIV/AIDS education, faith-based organization, preparedness.
Am Adetayo, Ta Oyedele, Ao Ajomoko, Mo Adeyemi, Ms Somoye, Mo Gbotolorun
Published: 30 September 2017
Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 2, pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.38029/bumj.v2i1.2

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of administration of both preoperative and postoperative dexamethasone with that of only preoperative dexamethasone, and with that of a no dexamethasone (control) on reduction of pain, trismus and swelling following lower impacted 3rd molar surgery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled double blinded study at the dental clinic of Babcock University Teaching Hospital on 84 subjects that were divided into 3 groups. Group A had both preoperative and postoperative dexamethasone, while group B had only preoperative dexamethasone and group C was a 'no dexamethasone' group. Differential mean facial swelling, mouth opening and pain scores were compared within the three groups. Results: The pattern of postoperative swelling, pain and trismus showed a general decrease from day 1 to 7, with group A showing the highest rate of decrease. On postoperative day 1, there was a difference between the swelling of groups A and C (p =0.01) and groups B and C (p = 0.02) and also between the pain scores of group A and group C (p = 0.01). On postoperative day 3, there was only a difference between the swelling of groups A and C (p = 0.02), but not in pain and trismus and no difference was seen in all the measured variables on postoperative day 7. Conclusion: Administration of a combination of both preoperative and post operative dexamethasone to reduce the postoperative inflammatory sequelae that follows lower third molar surgery gave better results than administration of only a single preoperative dose.
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