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Results in Journal Eurasian Chemical Communications: 101

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, Mehdi Alaeiyan, Mohammad Farahani, Murat Cancan
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 819-826; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.9

Abstract:
A topological index-a numerical quantity derived from the graph of a chemical network-is used for modelling the mathematical, chemical and physical properties of these networks and chemicals. The topological properties of the Sierpinski triangle has been newly studied in chemical graph theory. In this study we defined novel Van, R and S degree concepts as well as novel Van, R and S topological indices, and computed these topological indices for the Sierpinski triangle network. The closed formulas of these novel topological indices for the Sierpinski triangle network were presented.
, Raad Sehen Haoer Raad Sehen Haoer, Janet Robert, , Narasimhan Devadoss
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 827-833; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.10

Abstract:
The 2-degree of a vertex v in a (molecular) graph G is the number of vertices which are at distance two from v in G. The F-leap index of a molecular graph G is the sum of cubes of the 2-degree of every vertex v in G. In this research study, we have computed the F-leap index of some special classes of bridges and chain graphs. We also have determined the F-leap index of some chemical structures including polyphenyl chains and spiro chains.
Islam Goli Farkoush, , Mohammad Maghasedi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 771-775; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.4

Abstract:
Dendrimers are the highly branched organic macromolecules with successive layers or generations of branch units surrounding a central core. In mathematical chemistry, a particular attention has been given to degree-based graph invariant. The Narumi-Katayama index and its modified version of a graph G, denoted by NK(G) and NK*(G) are equal to the product of the degrees of the vertices of G. In this work we calculated the Narumi-Katayama Indices and its Modified version for some families of dendrimers such as NS1[n], NS2[n] and NS3[n]. The exact formulas of the Narumi-Katayama and Modified Narumi-Katayama indices of these dendrimers nano structures are presented in this paper.
Mahdieh Nezamabadi, , Ebrahim Balali, Mahnaz Qomi, Sara Hallajian
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 776-784; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.5

Abstract:
This research study discussed the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) behavior during the absorption on ethylenediamine(2HNCH2CH2NH2) in the course of the sour gas sweetening process. For this purpose, the molecular dynamics simulation was conducted on methane, ethane, and hydrogen sulfide (as sour gas) and ethylenediamine for investigating the oil sweetening process. Quantum method of density-functional theory with B3LYP method and basis set 6-311(+)G** was also employed to calculate the charge. Simulation results revealed that, the ethylenediamine molecules could absorb the hydrogen sulfide molecule. Despite the six sites on the ethylenediamine, hydrogen sulfide molecules will interact just with two sites. It was also observed that each ethylenediamine molecule could absorb 3-7 hydrogen sulfide molecules, whereas hydrogen sulfide interacted only with two nitrogen sites. In addition to interaction with ethylenediamine, hydrogen sulfide molecules also interact with each other. This gives rise to the condition in which the number of hydrogen sulfide molecules acting with ethylenediamine would be more than two molecules. Investigating the behavior of the H2S molecules absorbed on nitrogen showed the unique interacting behavior of these molecules and nitrogen of ethylenediamine. H2S molecules are absorbed by nitrogen through one of its hydrogen molecules. However, it was observed that the two hydrogen atoms exchange their places with each other, and nitrogen will interact by another H atom of H2S. At some steps of simulation, the hydrogen absorbed on one of the nitrogen atoms of ethylenediamine, will immigrate to the other nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine molecule and interact with that nitrogen.
, Shahabuddin Memon, Ismail Murat Palabiyik
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 785-797; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.6

Abstract:
Water might be contaminated by different metal ions, resulting in different water-borne diseases in human and aquatic life. This research study aimed at synthesizing the diethylamine functionalized calix[4]arene based silica (DFCS) resin for the effective removal of heavy metals such as Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ from water. The DFCS resin was characterized using the FTIR spectroscopy and SEM techniques. The efficiency of the DFCS resin for the removal of metal ions was evaluated by performing equilibrium studies under the optimized conditions. Moreover, the experimental data were subjected to isotherm models; however, the Freundlich model was best-fit one as compared to the Langmuir model. The energy calculated from the D-R model was 10.3, 9.7 and 9.2 KJ/mol for Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+,respectively, suggesting that the ion exchange process is involved. The thermodynamic values revealed that the reaction is spontaneous and exothermic, following the pseudo second-order kinetic model equation.
Morteza Motahharinia, ,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 760-770; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.3

Abstract:
In the present study, ZnO nanoparticle doped with Pd (ZnO-Pd) using one simple chemical precipitation method has been synthesized and characterized by different characterization methods. The synthesized nanoparticle presented a nano-size spherical shape with d
Armin Zarei, , Farzaneh Moradnia,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 798-811; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.7

Abstract:
The arrival of new types of viral diseases, namely coronavirus family, have posed a serious threat for global health. A new kind of coronavirus (CoV) named intense respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) firstly diagnosed in Huanan Seafood Wholesale, Wuhan City, China. The COVID-19 origination is likely to be from an animal host like bat and followed by person-person transmission unless the other routes possibility should be taken into account. The COVID-19 has been spread so fast all over the world, with more than 1,569,504 infected cases and 95,269 mortality as of April, 11th 2020, regardless of potent control and quarantine policy in more countries. Moreover, the SARS-CoV2 known as a novel coronavirus as it’s initial genomic was less likely to be matched with the former CoV types. The human-human transmission range reported to be 2-14 days and its spread expansions would be comforted by surfaces, infected hands and droplets. This review focused on the persistency of different coronaviruses, like avain H7H9, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Ebola virus and COVID-19, on varied surfaces as well as considering of COVID-19 features such as transmission, preventable policies, symptoms and suggested treatment ways to combat COVID-19.
Esmat Shojaei, Mahboubeh Masrournia, Ali Beyramabadi, Hossein Behmadi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 750-759; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.2

Abstract:
Chromium has been widely applied in industrial of pigment, stainless steel and electroplating and tanning procedure that enters the water sources. In this work, a simple and reproducible potentiometric sensor was developed for the determination of Cr(III) ions in real solid samples. For this purpose, a new Schiff base (4-((E)-(2-amino-4 chlorophenylimino) methyl) -5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol) were synthesized based on a chemical methods and utilized as a novel and sensitive ionophore for the preparation of Cr(III)-carbon paste electrode. Percentage of carbon paste electrode composition including, graphite powder, ionophore, paraffin oil as a binder, and graphene oxide(GO), was optimized with a chemometric approach using a central composite design method. The optimum percentage of ionophore and nanomaterial in the electrode was obtained 15%w/w. The predicted slope by the computational method and the obtained slope by the experimental method for the proposed sensor was not significantly different. The sensor was linear in the range of 1×10-10- 1×10-2 M for the determination of Cr(III).The effects of other parameters such as pH, response time, lifetime, and interfering ions were studied with one factor at the time method in the optimal composition of the sensor. Proper range of pH, lifetime and response time were acquired 3.5-9.0, 8 weeks and 10 s, respectively. The essential advantages of the proposed sensor were the suitable linear range, a wide range of pH, proper sensor stability, and fast response for the Cr(III) determination. Finally, the analytical application of prepared sensor evaluated to determine Cr(III) in waste and tap water samples.
Ali Esmaeili, , Esmat Mohammadi Nasab
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 739-749; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.1

Abstract:
Preliminary researches provided essential information about the optimized configuration of triatomic XO2 (X = O, S, Se, Te) systems, which were bent in the ground state and linear in their first excited state. The Jahn-Teller effects including the Jahn-Teller (JTE), the Renner-Teller effect (RTE), and the pseudo Jahn–Teller effect (PJTE) are parts of the most important reasons for structural distortion in the high symmetry configurations for each molecular system. This study purpose was to investigate the dependence between PJT parameters including the vibronic coupling constant values ​​(F), energy gap between reference states (Δ), and initial force constant (K0). In all above mentioned molecules, stability were increased with the reduction in the symmetry level. This increment was attributed to the PJTE. The vibronic coupling interaction between the ground (Σg), and the first excited states (Πu) through the PJTE problem (PJT (Σg+ Πu) × Πu) was because of the asymmetry and molecules bending phenomenon. The hardness difference parameter Δ[η (C2V) -η (D∞h)] decreases from O to Te (30.42, 22.66, 22.65, 22.58 Kcal/mol). These changes could explain the trend, which were observed for the D∞h → C2V conversion process.
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 812-818; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.7.8

Abstract:
Boron sulfuric acid (BSA) was found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles from the reaction of aryl and alkyl amines with triethyl orthoformate and sodium azide at 120 oC in polyethylenglicole(PEG).Keywords: Boron sulfuric acid (BSA), Heterogeneous catalyst, Aryl and alkyl amines, Triethylorthoformates, 1-Substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole, Green chemistry
Nima Novin, , Ebrahim Balali
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 619-625; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.5.8

Abstract:
The aim of the study is to investigate sweeting process of sour gas by dynamic simulation of monoethanolamine (MEA) molecule. In the present paper using molecular dynamic simulation, the interaction of sour gas mixture included methane, ethane and H2S with MEA as absorption was also investigated the quantum method DFT B3LYP 6-311 (+) G** was used for electric charge calculation. The simulation results confirmed that the tendency of the H2S molecule is to be absorbed to amine nitrogen and oxygen hydroxyl group in MEA. No tendency for strong interaction between sulfur atoms of H2S molecule and hydrogen of amine or hydroxyl groups was observed. The investigation of changing distance between the hydrogen of H2S and nitrogen/oxygen of MEA confirmed a stable between hydrogen atoms of H2S and nitrogen/oxygen atoms in MEA. Also the investigation of distance changing show movement of hydrogen atoms of H2S molecule which interacted with MEA molecule in the time frame of the simulation. This study was observed that after absorption of H2S molecule by MEA molecules sour of them made the bridge for connection of MEA molecules with each other. Actually H2S molecules after interact with MEA molecules used addition their free hydrogen forinteraction and Making Bridge. Finally a structure of some MEA molecules are joined together, which are stable up to end of the simulation.
Fatemeh Dashti Rahmatabadi, , Hassan Kabiri Fard, Fariba Tadayon
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 587-594; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.5.4

Abstract:
The tripodalheptadentate Schiff base ligand, C21H27N7, was derived from pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) and its complexes with Cd(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) metal ions have been synthesized. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been identified by IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). According to the spectroscopic and elemental analyses data, it was found that the Schiff base was coordinated to the metal ions as a potentially heptadentate ligand. All compounds showed antibacterial properties against the gram-positive bacteria; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram-negative bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli by using disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. Also, the metal complexes showed a greater inhibitory effect than their individual ligand. Bacillus cereus was the most susceptible bacterial species to Co(II) complex while Escherichia coli required a relatively higher minimum inhibition concentration of Mn(II) complex.
, , Behnaz Aflatoonian, , Reza Alizadeh
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 563-572; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.5.1

Abstract:
Electrochemical behaviors of epinephrine and acetylcholine were investigated, using cyclic voltammetry, on the Ag-ZnO modified screen-printed electrode (Ag-ZnO/SPE). Ag-ZnO nanoplates showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of epinephrine and acetylcholine compared with bare SPE in 0.1 M PBS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a linear response obtained in the range of 0.13 to 450.00 μM with detection limit of 0.04 μM for epinephrine. Ag-ZnO/SPE exhibits good stability, reproducibility and repeatability, and the method has been successfully applied for detection of epinephrine and acetylcholine in their pharmaceutical and biological samples with satisfactory recovery.
Unesco Chakma, , Kamal Bikash Chakma, Tawhidul Islam, Debashis Howlader, Rasha M. K. Mohamed
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 573-580; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.5.2

Abstract:
Electronic band structures, the total density of state, the partial density of state, and optical properties were investigated using first principle method for SrPbO3 though Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) based on the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE0). The band gap was recorded at 0.768 eV. The electron doping happens between similar electronic localized states of atoms in crystals where the section of the quality edge and electron quality of that is with thermally activated. The density of state and partial density of state were simulated for evaluating the nature of 5s, 4d for Sr, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p for Pb and 2s, 2p for O atom for SrPbO3 orbital travelling with the maximum valance band (MVB) to the minimum conduction band (MCB) to explain the transition of electrons due to hybridization. The optical properties, for instance, absorption, reflection, refractive index, conductivity, dielectric function, and loss function, were calculated, which can account for the superior absorption of the visible light. The key point of this research is to determine the activity on electronics structure and optical properties for Fe doped by 6%. From the band gap and optical properties, SrPb0.94Fe0.06O3 can give more conductivity than that of SrPbO3, showing as a superconductor.
, Mehmona Abdul Razaq, , Saira Hameed
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 652-662; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.2

Abstract:
Mathematical chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry in which we predict the mathematical structure by means of mathematical tools. In past few decades, many studies have been conducted in this area. This theory has cooperated a significant role in the field of chemistry. The main goal of this study is to calculate the weighted entropies of penta chains. We studied the graph entropies with Randić index, Zagreb indices, atom-bond connectivity, augmented Zagreb index, geometric arithmetic index, and sum connectivity index. We obtained the weighted entropies for the graphs formed of concatenated 5-cycles in one rows and in two rows of various lengths.
Iman Yousefi Javan, , Renato D΄ovidio
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 516-535; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.9

Abstract:
In this work, we studied the distribution of molecular markers in the chromosomes of tetraploid wheat. This distribution was drawn through the 192 line came from based on a cross between two durum wheat genotypes. The first parental line was a Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.). The second parental line was a durum wheat genotype derived from a cross between the Triticum turgidum ssp. Durum, (Omrabi 5). One hundred ninety-two F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the above mentioned cross by single-seed descent. A total of 254 markers were analyzed, including 216 microsatellites and 38 SNPs markers. Linkage analysis defined 14 linkage groups. Most markers (57.2%) were found to be located to the A genome, with an average of 12 markers per chromosome. The remaining (42.7%) were located to the B genome. To construct a stabilized (skeleton) map, markers interfering with map stability were removed. Efficient user-friendly methods for mapping plant genomes were highly desirable for the studies marker-assisted selection. SSR (microsatellite) markers are user-friendly and efficient in detecting polymorphism, but they detect few loci. The skeleton map consisted of 100 markers with a total length of 3170.29 cM and an average distance of 31.7 cM between adjacent markers. Majority of the markers showed a statistical significantly Mendelian segregation with 1:1 ratio (α=0.01). The highest percentage of markers was similar with the first parental. This SSR and SNP markers revealed a high proportion of clustering, which may be indicative of gene-rich regions. Some of the SSR, SNP markers were distributed for the first time on the current work. This project provided a useful groundwork for further genetic map, genetic analysis of important quantitative traits, positional cloning, and marker-assisted selection, as well as for genome comparative genomics and genome organization studies in wheat and other cereals.
, , Behnaz Aflatoonian, , Kouros Divsalar, Iran Sheikh Shoaie, Mahdieh Sheikhshoaie, Fariba Garkani Nejad
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 548-562; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.11

Abstract:
An electrochemical method has been described for the voltammetric oxidation and determination of norepinephrine (NE) at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with RuO2 nano-roads and ionic liquid. The results indicated that the voltammetric response of norepinephrine was improved distinctly at the surface of modified electrode and the oxidation of norepinephrine at the surface of modified electrode occurs at a potential about 200 mV less positive than that of an unmodified CPE. The anodic peak was characterized and the process was diffusion-controlled. The current measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) presented a good linear property as a function of the concentration of norepinephrine in the range of 0.07-400.0 µM, with a detection limit of 0.02 µM for norepinephrine. Also, this modified electrode was used for simultaneous determination of norepinephrine and acetaminophen. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to norepinephrine and acetaminophen determination in pharmaceutical samples and urine as real samples.
Jalil Mashhadizadeh, , Alireza Azimi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 536-547; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.10

Abstract:
As it is always necessary to design a pipeline at high pressure (high density), pipelines are also exposed to ambient temperatures and are usually exposed to low temperatures. On the other hand, in the presence of water vapor (almost all natural gases have some water vapor), and more importantly, the presence of hydrocarbons causes hydrate crystals to form. In this work, the capacity of carbon dioxide hydrate storage in water in the presence of surfactants at different temperatures, pressures and concentrations of TBAC and CTAB additives was calculated and measured using induction time measurement. The results of experiments show that with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature the storage capacity of CO2 in hydrate increases. Addition of CTAB also dramatically increases the storage capacity, while increasing pressure has a greater impact on the storage capacity of carbon dioxide in the hydrate. The effect of TBAC and CTAB surfactant on the induction of hydrate formation and carbon dioxide storage capacity was investigated. Design Expert software was used to design the experiment. Finally, statistical analysis of the effective parameters on the time of induction of hydrate formation showed that TBAC can decrease the time of induction of hydrate formation compared to other additives. In investigation of the effect of variables on the storage capacity of carbon dioxide gas, it can be concluded that increasing the amount of CTAB surfactant and pressure has the most impact on the increase of carbon dioxide storage capacity compared.
Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, , Behnaz Aflatoonian, , Kouros Divsalar, Iran Sheikh Shoaie, Zahra Dourandish, Mahdieh Sheikhshoaie
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 505-515; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.8

Abstract:
This work discusses the development of a new sensor for simultaneous determination of levodopa and tryptophan. The proposed sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with V2O5 nanoparticles. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for individual and simultaneous determination of the levodopa and tryptophan in the aqueous solutions. The proposed method under the optimized conditions was utilized to determine the levodopa with linear range of 0.06–250.0 μM and detection limit of 0.02 μM (S/N=3). Finally, the applicability of the proposed sensor was verified by evaluation of levodopa and tryptophan in real sample.
Ayub Parchebaf,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 475-490; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.6

Abstract:
In the presented study, a new and efficient sorbent for the removal of Everzol Red 3BS dye from aqueous solutions was prepared by immobilization of 2,4-­dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) on γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) ­nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (DNPH­­­-­γ-alumina). The structure and morphology of the produced sorbents were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch studies were performed to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and solution pH on the adsorption process. The experimental data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The isotherm studies showed that the adsorption experimental data were fitted by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qmax) ­obtained from the Langmuir model was 10.21 and 86.96 mg/g for Everzol Red 3BS dye on nano-γ-alumina and DNPH modified γ-alumina nanoparticles (DNPH­­­-­γ-alumina), respectively. Meanwhile, thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) were evaluated. We found out that ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° for nano-γ-alumina and DNPH modified γ-alumina nanoparticles (DNPH­­­-­γ-alumina) are -11.07 and -4.84 kJ/mol, 1.40and 3.55 kJ/mol, and 0.037 and 0.025 kJ/molK, respectively. The negative values of Gibbs free energy change (∆G°) ­show that the adsorption was feasible as the spontaneous and positive values of enthalpy change (∆H°) confirm the endothermic adsorption­­. The obtained results indicate that γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) ­nanoparticles modified with 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH- γ-alumina) can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for the adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions.
Ali Borsalani, , Masoumeh Mirzaei, Alireza Azimi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 491-504; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.7

Abstract:
In this study, cleaning of organic-fouled reverse osmosis membranes with direct osmosis high salinity (DO-HS) method by nitrate salts as draw solution was investigated. Synthetic feed water including alginate and natural organic matter were used as model organic foulants. Nitrate salts were selected as draw solution which has not been used for DO-HS cleaning until now. Physicochemical properties of these salts were investigated systematically and related to the DO-HS cleaning performance. The results revealed that the zinc nitrate (1.5 M) draw solution may generate high osmotic pressure more than NaCl. Also, the DO-HS cleaning by zinc nitrate as draw solution was found to be quite effective in cleaning reverse osmosis membranes (cleaning efficiency up to 110%) fouled by gel-forming hydrophilic organic foulants, such as alginate. The effect of physicochemical factors investigated included salt dose, salt type, organic foulants composition and cleaning contact time. It was found that the membrane needed to be cleaned for about 10 min because of the appearance of all foulants on membrane surface. Most importantly, DO-HS cleaning appeared to be an effective cleaning method, and found to be useful for membrane-based advanced wastewater reclamation, where a large fraction of the organic foulants is hydrophilic.
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 440-455; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.3

Abstract:
In this study, since the system was relatively large, the modified methods of molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics were used to obtain changes in the thickness of the membrane phospholipids by different solvents. Thus, according to the theory of fluidity Mosaic, the changes that were made due to various solutions and, consequently, the constant change of solution dielectric effect on the thickness of the phospholipid membrane. By comparing these changes, it was found that changes in the width of the inner layers in the vicinity of different solvents, with the shift from this effect, are consistent with the total width of the phospholipid membrane. It seems to be the determining factor in changing the width of the diaphragm against different solvents of the phospholipid inner layer. Accordingly, the depth of membrane thinning was calculated for each solvent in comparison with the water solution, which was reduced by decreasing the solvent dielectric constant, thinning of the solution and the phospholipid membrane, respectively. Thermodynamic functions for the usual solution were calculated using frequency studies and thermodynamic relations. These functions indicate that the system is stable in terms of thermodynamics and stabilizes the desired solution without distorting structural integrity. Hence, these structures can be used as agents for the delivery, exchange, and absorption of materials. The membrane structures studied in this study are used in the mechanism, and drug delivery interactions in the body and the pharmaceutical industry as a channel for the delivery and exchange, and these results can be used in the discussion of intelligent redeploy of drugs and Nano drug. So, paying attention to the operating environment and the thinning factor and the thickness of the membrane increase the reactivity, improve the solubility and delivery of drugs, reduce the dose of the medicine and increase its effectiveness.
Seyed Ashkan Moghadam Ziabari, , Zoleikha Hajizadeh,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 456-464; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.4

Abstract:
Agar/Fe3O4nanocomposites were synthesized in the presence of an external magnetic field (~ 0.4 Tesla) and their characteristics were compared to the samples synthesized without considering the external magnetic field. In this study, we used Fe2+ and Fe3+ for synthesizing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of agar as a polymeric additive, by co-precipitation technique. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis of the samples revealed the saturation magnetism as 33.92 emu/g and 38.92 emu/g for the synthesized samples in the absence and presence of external magnetic field, respectively. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles is related to the magnetic property. Magnetic dipole alignment was increased by the sample synthesized in the external magnetic field. The Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern were also applied to characterize the magnetic nanocomposites.
Amir Samimi, Soroush Zarinabadi, Amir Hossein Shahbazi Kotanaei, Alireza Azimi, Masoumeh Mirzaei
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 571-581; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2019.6.7

Abstract:
Nowadays, computational tools for analyzing and collecting data in the operation of petroleum units are essential. One of the methods is the classification or regression is to step in the overall process of knowledge extraction. In this article, one of specific type of decision called the conditional contract arrangement, is used to extract the relevant knowledge in Catalytic Reforming Units (CRU) for 4 factors: Density, PH, total iron ions in vessels (S.FE) and H2S. All of these factors are related to corrosion in CRU units and this paper aims to optimize some conditions to eliminate it. In this regard, using ammonium water with a specific range and pH can be helpful. According to the obtained results the best range of density (in Feed) is less than 0.515 kg/m3, PH (water in vessels) is more than 6.7, S.FE is less than 1.5 ppm and H2S in recycle gas is less than 700 ppm. The outcomes also show how this approach can be used to gain insight into some refineries and how to deliver results in a comprehensible and user-friendly way.
Mohammad Zakarianezhad, Batool Makiabadi, Motahare Shool, Mahboobeh Hasanpour
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 582-594; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2019.6.8

Abstract:
Intermolecular proton transfer in barbituric acid (BA) both in the gas phase and in the presence of water molecule was investigated using the B3LYP method with aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. The overall process involves keto-enol and lactam-lactim tautomerism that occurs. The most stable form of barbituric acid turns into the intermediates with three-step proton transfer at three different positions of the structure of this compound. Then, these intermediates become to the final products passing through two competing processes. In order to determine the priority of each competitive process, energy changes of all possible tautomeric forms were investigated along with the role of solvent molecules in multiple routes. Also, transposition in the proton transfer process makes changes in the electron transfer energy which was investigated both in the gas phase and in the presence of water molecules. Frequency calculations performed to characterize ground and transition states and calculation of zero point energies. Natural bond orbital analysis and topological property of electron density were investigated using natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. From the results, all proton transfer process in the gas phase and in the presence of the solvent molecule (water) is exothermic and non-spontaneous. In the gas phase and in the water assisted condition, the route 1b is kinetically more preferred. Despite the increase of the increase of ring resonance of stronger hydrogen bonds in the product compared to the reactant, the products are more unstable than the reactant. Therefore, the only factor can make the product unstable is the severe decrease of LP (N) →σ* (C-O) electron transfer energy.
Fatemeh Mostaghni, Fereshteh Taat
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 427-432; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.1

Abstract:
CoFe2O4 is used as an efficient catalyst for reaction of benzoin, benzaldehydes, and ammonium acetate under mild and green conditions. This reaction is produced the corresponding 2,4,5-triarylimidazole lophine as the representative of multisubstituted imidazoles in high yields (99%), high purity (>98%) and short reaction time (10 min) in comparison to the previously reported approaches. The catalyst was separated easily by an external magnet. In addition, the recycled catalyst was reused several times without significant loss of catalytic properties.
, Hadis Afshar-Hezarkhani
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 465-474; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.4.5

Abstract:
Pyridinium-1-sulfonic acid-2-carboxylic acid chloride {[Pyridine-1-SO3H-2-COOH]Cl} was synthesized and applied as a novel and efficient catalyst for the preparation of hexahydroquinolines by the one-pot multi-component condensation reaction of various aryl aldehydes with dimedone (5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione), β-ketoesters and ammonium acetate under mild and solvent-free conditions. Low cost, non toxic nature, simple work-up and excellent yields of products are the main advantages of this work.
Sareh Sadat Moshirian-Farahi, , Mohamadreza Abedi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 702-711; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.7

Abstract:
A high sensitive electroanalytical-based sensor for determination of isoprenaline was fabricated by modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE) by NiO-Pt-Pd/CNTs composite as conductive mediator and n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate (NHIHP) as conductive binder. The NHIHP/NiO-Pt-Pd/CNTs/CPE was improved the oxidation signal of isoprenaline ⁓3.47 times and reduced oxidation over-potential of drug ⁓180 mV. The pH investigation confirmed that redox behavior of isoprenaline is depended of pH solution with equal value of electron and proton in redox mechanism. The NHIHP/NiO-Pt-Pd/CNTs/CPE was successfully used for determination of isoprenaline in the concertation range 0.003-300 µM with detection limit 0.9 nM by square wave voltammetric method. The standard addition results showed powerful ability of NHIHP/NiO-Pt-Pd/CNTs/CPE as an electroanalytical tool for determination of isoprenaline in the pharmaceutical and clinical samples with recovery data 98.76-105.06%.
Zaheer Ahmad, Maria Naseem, , , Shaohui Wang, COMSATS University Islamabad Lahore Campus
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 712-721; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.8

Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 722-730; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.9

Abstract:
Aggregation of solid particles in the drilling fluid has adverse effects on the drilling performance, including blocking drilling pipe, reducing fluid lubrication, and the blowout action. The purpose of this study was to prepare a solution for breaking the adhesion forces between the suspended solids and drilling fluid molecules. To investigate the effect of the ultrasonic waves on the separation of solid particles from reversed emulsion fluid, in vitro studies were conducted. Drilling mud was prepared in the form of different samples and the samples were then irradiated with ultrasonic waves for 2, 5, and 10 min and the intensities of 50, 100, and 150 W/m2. To evaluate the stability of the emulsions and the efficiency of the separation process, caliper (volumetric) and density measurement methods were utilized. The results revealed increased time and intensity of the ultrasonic radiation separates the phases and fine particles from the emulsion, and also increased the stability of reversed emulsion. The increased radiation time and intensity did not have any effect on the drilling mud and only delayed the optimal operation time and energy consumption.
, Chidambaram Natarajan, G Sathiamoorthy,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 646-651; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.1

Abstract:
Mathematical chemistry is the area of research engaged in new application of Mathematics in Chemistry. Major areas of research in mathematical chemistry include chemical graph theory. Chemical graph theory applies graph theory to mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena. If G=(V(G),E(G)) is a connected graph,where V(G) is a non-empty set of vertices and E(G) is a set of edges, then the eccentric connectivity index of G (denoted by ξ(G)) was defined as ζ(G)= where dv is the degree of a vertex v and ε(v) is its eccentricity. In this study, we investigated the eccentric connectivity index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 680-687; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.5

Abstract:
In this article, we study the degree based molecular topological indices for some infinite families of Nanostar Dendrimers. We derive the analytical closed formulae for these classes of complex chemical networks. These results are very helpful in understanding and predicting the physico-chemical properties for these chemical structures (Nanostar dendrimers NS2[n], NS3[n], D2[n]).
, Abdul Qudair Baig, , Waqas Khalid, Muhammad Saeed,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 672-679; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.4

Abstract:
The molecular topological descriptors are the numerical in-variants of a molecular graph and are very useful and efficient to predict their bioactivity. Dendrimers are highly branched organic macro-molecules with successive layers or generations of branch units surrounding a central core and have many applications in biology, medicine and drug designs. These are key molecules in nanotechnology and can be put to good use. A great variety of such indices are studied and used in theoretical chemistry and pharmaceutical researchers. Among them, a large number of indices depend only on vertex degrees of the molecular graph. A considerable amount of these vertex-degree-based topological indices can be represented as the sum of edge contributions of graph. These kind of vertex-degree-based topological indices are known as bond incident degree (BID) indices. In this paper, we determine the bond incident degree indices of complex structures in drugs called nanostar dendrimers and compute the closed formula for these indices.
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 688-701; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.6.6

Abstract:
In this work, phosphomolybdic acid immobilized on chitosan/Fe3O4 as a green catalyst was used for the Hofmann N-alkylation of aniline derivatives with alcohols. H3PMo12O40/chitosan/Fe3O4 (PMo/Chit/Fe3O4) was prepared from the phosphomolybdic acid, chitosan, and Fe3O4 MNPs. Several secondary amines were synthesized from primary arylamines with electron‐donating, electron‐withdrawing groups, and alcohols in good to excellent yields. The catalyst could be separated using an external magnet and recovered without reducing its catalytic activity. The optimization of the reaction conditions was evaluated using the response surface method (RSM), involving the Box-Behnken design matrix. The simple procedure, only one byproduct (i.e., water), good to excellent yields, easy separation of the catalyst, short reaction times, and environmentally benign conditions were some advantages of this method.
Hamideh Aghahosseini,
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 410-419; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.3.11

Abstract:
L-Proline is known as the most favored organocatalyst in enamine-mediated reactions. The unique nucleophilic character of L-proline among other amino acids raised from the secondary amine functionality in its pyrrolidine ring. This simple natural amino acid as a promising catalyst for various kinds of organic reactions can compete with the toxic organometallic catalysts. Magnetic functionalization of this organocatalyst could solve its recovery and reuse problems. Herein we report the use of magnetic L-proline nano-biocatalyst for a simple and efficient one-pot coupling reaction of dimedone, malononitrile and aromatic aldehydes to afford the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyrans as a significant class of heterocyclic compounds with great biological and pharmacological importance according to a green protocol. Low cost, facile handling, simple preparation, high stability, reusability and low toxicity of this nano-biocatalyst besides its high efficiency and versatility proposed it as a unique candidate for many of enamine-mediated organic transformations.
Meysam Shir Mohammadi, , Esmat Mohammadinasab
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 374-386; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.3.8

Abstract:
A rapid screening assay for the measurement of octanol-water partition coefficients (logP) of pharmaceuticals such as quinolines, quinolones and fluoroquinolones compounds were developed by using quantum chemical calculations. In this paper, we report the logP of the pharmaceutical derivatives compounds that determined by the calculation of the difference in the solvation free energies in water-octanol using the thermodynamic integration method. The logP values calculated in this method are closer to the experimental values compared to other ab initio methods. Solvation free energy in water and octanol, free energy of cavity formation in water and Henry’s constants, and some other parameters are determined at the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) level with 6-31++G** basis set. Moreover, surface area, mass, refractivity, volume, polarizability have been calculated for some of the compounds with the same levels.
Elnaz Naderi, , Tahereh Kondori, Abouzar Tahkor
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 265-271; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.12

Abstract:
In this research, nanoparticle of lanthanum oxide (a) has been synthesized in a co-precipitation method and its ability to be antibacterial has been studied. The La2O3 crystalline nanoparticle (a), prepared at a nominal temperature of 673 K for 4 hours. The samples were identified using FT-IR, XRD, VSM, SEM, and EDX methods. Using the infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), the covalent bonding of La2O3 in the sample is confirmed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the single-phase sample has a hexagonal structure with average particle size 69 nm. Also, the size of the particles seen in the SEM images corresponds to each other. Using the Vibration Sample Magnetometer (VSM), the magnetic properties of the nanoparticle (a) were studied and result shows that nanoparticle has paramagnetic behavior.The antibacterial effects were also examined in vitro against standard bacterial strains, the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus; S. aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis; Enter_faeca ATCC 29212, and also the Gram-negative Escherichia coli; E. coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Using these strains, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and inhibition zones (IZ) were obtained. Antibacterial activities of lanthanum oxide nanoparticle are more than agents lanthanum salts.
, Hossein Dashti Khavidaki
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 272-283; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.13

Abstract:
A theoretical study at the levels of CAM-B3LYP and MP2 was reported, with the aim of understanding the possibility of functionalization of the C20 fullerene with pyridine and pyrimidine via a cycloaddition reaction. For this purpose, several [2+2] and [4+2] cycloaddition reactions were considered between C20 and pyridine or pyrimidine, and their thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were calculated. The results indicated that those [4+2] cycloaddition reactions are favorable in which the fullerene plays the role of a dienophile. It was also found that a [4+2] reaction path in which takes place via formation of two new C–C bonds between two fragments, C20 and heterocycle, is more favorable than that occurring via formation of two different bonds, C-C and C–N. The calculation of global electron density transfer (GEDT) and molecular electrostatic potential map (MESP) revealed that the transition states are relatively polar and the C20 fullerene acts as an electron acceptor. Determination of Frontier Effective-for-Reaction Molecular Orbitals (FERMOs) relevant to pyridine and pyrimidine, described satisfactorily the reactivity of different active sites of pyridine and pyrimidine. Finally, the calculation of the reactions synchronicity showed that the reactions are relatively synchronous.
Mehdi Nabati, Vida Bodaghi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 234-246; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.9

Abstract:
The main purpose of the present research article is docking analysis of active substances of annovera (segesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol) with progesterone and estrogen receptors (PR and ER), respectively. The first step of this study is optimizing the title compounds using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set of theory at room temperature in isolated form by Gaussian 03 software. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) theory is used to understand the reactivity and stability of the said compounds. The global reactivity indices indicate both molecules have similar electrophilicity. After the quantum mechanical (QM) study, the docking analyses of the compounds embedded in the active sites of the receptors (PR and ER) are done using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software. The docking studies show that the steric interactions play main role in ligands complex formation with the receptors.
Azita Zafar-Mohtashami, Ali Bakhtiari, , Zia Obeidavi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 196-201; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.5

Abstract:
Different glomerular diseases are associated with various neoplasms. It seems obvious that ‎Carcinoma of Unknown Primary (CUP) induced nephrotic syndrome is rare; in this regard, the ‎present article introduces a patient suffering from nephrotic syndrome associated with CUP. ‎Patient is a 65-year-old non-smoker male who referred to the clinic for one-month generalized ‎edema. The patient was also complaining from coughing and bulky yellowish sputum with no ‎signs of blood. Patient''s chest radiography revealed pulmonary pleural effusion of the left lung, ‎but no other pathological findings were revealed. Patient''s cytology report of pleural fluid ‎indicated metastatic carcinoma, and therefore; the patient needed additional examinations so that ‎the origin of metastases (lung, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, etc.) could be detected. Finally, ‎chemotherapy treatments began when the patient was diagnosed with Carcinoma of Unknown ‎Primary (CUP). With the continuation of chemotherapy treatment and follow-up after more than ‎a year of diagnosis, the patient is now generally well-off; his nephrotic syndrome has also been in ‎remission parallel to chemotherapy. Significant point in the treatment of this patient is ‎proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia and ‎ yponatremia remission in two stages of chemotherapy. ‎These findings suggest that nephrotic syndrome is para-neoplastic.‎
Jafar Taran, Ali Ramazani, Kobra Atrak
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 257-264; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.11

Abstract:
Kabachnik-Fields reaction between an amine, quinoline-4-carbaldehyde, and a phosphite in the presence of prepared silica nanoparticles from rice hulls (silica NP; ca. 42 nm) proceeds smoothly to afford the corresponding α-aminophosphonates in fairly high yields. The reactions were carried out in one pot and under solvent-free conditions at 50-80 ˚C.
, Hamideh Roshanfekr, Sahar Ansari
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 213-225; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.7

Abstract:
The interaction of Pirazon (PIR) with calf thymus ds-DNA (double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic acid) in solution and immobilized DNA on chitosan–carbon nanotubes composite modified gold electrode was investigated by electrochemical and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. In solution interactions, spectroscopic results indicate non-intercalative binding of PIR. A competition study with methylene blue, as an intercalative probe, was applied to confirm the binding mode of PIR. PIR showed an oxidation peak at 1.1 V at the bare Au electrode. When ds-DNA was added into the PIR solution, its peak current decreased. Au electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and chitosan (CS) decorated with the ds-DNA were tested to determine PIR content in solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode. The modified electrode surface has good reproducibility and stability. The modified electrode exhibited linear detection range, 5×10-9 to 5×10-5 M, with a detection limit of 1×10-10 M.
Elahe Faramarzi, , Masumeh Abdoli Senejani
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 187-195; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.4

Abstract:
This research aimed at exploring the stabilities of conformers of 1,4-dioxane-2,3-bis(pyridin-1-ium) and 1,4-dioxane-2,5-bis(pyridin-1-ium) molecules at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) theory level. To this goal, estimations of the total energies and dipole moments of the axial and equatorial conformations were first done for the mentioned molecules. C-N and C-O bond distances were calculated and these variations were explained with the negative hyperconjugative anomeric effects. The negative hyperconjugative anomeric effect on the axial conformer was illustrated by NBO analysis and the interactions responsible for the effect were explored. Also, QTAIM study was used for illustration of the C-N and C-C bonds in the studied systems.
Sepideh Habibzadeh, Hossein Tavallail, Sheida Esmaielzadeh, Zahra Gharghani
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 247-256; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.10

Abstract:
A copper(II) Schiff base complex, methyl-2-{[1-methyl-2-(4-methoxy-phenolate)mehylidynenitrilo]ethyl}amino-1-cyclopentene dithiocarboxylate copper(II), [Cu(cd4OMeSalMeen)], was incorporated into triacetylcellulose membrane and applied as ionophore in order to develop an anion-selective optical sensor for the analysis of nitrite by absorption spectrophotometry. At optimum pH 3.0, a linear calibration curve was observed for nitrite in the range of 0.50 to 7.00 mg L-1) with a detection limit of 0.04 mg L-1. The response time of the optode (t95%) was found to be 8–10 min, depending on the nitrite ion concentration. The proposed sensor was fully recovered in nitric acid solution (0.1 M) and had acceptable reproducibility (RSD=1.9%). The optode was exhibited good selectivity toward nitrite ion according to hard-soft acid base (HSAB) principle and the formation constant was calculated. The application of the sensor for determination of nitrite content in meat products was quiet successful.
Farveh Raoufi, , Mehrorang Ghaedi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 226-233; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.2.8

Abstract:
An efficient and one-pot procedure for the preparation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles derivatives from reactions of various aryl azides and different terminal alkynes in the presence of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by metformin and subsequent coordination with copper(I) has been developed. The catalysts showed environmentally benign character, which can be easily prepared, stored, and recovered several times without obvious significant loss of activity.
, , Abolfazl Mohammadi, Bizhan Honarvar, Alireza Azimi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 420-426; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.3.12

Abstract:
The gas hydrates formation, in spite of its disadvantages, has some advantages such as separating, transferring and storing gas. Therefore, determining the appropriate promoters for the gas hydrates’ formation is as important as selecting an appropriate inhibitor. One of the effective promoters is tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC). Due to TBAC non-destructive environmental effects and its extraordinary effect on the thermodynamics of gas hydrates, this salt is one of the most widely used promoters. TBAC was discussed in the context of hydrate structure formation and Alkyl Poly Glucoside (APG) as a nonionic surfactant, because of its characteristics like biodegradability, emulsifiers and reasonable prices. In this study, the surface tension between CO2 hydrates was determined at constant temperatures and pressures with different concentrations. For this purpose, the classical nucleation theory has been used. The experimental data show that at constant temperature, the induction time is reduced by increasing TBAC concentration and adding APG. Also, the surface tension value reduces significantly due to adding APG, which this reduction has led to an upward trend with increasing temperature. Finally, the surface tension values obtained from the developed method were compared by presented correlations.
Marziyeh Rohaniyan, Abolghasem Davoodnia, Amir Khojastehnezhad, S. Ali Beyramabadi
Eurasian Chemical Communications, Volume 2, pp 329-339; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/ecc.2020.3.4

Abstract:
The catalytic activity of newly prepared functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets, denoted as GO-SB-H2PMo, has been investigated in the synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthols through the one-pot, three-component reaction of β‐naphthol with various aryl aldehydes and acetamide. The reactions occur under solvent-free conditions and the process is operative with various aryl aldehydes, giving the corresponding products in high yields over short reaction times. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily recovered from the reaction mixture and reused such that considerable catalytic activity can still be achieved after the fifth run.
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