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Results in Journal Sustainable Engineering and Innovation: 55

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Vincent Ani
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 127-145;

This paper presents an algorithm for the study, sizing, simulation and data analysis of complete integrated PV/Wind/Hydro-Battery systems. It is a computer program developed for determining and sizing of renewable-based energy system that can be used for electric power supply at any given time. This tool is used in sizing the integrated PV/Wind/Hydro-Battery for sustainable power supply at Nkanu-West local government secretariat. The program calculates the optimum configuration of the system according to the weather data as well as the period of operation of solar cells. From the simulation results, it was shown that the source and load characteristics are effectively sized and the supplied energy is efficiently and rationally utilized. The structural analysis of the program is described in details through data flow diagrams. The proposed sizing tool is validated with HOMER software and the program can be adapted for application in any area.
Mohamad Abouchi, Suleyman Basturk
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4;

Historically, the engine crankcase has been made of gray cast iron due to that material's' high machinability, damping ability, thermal conductivity, and sensible cost. Despite these advantages and the long-term use of gray cast iron, the vehicle manufacturers predominately use cast aluminum as material of choice for the engine block due to aluminum’s density being almost a third of that of gray cast iron, and the aluminum engines have the same durability as gray cast iron while weighing considerably less. However, due to the low wear resistance of aluminum, efforts are needed to improve internal working surfaces such as the use of cast iron cylinder liners or the application of a protective coat is applied to the aluminum surface to increase its resistance. The purpose of this study is to examine which ring materials have the lowest friction with the Twin Wire Arc (TWA) aluminum cylinder liner. An Ansys simulation model accomplishes the experimental work. The steel ring material obviously had the lowest friction with twin wire arc spray aluminum cylinder liner as opposite to the cast iron material which was the worst.
Mohammed Ali Hadi, Ibrahim Ahmed Al-Baltah, Ammar Thabit Zahary
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 112-126;

Looking at the evolution of mobile phones, communications technology, and the Internet, one can see a clear shift in their usage in the past decade as mobile payment has become an important research area in the field of information technology. However, many financial institutions have adopted mobile payments. Except that only a limited number of clients are used. Several information systems theories/models have been proposed to examine the factors that could influence user adoption. However, the literature on the field is still in its infancy. This paper, reviews and systematically analyzes the existing mobile payment acceptance and adoption literature that include UTAUT/TAM as a theoretical model to reveal mobile payment adoption research's current situation. The current study also provides a basis for future researchers in the mobile payment adoption study, as it provides a summary of related literature in the field, the models used, and the factors that have an impact on customer intent. Accordingly, the UTAUT, TAM models, with their extensions, are one of the models most used in examining and understanding the necessary factors that could influence mobile payment applications' adoption. The research revealed that 37 factors most commonly than a literature review on factors of adoption mobile payment applications since 2015. It was found that the factors of perceived trust and perceived risks are among the most critical factors in which the models are expanded, as they have an impact on the customer's acceptance of any new technology innovation. Therefore, emphasis must be placed on the factors of perceived trust and perceived risks to increase the applicability of UTAUT, TAM models to the mobile payment context.
Yitong Niu, Andrei Korneev
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 104-111;

With the increasing concern about the environment, renewable energy development is imminent, and biomass utilization is an essential part of it. In many regions (e.g., Southeast Asia), palm kernels are a very economical feedstock for biomass energy production. However, the collection and transportation of palm kernels are complicated, which is not conducive to the further development of this industry. This paper analyzes the current situation of collection and transportation of palm kernels in Southeast Asian countries using basic analysis methods. Meanwhile, the characteristics of palm fruit bunches as biomass fuel and its transportation and handling methods are briefly introduced and analyzed concerning the fuel demand of biomass power generation projects. The shortcomings of the current methods were identified, and relevant directions for improvement were proposed. It is hoped that it can improve the transportation efficiency of palm fruit bunches as a feedstock for biomass power generation and provide a reference basis for the collection and transportation of palm fruit bunches biomass.
Hind B. Ali, Dalia R. Alazawi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 76-81;

The impact of 3D printing parameters is critical for expanding the application of technology in the design and construction. The effect of bonding layers on the compressive strength of the material is investigated in this research by variation of the layer thickness and print speed. Cube specimens with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3mm and print rates of 40mm/s, were tested on compression with the DARTEC test equipment. It was found that layer thicknesses of 0.05mm and 0.15mm have similar elastic properties while the 0.15mm layer can take additional load after initial plastic deformation. Layer thickness of 0.30mm has significantly lower elastic zone load capacity, but the stress in plastic zone continue to grow. The findings are of great importance for in explaining the S-N curve in order to enhance part manufacture.
Rocksana Akter, Kamal Hossain, Shibly Anwar, Kalimur Rahman
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 82-96;

Mineral fillers provide a significant role in the Marshall properties of hot mix asphalt for paving applications. The article's goal is to assess the suitability and effectiveness of two minerals (coal dust and wood powder ash) used as fillers in asphalt concrete. Chemical composition test using X-ray fluorescence indicated a high content of SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3, which encouraged us to select the coal dust and wood powder ash as mineral fillers for further investigation. A total of 90 cylindrical Marshall Specimens, made with different percentages (i.e., 4%-8%) of coal dust, wood powder ash, and conventional stone dust filler were prepared to assess the performance of individual filler within the asphalt concrete mix. And after that, volumetric characteristics such as density, stability-flow test, air void, and voids in mineral aggregates have been analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of every sample and, afterward, to find out the optimum asphalt content. Finally, the optimum asphalt content for every filler material was ascertained, and subsequently, Marshall properties were checked again to assess the optimum filler content in the mix that satisfy all the standard criteria. The overall Marshall properties for both fillers were within the acceptable limits. Though the optimum asphalt content was higher for coal dust than wood powder ash and stone dust, the wood powder ash showed better durability than coal dust. All mixtures have been found to have better resistance to deformation, fatigue, and moisture-induced damages; however, 4% coal dust and 6% wood powder ash satisfied most of the Marshall criteria than other percentages.
Lorenzo Cevallos-Torres, Miguel Botto Tobar, Angela Díaz Cadena, Oscar León-Granizo
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 66-75;

The purpose of this work is to increase the sales of a store devoted to the purchase and sale of soft drinks, even though the store's inventory is overstocked. This occurs as a result of the business's lack of an effective management system that controls product ordering. Additionally, there is no analysis of future sales owing to the variations that may occur because of unforeseen occurrences. The main criterion was that the proprietors of the business submit monthly records from 2017 to July 2019. To accomplish this objective completely, we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to obtain data from August to December 2019; and neural networks to obtain data for all monthly periods in the years 2020, 2021, and 2022, which enabled us to generate records of demand and stock for each of the products. Finally, it was shown that the application of neural networks enables the solution of vehicle control issues, resulting in a maximization of more than 22% of sales, thus achieving the goal and giving an optimum solution to the company.
Benjamin Kommey, Daniel Akudbilla, Godfred Doe, Clifford Owusu Amponsah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 22-33;

Poultry is one of the most consumed agricultural produce in Ghana. Because of this high demand, the problem necessitates efforts to maximize the yield of poultry production in the country. Relying on natural means of hatching eggs to increase poultry production is inefficient thus the need for technologies that will aid in maximizing the yield. Artificial means of solving this problem have brought about the invention of the incubator. Although this has helped in large-scale incubation, incubators in the market are very expensive which makes Ghanaian poultry farmers find it difficult to purchase. This project investigates the design and implementation of an affordable, automated incubator for local poultry farmers. It is aimed at designing a low-cost smart incubator to ensure the maintenance of the optimum environmental conditions necessary for hatching eggs. These conditions: Ventilation, Temperature, Relative Humidity, regular positioning, and eggs turnings are kept at their optimal values to efficiently increase the hatchability rate. Temperature and humidity sensors are used to read temperature and humidity values inside the incubator respectively. These values are sent to a microcontroller which then coordinates other parts of the incubator to execute automated tasks. A mobile application is integrated with the incubator for the communication of important information to the poultry farmer.
Kifilideen Osanyinpeju, Adewole A. Aderinlewo, Olawale U. Dairo, Olayide R. Adetunji, Emmanuel S.A. Ajisegiri
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 34-45;

At a high frequency of vibration; the cam of a vibrator always encounters the issue of jamming or the follower rolling off or losing contact with the cam when the appropriate design is not carried out. This study, therefore, developed the shape of the cam profile of mechanical yam vibrator using cycloid motion in the South. Displacement equations from the base circle to the cam profile were developed to obtain the shape of the cam using cycloid motion. A vibrometer was used to evaluate the developed 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm cam sizes installed in a mechanical yam vibrator. The maximum displacement recorded for 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm cam sizes were 4.47 mm, 8.71 mm, and 14.54 mm respectively for low (1 – 5 Hz) frequency; 4.58 mm, 8.84 mm and 16.34 mm respectively for medium (60 – 100 Hz) frequency; and 4.66 mm, 9.09 mm and 17.30 mm respectively for high (150 – 200 Hz) frequency. This study shows that a cycloid cam would operate smoothly at low, medium, and high frequencies of vibration and function properly for frequency and displacement of vibration up to 200 Hz and 20 mm respectively without jamming and failing. A cycloid cam is therefore recommended for low, medium, and high frequencies motion of vibration.
Othman Inayatullah, Nor Asrina Ramlee, Taharah Edin
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 1-7;

In the era of modernization, the term “Industry 4.0” has emerged and gained attention progressively from all relevant authorities. This term reflects the movement that gradually improves the current existing technologies and contributes to maintenance advancements in the future. The basic objective of this project is to learn and understand how computer-based technology can bring about revolutionary changes in maintenance to achieve an ideally smart industry. There are two inquiries being studied to fulfill the objective including the recognition of integration between Industry 4.0 and Cyber-Physical System (CPS) in the aspect of maintenance as well as the extent of its contribution to the future development of maintenance management. Both conception study and simulation are chosen as the research methodology for this project.
Adel Alzahrani, Abdullah Safhi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 58-65;

Data mining is one of the most important modern techniques used to achieve high output standards at all levels. The twenty-first century saw the advent of a new trend to improve medical services in the healthcare sector. To bridge the gap between previous studies and the practical applications of data mining, this study aimed to review the theoretical literature and previous studies related to the demonstration of data mining techniques and tools and their role in big data management. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used a descriptive, analytical, documentary method. The study concluded many results including that in the era of the knowledge and technology revolution, data mining is one of the important issues, that requires everyone to take into account its achievements in our current era, as well as the existence of a correlation between big data and the provision of a separate health service in the field of healthcare, and work to address epidemics and discover vaccines for them. In the healthcare industry, data mining plays a vital role, especially in predicting various types of diseases. In detecting diseases, diagnosis is the main tool. The study recommended the need to conduct more experimental and exploratory studies dealing with healthcare data mining techniques and tools and their effect on the management of big data volumes, especially in our Arab countries and the need for the development of models and action plans and the development of processes and methods from which data in the healthcare sector can be explored.
Emmanuel Olusegun Ogundimu, Esther Akinlabi, Chigbo Mgbemene, Ifeanyi Jacobs
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 46-57;

The optimum tilt-angle of a fixed photovoltaic solar panel is very important during the installation, in order to best exploit the accessible output power efficiency of the panel. The output power effectiveness of a PV solar collector is profoundly affected by its tilt-angle to the horizontal and its orientation. This is because of the detail that the sun’s angle varies at every point of time and location. The solar photovoltaic tilting platform plays a dynamic role in the installation of the solar photovoltaic panel. From one perspective, it protects the solar panel from mechanical pressures that can arise from the wind movement and the hand; it provides means of adjustment for the solar panel. The proposed solar photovoltaic tilting platform was designed for an adjustable angle capacity oscillating from 0? to 40?; the materials used for the construction of the tilting platform are capable to withstand a load of 45kg and resist a temperature of -50? F to 150? F under a maximum wind force of 3.78N. The numerous mechanisms of the PV tilting platform prototype were tested, the stability, strength, easy titling, and overall performance of the PV tilting platform were declared as satisfactory.
Asrar Baktayan, Ibrahim Ahmed Albaltah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 4, pp 8-21;

The mobility nature of the wireless networks and the time-sensitive tasks make it necessary for the system to transfer the messages with a minimum delay. Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) reduces the latency problem. However, due to the trustlessness of 5G networks resulting from the heterogeneity nature of devices. In this article, for the edge devices, there is a need to maintain a trust level in the C-RAN node by checking the rates of devices that are allowed to share data among other devices. The SDN controller is built into a macro-cell that plays the role of a cluster head. The blockchain-based automatically authenticates the edge devices by assigning a unique identification that is shared by the cluster head with all C-RAN nodes connected to it. Simulation results demonstrate that, compared with the benchmark, the proposed approach significantly improves the processing time of blocks, the detection accuracy of malicious nodes, and transaction transmission delay.
Shahab Kareem, Zhala Jameel Hamad, Shavan Askar
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 148-159;

Artificial intelligence through deep neural networks is now widely used in a variety of applications that have profoundly altered human livelihoods in a variety of ways. People's daily lives have become much more convenient. Image recognition, smart recommendations, self-driving vehicles, voice translation, and a slew of other neural network innovations have had a lot of success in their respective fields. The authors present the ANN applied in weather forecasting. The prediction technique relies solely upon learning previous input values from intervals in order to forecast future values. And also, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are a form of deep learning technique that can help classify, recognize, and predict trends in climate change and environmental data. However, due to the inherent difficulties of such results, which are often independently identified, non-stationary, and unstable CNN algorithms should be built and tested with each dataset and system separately. On the other hand, to eradicate error and provides us with data that is virtually identical to the real value we need Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) algorithms or benefit from it. The presented CNN model's forecasting efficiency was compared to some state-of-the-art ANN algorithms. The analysis shows that weather prediction applications become more efficient when using ANN algorithms because it is really easy to put into practice.
Ola Hussein Abd Ali Alzuabidi, Ban M. Alameri
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 139-147;

This paper presents an overview of the general idea and history of cloud computing in theory. The objective of this review is to draw attention to preceding studies about cloud computing that have common characteristics with the theme of this paper. There were some points discussed in general, including the advantages of this technology, its subjects, security, and the effects of adopting cloud computing in an organization.
Segolene Clemence Marie Mosser
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 130-138;

This paper focused on the maintenance problems encountered by industrial vehicles within the Volvo Group. The main goal of the research on this subject was to propose to customers’ a personalized maintenance offer which adapts to their constraints while reducing the impact on the operating costs. To achieve this, a policy has been developed. This policy works on the dynamic gathering of information using both the available monitoring information and the knowledge of the multi-component system. Its objective is to guarantee to the customer the autonomy of its system over given periods of operation while minimizing the total cost of maintenance. The paper showed that the policy developed does indeed reduce the total maintenance cost compared to the previous policy used within the Volvo group. Nevertheless, this policy still has room for improvement.
Marwa Taha Jasim, Tahseen H. Mubarak, Abdul Samee F. Abdul Aziz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 121-129;

In the current study, nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Ni (1-x) ZnxFe2O4 (X= 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) have been arranged by sol-gel auto combustion and common chemical precipitation methods, The samples were described by x-ray (XRD) deflection, Fourier converts Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), dielectric perpetual and dielectric loss element. the XRD analysis confirms the cubic lone phase spinel configuration for all the synthesized materials. Average crystalline size is estimated of the (311) peaks of the x-ray diffractogram using Scherrer’s formulation institute in the range 38.90 to 37.71 nm for sol-gel auto burning method and from 18.61 to 23.41 nm for co-precipitation method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was studied so as to assert the construction of the spinel phase and to recognize the kind of carbon remaining in the samples. The dielectric fixed and the dielectric loss factor were measured in the range between 50 Hz – 3 MHz at room temperature were located to be reduced with a rise in regularity.
Milan Tripathi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 102-111;

Image denoising is an important aspect of image processing. Noisy images are produced as a result of technical and environmental flaws. As a result, it is reasonable to consider image denoising an important topic to research, as it also aids in the resolution of other image processing issues. The challenge, however, is that the traditional techniques used are time-consuming and inflexible. This article purposed a system of classifying and denoising noised images. A CNN and UNET based model architecture is designed, implement, and evaluated. The facial image dataset is processed and then it is used to train, valid and test the models. During preprocessing, the images are resized into 48*48, normalize, and various noises are added to the image. The preprocessing for each model is a bit different. The training and validation accuracy for the CNN model is 99.87% and 99.92% respectively. The UNET model is also able to get optimal PSNR and SSIM values for different noises.
Marin Petrovic, Nejra Isic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 112-120;

One of the most important parts of a wind turbine is a tower. There are various designs of the wind turbine towers, and they are most often made of steel pipes, lattice towers or concrete towers. In order to increase energy density to meet the growing electricity needs, larger wind turbine projects have been developed. Larger wind turbine towers can generate more electricity, but such large sizes also create higher costs in terms of development and maintenance. This research sets up a model of a wind turbine tower, where the load to the tower is calculated by its relation to the wind velocity. Analytical approach coupled with a finite element method (FEM) is used to analyse the distribution of tower stresses under these loads. The fatigue analysis of the column is performed using the load from its own weight, the weight of the housing and the distribution of the wind velocity. The effects of different loads are also compared. The results show that the main loads of the tower are the wind force acting on the area of ??rotation of the wind turbine blades and the moment caused by the uneven wind velocity. Construction is modelled using SolidWorks modelling package, where the analysis was performed using FEM in ANSYS software. As a result of the analysis, the stress distribution in the support was determined and compared with analytical calculations.
Benjamin Kommey, Seth Kotey, Gideon Adom-Bamfi,
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 92-101;

Most applications in recent times make use of images one way or the other. As physical devices for capturing images improve, the quality and sizes of images also increase. This causes a significant footprint of images on storage devices. There is ongoing research to reduce the footprint of images on storage. Since storage is a finite resource, the goal is to reduce the sizes of images while maintaining enough quality pleasant to the human eye. In this paper, the design of two lossy codecs for compressing grayscale digital signature images has been presented. The algorithms used either simple thresholding or transform coding to introduce controlled losses into the image coding chain. This was to reduce, to a great extent, the average number of bits per pixel required to represent the images. The codecs were implemented in MATLAB and experiments were conducted with test images to study the performances of the algorithms.
Ahmed S. Nori, Ansam O. Abdulmajeed
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 79-91;

This paper is presenting design and implementation of Threefish block cipher on grayscale images. Despite the fact that Threefish block cipher is one of the best secure algorithms, most studies concerning Threefish have focused on hardware implementation and have not commonly been applied on image encryption due to huge amount of data. The main contribution here was to reduce the time and the amount of data to be encrypted while maintaining encryption performance. This objective was achieved by encrypting just the most significant bits of image pixels. A 256-bit plain text blocks of the Threefish was constructed from 2n most significant bits of the pixels, where 0
Mustafa Indžić, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 73-78;

In this paper, the design, simulation, optimization and testing of a Microstrip Hybrid 10 dB Wideband Coupler was done. The aim of the project was to introduce a new coupler design and to achieve stable operation for as wide bandwidth as possible. For this proposed design simulated results are as follows: 3.8 GHz Bandwidth and Coupling Amplitude balance of 1 dB across it. Coupler is then produced using LPKF ProtoMat 104s machine and it is tested with Vector Network Analyzer at Istanbul Technical University.
Muamer Bučo, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 68-72;

In this paper, we will present a planar geometry design for a 6dB compact microwave coupler, and will further explore and discuss the results of an electromagnetic simulation in Sonnet® Suites™ Electromagnetic simulation software. Being a compact coupler, the device features a minute circuit footprint size, while still observing the limitations of the production technologies involved in manufacturing it. The technology utilized in the paper is a 4 port microstrip copper trace on a production-friendly and extremely economical FR4 dielectric substrate. The circuit shows excellent performance in a 1.8GHz bandwidth (3.9GHz – 5.7GHz), with a loss of 6dB on the coupled port. A further advantage of this geometry is a very linear and predictable change in the S-parameter values as a result of small linear changes in the geometry
Ibrahim Uyanik, Oktay Özkan, Hamdi Mihçiokur
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 49-53;

In this study, we discussed how can be the management hierarchy and management process in a university campus. Erciyes University is in the middle of the Anatolia Region that has about 60.000 population. The university has faculty /institutional administrations and hospital-related buildings and research centers. It has an area of about 20 m2 for each person on the campus. The university is responsible in terms of legislative directives that are in operation. The waste directive is published by the university in 2017 that shares the responsibilities and distributes the tasks for each unit on the university campus. In Turkey, zero waste projects and zero waste legislation are also in operation by 2019. The importance of waste management strategy is important for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that is published by the United Nations and put in consideration of Times Higher Education (THE) which is one of the most confidential ranking systems for universities. There is also, environmental assessment system for university campuses, the Green-Metric. One of the grading subjects of the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) in Turkey is the zero waste strategy on the campus. Therefore, the operation of a zero-waste strategy gains importance.
Nesli Aydin
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 61-67;

As a result of Turkey's economic growth, industrial development has accelerated across the country and this has ultimately led to the environmental sector and waste management gaining importance. In Turkey, where there is a depletion of natural resources, the expansion of energy demand, and the orientation in environmental technologies, waste is no longer a problematic issue that needs to be eliminated; but it has become a source of raw materials whose processing and recycling can be achieved with today's technology. In the scope of sustainable development, the waste hierarchy includes the three priority targets. These are prevention of waste production, reuse, recycling, or recovery respectively. The method for non-recoverable wastes is landfilling with energy recovery if possible. In this context, this study aims to investigate the electricity generation potential of the solid wastes disposed at the Edirne Solid Waste Landfill Facility. When the amount of waste to be sent to the facility, which was assumed to have a 20-year economic life, increases by 5% in parallel with the population profile, it is seen that electricity production will go up rapidly until 2040. However, the results of the study present that the potential of methane production will fall as the stored waste age increases so that a significant decrease in electricity production should be expected from 2045 onwards. Once it is considered that the facility continues to produce electricity for a hundred years beyond 2040, the electricity generated from the facility will contribute to the electricity network and provide the avoidance of approximately 25 thousand tons of CO2 on a national basis.
Didem Gökçe
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 54-60;

The quick improvement of nanotechnology permits a wide range of utilization of engineered nanoparticles, such as personal care products, medicals, optics, electronics, and automobiles. The nanoparticles manufactured from Ag, Au carbon-nanotube, ZnO, SiO2, TiO2, Cu, Ni, and magnetic ferrites are among the generally utilized in products. The nanoparticles are produced and utilized in large quantities and release into marine and freshwater ecosystems during production, use, discharge, treatment, and deposition. Those particles with a mean size of 1 nm - 100 nm are of potential environmental risks because of their particular qualifications and high reactivity although their great economical values. Based on the studies, the size, shape, and surface physical and chemical characteristics of the nanoparticles show the level of aggregation, solubility, structural and chemical composition, the importance of the use of nanoparticles, and their toxicity with biological systems. Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse impacts on tissue, cellular, genetic materials, and protein- enzyme levels due to their unique physical and chemical qualifications. In this study, the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms and aquatic ecosystems were evaluated.
Sehabeddin Taha Imeci, Haris Ackar, Faruk Matoruga
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 38-43;

The paper presents an upgraded configuration of compact T-shaped microstrip patch antenna design, simulation, fabrication, and test on 1.6mm FR-4 substrate. The microstrip patch antenna is simulated using Sonnet Software. The proposed design is developed to be used as a transmitting antenna operating at 2.4 GHz radio signals with bandwidth ranging from 2.2 GHz to 2.6 GHz, and with input, match S11 less than -27 dB on 2.4 GHz frequency. The gain of the proposed antenna is 7.28 dB. The antenna was fabricated and measured results match with simulated in terms of frequency but measured S11 is lower due to lossy dielectric FR-4.
Ahmet Faruk Karakebelioglu, Ozkan Eren, Hasan Koten, Huseyin Alp
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 44-48;

Many problems have been seen in cities because of increasing vehicle density. One of these problems is vehicle density in parking lots. People look for empty parking areas and they spend too much time. While people look for empty parking areas, CO2 (carbon dioxide) emission and energy consumption increase due to density in parking lots. We worked to solve these problems by doing Magnetic Car Park Sensor. Magnetic Car Park Sensor is the system which detects cars in car parks. After cars detected with the system, the system sends information to center server and we can see information data in the system interface. The system helps people to find empty parking lots. As people find empty car park areas fastly, energy consumption and CO2 emission are decreased significantly.
Lina Muhammad Al-Ghamdi
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 15-22;

Social media provide opportunities for organizations to reach the largest amount of people by measuring the general perception of the consumer and knowing his/her feelings and some of his reactions towards brands and products. On the other hand, these organizations as well as people are keen to preserve the privacy of their data, which will only be achieved by using applications and techniques of artificial intelligence. This scientific paper aims to analyze and discuss the impact of using artificial intelligence applications with their various technologies on social media through the method of critical analysis and evaluation that was applied to previous recent studies that dealt with the impact of artificial intelligence on social media. Then, this paper conducted a critical review of these studies coming up with findings, conclusions, and special recommendations on the subject. This resulted in the fact that studies agree on the great role that artificial intelligence plays in social media platforms in terms of preserving the privacy of the user and organizations and in terms of marketing and increasing the profits of organizations. Moreover, companies that do marketing through social media using artificial intelligence have benefited three times more than other companies that do not. In addition, artificial intelligence contributes to the preservation and security of privacy and data of users and digital owners in social networking sites, and contributes to increasing the profits of companies that use marketing through social media platforms based on artificial intelligence techniques, as their revenues increased by 10%, costs decreased, and productivity and logistic networks improved. This study recommended working to develop the mechanism of artificial intelligence in social media platforms, conducting more studies on the contribution of artificial intelligence in increasing the revenues earned by social media platforms, reducing the costs of social media creation and management, and finally the necessity for the commitment of social media companies to apply artificial intelligence techniques to maintain user privacy.
Rozan Khader, Derar Eleyan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 23-28;

The term internet of things (IoT) has gained much popularity in the last decade, which can be defined as various connected devices over the internet. IoT has rapidly spread to include all aspects of our lives. For instance, smart houses, smart cities, and variant wearable devices. IoT devices work to do their desired goals, which is to develop a person's living with his/her minimal involvement. At the same time, IoT devices have many weaknesses, which attackers exploit to affect these devices' security. Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) are considered the most common attacks that strike IoT security. The main aim of these attacks is to make victim systems down and inaccessible for legitimate users by malicious malware. This paper's objective is to discuss and review security issues related to DoS/DDoS attacks and their countermeasures i.e. prevention based on IoT devices' layers structure.
Arda Sahin, Mehmet Zubeyir Unlu
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 11-14;

The main objective of this study is to have the noise component of a speech signal eliminated and compressed by storing the locations and durations of silence regions. The separation between voiced, unvoiced, and silence regions is done by using the Short-Time Energy (STE) and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) methodologies. All operations in this study have been performed by using the User Interface (UI) developed on MATLAB®. These operations include voice recording, playing the recording, eliminating the unwanted regions, playing the modified recording, saving original and compressed files, and loading the recording compressed.
Putera Nik Aiman Mustaqim Othman, Othman Inayatullah
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 29-37;

Carbazole, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a hazardous compound and a pollutant that can mainly be found in the petroleum industry. This pollutant can be treated in many ways and one of it is known as bioremediation. A method of using degrading-cell-organism, Thalassospira profundimaris, that is able to consume the pollutant as its food source and produce metabolite, harmless substance in exchange, splits into two ways which are using the cell as free cell and the other is using it as immobilized cell. There are many factors that are affecting the performance of the cell degradation. In this study, initial concentration of carbazole and agitation speed parameters have been tested and kinetic models built based on the results of this study. This study found that in term of initial concentration of carbazole, the performance of degradation cell is better on immobilized cell but not so significant based on kinetic models built. However, addition of good mixing quality enhanced the degradation performance significantly when the agitation speed is in range of 100 revolution per minute (rpm) and below.
Gokberk Kemal Oguz
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 3, pp 1-10;

In recent years monetary narrowing impact more on Turkey and developing countries. Therefore, the importance of industrial policy and technology management in developing countries has widely increased. Production and design strategies have to be planned carefully. Thus, evidently monetary narrowing and undesired exchange rate fluctuation affected investment and the cash flow in numerous sectors such as finances, funding, industry, service industry, agribusiness, livestock, building trade, research, and development, etc. In this context, this situation broadly hit the research, prototyping, manufacturing, and testing phase of the microstrip patch antennas. Today, patch antennas have widely utilized in telecommunication systems. Hence, this growth has increased interest in studies. As it is in every project, cost and efficiency are an essential part of the project design. Therefore, the ratio of cost is more important for Turkey and developing countries due to undesired exchange rate fluctuation, tax, financial obligations, and unexpected world events (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic). Commonly, the microstrip patch antenna comprises particular parts such as a radiating patch on top of the double-sided laminate and ground plane and feeding point located below the double-sided laminate. Therefore, microstrip patch antenna components play a significant role in patch antenna radiation characteristics. Moreover, specifications of the double-sided laminate, such as relative permittivity (or dielectric constant) and real physical thickness are essential elements of the patch antenna's radiation characteristics. Generally, high-quality dielectric substrates are developed and manufactured by western originated companies. Thus, the dielectric substrate with high-grade characteristics is hard to find for Turkey and developing countries. Importing is the only option and quite costly. Choosing a domestic dielectric substrate is inevitable, however insufficient for many cases. In this study, difficulties in microstrip patch antenna production and prototyping in Turkey are analyzed.
Mustafa Indzic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 102-109;

In this paper, the design, and simulation of a High-Frequency Slitted Butterfly-shaped Inset Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna is studied. As its name says, the butterfly-shaped antenna is introduced with symmetric indentations at the top, bottom, and sides. Excitation was used at the bottom point of the antenna with inset and via feeding. An input match (S11) of -34.48 dB at the resonance frequency of 26.35 GHz with an electric field phi-polarized gain of 7.37 dB was obtained. Cross polarization level (electric field theta-polarized) is -20 dB. The 26 GHz band covers the 3.25 GHz of the spectrum between 24.25 GHz and 27.5 GHz and is being prioritized across Europe as the first high-frequency band for 5G. This high-frequency spectrum (known as ‘mmWave spectrum’), offers very high data capacity and speeds but with a limited range [1].
Merjem Begovic, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 119-125;

In this paper, we have presented a new design of a multi resonance patch antenna with multiple slits. Slits are located on the three sides of the designed antenna. It is simulated in a planar 3D electromagnetic simulation program, called Sonnet Software, designed on the Aluminum (96%) substrate and operates at three frequencies with reflection coefficient (S11) values lower than -10 dB. Values for the operating frequencies are 4.14, 5.52, 9.24 GHz. Electric field theta polarized gains for these three frequencies are; 8.09, 8.35, and 8.39 dBs respectively. Cross polarization levels are well below -10 dB. A parametric study was conducted by changing the gap size and the dielectric thickness. As a result of the parametric study, it is seen that fabrication tolerances of the antenna are good enough.
Hassan Khalil Silman, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 110-118;

Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high-density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify by fine-needle aspirates FNA with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from the user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined in addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular, and dense-glandular. The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results in extreme immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
Ozge Buyukdagli, Sencer Yeralan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 89-101;

Quite commonly, faculty performance evaluations use a weighted scheme. Individual faculty members are evaluated on a scale with respect to teaching, research, and service activities. These scores are then combined using pre-determined weights to obtain a combined score that is often used to compare different members. The presented study aimed to investigate the effects of selecting the weights on the individual scores and rankings. The interest is not on single faculty members, but rather on the systems aspects of the practice. That is, how do the weights affect the educational system as a whole? How sensitive is the evaluation system to the selection of the weights? In order to question the leverage, a decision-maker who determines the weights would have on the outcome of the rankings, the approach based on numerical examples and formal linear programming (LP) considerations is used.
Fehim Findik, Kemal Ermiş
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 66-88;

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an advanced energy technology that is attracting increasing interest for thermal applications such as space and water heating, cooling, and air conditioning. TES systems have enormous potential to facilitate more effective use of thermal equipment and large-scale energy substitutions that are economic. TES appears to be the most appropriate method for correcting the mismatch that sometimes occurs between the supply and demand of energy. It is therefore a very attractive technology for meeting society’s needs and desires for more efficient and environmentally benign energy use. In this study, thermal energy storage systems, energy storage, and methods, hydrogen for energy storage, and technologies are reviewed.
Fatih Karadeniz, Özgür Ege Aydoğan, Emin Abdullah Kazancı, Erhan Akdogan
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 41-65;

The number of cerebrovascular and neuromuscular diseases is increasing in parallel with the rising average age of the world’s population. Since the shoulder anatomy is complex, the number of rehabilitation robots for shoulder movements is limited. This paper presents the mechanical design, control, and testing of 4 degrees of freedom (DOF) grounded upper limb exoskeletal robot. It is capable of four different therapeutic exercises (passive, active assistive, isotonic, and isometric). During the mechanical design, the forces to be exposed to the robot were determined and after the design, the system was tested with strength analysis. Also, a low-cost electromyograph device was developed and integrated into the system to measure muscular activation for feedback and instantaneously muscle activation control for the physiotherapist during the therapy. The system can be used for rehabilitation on the shoulder and elbow. A PID controller for position-controlled exercises was developed. The test results were presented in terms of simulation and the real system for passive exercise. According to the test results, the developed system can perform the passive exercise and can be used for other therapeutic exercises as well.
, Akbas Ezaldeen Ali
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 41-49;

Worldwide, breast cancer causes a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is important for treatment, but high density breast tissues are difficult to analyze. Computer-assisted identification systems were introduced to classify is fine needle aspirates (fna) , with features that better represent the images to be classified as a major challenge. This work is fully automated, and it does not require any manual intervention from user. In this analysis, various texture definitions for the portrayal of breast tissue density on mammograms are examined within addition to contrasting them with other techniques. We have created an algorithm that can be divided into three classes: fatty, fatty-glandular and dense-glandular, The suggested system works in a spatial-related domain and it results extremely immunity to noise and background area, with a high rate of precision.
Anwaar A. Al-Dergazly
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 34-40;

This paper introduces a prospective material for photonic laser applications. Different high purity samples of olive oil were subjected to a spectrophotometer to determine the absorption spectra. The transmission behavior of olive oil is about (44.28) % at a wavelength of 532 nm, while it is (62.94) % at 1064 nm. Then, the nonlinear optical properties represented by the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient are determined using a highly sensitive method known as the Z-scan technique. Z-Scan experiment was performed using 1064 nm CW Nd:YAG and 532 nm SHG Nd:YVO4 lasers. n2 = 3.99×10-6W/cm2 and beta = -0.0017 m/W for 1064nm wavelength and n2 = 2.45×10-7W/cm2 and beta =-7.26×10-4 m/W for 532nm wavelength. This paper gives simulation results for a liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) filled with olive oil. The nonlinear propagation constant and group velocity dispersion (GVD) properties are estimated. The simulation of the generation of LCOF is also obtained. The calculations show that LOCF can provide huge nonlinear parameters and a large span of slow varying GVD characteristics in the visible and infrared region, which have potential applications in optical communications and nonlinear optics. The material is olive oil which is classified as an organic compound, having good nonlinear optical properties making it a potential candidate to be for photonic applications.
Senad Burak, , Nedim Begic, Faris Kadic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 112-120;

Background: Sedentary behavior carries the risk of musculoskeletal problems, especially in the lumbosacral region of the spinal column. According to modern lifestyle, this has begun to be a public health issue. Objective: To point to the health risks of working at the computer and present an ergonomic analysis of the typical and improved position of workers in front of the computer, thereby reducing the chances of emergence occupational diseases. Results: Changing the position of the subjects led to a change in lumbar pressure from 2,818 N/m2 to 351 N/m2. Software analysis of the changed position indicates that this position is acceptable, both for the lumbosacral region of the spine and for the abdominal muscles. Conclusions: A change in body position will decrease lumbar moment and the load on the lumbosacral region of the spine. Work chair with lumbar support, the right desk height, setting the appropriate position of the monitor, selecting the optimal keyboard and mouse, dividing the workspace into appropriate zones, as well as changing lifestyle and habits should be part of the management of people who spend most of their working time in a sitting position.
Azra Yildiz, Şehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 26-33;

Due to the inhomogeneous structure of microstrip directional couplers, i.e. partly dielectric substrate, partly air, they mostly present property of poor directivity and low coupling level. The high directivity is achieved by a capacitive compensation by gap coupling of open stub formed in a sub-coupled line. Nevertheless, these couplers have the advantage of easy fabrication, lightweight, and incorporation with other microwave devices and are validated via design using Sonnet software. The main goal was to obtain coupling around -30 dB, meaning that almost all power is passed to the output, with a wide band; from around 3.5GHz to nearly 9GHz. Desired values have been obtained, including isolation and input match reaching -70 dB.
Admel Husejinović
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 106-111;

The main objective of this research is to measure the efficiency of commercial banks operating in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period 2016-2017. An analysis is conducted of over 12 banks that had positive overall profit lost at the end of 2016 and 2017 years published by the Banking Agency of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with two input and three output parameters is used for efficiency measurement. Each bank’s efficiency is presented for the 2016 and 2017 years. For an observed period, large banks showed more efficiency than small banks. Based on the results shown in this research and features used in this model there is a significant difference in the relative efficiency of the top two banks and the rest of the 10 banks.
, Amar Cosic
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 24-33;

The aim of this paper was to compare two business models, namely business to business and business to customer. The first model is oriented towards the delivery of intermediate goods ordered by an immense foreign market leader that is outsourcing a part of its business. The second model is consumers oriented and is more about innovation and the creation of goods ready to be immediately sold on the market. Bosnia is a developing country, and often a place for establishing B2B businesses. However, we are lacking in innovation, our own know-how, and the creation of challenging business opportunities. It also faces the problem of brain drain; therefore, it is in a need of a plan for retaining the youth within the country. The analysis aimed to show how the boosting jobs and living standards in Bosnia, are affected by the investments, exports, and salaries within the B2B and B2C companies. The results showed that Bosnia has a significant potential for raising living standards, employment and salary, if investments are directed towards innovations, knowledge-intensive and B2C businesses instead of labor-intensive investments.
Sejla Dzakmic, Sehabeddin Taha Imeci
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 1-9;

This paper presents a design of a dual resonance high-frequency bandpass filter using the Sonnet EM Simulator. The filter prototype is enhanced by adding the short stub in the center of the design. A parametric study shows the impact of choosing appropriate configuration characteristics. This is a dual resonance bandpass filter design, with center frequencies 7.8 GHz and 9.3 GHz. Performed input match S_11 at first resonance is-28.87 dB and insertion loss S_21 is -0.05 dB. The obtained results at second resonance are S_11=-8.97 dB and S_21=-2.74 dB. Due to its characteristics, this is a high-Q medium bandwidth dual resonance bandpass filter. The design is simulated and planning to be fabricated with 0.36 mm thickness and dielectric constant ?_r=1. This paper benefits from its compact size and simple geometry over the similar filters found in the literature.
Nidaa Al-Janaby, Anwaar Al-Dergazly
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 2, pp 10-17;

In this research, a fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was prepared. The sensor of SPR was configured using a gold thin layer at the end of a cleaved optical fiber by a sputtering technique. The source of white light was utilized to produce a series of wavelengths and excites surface plasmon resonance at the fiber tip. The SPR sensor was immersed into media with different refractive indices in the range of 1 to 1.58, including their similar plasmon resonance wavelength shifts that were saved by the optical spectrum analyzer. Experimental results that were obtained show there is a redshift when increasing the refractive index of solutions and sensitivity reach 298nm/ RIU, and resolution 4.31x?10?^(-4).
Israa Al-Barazanchi, Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 98-105;

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) have risen as a key innovation for providing real-time patient health care and diagnosing many life-threatening diseases. The principle adopted by health service providers is providing convenience for patients in need of health care, allowing them comfortable with the movement and constant monitoring with a reduction in health care costs. This study presented the basic concept and general background of the main WBAN system with applications. The current models for on-body and embedded WBANs, sensor node features, and sensor schemes for information via negation are used in the WBAN.
Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Israa Al Barazanchi, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 67-83;

Cloud computing has the capabilities of powerful processing and scalable storage with the ability of offline and online data analysis and mining of the collected sensed data from body areas networks. Cloud computing can be considered as the main enabler for modern manufacturing industries. Cloud computing can efficiently serve key areas of manufacturing by aspects of the pay-as-you-go business model, scaling up and down production according to certain demands, more customized solutions, and flexible deployments. In cloud manufacturing, the distributed sensors and resources can be managed in centralized architecture that allows cloud users to request more specific product design, testing at all the stages of the product. This study covers the main points of Integrating Both Wireless Sensors Networks and Cloud Computing Infrastructure and gives a view of the various advantage and disadvantages of methods in integration.
Israa Al-Barazanchi, Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed, Madya Safiah Binti Sidek
Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, Volume 1, pp 84-97;

Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) refers to a group of small intelligent electronic devices placed on the human body to monitor its vital signals. It provides a continuous health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal daily life activities through the health care applications. Due to the strong heterogeneous nature of the applications, data rates will vary strongly, ranging from simple data at a few Kbits/s to the video stream of several Kbits/s. Data can also be sent in bursts, which means that it is sent at a higher data rate during the bursts. This study covers the main requirements of communication technologies that are used in WBAN comprise of two major parts. The first part, which presents the short-range classification, gives a specialized outline of a few standard wireless technologies that are short-ranged. These are introduced as contenders for intra-BAN communications for communications inside a Body Area Network (BAN) and between the elements.
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