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Results in Journal IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES: 857

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Mahbuba A. M, A. Ab. Jabbar, N. A. Mustafa
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 724-731; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1582

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigates and compares the effect of medicinal plants extract: Hero flowers (Alcea kurdica) in the north of Iraq, Thyme (Thymus bovie), and Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) extract with two antibiotic drugs Rifaximine and Ranitidine in quail’s drinking water by emphasizing the productive performance, and physiological status of the quails at grower and developer stages till 10th weeks of age, a total of 90 quails were distributed into six treatments, each treatment with three replicates of 15 chicks in each. Data analysis showed significantly increased body weight gain (237.5, 224.1, and 234.9) g for Hero, thyme, and Bay leaf, respectively. In comparison with the control (188.3) g. quail’s drunk plant extract mixed water had better hematological and the ileum profiling (goblet cells numbers, Villus height, and Crypt depth) and significantly higher serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, and antibodies titers against some bird virus diseases in comparison with positive control. Also, significantly lower level of albumin, ileum content of E. Coli, and Enterococcus count in plant treated quails in comparison with the control T0.
Suha A. Rasheed, S. M. A. Al Nuaimmi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 789-797; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1590

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate the different effects of folic acid and/or saccharomyces cerevisiae on different aspects of Japanese quails. Eighty quail chicks were used, divided into four groups (20 chicks each), the first group was the control, treated with normal ration and drinking water. The second group was treated with saccharomyces cerevisiae 2.5% in the ration, the third group was treated with folic acid (5mg/L. in drinking water), whereas the last group was treated with both folic acid and yeast as stated above. All treatments were for seven weeks, then the birds were sacrificed, and blood was collected to undergo the parameters. Results revealed that the treatment with yeast or folic acid significantly (p<0.05) decreased both RBC and Hb while WBC elevated as a result of the treatment in both males and females. Bodyweight decreased as a result of treating quails with yeast and/or folic acid in both males and females. In males, the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides reduced in all treatment groups compared to control, while in females, the cholesterol elevated in treatment groups, with no effect on triglycerides. Testosterone was elevated in males treated with folic acid and/ or yeast.
R. A. Mahmoud, M. S. Al-Khshali
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 767-773; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1587

Abstract:
The current study was conducted to determine the ideal period for freezing of three fish species of in the Iraqi local markets which are common carp  Cyprinus carpio ,catfish Silurus triostegus and mullet Planiliza abu  through sensory evaluation and the effect of freezing time on the flavor, juiciness and general acceptability of fish .A total of20  samples, were taken for each species of fresh local fish and were frozen at 18°C for different freezing periods : 1 day (T2), 15 days (T3), 30 days (T4) and 45 days (T5) , in addition to the fresh treatment T1 that has not been subjected to freezing. Results of common carp showed that the best freezing time was recorded for treatments T2, T3 and T4 which attained 6.8, 6.6 and 6.2, respectively, for the flavor. The treatment T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 6.4, 6.8 and 6.6 respectively, for tenderness .The treatments T2, T3 and T4 were amounted 7.4, 6.6 and 6.6 respectively, for the Juiciness. Results of the general acceptance of treatments T2, T3 and T4 were 7.6, 7.2, 6.6 respectively. Results of the catfish and the mullet for flavor showed that the best freezing period was for the two treatments T2 and T3, which were 7.4, 6.4 in the catfish and 6.6 and 5.4 in the mullet respectively. T2 and T3 continued to be significantly superior to the freshness of the catfish and the mullet  over T4 and T5 and it was 7.0, 6.4 for the catfish and 5.8, 5.6 for the mullet, respectively. T2 and T3 were superior for the juiciness of catfish by 7.0 and 6.6 and for mullet, 5.8 and 5.6 respectively.As for the trait of general acceptance, it was superior in the two treatments T2 and T3 for catfish and mullet  and they were 7.4, 6.8 for catfish 6.8 and 6.4 for mullet respectively.
Y. J. Machado, W. Murillo-Arango, L. Hennessey-Ramos
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 857-866; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1598

Abstract:
This research was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity, the phenolic content, the dye stability, the yield of extracts of different polarities obtained from the peel of mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana), and finally, their potential use as an additive in mangosteen fruit beverage. Water, ethanol, and different mixtures were used to obtain the dye extracts. Physicochemical and microbiological stability was measured according to  Colombian Resolution 3929 of 2013 to determine whether the beverage complies with current regulations. CIE L*a*b* scale measured the color stability of the beverage for 30 days, the sensorial acceptance with a hedonic scale. The best extraction performance was achieved with the mixture of water and ethanol in a 1:1 ratio, yielding  23.07 ±0.12% of total biomass extracted from the peel, and the phenolic content was 368.7 mg GAE 100 mL-1, IC50 values of 184 mg mL-1, and 146 mg mL-1 by the ABTS and DPPH respectively. The beverage prepared from mangosteen pulp and dye extract reached the microbiological requirements by Resolution 3929 of 2013 for fruit drinks. The sensorial test showed that formulated mangosteen beverage dye extract is hedonically the same at treatment with ascorbic acid.
Safwan. L. S, O. D. Almallah
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 782-788; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1589

Abstract:
This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of lowering sunflower cake degradability or seeds on puberty, testicular and blood measurements of Awassi lambs. Thirty Awassi lambs with an average body weight of 25.93 ± 0.42 kg and 3- 4 months old. Lambs were divided into three groups (10 lambs in each group) the first group was fed a diet contained 11% of sunflower cake (T1), the second group was fed a diet contained 11% of low degradable sunflower cake (T2), while the third group fed a diet that contained 11% of low degradable sunflower seeds (T3). The results indicated that reduce sunflower seeds degradability in (T3) led to a significant increase (p≤ 0.05) in the length of right and left testes (8.35 and 8.30 cm) respectively as compared to the T1 (7.84 and 7.77 cm) respectively and T2 (7.88 and 7.63 cm) respectively, scrotum volume increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in the T3 165.72 cm3 as compared to the T2 151.86 cm3, Testosterone hormone concentration increased significantly (p≤ 0.01) in T3 2.81 ng/ml as compared to the T1 and T2 ( 1.455 and 1.75 ng/ml) respectively . Also, feeding lambs with low degradable sunflower cake (T2) and seeds (T3) enhance significantly (p≤ 0.05) seminiferous tubule diameter, germinal epithelium height, and Sertoli cells count as compared to lambs that fed sunflower cake (T1). The results indicate that reducing degradability of protein and fat sources rich in unsaturated fatty acids in the diets of lambs before puberty had a positive role in testicular development and testosterone hormone secretion at puberty.
Kamal Al-Khalaf, Salam Lawand, Hussien Al-Mahasneh
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 890-900; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1601

Abstract:
The study was carried out in order to determine the degree of genetic kinship among fifteen barley genotypes using SSR technique with 14 pairs of primers. The study showed that, all the primers gave amplification products and showed polymorphism between the studied genotypes. The total number of alleles was 19, with an average of 1.35, and the number of polymorphic alleles was 19, the percentage of polymorphism was 100%. The number of total and polymorphic alleles ranged between one allele as the lowest value for primers (Bmac0209, Bmac0067, Bmag0225, Bmag012, Bmag0394, Bmag0353, Bmag0206, Bmac0031, GBM1362, EBmac0603) and three alleles as the highest value for the primer Bmag0006. The polymorphism information content (PIC) for each primer ranged from 0.32 (Bmac0209, Bmag0225) as the lowest value, to 0.721 (Bmag0385) as the highest value, and average PIC value was 0.446. The highest value of the percent agreement values (PAV) matrix was about 0.909, between Furat 7 and Mohsen White cultivars, which indicate the present of a high degree of genetic kinship, followed by the Furat 5 and Asowad Arabic (0.863), while the lowest value was 0.318 between H10 and Furat 4, indicating a great genetic variation between them. The previous results were in agreement with the genetic kinship analysis and cluster analysis which showed a high degree of genetic similarity between Furat 7 and Mohsen White, followed by Furat 5 and Asowad Arabic.
Muhammad A. H., Ali S. Al-Hassani
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 950-957; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1607

Abstract:
This study was carried out in the poultry field in Jadiriyah, affiliated with the Department of Animal Production / College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad. This experiment used 480 one-day-old, unsexed broiler chicks of the broiler breed (Ross-308) with an average weight of 39.8 g to investigate the effect of adding different levels of turmeric root (CURCUMA LONGA) (CURCUMA LONGA) powder to the diet on some characteristics and physiology of commercial broilers exposed to heat stress. Chicks were distributed randomly and equally between 4 treatments (120 chicks/treatment), and each treatment included 3 replicates, at a rate of (40 chicks/repeat). Chicks were fed on the starter, growth and final diet for up to 6 weeks, and at the end of the experiment, at 42 days old, 12 birds were selected from each treatment at a rate of 4/duplicate treatment. The birds were placed in their kennel within an isolated space in the breeding hall and exposed to a temperature of (36-39-42°C) for 3 hours. The results of the experiment showed a significant increase (P > 0.05) in total protein, albumin, globulin and high-density lipoprotein. The results also showed a significant decrease in cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, GOT enzyme level, sodium and potassium concentration, heterophil cells and the ratio (H/L), and turmeric treatments did not show a significant effect on basal, acidic and monocyte blood cells, and the results indicated a significant increase in the values of PCV and HDL cells. White blood, lymphocytes, chlorine concentration, GSH-PX and CAT enzyme levels in the blood. It can be concluded from this study that the addition of turmeric root powder at a rate of 6.5% has a positive effect on improving some physiological characteristics of broilers exposed to heat stress.
M. J. Farhan, N. M. Muhawish
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 931-940; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1605

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted on a gypsiferous sandy clay loam soil to examine the effects of blending Triple superphosphate (TSP) with urea on N, P concentrations in plant and growth parameters of broad bean. The experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The first factor was type of application as briquettes which include T1 (one layer of TSP between two layers of urea) and T2 (one layer of urea between two layers of TSP), the second factor was application depth (5 and 10 cm D1 and D2), and the third factor was application rate (1.0, 1.25, and 1.50 as much as N and P fertilizer recommended for broad bean, R1, R2 and R3). Broad bean was planted and the following growth parameters were taken: plant height, no. of leaves, plant dry weight, chlorophyll content, leaf area, N and P concentration in plant. Results showed that the following treatments: T1 of blending (briquette no. 1), D1 and R2 were significantly superior over other treatments in all growth parameters and N, P concentration in plant. The triple interaction treatment T1D1R2 was significantly superior over other treatments with values reached 60.99 cm, 442.7 leave plant-1, 20.32 cm2, 63.87 Spad, 5.59 g plant-1, 5.55 %, and 0.27 %, respectively for plant height, no. of leaves plant-1, leaf area, chlorophyll content, plant dry matter, N and P conc. in plant.
Haneen H K Alkhafaji, Huda J M Altameme, Saif M H Alsharifi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 922-930; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1604

Abstract:
The phytochemical analysis of Azolla filiculoides Lamark in the methanolic whole plant extract was undertaken and published for the first time in Iraq in this article. The existence of twenty-four bioactive phytochemical compounds were discovered using GC-MS analysis. , such as Ethyl Formate, 1,3-Cyclohexanedione, Butanal, 2-Nonenal,9-Octadecenal,2,4,6-Trimethyl-1-nonene, 3-(Prop-2-enoyloxy) tetradecane, Carbonic acid, 9-Oxabicyclo [6.1.0] nonane. Oleic Acid, 13-Docosenoic acid, Z-10-Pentadecen-1-ol, Oxirane, Diethyl carbonate.   Hydroperoxide, 2-Butene ozonide. These various active phytochemicals of alkenes, alkanes, esters, ethers, and carboxylic acids were found in the plant with great potential to bind with other compounds, this plant is great to be used as a filter to waste water.
Ch. A. M. Yateem, J.E. Alkass, K.N. Mustafa
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 774-781; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1588

Abstract:
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of different level of energy on growth, carcass traits, body composition, digestibility and some blood parameters. Twenty one Awassi lambs (4 month old and 23 kg body weight) were used and after 10 days of adaptation, the lambs were divided equally and randomly and penned individually into three treatment groups, and fed ad lib on low (10.8 T1) medium (11.6 T2) and high (12.3 T3 MJ/kg DM). After 72 days of fattening, 5 lambs from each treatment were chosen and slaughtered. Results revealed that lambs of T3 had numerically higher daily gain (189.72 g), lower dry matter intake (849.46 g), higher feed efficiency (4.7), higher dressing percentage (48.43) and a significant increase (P≤0.05) was noticed in dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient as compared with lambs received low or medium level of energy. It could be concluded that the high dietary energy produce the best performance, nutrient digestion and carcass trait of lambs.
H. J. Al-Aboudi, A. J. Al-Rudainy, A. Abid Maktoof Maktoof
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 819-824; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1594

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate the lead and cadmium in water and in fish samples collected from three sites of Gharraf River at Thi Qar from September 2020 until April 2021. Results showed that (Pb) in river water ranged 0.156 - 4.306µg/l and the (Cd) 0.074 - 0.523 µg/l which recorded a significant differences among all sites as well as among all seasons. In addition the concentrations of Pb in some tissues  of  Cyprinus carpio ranged 0.069 - 4.98µg/g in muscles and kidney respectively, while Cd  ranged  0.038 - 1.46 µg/gin muscles and kidney respectively. The study also showed a significant differences in Pb concentrations in fish tissues among all sites during seasons and recorded a significant differences in the summer compared with other season for Pb and Cd. A significant difference was also found in Pb and Cd concentrationsbetween cages fish and the wild fishes for all seasons.The study proved that the water of the Al-Gharraf River is of low toxicity and less than the Iraqi and international standards, and the accumulation of Pb and Cd in the muscles of fish was less than the limits of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection and the World Health Organization.
A. F. Abdul-Majeed, S. Y. Abdul-Rahman
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 810-818; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1593

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of in-ovo injection with vitamin E and selenium during the incubation and post-hatching period. 360 fertilized eggs of Ross 308 broiler breeders were incubated, then distributed on 10th day into three groups (120 eggs/group). 1st group: uninjected eggs, 2nd group: eggs were injected with 0.1 ml deionized water/egg in the chorioallantoic cavity, and 3rd group: eggs were injected with 0.1 ml/egg of Introvit-E-Selen in chorioallantoic cavity. After hatching, 270 chicks were randomly distributed into six groups, and reared until 42 days aged as follows: birds in 1st, 3rd and 5th groups drinks tap water only (free from any addition), while birds of other groups, were reared on drinking water supplemented with 12.5 mg vitamin E and 500 µg sodium selenite/liter water. Results showed a significant increase in hemoglobin, lymphocytes% and serum globulin, and a significant decrease in packed cell volume%, heterophils%, heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin concentration as compared with control. In conclusion, vitamin E and selenium have enhanced some immunological aspects and reduced stress, as well as a number of hematological parameters of broiler chicks, also, the continuity of Vit.E-Selenium addition led to continuous improvement of physiological parameters, and when it stopped, the values of those parameters were retracted.
A. J. A. Al-Saedi, T. A. Abdulkareem
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 752-759; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1585

Abstract:
This study was conducted to compare the semen immediate and microscopic characteristics of the three lines of Holstein bulls. Twenty-one Holstein bulls were divided into three groups belonging to the three lines of Holstein bulls; born in Iraq (Australian origin; n = 8), resulting from embryo transfer technology (New Zealand origin; n = 7), as well as the first generation (F1) resulted from two parents obtained from embryo transfer technology in Iraq (New Zealand origin; n = 6).The ET and L groups showed greater (P≤0.01) ejaculate volume, live sperms percentage, and plasma membrane integrity percentage compared to the F1 group of bulls. Moreover, ET bulls exhibited higher (P≤0.01) sperm concentration than L and F1 bulls. The ET and F1 bulls were superior (P≤0.01) to L bulls in the percentages of sperm’s cell individual motility and normal sperms. The percentage of DNA damage was significantly (P≤0.05) decreased in the F1 group compared to the L group but did not differ from those of the ET group. In conclusion, the ET and F1 Holstein bulls weresuperior to L bulls in most immediate and microscopic semen characteristics and their adaptation to the Iraqi environment.
Shilan H. S., Shara J. Hama
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 878-889; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1600

Abstract:
This  study was conducted at two different research fields (Kanipanka and Qlyasan), at the Kurdistan region of Iraq during winter season (2019- 2020) to investigate the effects of NPK and organic fertilizer application on seed yield and its components, protein, oil content, oil yield, and some fatty acid compositions. The experimental design was a complete block design with three replications. The application of (0.00, 40, 80, and 120 kg NPK ha-1) are the main plots. While three applications of (0.00, 600, 1200 kg organic fertilizer ha-1) for subplots. The 120 kg NPK ha-1 had highest seed and oil yield of 2474.178, and 793.249 kg ha-1, respectively, the average of both locations. The application of 1200 kg organic fertilizer ha-1 gave the maximum seed yield, the oil yield of 2172.642, and 719.463 kg ha-1, respectively, for the average of both locations. Results showed the significant effect of NPK and organic fertilizer applications on the percentage of oleic, linoleic, and stearic acids. The study was proved the significant and highest oil yield when NPK application rate increased from 40 to 120 kg ha-1 and from 600 to 1200 kg organic fertilizer ha-1.
Suhad S. Mahmood
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 958-964; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1608

Abstract:
This study was aimed to detect the prevalence of blaVIM and blaNDM genes among Enterobacter cloacae isolates that were isolated from Iraqi patients. About 50 bacterial isolates were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city and all these isolates were diagnosed using biochemical tests and CHROMagar culture media and conformed using the Vitek II system. The antibiotic susceptibility for E.cloacae isolates  was determined using the disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method and the results showed that  these bacteria were showed  resistance to Cefepime and Meropenem antibiotics in percentage (50%), (40%) respectively. In addition it is resistant to Amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, Piperacillin, and aztreonam was (20%), (50%), (40%), and (55%) respectively. Also it has been noted that all isolates showed resistance to Cefixime in percentage (100%). EDTA combined disc test was used to detect the ability of E. cloacae isolates to produce carbapenemase and the results were showed that only 8 isolates were gave positive results  , While the prevalence of blaVIM and blaNDM was determined using the conventional Polymerase chain reaction technique.  And the result showed that only four isolates harbored blaNDM while blaVIM was present in 3 isolates
N. M. Al-Abide
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 911-921; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1603

Abstract:
This research was aimed to study three species which are prevalent in northern Iraq: Alyssium strigosum Banks and Sol., Clypeola jonthlaspi L, and Isatis tinctoria L. belonging to the Alysseae and Lepidieae tribes.The general characteristics of the roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds are studied and it turned out that and the two species A. strigosum and C. jonthlaspi are similar due to their belonging to the Alysseae tribe, and the species I. tinctoria differs since it belongs to the Lepidieae tribe. In addition, 6 secondary metabolites are diagnosed using the qualitative tests: alkalis, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and sapindales. The presence of terpenoids was not observed, and the alcohol extract is superior to the aqueous extract regarding the accuracy of the results. The phenols are detected using HPLC technology and four compounds are found: Rutin, Quercetin, Kaempferol and P-Coumarin. The importance of studying the chemical content comes from its use in subsequent studies and knowledge of its uses in the medical fields.
Osama .S. S.
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 833-849; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1596

Abstract:
This study was conducted to develop a protocol for micropropagation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars Red globe and Superior by investigating their response to three media Murashige and Skoog (MS), Chee and Pool (C2D), and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) during the establishment stage besides study the impact of four cytokinin types 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 2-isopentyladenine (2iP), kinetin (Kin) and thidiazuron (TDZ) at various concentrations on the shoot multiplication as well as acclimatization of neoformed plantlets on several media. A completely randomized design (CRD)was used and data were analyzed by SASS 9.1. The results revealed that the WPM medium was optimum in terms of shoot length and leaf number (4.00 cm, 5.10) respectively. On the other side, Red globe gave the best results on both C2D and WPM media in average shoot length (4.38, 4.46 cm) and average leaf number (6.00, 5.42) respectively. In the multiplication stage and at 1 mgL-1, BA showed the longest shoot and leaf number (2.3, 6.67) respectively. While kin gave the maximum shoot length with a mean of 3.57 cm. Moreover, BA significantly at 1 mgL-1, 2iP at 2 mg L-1, Kin at 5 mgL-1 , and TDZ at 1 mgL-1 gave the highest values compared to other concentrations. Plantlets acclimatization results revealed that sterilized 1:1:1 (v:v) peatmoss+perlite+sand mix gave the highest survival rate (100.00%) and showed the best vegetative growth.
Y. K. Al-Bayati, E. A. Hadi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 760-766; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1586

Abstract:
This study was aimed to synthesize a new molecularly imprinted polymer using a functional monomer of styrene(STY) and allyl chloride(ALC) and N, N-methylene bis-acrylamide (MBAA) as a cross-linker for the selective extraction of cocaine from urine samples. Cocaine is used as a template to create a monolithic solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber. All of these analytical procedures were utilized to extract, preconcentrate, and selectively determine Cocaine and its derivatives (SPME) with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Samples taken from a suspected cocaine addict who was given to the medico-legal directorate as a donation (Baghdad, Iraq). The analytes were monitored using UV-Vis , (GC MS), FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The RSD percent for two patients' repeated studies for three measurements range from (1.587-4.545) percent cocaine 20-100 ppm .
Rezan M. A. Al-Hajani, N. N. F. Haded, S. F. A. Al Bamarny
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 850-856; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1597

Abstract:
This study was carried out on fruit of local orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) grown at private orchard Diyala governorate / Iraq, to study the effect of dipped fruits for 10 min in (0, 1, 2, 3% citric acid, 5 and 10% ginger) on fruit quality of orange during 65- and 105-days cold storage at 5+1 with 85- 90% RH. Dipping fruits in citric acid solution reduced fruit's weight loss and decay. Ginger extract at 5 and 10% significantly reserved acidity, total sugar and sugar/acid ratio, also caused a reduction in fruit weight loss and fruit decay. There was a significant decreases in fruits peel carotene and an increases in vitamin C, when fruits were treated with 5% ginger extract. Prolonging storage period from 65 to 105day significantly increased fruit total soluble solids, weight loss, total sugar, and fruit peel carotene but, reduced vitamin C and total acidity. The interaction between dip treatments and storage period had a significantly positive effect on the quality feature of fruit orange.
Arwa R. K., M. H. Kawan
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 798-801; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1591

Abstract:
This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of Babesiosis in different areas at Baghdad city, by using microscopic examination ;180 sheep’s head blood samples were collected from each local breed (122 males and 58 females) with different age groups from 6 months to more than one year old, during the period extended from 1/October2019 to end of April 2020.Giemsa stained blood smears were done for detection Babesia spp. ; The overall rate of  infection with Babesia spp. in sheep was 15.55% (28/180), significant differences P≤0.05 was  recorded between male 19.67% ( 24/122) and female 6.89% ( 4/58 ), and sheep with  equal or more than one year old  registered higher rate of  infection 18.18% (2/11) , also highest rate of infection recorded in April 45% (9/20) with highly significant differences P≤0.01 between months of study.
Jassam Q. T., E. H. Ali, M. S. Ghaylan
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 941-949; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1606

Abstract:
This study was aimed to measure marketing efficiency and study important factors affecting , using TOBIT qualitative response model for wheat crop in Salahalddin province. Results revealed that independent factors such as (marketing type, crops duration in the field, average marketing cost, distance between farm and marketing center, and average productivity) had an impact on wheat marketing efficiency. This impact varied in size and direction due to value of parameters. Values of marketing efficiency fluctuated within cities and towns in the province. The average value on the province level was 76.75%. This study was recommended developing marketing infrastructures which is essential to efficiency increases. In addition, it is important to decrease routine administrative procedures in governmental marketing institutions and establish marketing centers, even if they will be temporary, in harvesting and marketing period near the production areas.
E. A. H. Al-Marzani, M. S. Barwary
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 743-751; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1584

Abstract:
This research was designed to know the effect of different estrus synchronization protocols on Serum E, P, FSH, and LH  during different estrus periods and pregnancy in Karadi and Arabi ewes. The study was carried out by using 30 ewes for each breed at 2-4 years. Ewes from each breed were equally and randomly distributed into three groups. The first group was treated with vaginal sponges saturated with (60 mg) of Medroxy progesterone acetate within a period of (14) fourteen days (T1). The second group was administrated with the MAP injected with a dose of 300 IU / head of the hCG (T2). The third group was treated with MAP treatment, and injected at a dose of 75 µg /head of GnRH (T3). The results of this analysis showed a significant increase in the estrogen concentration in the different reproductive stages; the significant level of estrogen in the estrus phase (60.96)pg/ml. The concentration of progesterone differed significantly in the different reproductive stages, with the highest concentration in the pregnancy period (16.33) pg/ml. In comparison, the FSH concentration differed significantly in the different reproductive stages with the highest concentration in the estrus period(3.243) mIU/ml.  thehighest  significant level of serum LH is in the estrus period (5.230) mIU/ml. Thus, the study is concluded that hormones and phases may be effective in inducing follicular growth and ovulation and finally may increase pregnancy rate and production .
Aswandi A., B. L. Syaefullah, D.A. Iyai, M. Jen. Wajo
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 732-742; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1583

Abstract:
The objective of this research was to observe the productivity in kacang goats which were given a complete feed containing flour of various types of banana plant weevils. The material studied in this study was six complete types of feed. Complete feed containing weevil flour from 5 banana plant varieties. Complete feed is prepared with a complete feed composition. The cattle used were 18 male bean goats, mean initial body weight, 15.42 ± 1.98 kg (CV: 13.73%) aged 10-15 months. Livestock is given complete feed containing banana weevil flour for 60 days. The cage is 12 m x 6m in size, construction has a floor platform as high as 140 cm, the enclosure is 1 x 1 m in size and 130 cm in height, equipped with a drinking area. The treatment was in the form of 6 complete types of feed with different formulations, consisting of CF0, CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4, and CF5 containing banana weevil flour with different varieties and control treatment (CF0). The research design used was a completely randomized design with five treatments of complete feed formulas containing hump flour of various banana varieties.The results of the research that the complete feed formulation containing Batu banana hump flour (CF2) and Kapok (CF3) produced the best productivity and performance response of Kacang goat. compared to treatment; CF0  CF1; CF4 and CF5.
Majda B, A. Barchan, A. Aarab, M. Bakkali, A. Arakrak, A. Laglaoui
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 802-809; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1592

Abstract:
The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from Origanum compactum, Thymus capitatus, Foeniculum vulgare, and Rosmarinus officinalis was assessed with the well diffusion method and a microbroth dilution assay against E. coliisolated from the carcasses of rabbits. The chemical composition of these essential oils was also determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results of this study indicate that essential oils with high phenol content exert a strong antibacterial activity against E. coli. Essential oils of Origanum compactum and Thymus capitatus containing high amounts of the monoterpenoid phenols thymol and carvacrol (68.99% and 95.25% carvacrol composition, respectively) were particularly effective against E. coli  with low values of MIC = 0.3125% v/v and MBC = 0.625% v/v to report. The essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also possessed  moderate antibacterial activity (MIC = 50 % v/v) with a non-bactericidal effect, while the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis was ineffective at the concentrations tested.
S. T. S. Al-Dabbagh
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 867-877; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1599

Abstract:
This study was conducted on the 22 taxa of the genus Trifolium L. which grow naturally as wild plants in all geographical districts in Iraq. A comparative study of the leaf petioles was anatomically examined by paraffin method. Petiole cross-section outline shapes have divided the genus species into fourteen groups and sub-groups. According to the microscopical characteristics the cortex of petioles showed to contain layers of various tissues, the collenchyma tissue observed sub-epidermally in some species, and cortexes of the others were devoid of collenchyma. The sclerenchyma strands were noted in three patterns; above vascular bundles, above and beneath vascular bundles, and the sclerenchyma strands completely surrounded the vascular bundles in some species. Petiole cross-sections have been divided into three categories as; three vascular bundles and absent of accessory vascular bundles, three vascular bundles with one of accessory vascular bundle, three vascular bundles with two accessory vascular bundles. The comparative results confirmed that these characteristics collectively are of high taxonomic value and can contribute to separating the studied genus species, finally, based on these variations, the anatomical classification key was constructed to separate the genus taxa.
Shnrwe B. M., R. M. Ahmed
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 901-910; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1602

Abstract:
Two field experiment were conducted to evaluate the effect of different fertilizer on seed yield and oil content of two Black cumin species (Nigella sativa and Nigella arvensis), the first experiment was conducted at Qlyasan Agricultural Research Qlyasan Agricultural Research Station, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, and the second experiment was conducted at Kanipanka Research Station, Sulaimani Agricultural Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Recourses during the autumn season of 2020-2021. The field experiment was laid out according to factorial Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD), with three replications. The results demonstrated that Nigella sativa gave maximum values for seed yield, fixed oil %, and essential oil% while Nigella arvensis produced maximum values for chemical constituents Thymoquinone and Nigellone at both location and their averages. The %2 organic matter produced maximum for all studied characters. The variation amount of seed yield, oil %, Essential oil % and chemical Constituents Thymoquinone and Nigellone were noticed due to the interaction treatment of N. Arvensis and %2 organic matters, at both locations and their average. Kanipanka location was significantly predominated Qlyasan location in seed yield, essential oil %, Nigellone and Thymoquinone.
Omar N. Salman, A.M. Abd Al-Hayany, Kadhim M. Ibrahim
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 825-832; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i4.1595

Abstract:
This study was carried out at three locations (Laboratory of Plant Tissue Culture, Fields of the College of Agriculture, University of Diyala and one of the private nursery at the city of Baqubah.  The applied experiments included two separate experiments on the scion Mandarin Clementine micro grafted on Sour orange rootstock. The first micro grafting experiment aimed to develop a method of vegetative propagation of Clementine and transferring the micro grafts  from a laboratory to the field and comparing grafting dates (spring, early autumn, late autumn) with the laboratory grafting after treating grafting region with different concentrations of gibberellin (0, 0.3 or 0.4 mg. L-1). The effect of grafting dates on the percentages of success of grafted plants after one month of acclimatization. The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized design (CRD) as a factorial experiment with two factors and three replications for the first one, and as a single factor experiment with three replicates for the second experiment. Results showed a decline in the percentage of success of the grafting and a slight success correlated with increased gibberellin concentration in the aforementioned experiment at early fall grafting. A second field experiment, was conducted with the aim of studying the success of maintained micro propagated plants during summer season and the effect of foliar spray with salicylic acid (0, 200 or 400 mg. L-1) and marine algae extract (0, 5 or 10 g. L-1) on some characteristics of vegetative growth and some chemical characteristics. The experiment was carried out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), as a factorial experiment with two factors and three replications. No significant effect for both factors was recorded in most vegetative characteristics, while chemical composition was significantly affected caused by the two factors.
Ali I. Fadhil, Houida H. Abed, S. R. Fadel, M.Th. S. Al-Zubaidi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 584-588; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1567

Abstract:
The current study was designed for analysis of the pattern of the nucleotide sequence of the tissue DNA isolates based on the ITS2,28SrDNA gene by the traditional polymerase chain reaction. All amplicons were well suited for the prepared primer with size 873 bp . and identical ratio ranged 87.2- 98% of the same species, as included a high similarity of the isolates taken camels in Iran and Iraq related to Parabronema skrjabini . Phylogenic tree inferred the degree of relatedness between 28SrDNA sequences deposited in the international nucleotide bank sequence database (NCBI). The sequence of Parabronema skrjabini was recorded in the Genbank under accession number MT742154.1.
Sura N. I., A. J. Hashim, W. M. Abood
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 522-533; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1560

Abstract:
Trichoderma harzianum produced 5.383 U/mg of laccase in solid state fermentation (SSF) using 10gm of wheat bran as substrate with moisture content 1:0.7 w/v, using  4 plugs×5mm as inoculums size, for 7 days at 28C°. Laccase was partially purified with 7.260 fold and yield 84.01% by ion exchange chromatography DEAE-cellulose. Partially purified laccase had an optimum pH of 4 and was stable in pH range from 3.5 to 5.5. The optimum temperature for laccase activity was 35C° and stability was range from 15 to 35C° with 1h of incubation. The ability of T. harzianum isolate to decolorize textile dyes on solid media appears completely decolorization of Blue dye with concentrations 50,100 and partially decolorized with concentration 150,200 and 250 ppm, while the Yellow dye and Red dye were completely decolorized at 50 ppm concentration. The ability of partial purified laccase to degradation of phenol was completely occurs in concentration 5, 10 but  at 20, 50 and 100 ppm about 90.94%, 93.93%and 36.78% respectively, while furfural degradation  at 5 and 10 ppm  was about 86.84%  and 68.66% respectively which detected using HPLC technique.
Ammar K. A., M. F. Altaee
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 487-495; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1556

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to establish the existence and interaction of TMPRSS2 – ERG gene fusion status with clinicopathological features of prostate cancer patients. This research consisted of 123 embedded formalin-fixed tissues obtained from the prostate tumor patients. The above gene fusion is detected through the technique of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) by means of a triple color probe. Seven samples have not been scored due to technical difficulties and 46 patients have fusion (39.6%), while the remaining (70) have not been seen with fusion. Of the 46 fusion-positive, 17 (36%) were caused by ERG-translocation, of the other 29 (63%) were caused by the interstitial segment deletion between the two genes due to their sequential position. In order to find a substantial correlation between 116 patients (fusion took place in 46 and non-fusion in 70) with clinicopathological features, the following findings were calculated: Our findings recorded non-significant correlation at age, BMI and tumor size at which (P-value >0.05).While results showed significant association with: pathological T stage (P value = 0.011), Gleason score (P value = 0.002), perineural invasion (P value = 0.047) and PSA (P value = 0.033). The clinicopathological features which had a considerable correlation with fusion status are very important as they aid the doctors in prognosis and treatment of such tumor.
H. I. Aziz, D.J. Al-Hawezy
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 636-644; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1573

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigat the effects of probiotic, prebiotic and symbioticon the egg production, suitable egg, unsuitable egg and uniformity reread at deferent stock density. A total of 600broiler breeder Ross 308 (540 female and 60 male) was used in this study for a period of 48 -64 weeks at two levels of stocking density (normal and high stock density). For each stock density birds were fed diet either control diet (T1), standard diet + 0.15g probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces cervisiae) powder/ kg diet (T2), standard diet + 0.15g prebiotic (inulin) powder/ kg diet(T3) and standard diet + 0.15g symbiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces cervisiae+inulin) powder/ kg diet (T4).  Highly significant increase in egg production and suitable egg for dietary additives compared with control group at all weeks of production, but dietary probiotic had significant decrease in unsuitable egg when compared with the controls, however normal density significant increases in egg production and unsuitable egg compared with high density. The probiotic treatments had the lowest body weight variation. It can be concluded that the supplementation of probiotic in the diet of commercial broiler breeder reared under high stocking density had a positive influence on overall suitable egg.
Merkhan M. Mustafa
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 578-583; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1566

Abstract:
This study was conducted at the Animal |Production Sciences, College of Agricultural Engineering Science, University of Duhok to estimate the effect of different levels of oleobiotec on the production performance, egg quality of Japanese quail. A total of 105 Japanese quail 17 weeks of age obtained from a local farm and distributed into five treatments with three replicate for each one had (7 quail).Different doses of oleobiotec significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved egg production, egg weight, and egg mass, fed conversion ratio and egg weight uniformity percentage. Concerning egg haugh unit significantly improved (P<0.05) by using oleobiotec while, other egg quality did not influenced with different level of oleobiotec.
Naeem. A. Mutlag, Aliaa. K. Mohammed
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 645-653; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1574

Abstract:
A field experiment was carried out at the field with clay loam soil in the winter seasons of 2018 - 2019 and 2019 - 2020 in order to study the effect of three levels of salt stress on yield and its components for four cultivars of barley (Hordeum valgare L.(. which be approved in Iraq.Factorial experiment with in Randomized Complete Block design with three replications. The treatments included three levels of irrigation water salinity (5,10,15) ds.m-1 and four cultivars of barley (IPA 99, Buhooth 265, Samir, and Amal). The results showed that the salinity of the irrigation water caused a significant decreases of the number of spikes.m-2, number of grains. spike-1, weight of 1000 grains (gm) and grain yield. plant. -1 at levels S2 and S3 and for both studies seasons in comparison with treatment S1, which gave the highest averages for the mentioned traits, significant differences among barley cultivars in terms of their tolerance to salinity. It was found that Samir cultivar was more tolerant to salinity than the other cultivars.
Duaa Abdullah, Reema M. Aloubaidy
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 505-514; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1558

Abstract:
This study examined the potential association between polymorphisms of Caspase 9 −293del (rs4645982) and Caspase8−652 6N ins / del (rs3834129) and the danger of acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia in Iraqi population. This case-control study was conducted as 128 (62 acute, and 66 chronic) myeloid leukaemia patient and 65 healthy individuals not infected with cancer. A conventional PCR method was used for detection in this study. The results showed that the Caspase9 293del (rs4645982) in homozygous and heterozygous deletion genotypes were associated significantly with CML risk (  p=  0.001  and   0.005 ,respectively ) and in homozygous insertion and deletion genotypes of Caspase 8 -652 6N were also associated significantly with CML risk (p= 0.004  and p= 0.00, respectively), while there were non significant association between Caspase9 293del (rs4645982) and  Caspase8 652 6N (rs3834129) with AML risk in all genotypes of them  p > 0.05. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the Caspase-9 and Caspase-8 genes might be useful markers for determining genetic susceptibility to CML and AML. The results of this study suggest that Caspase9-293  is associated with increased risk of CML in case of  homozygous of deletion, and insertion  in case of AML, while in  Caspase8-652 6N insertion  polymorphism are associated with increased risk of  both CML and AML in a sample of Iraqi populations.
Rafeef F. H, H.A.A. Alsalim
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 551-560; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1563

Abstract:
This study was aimed to detect the spreading of E.histolytica among children with diarrhea, to achieve that,221 stool specimens were collected from diarrheal children of all ages and both gender, in Baghdad city at a period extended from early September 2019 to the end of February 2020. The collected specimens were examined directly by the light microscope for detecting the presence of E.histolytica. DNA was extracted from positive microscopically stool specimens, then examined by PCR to confirm the diagnosis of E. histolytica, by targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA(18S rRNA) gene. The result showed that 78 (35.3%) of diarrheal cases were caused by E. histolytica according to the microscopically direct smear method, while 143 (64.7%) were other diarrheal causes. The infection with E. histolytica rate in males (59%) was higher than in females (41%), however, this variation was not significant (P = 0.973). E. histolytica was considerably more prevalent in the age group<1-3 years (62.9%)and lower rate in the age group 10-12 years (3.8%). PCR examination results confirmed the presence of E. histolytica in 70 (89.7%) of 78 samples that were positive by microscopic examination which were 44 (62.8%) and 26 (37.2%) males and females respectively, this variation was significantly. Patients in the age group less than 1-3 years had the most infection with E. histolytica.
R. N. Suhail, S. A. Mustafa, E.E. Al-Obodi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 589-597; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1568

Abstract:
The present investigation was carried out to investigate the antibacterial efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in vitro against Aeromonas hydrophila using disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. The pathogenicA. hydrophila was isolated from infected common carp, usually diagnosed by chemical methods, and Avitek 2 compact device were used to confirm the diagnosis. The effectiveness of the prepared AgNPs was tested by chemical and biological(green synthesis using lemon extract) methods and were diagnosed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), which was spherical shape of the nanosilver and the size ranged between 30-50 nm.  Results of disc diffusion assay showed that the chemical synthesized of AgNPs in 18hr recorded the highest inhibition zone followed by the bio-synthesized AgNPs and Oxytetracycline respectively. After 24 hr the highest inhibition zone was registered in Oxytetracycline, however after 5 days bio-synthesized AgNPs showed the higher inhibition zone which was significantly different(P≤0.05) in comparison to other products. Based on these results, both bio and chemical synthesized of AgNPs were effectively act as antibacterial against A.hydrophila. However, green synthesis using lemon extract is considered better antibacterial with low MIC than chemical AgNPs because lemon extract is regarded eco-friendly and also the low cost product compared to chemical AgNPs synthesis. 
Halah M. Shalikh, Majid R. Majeed
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 570-577; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1565

Abstract:
The" aim"of this study is to use the natural adsorbents which consist of gum arabic as absorbents for plant products to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater and standard aqueous solutions with a prepackaged bed column (PBC) technique based on a Box-Wilson design". The gum arabic was modified into carbonated gum by oven maville at 300°C. The influence of were studied: pH value, contact time, and removal efficiency estimation using a packed layer column which gives the best" heavy metal removal" performance."The study showed the removal efficiency tests of charred gum arabic absorbers that the best removal from industrial wastewater were: 80%, 68.75% and 90.7% for lead (Pb), cobalt (Co) and cadmium (Cd) respectively, at pH 5-6.5 and contact time. 0.25 - 4.30 hours. While from the standard aqueous solutions, they were: 82.5%, 71.4% and 91% for Pb, Co and Cd respectively, at pH 5 - 6.5 and contact time 0.25 - 4.30 hours. In addition, other pollutants of charred gum arabic such as total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (E.C) have been reduced in industrial wastewater. The carburizing degumming efficiency showed significant differences between removal of heavy metals at (p≤ 0.05).
R.I. Kadhim, E. D. Salman
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 515-521; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1559

Abstract:
The PRNCR1 gene variant among sample of Prostate Cancer (PCa) Iraqi patientscase-control study was used, with PCa patients (n=32) and healthy individual control (n=33). It was successfully identified two SNPs in prostate cancer-associated noncoding RNA-1 (PRNCR-1) gene by using PCR technique and direct sequencing . The first SNP is rs13252298 (A>G) have three genotypes (AA,AG,GG )and the second SNP is rs5013678 (T> C) have three genotypes TT,TC,CC),these genotype frequencies were not in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in patients and controls .It was observed that AG genotype  was more frequent in patients than controls(68.7% vs. 36.4%) with significant difference p<0.01  ,and the estimated OR of such a difference was 3.85 , this value was positive  associated with PCa patients that mean this genotype AG was risk factor for PCa patients, it was also noticed that  G  allele in PCa patients compared with controls(40.6 vs.33.3%)  show not significant difference p>0.05 . It was revealed  that G  allele have  OR=1.16 that mean this allele have positive risk factor for PCa patients .  In conclusion  AG genotype for SNP rs13252298  was associated with PCa patients.
Y. J. Mohammed, E. H. Yousif
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 611-624; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1571

Abstract:
This study was designed for the molecular diagnosis and assessment of histopathological changes of ORF infection in sheep and goats in Basra governorate in Iraq. The virus was detected by using -polymerase chain reaction. The samples were taken from the skin of the lips of animals infected with contiguous ecthema. Hundred samples taken from the sheep and 100 samples from goats of suspected animals, the results of the molecular diagnosis showed that 76 (76%) of sheep were infected and 71 (71%) of goats were infected by diagnosing the partial of ORFV037 gene (173bp), and ORFV039 (703bp), the sequences were determined and recorded in the NCBI and drawn the phylogenetic tree.The results of histopathological study showed presented various changes in cutaneous tissues in sheep include hyperplasia of hair follicles, sebaceous gland and sweet gland, parakeratosis, hyalinization of keratin Also to a picture of tumores, inflammation appear clearly in dermis also to hyperplasia of epidermis towered dermis. In goat showed prolifration of epidermis layer and papillae projection, Highly proliferation structures spinosum, sebaceous gland, sweet gland, and proliferation hair follicles with thickening it wall, hyperkeratosis of epidermis, infiltration of inflammatory cells and ulceration with necrotizing of epidermis.
M. S. Elias, Kadhim D.H. Al-Jubouri
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 712-723; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1581

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate genetic relation among 21 selective of watermelon seeds which collected from different commercial companies for different origins and produced at different years by using 12 primers for Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR). The results showed that the selective of Crimson sweet had genotypes highest genetic relation between ( K1 and K2) it was found less than the genetic similarity between ( K1and K4) , ( K2 and K4) .The four selective were divided two groups A and B. The results showed that the selective a Charleston gray had the highest genetic relation between (CH4 and CH6) while it found less than the genetic relation between (CH5 and CH9). The ten selectives were divided two cluster A and B,The groups A was divided three sub clusters .The results revealed that the highest genetic relation between the selective of the variety Sugar baby (S1and  S3). While found less genetic relation between the (S1 and S5) and divided the selectives of Sugar baby into two main cluster A and B, The cluster B was divided two sub cluster. The result found that the highest genetic relation among the 21 selective it was between ( CH4 and CH6), while found less than  of genetic similarity among ( CH8 and  S5) ( CH8 and S2),( S2 and K1) ,( S2 and K2) ,( S2  and CH9),( K1  and S5) ( S5 and CH9). The 21 selectives was divided two main clusters A and B the group A was divided to three sub clusters while the group B was divided two sub clusters. It could be concluded that the genetic relation it is very important in the hybridization programs to it prove a large genetic base to benefit of plant breeding programs.
Araz O. Bamerny, Jalal E. Alkass, Mwafaq S. Barwary
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 604-610; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1570

Abstract:
To evaluate the effect of different hormonal treatments on reproductive performance of local goats, 60 adult does were synchronized by using sponges impregnated with 40 mg medroxy acetate (MAP) for 14 days. Following sponges withindrawn, the does were allocated randomly to four equal groups. The first group was served as control and intramuscularly injected with normal saline (T1). The does in group 2,3  and 4 were injected intramuscularly with 250 i.u hCG(T2) 400 i.u. eCG(T3) and 20 µg GnRH(T4), respectively. Results revealed that the highest estrus response was recorded in T2 (100%) followed by T4(93.3%), T1 (86.7%) and T3(73.3%). Fertility rate was significantly (p˂0.05) higher in T4 (93.3%) and the lowest was found in T3 (66.7%). A significantly higher kidding rate (146.7%) and litter size (1.69) was recorded in T2. While the lowest kidding rats and litter size was recorded in T4 and T3, respectively.   
A.S. J. Z. Al-Hayani, S. N.H. Al-Hassoon, M.A.J. Al-Obaidi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 654-659; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1575

Abstract:
Extraction of Copper ion from its water solutions using plant waste (compost), sludge and Bentonite metal as cheap natural adsorbed materials. It was found that Copper ion extraction was based on concentration of  Copper  and amount of the adsorbed materials. Highest amount of adsorption was obtained at 180 µg Cu ml-1 as Bentonite, plant waste and sludge respectively. Thermal equilibrium of the system was studied by Langmuir equation, R2 gave a good linear relationship  in succession. Maximum regulatory capacity and regulatory capacity at equilibrium is 1.0 , 0.99 and 0.96 to  plant waste, sludge and Bentonite respectively, as the preference coefficient constant calculated by the Langmuir equation indicate that adsorption is preferable and irriversible for plant waste and sludge while not preferentially and reversible for bentonite. G adsorption reactions were automatic for the Bentonite metal, while for plant waste and sludge  non-spontaneous reaction and needs extra activation energy. It is clear from the above that the use of natural materials in the extraction of copper ion is a very effective method and it is an inexpensive and friendly methods envirooment.                    
Taqwa A. Al-Barazanchi, Z. H. Abood, R. S. Al-Rawi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 534-541; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1561

Abstract:
Forty nine sputum specimens were collected from patients with aspergillosis attended to four hospitals in Baghdad. The frequent species of Aspergillus identified included Aspergillus fumigatus 23(46.9%),Aspergillus niger 14 (28.6%), followed byAspergillus flavus 12 (24.5%). According to age group factor, the age group (50-59) years appeared to be more susceptible to infected by aspergillosis with percentage at (24.5%). The results was revealed that no significant differences between male and female with aspergillosis infection. To detect A.fumigatus isolates by molecular methods, the genomic DNA were extracted and amplification to detect the aspHS gene by the singleplex PCR method using species-specific primers for these A.fumigatus, to sum up 17 of isolates from 23 isolates of A.fumigatus which identified the previous by morphological and microscopic methods, by observing the singleplex PCR product of aspHS gene with ~108 bp. The total RNA of A.fumigatus was extracted by using TRIzol purification kit and convert to cDNA and submit for further amplification to detect the Heat Shock protein 70 genes (Hsp70 genes) expression as virulence factor in variable temperature activation include 28 ºC, 37 ºC and 45 ºC by real time PCR. The results of HSP70 gene expression showed the level increased at 37 ˚C but decreased when the temperature increases to 45 ˚C.
R. I. Alazzawi, E. J. Khammas
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 598-603; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1569

Abstract:
The present study was carried out to detect efficacy of essential oils (oregano oil, anise oil, citrus oil and Digestarom® P.E.P) as an antiviral  on Newcastle disease infection in broilers.One hundred twenty, one-day-old broiler chickens (Copp500) were used. On day twenty, the one hundred chickens were divided into six groups.Each group contained 20 birds. All chicks were challenged with  median)virus titer embryo infectious  dose (EID50) 1ml per bird intraocular, intranasal and orally of the isolated very virulent Newcastle disease virus that identified by (HA, HI test, PCR and ICPI) and treated with the essential oils blend level used in drinking water for five days after challenge, G1 oregano oil1ml/L , G2 anise oil 1ml/L, G3 citrus oil1ml/L, G4 Digestarom® P.E.P 0.17ml/L, G5 control positive, and G6 control negative  without any treatment. The chickens were observed for clinical signs, gross lesion and weight until the end of the experiment.The result indicated that G4showed high protect than other oils with percentage 95% of survival chicks and mean weight 2054.42 gm, then G1 90% survival chickens and mean weight 1971.17gm, G2 85% survival chicks and mean weight 2148.88gm,G3 75% survival chicks  and mean weight 2227.07gm while G5 protection was 60% with mean weight 1866.67gm and G6showed 100% mortality rate.The results illustrate that G4 and G1 were the best treatments which recorded significantly ( P≤0.01)   followed by G2 and G3 respectively which recorded significantly (P≤0.05) in comparison with G5and G6.
D. A. O. Al-Sherwany, J. E. Alkass
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 625-635; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1572

Abstract:
Twelve new born Karadi lambs were docked within 3 days of their birth using rubber-rings, and left with their mothers till weaning (2.5 months). Another 12 weaned Karadi lambs obtained from local market were left intact. Following an adaptation period of a week, the docked and intact lambs with an average initial weight of 16.83±1.522 and 19.92± 0.748kg were randomly divided into three equal groups to be slaughtered at 20, 30 and 40kg. Results revealed that overall means of daily gain in weight, dressing percentage based on slaughter and empty body weight, rib eye area and fat thickness were 0.261±0.014kg, 45.956±0.428%, 53.933±0.678%, 11.288±0.488cm2 and 2.023±0.76mm, respectively, and no significant difference exist between them except dressing percentage based on empty body weight. It appears that carcasses of intact lambs compared to docked lambs contained significantly higher lean (62.79 vs. 59.85%), lean: fat (5.319 vs. 4.142), lean: bone (2.772 vs. 2.489) and numerically lower fat (16.058 vs. 14.042%) and bone (23.172 vs. 24.096%). Also, it was noticed as slaughter weight increase, there is an increase in dressing percentage, rib eye area, fat thickness, fat content of their carcass with a lower proportion of lean and bone.
Ali M. A., S.S. Mahmood
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 542-550; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1562

Abstract:
In this study out of 130 different clinical specimens, 70 Acinetobacterbaumannii were collected from hospitalized patients. Then; all the isolates were characterized using biochemical tests and confirmed by using the Vitek II compact system. All isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were subjected to the disc diffusion method to determine it's a susceptibility to 8 types of antibiotic disc, and the result showed these bacteria were resistant to Cefepime, Imipenem, trimethoprim, Piperacillin, tetracycline, Amikacin, ampicillin-sulbactam and levofloxacin. According to bacterial susceptibility test, all isolated were showed highly resistance to Trimethoprim (88.57%) and the lower resistance to tetracycline (47.14%). Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined only for levofloxacin resistant isolates of Acinetobacterbaumannii using the broth dilution method. MIC shows these bacteria were resistant to levofloxacin in concentration ranging between 32µg/100µl to 128µg/100µl. The relation between adeIK and levofloxacin resistance was calculated by determining gene expression using real-time PCR. The result showed the mean value of adeI and adeK before exposing bacteria to levofloxacin was 2.3 and 0.42 respectively while the mean value of adeI and adeK after exposing bacteria to levofloxacin was 3.15 and 3.29 respectively. This study indicates that adeI has a non-significant role (p-value=0.11) in providing resistance to levofloxacin, while adeK plays a significant role (p-value= 0.008) in providing resistance to levofloxacin.
L. A. Yaaqoob, R. M. Abed, Z. K. Kamona, M. F. Altaee
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 496-504; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1557

Abstract:
The present study was aimed to investigate the possibility of titanium oxide nanoparticles to enhance the production of both prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens and phenazine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover; the poor non-selective nutrient broth was used instead of using the selective nutrient broth for the production of both compounds to reduce the economic cost for production. Different concentrations of titanium oxide nanoparticles (0.005, 0.01, 0.015 mg/L) were used in this study to choose the most suitable concentrations to increase production. Both prodigiosin and phenazine were considered promising drugs for treating many diseases owing to their characteristics of antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive, and anticancer activities. The results revealed that both the prodigiosin and phenazine production was increased from S. marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when using titanium oxide nanoparticles at (0.01 mg/L) concentration and the size of an average diameter was 57.07 nm.
Firas K. Aljuboori, B. Y. Ibrahim, A. H. Mohamed
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 669-676; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1577

Abstract:
Rhizoctonia-Meloidogyne complex disease is a serious problem facing legume production in many countries. The infection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (R) and Meloidogyne javanica (M) in a single infection or combination causes severe damage to plant growth. The effect of using Glomus spp. (G) and Pseudomonas sp. (P) as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia- Meloidogyne complex disease was tested and assessed by comparing the growth and disease parameters in infected and control plants. Chickpea growth parameters are characterized by measuring shoot and root length, and fresh and dry weight. The results of using (G) and (P) in a single treatment or in combination showed a decrease in the root gall index and in root rot disease severity when compared to the infected and healthy control treatments. The (M+ R+ G) and (M + R + G + P) combination treatment increased polyphenol oxidase (POD) and peroxidase (PPO) enzyme activity value as well as the total phenols content in treated chickpea roots. The combined effects of (G) and (P) on the pathogens’ progression and the positive effects on chickpea growth parameters are suggested to be involved in efficient disease control.
W T. H. Al-Shammari, A. J. M. Al- Ogaidi
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 561-569; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1564

Abstract:
 This study was aimed to development and modification the method of analysis for active ingredient in Tamsulosin drug by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) also determined shelf life and storage conditions for Tamsulosin. Chromatographicconditions utilized stationary phase C18 (250*4.6) mobile phase 0.05Nmixture of  di hydrogen ortho phosphate and Acetonitrile 55:45 , preserve the flow rate near (1ml/min) and length of wave has been 275nm, The retention time found to be 10 minute for the HPLC process . The Tamsulosin assay result was found to be 99.93% . The calibration curve linearity analysis results showed a strong linear relationship in the concentration range (10-200ppm) and the correlation coefficient, slope and intercept value were 0.9933,11796,190017, respectively The percentage recovery was found 99%. LOD value was found to 0.00053 µg/ml  and LOQ value was found to 0.0016 µg/ml , Precision was found to be 99.49% Robustness was found to 99.69%. Our proposed procedure confirmed a group of merits such as  Linear ,accurate ,precise ,and robust , could be recommended for determination of Tamsulosin.
I.S.A Al-Hachami, F. H. N. Al-Bahadely, Osamah K. Jbara
IRAQI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Volume 53, pp 677-684; https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v53i3.1578

Abstract:
This research was aimed to study and analyze the costs, revenues, and profits of meat chicken breeding projects. The study also estimating the random frontier profit function, the profit inefficiency function and profit efficiency which based on cross-sectional data that included 59 projects for raising meat poultry in Waist governorate in 2020.The results of the analysis showed through the descriptive analysis of the cost structure that, the costs of chicks and fodder account for more than 70% of the costs, as well as achieving economic profits for projects. Through the random border profit function, the significance of both the total revenue and the costs of chicks, fodder, medicines, vaccines, and services (water, electricity and fuel) was shown. As for the inefficiency function parameters, they were significant for each proved the age of the breeder, his years of experience, the presence of the veterinarian and the agricultural engineer. As for the efficiency of profits, it was 76%. The researcher recommended the necessity of supporting breeding projects by providing incentives to feed factories and their processors or supporting feeds and private hatcheries to reduce costs and provide training for less experienced breeders and urge them to involve veterinarians and agricultural engineers in supervising broiler projects.
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