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Shapovalov S.A
Published: 30 November 2021
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 1-8;

The ability of rhodamine cations to form cation-anionic associates with tetraphenylborate-anion in an aqueous solution has been studied. The thermodynamic values of the equilibrium association constants Kasт were determined spectrophotometrically. The values of a number of properties of dye molecules (surface area, effective volume, hydrophobicity index log P, standard enthalpy of hydration ΔНohydr) were calculated using the QSAR model. The possibility of dependence of the value of Kasт on these factors has been reviewed. It was shown that changes in lg Kasт in the series of rhodamine associates are consistent with changes in the parameters log P and ΔНohydr.
Moharana T, Suryakanta Bahira, Sahoo R.R, TejasH Weta
Bulletin of Scientific Research pp 59-65;

The objective of this work is to study the antimicrobial effect of in-vitro grown leaf extracts of Withania somnifera (L.) against some selected known microorganisms and the use of its constituents present there for the preparation of therapeutic compounds. This is evaluated by using zone of inhibition studies and minimum inhibitory concentration. The microorganisms used include Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholera and Candida parapsilosis. Inhibition zones of plant extracts were compared with standard antibiotics like Neomycin, and Kanamycin. Inhibition zones are revealed by methanol extract which is comparatively more than the ethanol extract. For methanol extract, Salmonella typhimurium shows the highest inhibition zone (25.13±0.52) whereas Vibrio cholera shows the least inhibition zone (21.33±0.53). The same extract shows maximum antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium followed by Candida parapsilosis and Shigella flexneri. These possibilities can build-up a novel idea in the preparation of pharmaceutical products.
Panigrahi M.K
Bulletin of Scientific Research pp 51-58;

In the present study, the effect of china clays on the sintering, strength and dielectric behavior of electrical ceramic fly ash/china clay (FA/CC) composite insulator is investigated. The different composition of samples containing different china clay (CC) contents of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 % are prepared using the uniaxial pressure technique applying 10 MPa pressure. At 1200 °C, for the composition having 40 wt% china clays, the maximum resistivity is calculated and is 39.5 × 107 Ωm. The composite is highly competence with china clays-based insulators. Further, the prepared composite is also analysed using different characterization technique such as x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy, dielctric, and thermo gravimetric analysis. Frequency dielectric value of the composite is estimated at room temperature in the frequency range of 1-500 kHz at room temperature. According to the resistivity and dielectric properties, the composite has enormous potential for the electrical insulator application.
Usha M, Reginald Appavoo M, Mohanraj V, Immanuel G
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 41-50;

A preliminary investigation is provided to encouraging results for comprehensive studies on different aspects of the plant root - Ixora johnsonii Hook.f. Root of this plant was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The present study are highlights the pharmacognostical evaluation of root which includes macroscopic and microscopic features. Further, preliminary phytochemical analyses, organoleptic character, fluorescence behavior of different extracts and histochemical localization of phytochemicals. As there is no pharmacognostical work on record of this ethno botanically much valued drug, the present work was taken up with a view to lay down standards, which could be useful to detect the authenticity of this pretty plant.
Romero R.V.
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 32-40;

This study made setups that can be used in solar powered drying of washed clothing. This was used to analyze and test the performance, and determined if there is significant difference on the drying rate of set ups related to traditional and experimental method. A solar drying chamber was designed to use local materials in which the frame is made of bamboo with walls made of plastic to trap the heat of the sunlight entering the chamber. There were four set ups that were established in the gathering of data: S-1 is with electric fan, S-2 is with electric fan and electric flat iron, S-3 which did not use the drying chamber, is a traditional method where the garments C-1, C-2, C-3, C-4 & C-5 of different sizes, shapes, width and weight were dried under the heat of the sun. S-4 is almost similar to S-3 but the difference is that the garments were dried with no sunlight. The drying chamber alone is effective to reduce the moisture content of the garments using sunlight. Using the electric fan and electric flat iron increased the circulation of the enclosed hot air and boasted the drying capacity. Although it was computed that P > ? in comparison of the data in all set ups, it is insufficient to conclude that there is no significant difference on data of the experimental and traditional set ups since the data for the traditional set ups are not complete until the garments are totally dried.
DanielS A.O, Taye Temikotan
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 21-31;

Cleistopholis patens is a tropical plant that is used in the treatment of many bacterial and fungal infections. In this study, the antibacterial action against some human pathogens and the fatty acid profile of the plant were investigated. The plant was found to be active against Salmonella typhi Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus while Shigella dysenteriae was resistant. The comparative antibiotic test revealed that only Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamycin. The purified extract showed lesser activity than the crude extract. Phytochemical components include; glycosides, steroids, Phenol, tanins and saponins. Anticonstituents include tanin (2.32mg/g), phenol (2.50 mg/g), phytate (15.65 mg/g), oxalate (6.57 mg/g), saponin (9.71 mg/g) and flavonoids (6.49 mg/g). The GCMS profile of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant revealed 23 fatty acid including 9-Hexadecanoic acid, (25.11%), 6 octadecanoic acid (21.98%), n Hexadecanoic (4.62%), Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%). Heptacosanoic acid, methyl ester (2.05%), Decanoic acid, methyl ester (1.74%), Oleic acid (4.38%), 16-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (3.55%) amongst others.
Mohanraj V, Ilango S.S., Ponnuswamy S
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 13-20;

The single crystal of cis-2,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-4-one (4C3DMPO) has been grown using a slow evaporation technique. 4C3DMPO is a non-centrosymmetric crystal which crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with space group Pna21. Benzene is used as a solvent for the crystal growth based on solubility studies. The mechanical studies, using microhardness methods, have also been carried out. The compound is characterised using UV, FT-IR and NMR spectral studies. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the crystal is established by TG/DTA. The nonlinear optical studies (SHG) of the crystal have been determined using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique and the activity observed is 2.5 times greater than that of KDP.
Manoranjan A, Christober Asir Rajan C
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 14-28;

A new multilevel inverter with less no of power switches is proposed. This is based on cascaded H-bridge topology. The design and analysis of 31-level reduced switch inverter with different modes of operation are presented in this paper. The proposed inverter is asymmetric in nature and it uses unequal DC voltage sources. PD-PWM modulation technique has been used here to get proper switching. The proposed idea has been validated through simulation and the received results provides better efficiency, less low order harmonics and less switching losses.
Mahalakshmi P, Vallikannu A. L.
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 8-13;

Fast beaming tracking and security are important factors for the development of communication technology. A Retrodirective antenna (RDA) technique has been attenuated to one way of improving security. It has the interesting property of automatically responding to an incoming signal location without any prior knowledge of the direction of that source. The purpose of this paper is to design a Rat race coupler which acts as a Retrodirective mode in ANSYS. The resonant frequency of the coupler is 2.4 GHz. The Proposed Rat race couplers have been devised using the Glass Epoxy substrate (FR4) with dielectric constant (?r = 4.4). S parameters, radiation pattern, insertion and isolation losses are obtained from ANSYS software
Agnes Shifani S, Akshaya D, Kaviya M, Kiruthiga K
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 1-7;

Digital image processing plays a key role in manipulation of image and extracting the maximum amount of data from image with help of various algorithm. Digital image correlation algorithm determines the displacement and deformation of pattern across several images. Creating innovation are developing every day in various fields, particularly in restoration condition. Notwithstanding, still some old strategies are very famous. X-ray or CT images are one among the system for identification of bone cracks. during this article, we offer a comprehensive overview of various algorithm and techniques of displacement measurement generally and crack detection especially using digital image processing. we've been successful in highlighting each and each key feature and aspect of crack detection in bone which can take the add this domain further
Sivasankari J, Sridevi B, Mahima L
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 29-35;

Of late there has been an increase in use of wireless communication system. The recent approach used is Massive-MIMO technology. But in the current scenario where spectrum is limited, the demand for high data degrades the quality of services. Therefore, OFDM system was proposed. Though coupling OFDM system with MIMO can further improve the performance of next generation wireless systems, there are certain issues like antenna design, channel estimation, PAPR etc. which requires due consideration. Amongst them, PAPR is the major problem that contributes high in performance degradation. To overcome this issue, Modified Firefly algorithm is used which was inspired the behaviour of fireflies. With the firefly algorithm, PAPR is highly reduced leading to better performance.
Devanathan J, Thiripurasundari T, Selvam K.A, Ram Kumar A, Selvaraj S, Ramadass L
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 3, pp 1-12;

Plant growth promoting rhizobacter (PGPR) are adapted to adverse conditions and protect plants from the deleterious effects of some environmental stresses. The aim of the present study, the drought tolerant plants growth promoting bacteria (PGRB) were isolate and characterized from chilli crop (CapsicumannumL). From the rhizosphere soil twelve bacteria were isolated and characterized based on their biochemical and sugar fermentation. The drought stress tolarent stains were screened by production of exo polysaccharides and the plant growth promoting activities like production of IAA and PO4 solubilization were screened. Therefore the present study report that PGRB showed good stress tolerance under drought condition in chilli crop.
, Naveen Kumar V.S, Raghul S, Raja Selvan R.P, Santhosh Rajah S
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 43-48;

The human respiratory system mainly consists of four parts namely trachea, main bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli respectively. The alveoli in the lungs are responsible for the transfer of oxygen and carbon-dioxide through capillaries blood vessels leading to the pulmonary vein. A person cannot breathe properly during Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) due to abnormal transfer of oxygen and carbon-dioxide. Artificial ventilation is recommended for a person who suffers from COPD with no breathing or abnormal breathing, to manually preserve intact brain function. So, the blood oxygen level required for the person should be continuously monitored using pulse oximeter and controlled automatically using artificial ventilation. Hence, in this paper human respiratory system is modelled as analogies electrical model by using RLC parameters. The analogous electrical model parameters are represented as resistance, inheritance and compliance respectively. Using this analogous electrical model of human respiratory system, time domain and stability analysis are performed to identify COPD condition.
, Anitha R, Jean Shilpa V, Anitha Priyadarshini N, Aamira S.J, Sowmyaa G
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 9-16;

The role emotions play in our life is inevitable right from the way we interact with other humans, in our decision-making process and even in the way we see the people around us. In this technological world, human computer interaction is almost everywhere. Right from fingerprint access in our mobile phones to face recognition- based attendance patterns at work places, human computer interaction has formed a strong base in day-today activities of human life. In such human computer interaction, EEG has gathered attention since it can provide simple, cheap, precise methods of emotion recognition. In this proposed work, a Music app is created which plays songs based on the emotion recognized from the given EEG signal. In MATLAB, the trained EEG signals are given and it is further processed to extract the features. The extracted features are classified to find the emotion and the result is sent to the music app. The music app which contains the playlist plays accordingly.
, Muthu Selvan N. B
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 49-59;

The depletion in the fossil fuel and increase in global warming has shifted the focus of researchers to green alternative energy. Wind power electrical generation is one such alternative where the kinetic energy of wind power is harnessed to generate green electrical power. India, being the fourth largest wind power generator has attracted numerous researchers towards the improvement of wind energy conversion system. This paper also presents improved controller techniques for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind turbine coupled with Cascaded Quadratic Boost Converter (QBC) and Space Vector Modulation (SVM) based inverter. The digital simulation and execution of PMSG based wind turbine a long with QB Converter and SVM Inverter in a closed loop is presented. The closed loop is realized using Proportional Integral (PI) and Fractional Order Proportional Integral (FOPI) controllers. Initially, the AC power from PMSG wind turbine is converted to DC using bridge rectifier. The DC output from the rectifier is then boosted to the required level using quadratic boost converter. The output from QB converter is then fed to the SVM inverter. The closed loop investigations are carried with PI and FOPI controllers. The simulation results of both PI and FOPI controlled QBC are compared. The outcome of FOPI controller represents that the steady state error and settling time are reduced when compared to PI-controlled closed loop quadratic boost converter.
, Pooja S, Sivapriya M, Sowndhariya A, Alice Linsie A
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 60-64;

In the current scenario there is an increasing growth in the residential areas which in turn leads to larger population. Nowadays there has been a huge water scarcity problem across, there arises the need for adequate water distribution to all the areas and prevention of water leakage as well. This proposed system of water distribution and leakage detection system based on PLC and SCADA software is designed to allocate water as per requirement depending on the number of members residing in an area. This PLC based automated system using Embedded controller is already pre-programmed to do the operations and results are shown in ladder diagram using Pico soft software. A threshold is set for each area and the water is distributed from the main storage tank to other subsequent tanks. The water supplied is measured with the help of flow sensors and solenoid valves are used for automatic opening and closing of valves. PLC is used to control the distribution of water and SCADA is one of the emerging technologies which is used for complete monitoring.
, Rhesa M.J., Revathi S
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 35-42;

The hest for technological advancement in mobile communication is due to augmentation of wireless user. The deployment of 5G mobile communication is less than 4G mobile communication due to challenges in security like cyberwarfare, espionage, critical infrastructure threats. Nevertheless, critic of neurological discomforts, tissue damage in living organisms occur in the existence of EMF radiation. Also, physical scarcity for spectral efficiency arises due to ubiquitous data traffic. Inspite of these disputes data rate, low latency, device to device communication is also a challenge. In this paper we provide a survey on radiation effects, security threats, traffic management.
Raj Kumar T, Pranav A, Venkatesan G, Shanthosh S, Arjun D.K
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 65-69;

In the current scenario the advent of automation technology is limited to industrial use only. This proposed system of Automatic food processor based on PLC and SCADA software is designed to cook food automatically as required by the user. This PLC based automated system is already pre-programmed to do the operations and the output is obtained. An HMI interface is available to the user to select the quantity and give their preferences. A water level sensor is placed in the tank which monitors the water level present. The ingredients necessary are added with the help of a linear stepper motor and solenoid valves. PLC is used to control the working of the whole system and SCADA is one of the emerging technologies which is used for complete monitoring.
, Sivakumar P, Sivani S, Sandhiya D, Shameem Fathima J, Hithesh Kumar S
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 17-21;

In the modern era transmission line is the most important part of the power system. Its allegiance and requirement of power is grown up exponentially. The major role of transmission lines is to transmit electric power from the source area to distribution network. Transmission line protection is an important issue in power system because 85-87% of power system faults are occurring in transmission line. Energy leakage is one of the major problems that corporates faces in recent times. Only way to solve this problem is to come up with a mechanism that can detect the fault in transmission line automatically and intimate the authorities with a specific location. In this work the device uses the sensor to sense the voltage flow in the transmission line and detect if there is a variation in the voltage flow. If fault is detected, it can be automatically controlled by using relay and the system is also integrated with IoT mechanism, to intimate the responsible person with location information.
Kamalakkannan S, Lavanya J
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 22-28;

Industrial automation is most emerging technology, and now a day’s industries almost are operated by automation. Most of the industrial plants, are automated without any operator machine interaction. Using arduino IDE and matlab simulink software, program is developed to indicate the machine status and number of job counts to the server. In this work, consideration was given to nodeMCU controller for drilling and tapping machine monitoring which can be operated both manually and automatically. This system gives a real-time view of the industrial plant, reduction in troubleshooting time for faults and also it assures safety of operator.
Jeevanandham A.T, Sivamurgan P
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 29-34;

In industry's mishap is a spontaneous and uncontrolled occasion wherein an activity or response of an item, a substance, an individual, or a radiation brings about close to home damage. There are a few mishaps occur because of fire. Fire identifiers are utilized to recognize the fire or smoke at a beginning time and can help in sparing lives. Right now, IOT based alarm has been planned utilizing temperature and smoke sensor. It would not just flag the nearness of fire in a specific reason yet will likewise send related data to portable through IOT. By utilizing the temperature sensor, smoke sensor and there is a simple to advanced convertor, which changes over the simple signs got at the sensor end to computerized and afterward transmits them to a smaller scale controller and to the Arduino. The small-scale controller is modified to turn on the ringer, when the temperature and the smoke arrive at an edge esteem. Simultaneously, Arduino sends the information to the Wi-Fi module ESP8266. ESP8266 will then the accompanying information to the IOT site, where, approved individuals can take fitting measure so as to check the fire. The gadget id is the one-of-a-kind id given to a gadget, which would enable the work force to get data identified with the area, where the fire is detected. This paper can urge numerous new specialists to do investigate in the forthcoming space of IOT.
Tamilnayagam V, Keerthika Kumarasamy, Tamiloli Devendhiran, Mohanraj K, Ilavarasan L
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 2, pp 1-8;

The pure and tungsten doped titanium oxide WxTi1-xO2 (x=0, 0.1) thin films have been successfully deposited on the glass substrate at 400 °C using spray pyrolysis technique. The structural properties of the prepared films were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). From the XRD spectrum, the sample shows the amorphous structure. Their surface morphology was probed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the mechanical properties, topography and surface roughness of the grown films was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The functional group and optical characteristic of prepared films were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UV-Vis-double beam spectrometer. The optical energy gap was determined by transmittance measurement.
Renuka Devi M, Vijay Kirubakar Raj D
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 17-23;

The main objective is to produce an electro spun mat from ardil fibers in combination with polyvinyl alcohol which can be used for medical applications. Ardil fibers are the fibers extracted from the protein obtained from the defatted oil cake of groundnut. The inherent anti-microbial activity of ground nut allows the use of ardil fibers for medical applications. Since ardil fibbers are not capable of forming fibers of its own by electro spinning, they are used in blend with polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl alcohol is chosen mainly because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. The electro spun mat produced from ardil and polyvinyl alcohol was checked for anti-microbial activity so that it can be used for medical applications and X-ray diffraction was seen to check the presence of proteins which was absolute. Other test such as moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to check whether the produced electro spun mat can be used for the required end use. MVTR is checked to check the breathability of the mat and control of moisture. The MVTR is between the acceptance levels which can be used for medical applications. TGA is to check absorption and adsorption. From the results obtained from different results, it is obvious that the produced mat can be used for medical applications.
Vijayakumar C, Murugesan A, Subramaniam D, Panneerselvam N
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 28-34;

In this experimental investigation compacts the performance and emissions of compression ignition engines fuelled with MgO nano additive, maducaindica bio diesel blends were examined. Based upon the previous literatures only 20% mahuca methyl ester fuel blends without nano additives is suitable for compression ignition engine without affecting engine efficiency and its characteristics. In this paper magnesium oxide nano additives are added into the 40% Mahucaindica biodiesel- diesel blends at the rate of 50ppm for developing the test fuels. In this nano additives improve the properties of diesel fuel like viscosity, calorific value and decreased the flash point and fire point. Then compared the performance and emissions differences of all blended fuels used as a fuel in a diesel engine. The observation of results, 40MgO + 50ppm blended fuels brake thermal efficiency is improved then CO, HC, CO2and smoke decreased compared to other fuel blends. The results are taken into account, a blend of 40MgO+ Mgo50ppm is the best blend ratio compared than other blends with nano additives.
, Ilangkumaran M
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 59-72;

Ergonomics is about ’fit’: the fit between people, the things they do, the objects they use and the environments they work in. Sitting at classes on a comfortable seat advances the comfort, health, well-being and safety of the person who uses the chair. The poor ergonomic classroom furniture is frequently considered one of the major causes of severe posture problems in adulthood .The most engineering class room activities involve sitting for long period of time, with little or no breaks .The poorly designed furniture fails to take account of anthropometric measurements & characteristics of its user has a negative influence of the human health. The purpose of study was to examine the anthropometric match of the classroom furniture with standard ones. The dimensions of the table and desks are available by measuring in class room. The writing desk was made up by composite wood which is covered by thin layer of mica sheet. The sitting and lying table were made up of massive wood. The structural defect of the furniture like cracks, scratches and breaks were also taken into account.
Tiruvenkadam N, Ilangkumaran M, , Thulsidharan R
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 12-20;

Nano Coatings are nanotechnology-based coatings with very fine, thin layers of nano particles that are used to impart specific chemical and physical characteristics to a substrate surface .Nano coatings can easily be adopted for several uses .The future of the global nano coating market looks promising with opportunities in industries such as food preservation, metal coating, textile industries, etc., The market is further expected to reach a figure of US$ 13.5 Billion by 2023, exhibiting a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 20.6% during 2018-2023.Increasing demand for nanotechnology in emerging countries, including China, Japan and India, supports the growth of the nano - coating market in Asia Pacific. Increase in commercial and government investment in sectors such as automotive, infrastructure, shipping port projects and general manufacturing is growing rapidly Indian government is providing various start-up funds to encourage entrepreneur. This article deals with advance materials technology in the current era of Industry 4.0 which has huge scope for business opportunities in all kind of new innovators in nano coatings.
, Murugesan A, Kumaravel A
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 45-54;

Diesel fuel is necessary for farming, transport, and industrialized sector. It contributes to the wealth of the universal economy while it is widely used due to having higher flexibility, combustion efficiency, consistency and handling facilities. However, emissions from fossil fuel are considered as the main source of environmental pollution. Thus, it becomes necessary to reduce emission by improving the performance of the engines. Recently the addition of catalytic material like nanoparticles to diesel proves to be a hopeful solution to reduce emission without much modification of the existing engine design. In the present study, the influence of nanoparticles doped with diesel on the performance and emission characteristics are carried out in a naturally aspirated, single-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 3.7 kW, direct-injection compression-ignition engine is coupled with eddy current dynamometer and high-speed data acquisition system. Cerium Oxide nanoparticles are selected as the best oxygen boosting catalytic nanoparticle and it is prepared by the sol-gel process. Nanoparticles, then doped with diesel with the help of an Ultrasonicator with different molar concentrations (5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, 10 ppm, 15 ppm). Fuel properties of nano doped fuel samples are tested and presented in this paper. The DI CI engine experimental results were found to be brake thermal efficiency is increased by 3.6% by simultaneously reducing fuel consumption by 3.63% and also harmful environmental pollution like carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and smoke level are decreased by 9.11%, 6.3%, 3.12%, and 12.6% respectively compared to pure diesel. It may be due to the enhanced surface to volume ratio, catalytic activity and improving the mixing rate of fuel and air in the combustion chamber.
, Murugesan A, Vijayakumar C
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 35-44;

Diesel engines are widely used for their low fuel consumption and better efficiency. Fuel conservation, efficiency and emission control are always the investigation points in the view of researchers in developing energy system. India to search for a suitable environmental friendly alternative to diesel fuel. The regulated emissions from diesel engines are carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), NOx and Particulate matter. It creates cancer, lungs problems, headaches and physical and mental problems of human. This paper focuses on the substitution of fossil fuel diesel with renewable alternatives fuel such as Biodiesel. Biodiesel is much clear than fossil diesel fuel and it can be used in any diesel engine without major modification. The experiment was conducted in a single-cylinder four-stroke water-cooled 3.4 kW direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with non-edible Pungamia oil biodiesel blends. The experimental results proved that up to 40% of Pungamia oil biodiesel blends give better results compared to diesel fuel. The AVL 444 di-gas analyzer and AVL 437 smoke meter are used to measure the exhaust emissions from the engine. The observation of results, non-edible Pongamia biodiesel blended fuels brake thermal efficiency (3.59%) is improved and harmful emissions like CO, unburned HC, CO2, Particulate matter, soot particles, NOx and smoke levels are 29.67%, 26.65%, 33.47%, 39.57%, +/- 3.5 and 41.03% is decreased respectively compared to the diesel fuel. This is due to biodiesel contains the inbuilt oxygen content, ignition quality, carbon burns fully, less sulphur content, no aromatics, complete CO2 cycle.
Gobi Nallathambi, Hazel Dhinakaran
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 1-11;

Air separation is a process of separating primary components from the atmospheric air. Development of membrane technologies plays a key role in air separation. Multi-layer polymeric nanocomposite membranes have been developed by a novel technique using Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and cellulose acetate (CA) along with nano silica particles (SiO2) to obtain a higher oxygen selectivity and permeability. For the construction of the multilayer membrane, the Box-Behnken design has been used by employing three independent variables namely PAN Electro spinning time, the SiO2 percentage in the PAN polymer and CA/PEG polymer concentration. The developed membranes have been characterized for its surface morphology and physical properties. Along with the analysis of compound desirability, the results were also subject to statistical analysis in order to form regression equations. The electro spun fiber diameter increases along with the concentration of SiO2 nanoparticles and the range is from 50 nm to 400 nm. Moreover, the maximum pore size on the surface of the membrane lies between 200 to 400 nm whereas the maximum percentage of oxygen purity obtained is 48 with the permeate flux of 5.45 cm3/cm2/min.
Raghunath M, Nijandhan K, , Saran T, Shri Sakthi V
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 21-27;

Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. In our project, we automate the fuse insertion process of the Chinese cracker (Bhijili). In India, the fuse insertion is done by handmade process. Due to handmade process, it creates serious health problems to the labours and it requires more labour, consumes more time. So, we planned to implement this process in a “PLC based automatic machine”. In which we combined Piercing, Dipping and Fuse Insertion. In reference of cracker manufacturing in China, they already had automatic fuse insertion, but they have a different procedure (chemical filling is done after the fuse insertion) compared to our country’s procedure, fuse is inserted after chemical filling. In our automation, we sequence the process of piercing and fuse insertion in an automatic manner. Advantage of our project are, increases productivity, reduced lead time, elimination of setup time, reduce the cost, fewer accident. For an emergency safety to the human and the surroundings, we use the fireball (mono ammonium phosphate) for the occasional fire accident which reduces the concentration of the blast in a few seconds.
Ilangkumaran M, Tiruvenkadam N, Saranya M,
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 73-80;

Where is the abrasive or gradual removal of materials at solid surfaces? It is caused due to the interaction between the sliding surface by mechanical action. The abrasive wears can be recognised as scratches or grooves. To enhance the wear resistance suitable nanocoating is applied on the material surface for better tribological properties such as hardness and toughness. Wear resistant nanocoating is used to reduce or eradicate wear to extend the lifetime of the EN8 steel. EN8 is unalloyed medium carbon steel with better mechanical properties than mild steel and also readily machinable in any condition. The nanocoating materials such as Al2O3, TiO2, SiC, ZrO2, WS2, Si3N4 etc., are used to reduce wear and to enhance hardness and toughness on mild steel through various nanocoating techniques. This paper deals with selection of suitable nanocoating material through AHP (Analytical hierarchal process) - a multi-criteria decision-making method.
, Sri Vidhya D, Venkatesan T
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 55-58;

Power generation based on renewable energy sources has experienced an important growth due to the challenge of global warming and climatic conditions. This paper proposes the power generation based on Thermo Electric Modules. Peltier module is a device which converts heat energy into electrical energy. Peltier module is a device that uses the principle of thermoelectric effect and converts temperature differences in to an electric voltage and vice versa. The conversion technology is based on the See beck effect and high thermal concentration using optical concentrators. Pettier module produces no air pollution or hazardous waste, free of moving parts, which reduces the maintenance cost of the proposed system. Peltier module is made up of semiconductor materials such as Bismuth Telluride. The temperature on the panel can be controlled by using Fresnel lens and it is connected to charge controller. The generated voltage is increased with increase in temperature. The panel is connected to the battery through the charge controller. The experimental set up has been implemented. The output voltage obtained from the panel is of 2.18 volts. The voltage is increased up to 12 volts using boost converter. The obtained DC voltage of 12 volts is charged using battery and it can be used for charging of rechargeable household appliances and electronic gadgets.
Kalai Selvan M.C., Hendry Thomas X, Siddharthan B, Divya Kumar P
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 24-33;

The non-traditional machining of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites is relatively new. This paper covers studies on match inability of aluminium - Boron carbide metal matrix composites (Al-B4C MMCs) with abrasive water jets (AWJs). Two different compositions of Al-B4C MMCs were processed with various mesh size, abrasive flow rate, transverse rate and water pressure with a view to identify the performance of the abrasive water jet machine for effective processing of MMCs with AWJs. The maximum penetration ability of AWJs in different MMCs was examined by conducting the experiments on trapezoidal shaped Al-B4C MMC specimens, prepared with stir casting method. Optical micrographs of MMC samples and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of AWJ cut surfaces enabled to explain the trends of material removal by the abrasives. Analysis of results clearly indicated the choice of 80 mesh size abrasives, higher water pressure and flow rate and lower transverse rate for effective processing of Al-B4C MMCs with AWJs.
Akinnawo O Solomon
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 1-9;

This paper is aimed at reviewing the application of biological extracts from plants, fungi and bacteria in the synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles with reference to Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles as a case study. The procedures for the extraction of the biological extracts as well as the chemical instrumentation analysis of the extracts and metal/metal oxide nanoparticles were explained in this review. It was reported that standard chemical test confirms the presence of tannins, alkanoids, flavonoids and terpenoids in various plant extracts, while FTIR characterization of various biological extracts confirms the presence of organic compounds as a capping and reducing agents in the biosynthetic process for the preparation of the nanoparticles. The use of other instrumental techniques such as FESEM, XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM and UV-Visible spectroscopy in the characterization of biosynthesized metal/metal oxide nanoparticles were also explained in this review.
, Charumathe N, Fariha Begum A
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 34-40;

In this paper, biosensors are the device in which there is a coupling of biological sensing element whit a detector system using a transducer. In comparison with any other currently available diagnostic device, biosensors are much higher in performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity both. Biosensors have found potential application in the industrial processing and monitoring, environment pollution control, also in agriculture and food industries. Important features for commercialization of the biosensors are selectivity, sensitivity, stability, reproducibility and low cost. This article reviews the brief history, basic principle, and the various types of biosensors available.
Siddharthan B, Bala Yogesh V, Mani Bharathi M, Chandresh A
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 10-16;

Metal Matrix Composites are a class of advanced composites with graded properties that bring a new concept in material design and are widely used in the aerospace and automotive industry. These materials have the properties of both the matrix as well as the reinforcement materials. They are known to have little residual and thermal stress. This concept imparts improved adhesive bonding strength between metals and ceramics. Aluminium alloy with silicon carbide is applicable where hardness and toughness are the requirements. Metal Matrix Composites are designed in order to have the combined properties of both metals and ceramics. The specimens are fabricated for various proportions of the materials. In the fabrication of these materials, begins with Aluminium alloy and Silicon carbide. The specimen is subjected to different mechanical tests, and the experimental result is the pure aluminium undergoes more wear when compared to the reinforced specimen.
, Rajan C, Sandhiya S
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 62-68;

In modern days, people are getting too busy in their works but still they need to spend time in shopping malls. In Shopping malls, customers face a difficulty to follow a queue for the process of billing, which takes a long time under huge crowd. Customer thought that, to avoid the standing time in the billing section at shopping malls. To overcome the above problems, we emerged the Bascart system. To increase the pace of a billing process, RFID tags in products, then the product is read by the barcode scanner which describes the cost of that product and is displays on the LCD screen attached in our shopping list. As customer buy their exact product its price is add on the previous list. The cost of the product is displayed on the LCD screen by using microcontroller through Zigbee Communication from host PC. Zigbee supports bidirectional communication between microcontroller and host PC. We have proposed the Weighing Sensor for the purpose of checking the weight of the items and it is directly stored in the server database. Customer get direct bill at the billing section which is already stored at host PC which automatically reduces the queue. Then GSM Module in our system is used to detect the Geo-position of the customer’s mobile for the process of intimating the shopping details of the customer through messages which is already updated in database.
, Rajasekaran T
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 54-61;

The electronic industry is the largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry in the world. Electronic waste or E-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries. Most of these e-wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, posing a new challenge to the environment and policy makers as well. Toxic metals in the E-waste are usually non -biodegradable and they will create harmful long lasting negative consequences on the environment in general and our health particular. Currently E-waste is treated by chemical leaching, it gives more environmental issues due to usage of inorganic chemicals in treatment process. So that, the E-waste can be used for extraction of metals by the process of biological leaching. It is the process of extraction of metal from source by using biological organism. In this process involve numerous ferrous iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, acidophilic bacteria which is grown in acid medium. The acid mine drainage (AMD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines. AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem in the mining industry. It is also toxic and difficult to managing this water. Due to the presence of sulphide metal in the ore, which is released after the mining process, will react with atmosphere and water forms sulphuric acid which poses potential harm to the environment and eco system. This acid medium is most suitable for the development of acidophilic bacteria’s. In this project, the Acidophilic bacteria in AMD can be suggested for process of recycling in biological leaching of electronic waste. This process can be used for both bioleaching of E-waste and management of mining waste water. The process will suppress the harmfulness in both E-waste and waste mining water.
, Kavya P, Shalini R
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 41-46;

In this paper, restructuring of monopolistic power systems is inevitable in this day and age to cope up with the radical growth of power demand. In developed countries restructuring is already in place while developing countries are getting accustomed to it. Above and beyond the benefits to customers in terms of economy and quality, there are several challenges prevailing particularly in transmission while exercising deregulation. The foremost challenging task of Independent System Operator (ISO) is managing the transmission line congestion in a deregulated power system. In most of the congestion management techniques, only the economic aspects are considered. The minimum voltage derivation for electronic industries and acceptable voltage derivation for high power applications are considered with suitable weighting factors in the objective function.
Srinivasan S, Sanjana G, Abinaya P
Bulletin of Scientific Research, Volume 1, pp 47-53;

Carbon is unique in its own ways, the most special attribute of carbon is that it can make rings and long chain; even life on the earth is possible due to this property of carbon. Graphene is the first two dimensional material and it has many outstanding properties which have resulted in many exciting applications. Graphene is claimed to be so versatile that it will be able to replace present day materials. It is thought to be the perfect two-dimensional carbon crystal as it is the unique blend of properties both mechanical and electronics. Graphene is the thinnest, highly elastic, am bipolar, chemically inert, and hydrophobic, possesses record electron conductivity, high value of mobility, high thermal conductivity, high opacity, low resistivity and shows fractional quantum Hall effect and ballistic conduction and many other interesting properties that are yet be explored. Recently it has been found that the magnetic field of grapheme can be switched on and off. In this paper, I have done a comparative study of properties of grapheme and tried to produce an application of grapheme in two fields which affect us most, that are, Medicine and Electronics.
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