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Bagus Susilo Putra
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 20, pp 24-29;

Invasive plants are plants that can interfere with other plant life because invasive plants use competition and harm the host they live on. Animal conservation is currently the focus of research so that biodiversity is always maintained in the National Park such as mantangan (Merremia peltata (L.) Merr.) Chromolaenaodorata (L), Stachtarpheta jamaicensis. Based on the way of life and rapid reproduction of this invasive plant, it disturbs the habitus of other plants in developing so that it can damage the food chain in the National Park. Conservation of animals in National Park must be in line with the conservation of the surrounding ecology so that the natural ecosystems in the National Parks and biodiversity are fully preserved.
Siti Malikha
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 18-22;

Bekasam is a type of fermented freshwater fish product with sour taste. Bekasam is made from fish that have been cleaned gills and entrails, washed, mixed with salt. After 2 days of fermentation, rice is added to this mixture and fermentation is continued for 5 to 7 days. Bekasam is thought to have antihypertensive activity due to the formation of bioactive peptides resulting from fish protein degradation during the fermentation process of the scars. This study aims to isolate indigenous lactic acid bacteria with high power. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from tuna. Isolation was carried out using MRS agar + CaCO3 medium and screening of proteolytic lactic acid bacterial isolates was carried out using skim agar. Colonies that provide a clear zone on the skim to be identified as lactic acid bacteria. Of the 180 isolates of acid-producing bacteria that provide clear zones in the MRS to find 150 strains of lactic acid bacteria. The results of further morphological and biochemical tests indicate that these isolates are genera Lactobacillus, Pediococccus and Leuconostoc. The results of further selection were carried out on homofermentative lactic acid bacteria and had high proteolytic activity. The results of identification of isolate species using API CH50 showed that selected lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Pediococcus pentosaceus
Wili Heriko, Tri Nopsagiarti, Angga Permana
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 57-64;

This research has been carried out in Kedundung Island Village, Central Kuantan District, Kuantan Singingi Regency. This research takes place for approximately four months starting from November 2017 until March 2018. This study aims to determine the effect of Tofu Liquid Waste as Liquid Organic Fertilizer on Plants and Production of Paddy Rice (Oriza sativa L). The parameters observed in this study include: plant height, age of flowering, age of harvest, number of productive tillers, and dry grain weight. This study aims to determine the effect of Tofu Liquid Waste as Organic Fertilizer on the Growth and Production of Rice Field Crops. The design used in this study is a Non Factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of one factor, namely factor A (Tofu Liquid Waste) consisting of 4 levels: A0 (control), A1 (600 mL/plot), A2 (1200 mL/plot), A3 (1800 mL/plot). The observational data from each treatment were statistically analyzed and continued with the Next Test of Honestly Significant Difference at the 5% level. The results showed that the Tofu Liquid Waste treatment had a significant influence on the parameters of observation of Plant Height, Flowering Age, Harvest Age, Number of Productive Tillers and Dry Grain Weight. The best treatments were A3 for observation of Plant Height (124.91 cm), Flowering Age (73.99 days), Harvest Age (95.74 days), Number of Productive Tillers (50.91 stems), and Dry Grain Weight (100.16 g)
Bagus Susilo Putra, M. Kanedi, Nuning Nurcahyani, G. Nugroho Susanto
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 20, pp 9-14;

Birds are one of the most diverse animals in the world, especially in Indonesia. Liwa Botanical Garden located in Pekon Kubu Perahu, Balik Bukit District, West Lampung Regency, is a conservation area with the theme of conservation and development of ornamental plants, representing the flora of Southern Sumatra. This research is a continuation of the collaboration between the Department of Biology and Balitbang UPTD Liwa Botanical Garden, West Lampung Regency. The presence of birds in the Liwa Botanical Garden is also a bioindicator of biodiversity for the environment in this area. By maintaining the presence of birds in the Liwa Botanical Garden means protecting their habitat and existing plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the species of birds based on the height of the perched trees in the Liwa Botanical Garden and the abundance of their species. The method used in this research is the point count with the observation time for 9 days in the morning and evening at the height of the tree in 3 different observation stations. Birds on KRL are mostly found on perches at an altitude of 2 - 7 meters, in the category of shrubs and trees, there are 19 out of 25 bird species found. The highest Relative Abundance Index (IKR) was Collocalia esculenta at 39.91% and the lowest IKR value was 7 bird species, each with 0.14% value. The conservation status of the 25 bird species based on IUCN is Least Concern (LC) and based on CITES there is one species that is included in Appendix II, namely Ictinaetus malayensis while based on the Regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia No. P.20 / MENLHK / SETJEN / KUM.1 / 6/2018 there is one bird species that is included in the protection, namely species Ictinaetus malayensis
Ronal Kurniawan, Sri Wahyuni, Fitrian Armando
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 20, pp 30-34;

One of the plants that have the potential as antibacterial ingredients is Rhizophora apiculata leaf because it contains secondary metabolites, such as tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and terpenoids. This study aims to find out the inhibition of hot water extract of R. apiculata leaves in inhibiting the growth of Edwardsiella tarda. The research method used is an experimental method which includes sample preparation, extraction, antibacterial activity test using the Kirby-Bauer disc method and applying a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The doses used were 100% (10000 ppm), 90% (9000 ppm), 80% (8000 ppm), 70% (7000 ppm), 60% (6000 ppm), 50% (5000 ppm), 40% (4000 ppm), 30% (3000 ppm), 20% (2000 ppm), 10% (1000 ppm) and control (Oxytetracycline). The results showed that the hot water extract of R. apiculata leaves at a dose of 1000-10000 ppm gave various inhibitory diameters ranging from 6.25-10.08 mm and the clear zone formed was classified as medium
Gusti Putu Okapanji Reza Kusuma
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 1-5;

Soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.) is an herbal plant that is widely used by the public empirically because it has many properties. The sling leaf contains tannin compounds, alkaloids, as well as several other chemical compounds including annonaceous acetogenin, which can be used as a treatment. This study aims to find out if soursop leaf extract has the effect of deducting blood glucose levels in mice test animals (Mus musculus) which induced a 50% glucose solution. The study used the RAL method (complete random design) and 20 male mice were divided into 5 groups with 4 repetitions. Group P1, P2, and P3 (treatment group) administered ethanol extract of sine leaves at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg bb respectively, while k- and k+ (control group) administered CMC 0.5% and glibenclamide with oral administration. The data obtained were statistically analyzed with ANOVA (Variance analysis) one-way to find out the differences between treatment groups and continued with the BNT test (The smallest real difference) to find out meaningful differences between groups. The results showed that there were differences between the treatment group and the control group. On the 7th day of the BNT test, the treatment group with a dose of 750 mg/kg bb showed significant differences between the negative Control group (CMC 0'5%), Positive control (Glibenclamide), P1 (250 mg/kg bb), and P2 (500 mg/kg bb), while on the 14th day showed no significant difference with the treatment group of 500 mg/kg bb. concluded from this study that all concentrations of ethanol extract of sling leaves could lower blood glucose levels in test animals, with the most optimal decrease being the group at a dose of 750 mg/kg bb.
Tertia Delia Nova, Suhartati Suhartati, Azhar Azhar
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 20, pp 1-8;

This study aimed to determine the effect of IB frequency using different simple aspirator on fertility, weight loss and hatchability of Payakumbuh duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestication) eggs. This study used 8 male and 20 female ducks, 90% egg production. In this study, all hatched the hatched eggs. This study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments consisted of: P1 is 1 x 2 days, P2 is 1 x 4 days, P3 is 1 x 6 days, P4 is 1 x 8 days; the parameters observed were fertility, weight loss and hatchability. The results of the analysis of variance showed that different AI frequencies had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the fertility of hatching eggs, but had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on weight loss and hatchability. It can be concluded that P2 had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on fertility because fertile eggs were higher than other treatments. The characteristics of Payakumbuh ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestication) spermatozoa are milky white and yellowish white, thick and watery consistency, specific odor, volume 0.24±0.05 ml, pH 7.37±0.51, mass movement +, ++ and +++, live percentage 79.06±3.68%, concentration 2.342 billion cells/ml, motility 75.00±7.56% and abnormality 12.06±0.82%. The results of the analysis of variance showed that different AI frequencies had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the fertility of hatching eggs, but had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on weight loss and hatchability. The frequency of IB 1 x 4 days had the highest fertility rate, namely 67.72 ± 7.99%. A simple Aspirator can function properly with the need for repairs and upgrades in several parts of the tool such as current source, and fan capacity
Muhammad Zebi Fernando, Efriyeldi Efriyeldi, Aras Mulyadi
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 23-28;

Morphometrics is a field that deals with variations and changes in the form (size and shape) of an organism or object. Anthropogenic is a human activity not only limited to the use or utilization of coastal resources, but also can be restorative and protective, thus causing complex disruption. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphometric differences of the flowers and fruits of R.apiculata mangroves in two regions with different anthropogenic activities in the mangrove ecosystem of Dumai City. This research was carried out in September 2019. From the results of the study it was found that in areas polluted by anthropogenic activity the average morphometrics of fruit (length and width) and leaves (length, width and length of the stems) Rhizophora apiculata were lower than those in the area not polluted by anthropogenic activity. At station I the oil content ranged from 0,0975 to 0,1251 ppm classified as polluted and at station II ranged from 0,072 to 0,111 ppm classified as not polluted.
M. Riswan, Iesje Lukistyowati, Henni Syawal
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 6-12;

This study aims to determine the best dose of propolis to treat Carassius auratus infected with Aeromonas hydrophila seen leucocyte differentiation from C.auratus. The method used was experimental method with Completely Randomized Design (CDR) with one factor consisting of five treatment levels and three replications. The treatment was Kn (not infected with A. hydrophila and untreated propolis), Kp (infected with A. hydrophila but not treated with propolis), and fish infected with A. hydrophila treated propolis with dose P1 (700 ppm), P2 (800 ppm), and P3 (900 ppm). Treatment is done by injection of propolis in fish infected by A. hydrophila in intramuscular. The fish used are 8-10 cm in size and kept for 14 days post-infection. The results showed that propolis solution has been able to treat C. auratus from infected A. hydrophila. The dose of propolis 800 ppm is the best dose to treat C. auratus infected A.hydrophila, seen from leukocyte differentiation (lymphocyte 80,25%, monocytes 10,09% and neutrophils 9,66%).
Arnis En Yulia, M. Amrul Khoiri, Sri Yoseva, Nuraida Nuraida
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 20, pp 15-23;

The research was aimed to see the effect interaction of giving tofu dregs compost and npk fertilizer to get the right dose towards growth and the highest production of purple eggplant. The research was conducted at Experimental Garden, Faculty of Agriculture, Riau University, Pekanbaru. The research was conducted for 5 months, from february to june 2020. The reasearch was conducted experimentally in 2 factors. The first factor was the of tofu waste compost consists of 3 levels (0, 10 and 20 ton.ha-1). The second factor was the of NPK fertilizer (0, 100 and 150 kg.ha-1) which consist of nine treatments combination. The observed parameterswere the height of the plant (cm), the days of flowering (days), the days of harvesting (days), the fruit length (cm), the fruit diameter (cm), the number of fruits per plant (fruit), the fruit weight per fruit (g), the fruit weight per plant (g) and the fruit weight with plot (g). The data in this research was analyzed in using variance and followed by Duncan's multiple distance test at 5% level. The results showed that tofu waste compost and NPK fertilizer increased the growth of eggplant such as the height of the plant, the days of flowering, the days of harvesting, the number of fruits per plant, the fruit length, the fruit weight per fruit, the fruit weight per plant and the fruit weight with plot and does not increase fruit diameter. The giving tofu waste compost at a dose 20 ton.ha-1  and NPK fertilizer 150 kg.ha-1  gave the best eggplant growth and production until the plants were 90 DAP
Indra Wariski, Yusni Ikhwan Siregar, Bintal Amin
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 29-36;

This research was carried out in March 2021 to analyze the heavy metal content of Pb and Cu in the sediment and flesh of the horn shell (Cerithidea obtusa). Sediment samples and horn shells were taken from the coastal waters of Panipahan, Panipahan Village, and Teluk Pulai Village, Rokan Hilir Regency, Riau Province. The method used in this research is a survey method. Sampling was determined by using purposive sampling at three different stations. The results of this study showed that the metal content of Pb and Cu was highest in sediments around residential areas (44.7150 g/g and 104.4200 g/g), while the horn shell was found in areas far from anthropogenic activities (2.4717 g/g and 8.6617 g/g). Differences in the metal content of Pb and Cu in the sediments were found between stations, while for horn shells there was no difference between stations. The metal content of Pb in the sediment did not show a significant effect (F < 0.05) Pb content in horn shells, as well as Cu. The results of the calculation of the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) value indicated that the horn shell in the waters is acceptable for consumption
Tri Vani Bernadetha Ginting, Syafruddin Nasution, Irwan Effendi
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 43-50;

Rupat Strait related to the Strait of Malacca is a national and international shipping lane and makes the region affected by anthropogenic activities that result in a decrease in the quality of the waters such as the increasing amount of heavy metal content. The most easily contaminated organism of heavy metals is bivalves due to and its low mobility, bivalves being filter feeders, and the ability to accumulate contaminants,. The purpose of this study was to look at genetic changes in bivalves (P.acutidens) contaminated by heavy metals. The study was conducted from February to March 2021. Bivalve sample was collected from the waters of Rupat Strait and sample analysis was conducted in the Marine Biology Laboratory and Genetics Laboratory of Riau University. Bivalve DNA is isolated with Geneaid Tissue Genomic DNA Mini Kit. DNA isolation results were then carried out PCR process and sequencing process was carried out in PT. Genetika Science Indonesia. The results of study show that sequencing results obtained by samples derived from Selinsing have the most changes in the composition of nitrogen bases compared to samples from the other two stations.
Ichwanul Harif, Afrizal Tanjung, Elizal Elizal
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 37-42;

This study aims to determine the abundance and distribution pattern of gastropods in the intertidal bay, Kambang Lengayang District, Pesisir Selatan Regency, West Sumatra. The benefits of this research are expected to be a reference or information for further research in Kambang Bay which in the end is expected to minimize the adverse effects of gastropod hunting. The research method used in this study is a survey method, namely direct observation and sampling which is divided into 3 stations where the sampling station 1 is taking in the coastal waters of the bay in an area where there is no community activity, station 2 is taking in the waters of the bay in the fishing trawl area. station 3 taking in the coastal waters of Kambang in the reclamation area. Based on the analysis of organic sedimentary material in the study area, the average value was obtained at station 1 (3.55%), station 2 (4.20%) and station 3 (3.33%). Based on the analysis, the sediment fraction that dominates each station is sand. The gastropods found at the study site wereClypeomorus bifasciata, Littoraria scabra and Cerithulata cingulata. The abundance of gastropods in the coastal waters of Kambang ranged from 2.33 to 5.00 Ind/m2. The results of the ANOVA test showed that the abundance of gastropods in the bay waters showed 0.214 beaches, indicating that the difference in abundance between stations was not significant. The gastropod pattern found at the study site is generally in groups.
Ronal Kurniawan
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 13-17;

Aquaculture production is vulnerable to adverse impacts to disease and environmental conditions. One of the pathogenic bacteria that infection cultured is Edwardsiella tarda. The aim of this study was to find out the sensitivity of R.apiculata leaf extract in inhibiting the growth of E.tarda. The research method used is the experimental method, with the Kirby-Bauer disc method. The doses used were 100% (10000 ppm), 90% (9000 ppm), 80% (8000 ppm), 70% (7000 ppm), 60% (6000 ppm), 50% (5000 ppm), 40% (4000 ppm), 30% (3000 ppm), 20% (2000 ppm), 10% (1000 ppm) and control (Oxytetracycline), blank discs used were 6 mm in size. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of R. apiculata at a dose of 1000-10000 ppm gave various inhibitory diameters ranging from 6.27-9.87 mm and presenting inhibition zone diameters in the medium category
Ridwan Saiful Basri Pasaribu, Syahril Nedi, Elizal Elizal
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 19, pp 51-56;

The study was conducted from March to May 2021 which aims to identify the types, abundance of microplastics and compare the abundance of microplastics between stations in the waters of the Long Strait of High Cliff Subdistrict. Survey methods are applied and PVC pipes are used to collect sediment samples from three different stations with three sampling points at each station. The types of microplastics found are fragments with the most jumblah with film and fiber. The most widely found types are fragments, followed by film and fiber. The abundance of microplastics at Tanjung Harapan Port (5900.00 partkels /kg of dry sediment) is higher than the mouth of the Dorak coastal river (5306.67 partkels/kg of dry sediment) and Banglas Village Mangrove Ecotourism (4120.00 partikels/kg of dry sediment). The results showed that the abundance of microplastics between stations differed significantly. Microplastic differences based on further independent test samples t-test showed that each station compared to mangrove ecotourism area will be significantly different, while between Tanjung Harapan Port and the mouth of the Dorak coastal river showed no significant difference
, Krisna Puja, Yum Eryanti, Miranti Miranti
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 18, pp 31-42;

The polar extract of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit pericarp obtained by cellulase assisted ethanol extraction has strong antioxidant activity, giving an average 2,2 diphenyl-1 pykrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging IC50 of 13.9 µg/mL. In order to elucidate the chemical component from this extract that is responsible for the high antioxidant activity, fractionation of the extract should firstly be performed. In this paper we show results of preparative fractionation of the polar extract by two methods, namely preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) and preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (PHPLC). PTLC used Silica Gel G60 plates, with a hexane:ethyl acetate (6:4) eluent. PHPLC was a reverse phase method, using C18 column and water:acetonitrile gradient elution. 4 fractions from PTLC and 6 fractions from PHPLC were collected and their antioxidant activity analyzed. Both methods gave separated fractions with lower antioxidant activity than the unfractionated original crude extracts, showing that the strong antioxidant activity of Mangosteen pericarp polar extracts maybe due to the concerted synergetic effect of several compounds, rather than a single isolated compound. It also shows the high degree of difficulty in separating mangosteen pericarp polar components having antioxidant activity for further structural analysis.
Diah Nurul Aini,
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 18, pp 12-19;

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) are themost solid palm oil waste. OPEFB has often been processed into compost with the addition of certain activators. It is expected that with the addition of a consortium bioactivator composting of OPEFB can be faster and the compost produced has good nutrient content. The study aims was to determine the ability of bioactivator bacteria of cellulolytic consortium in degrading TKKS of incubation laboratory scale for 30 days. A consortium of compost bioactivator used were Bacillus sp. S43, Bacillus cereus strains of IARI-MB-6, Bacillus cereus strains TS11, Alcaligenes faecalis strains ZJUTBX11, Bacillus sp. 13847, Stenotrophomonas sp. S169-III-5, Alcaligenes faecalis strains KH-48 and Bacillus cereus strain Y22 by a comparison of 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1. The results showed that bioactivator consortium was able to degrade OPEFB which on P4 (OPEFB + chicken manure + consortium isolate) reduced organic C from 50.1 to 34.5, increased total nitrogen from 0.73 to 1.35 and reduced the C/N ratio from 37.11 to 25.56 and produced compost phytonutrients and not phytotoxicity.
Muhammad Hasan Basri Nasution, Shafira Ramadhani,
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 18, pp 1-11;

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are gram-positive bacteria that are rod or round in shape, do not form spores, and do not have cytochromes. LAB can be isolated from fermented food products. LAB is useful to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria so that they are potential antibacterial sources. The purpose of this study was to isolate LAB from the traditional food Dali Ni Horbo, continued with characterization, antimicrobial testing, and sensitivity testing towards several antibiotics. From the results of the study, the number of colonies obtained was 2.4 x 107 CFU/mL. 6 isolates were randomly selected, coded as isolates UPDH1, UPDH2, UPDH3, UPDH4, UPDH5, UPDH6, respectively. Biochemical characterization showed that the isolates were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria. Results of antibiotic sensitivity testing using 6 antibiotics, namely amoxicillin (AML), erythromycin (E), oxacillin (OX), ofloxacin (OFX), cefotaxime (CTX), and gentamicin (CN), showed that all the isolates were resistant to CTX. The UPDH1 isolate was resistant to AML and OX. The UPDH3, UPDH5, and UPDH6 isolates were resistant to AML, and the UPDH4 isolate was resistant to E, OFX, CTX, CN, and OX. Antimicrobial tests used the disk diffusion method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The UPDH2 isolate, gave an inhibition zone of 6.7 mm, and UPDH5 and UPDH6 gave inhibition zones of 7.6 mm and 8.5 mm respectively, against E. coli. Microbial inhibition tests against S. aureus by UPDH1, UPDH2, UPDH5 and UPDH6 gave inhibition zones of 13.5 mm, 9.0 mm, 12.1 mm and 12 mm respectively. From the results in this research it can be concluded that the traditional food Dali Ni Horbo is a potential source of probiotics.
, Erman Syahruddin, Rijal Zein
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 18, pp 43-61;

This study aims to determine the performance of ducks on the effect of differences in cage temperature. This study used 54 5-week-old male ducks selected from 66 ducks. The research method used was randomized block design (RBD). The treatment used is the regulation of the temperature of the cage which is divided into three temperature levels, namely: A (cold temperature), B (room temperature), and C (hot temperature). The observed variables were duck performance in the form of feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion. The results of this study indicate that the difference in temperature of the cage became a very significant (P0.05) on the weight of the spleen, thyroid and kidney and the work of the spleen, thyroid and kidney organs was still normal
, Thamrin Usman, Andi Hairil Alimuddin
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 18, pp 20-30;

Body epidermis has an important health function to prevent body dehydration. This research aims to compare Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) values between durian seed oil and tengkawang oil. Skin that had been applied with tengkawang oil and durian seed oil lotion were tested for irritation and TEWL values. The tengkawang oil had an acid number of 17 g/mol and contained 8.54 % free fatty acid, while the durian seed oil had an acid number of 6.34 g/mol and contained 2.89 % free fatty acid. Irritation testing was done using lotion containing 100 % of each oil. TEWL analysis on skin applied with the tengkawang oil lotion after 1 hour showed that the lotion could reduce epidermal water evaporation by 35.23 % compared to the skin condition before treatment. Epidermal water evaporation reduction at the second, third and fourth hours after the tengkawang oil lotion application was 31.33 %, 33.93 % and 27.9 %, respectively. TEWL analysis on skin applied with the durian seed oil lotion after 1 hour showed that the lotion could reduce epidermal water evaporation by 11.34 % compared to the skin condition before treatment. Epidermal water evaporation was reduced 14.64 %, 10.53 % and 2.99 % at the second, third and fourth hours after application of the durian seed oil. Based on these results, it can be concluded that tengkawang oil gives better TEWL values compared to durian seed oil.
Sri Nuryati, Alimuddin Alimuddin, Sukenda Sukenda, Retno Damayanti Soejoedono, Ayi Santika, Fachriyan Hasmi Pasaribu, Komar Sumantadinata
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 13, pp 47-52;

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine has recently been developed as an alternative vaccine against virus infection.This study was the first step of DNA vaccine development to protect cyprinids including common carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and fancy koi (Cyprinus carpio) from KHV (koi herpesvirus) infection in Indonesia. One of KHV glycoproteingenes, i.e. glycoprotein (GP) was ligated with Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) â-actin promoter to generatepAct/GP as a DNA vaccine. Fourty fish in body weight of 10-15 g/fish were individually injected by pAct/GP intomuscle in different dosage of 2.5 μg, 7.5 μg and 12.5 μg/100 μl phosphate buffer saline. Total RNA was extractedfrom the 12.5 μg of pAct/GP-injected fish muscle at 24, 48 and 67 hours post-injection to analyze GP expression byRT-PCR method. Potential of pAct/GP as DNA vaccine was examined by injecting KHV into the 30-days-vaccinatedfish. Both of possitive and negative control fish group were not vaccinated. Possitive control fish group wereinjected with KHV, but negative control fish group were not. KHV-challenged fish were reared for 1 month, and thedeath fish were calculated daily. Result of RT-PCR analysis showed that GP gene expression were detected at 3 dpost-injection. Expression of GP in the vaccinated fish groups helped to improve their survival rate after challengedby KHV. All of fish without DNA vaccination had dead 17 days after KHV injection. The results demonstrated thatpAct/GP had high potency to be used as a DNA vaccine against KHV infection in cyprinids.
Onrizal ', Fernades Sp Simarmata, Hesti Wahyuningsih
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 11, pp 94-103;

Macrozoobenthos is a group of important fauna in mangrove ecosystem. Mangrove rehabilitation is required toincrease biodiversity and density of fauna, including macrozoobenthos. The aim of this research was to studyinfluence of biotic and abiotic factors to diversity and abundance of macrozoobenthos. The research was conductedat natural and rehabilitated mangrove forest in Percut Sei Tuan, east coastal of North Sumatra. The results showedthat density of macrozoobenthos were significantly correlated to the soil texture, soil organic carbon and pH.Besides, macrozoobenthos diversity was mostly influenced by stand basal area, salinity and silt proportion of soiltexture.
Annisa Agata, Endang Linirin Widiastuti, G. Nugroho Susanto, Sutyarso '
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 16, pp 54-63;

Cancer is a disease that is characterized by the existence of damage and cell abnormality in growth and differentiation. Liver cancer is a disorder of hepar tissue derivated from its tumors. Taurine is known as antioxidant but its role as anticancer needs to be explored more as well the role of Annona muricata leaf extract which is believed to have its role as anticancer substance. This research, therefore, aimed to explore the effect of taurine and Annona muricata leaf extract on the hepar histopathology of male mice (Mus musculus) induced by benzo(α)pyren in vivo. This research was carried out by using a complete randomized design, which consisted of 5 treatment groups which was repeated 5 times. Group I was given 0.2 mL corn oil for 15 days, group II was induced by benzo(α)pyren without taurin nor A. Muricata leaf extract for 10 days, group III was given 7.8 mg taurine/BW/day (twice a day) starting from the 15 th days before the induction of benzo(α)pyren, group IV, after induced with benzo(α)pyren, taurine was given with dosage of 7.8 mg/BW/day, group V, after induced with benzo(α)pyren, soursop leaf extract was given with amount of 277.8 mg/BW/day. Data analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and one way ANOVA with Fisher test (p>0.05). The results indicated that taurine had ability to recover the liver tissue induced by benzo(α)pyren as (carcinogenic) while, Annona muricata leaf extract had not shown any recover of tissue damage
, Florentina Heningtyas Listyorini, Eko Agus Martanto
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 13, pp 168-173;

Sago mushrooms (Volvariella sp.) were known as edible mushroom which grow sporadically on decay of sagopith waste in Papua. Local people in Papua always hunting and harvesting sago mushrooms which are growingwild on decayed sago pith waste. People were enjoyed consumption of sago mushrooms. The aims of this researchwere to study nutrient contents of sago mushrooms as well as to distinguish the difference of morphologicalcharacters between sago mushroom and paddy straw mushroom which popular in Indonesia. Sago mushroomswere collected from Yapen regency, Papua Province and measured for their nutrient contents and morphologicalcharacteristics. The results of this research showed that morphological characteristic of sago mushroom differfrom paddy straw mushroom and other edible mushroom. Nutrient contents of Sago mushroom per 100 gramsfresh weigh were follows: protein 4.00 g, carbohydrate 2.99 g, lipid 0.19 g, calcium 11.53 mg, phosphorous 0.31 g,and potassium 165.05 mg. Nutrient contents of sago mushroom were very different from that of paddy strawmushroom and others mushrooms of the genus Volvariella. Based on morphological characteristic and nutrientcontents of Sago mushrooms, we suggest that sago mushrooms is a new species.
Hilda Zulkifli, Doni Setiawan
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 95-99;

The Pulokerto region has been planned for agrocity tourism by the Palembang City Government. The changing function of these areas givesome effects to quality of water and biota around the river. The aims of this research is to study of macrozoobenthos structure communityas biomonitoring instrument. The research was conducted during September until December 2010. The location sampling was determinedby purpossive random sampling method in 8 stations. The sampling in the moody area was carried out by Eckman grab. The results showedthat 14 genera have been classified into 5 classes such as Oligochaeta, Gastropoda, Insecta, Bivalvia and Crustacea. Population og. generais in around 75-600 ind/m 2. Diversity index is low until moderate with value 0.27-0.74 and there is no domination of species in thecommunity. The cluster analysis showed that 2 community groups of macrozoobenthos have relation with population of individu tophysicochemical quality of water. The overall study shows the balancing of community in the Pulokerto region but still susceptible topressure effect of environment.
, Lia Dewi Juliawati, Yana Maolana Syah, Euis Holishotan Hakim, Sjamsul Arifin Achmad, Lukman Makmur
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 12, pp 163-166;

Two resveratrol dimers, (-)-ampelopsin F dan (-)-laevifonol were isolated from aceton extract of the stem bark ofShorea parvifolia. The structures of these compounds were determined based on their spectroscopic data includingspectroscopy ultra violet (UV), infra red (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and also were comparedto the reported data.
Elly Natalina, Puji Rahayu, Sulistyowati Sulistyowati,
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 12, pp 1-8;

Curcumin and β-carotene are two kinds of pigments serve as antitumor, anticancer and antioxidant agents. Theantioxidant activity of curcumin is stronger and more stable as compared to β-carotene, so it can protect β-carotene degradation from light and oxygen. Therefore curcumin has higher antioxidant activity as well. Theresearch was conducted by mixing curcumin and β-carotene in several molarity ratios followed by iradiation usingvolpi lamp for 0, 10, 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The result shows that curcumin has photoprotection effect because itcan protect photooxidation of β-carotene. Mixing of curcumin and β-carotene 1:1 was the most stable ratio forprotecting β-carotene.
Dwi Kartika, Senny Widyaningsih
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 219-226;

Transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel using KOH catalyst with and without esterification process usingactivated natural zeolite (ZAH) catalyst has been carried out. Activation of the zeolite was done by refluxing with HCl 6Mfor 30 min, followed calcining and oxydized at 500oC for 2 hours, consecutively. The transesterification without esterificationprocess were done using KOH catalyst 1% (w/w) from oil and methanol weight and oil/methanol molar ratio 1:6 at 60oC. Theesterification reaction was also done using ZAH catalyst then continued by transesterification using KOH catalyst inmethanol media. In order to study the effect of ZAH catalyst concentration at constant temperature, the catalysts werevaried, i.e. 0, 1, 2, and 3% (w/w). To investigate the effect of temperature, the experiments were done at various temperaturefrom 30, 45, 60, and 70oC at constant catalyst concentration. The conversion of biodiesel was determined by 1H-NMRspectrometer and physical properties of biodiesel were determined using ASTM standard methods. The results showedthat the transesterification using KOH catalyst without esterification produced biodiesel conversion of 53.29%. The optimumcondition of biodiesel synthesis via esterification process were reached at 60oC and concentration of ZAH catalyst of2% (w/w), that could give biodiesel conversion = 100.00%. The physical properties were conformed with biodiesel ASTM2003b and Directorate General of Oil and Gas 2006 specification.
Miftahuddin Miftahuddin, Ria Andriani, Ichsan Setiawan, Adi Mulsandi
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 36-44;

There are several resulting arguments from the research done on climate variation in Indonesia stating that the observed affects are through various phenomena such as ENSO, monsoon, dipole mode event, and MJO. However, the magnitude of the effect varies for each region in Indonesia. This research aims to identify the relationship among the global climate features (GCFs) in the Nino3.4 (5°S–5°N, 120–170°W) with the local climate features (LCFs) in the Aceh regions which represented by: I(2–3°N, 95–98°E), II(3–4°N, 95–98°E), III(4–5°N, 95–98°E), and IV(5–6°N, 95–98°E) using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in the ENSO phenomena. The analysis shows that global GCFs variations have strong correlation with LCFs variations with the correlation values, 0.893, 0.899, 0.900, and 0.901, respectively. The result show that when there is a global change in any feature of GCFs, the same change also appears in each feature of LCFs. The canonical loading shows that there are original variables which have strong correlation with the first canonical global variable (X1) with correlations 0.987, 0.969, 0.987, and 0.865,respectively, and the local wind (Y1) with correlations 0.974, 0.952, 0.979, and 0.845, respectively. All the other climate features have weak correlations with the first canonical variables. From the MANOVA, we can conclude that the climate features (wind, SST, SSTA, and SLP) affect climate changes in both study regions. Our results also reveal that LCFs are significantly affected in the Nino3.4 99.5% and in I, II, III, and IV for given correlations 99.8, 99.7, 99.6, and 99.5%, respectively.
Nora Idiawati, Elliska Murni Harfinda, Lucy Arianie
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 16, pp 1-9;

Production of cellulase by Aspergillus niger was carried out by growing the cultureson sago waste. Sago waste containscellulose that has not been used optimally. Cellulose is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers linked by β-1,4-glycosides bonds. Glycoside bonds in cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed into glucose with cellulase enzymes. Solid fermentation used to produce cellulase on sago waste as substrate was influenced by pH (3 to 6), moisture content(40% to 85%), and fermentation time (4 to 10 days). Products of the cellulase enzyme activity was measured by phenolsulfuricacid method. The results showed that the highest cellulase enzyme activity was 0.172 U/mL obtained at 85%moisture content, pH 5, and 8 days of fermentation time.
Dian Riana Ningsih, Zusfahair Zusfahair, Amin Fatoni
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 92-98;

Bioethanol is an alternative energy of fuels produced from vegetable materials. Vegetable materials that can be used as rawmaterial for bioethanol is ganyong because it contains 22.60 g starch in 100 g ganyong. The production of bioethanol fromstarch material consisted of two steps, hydrolysis and fermentation. One of the steps to increase the value of bioethanolfrom starch of ganyong was hydrolysis process using thermostable amylase enzyme isolated from Flavoacterium sp.PTBT I bacteria was isolated from hot spring of Pancuran Tujuh Baturraden. The aim of this research was to use thermostableamylase to hydrolyze starch of ganyong and glucose produced to result bioethanol. The result of this research showed thatthe optimum condition hydrolysis starch of ganyong was using thermostable amylase acquired at substrate concentrationof 3% (b/v), and incubation time of about 75 minutes. The value of bioethanol increased with time of fermentation, from thefirst to fourth day, which was 0.8361; 2.2379; 5.7590 and 10.5787% (v/v), respectively.
, Endang Endang, Gati Lestarai
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 68-72;

Due to over exploitation of its bark for medicinal herbs and made worse by problem in conventional breeding, Rauwolfia serpentina (Pulaipandak), has been considered rare and was currently reported to be an endangered species. Therefore, conservation measure is urgent to betaken. One of them is by in vitro propagation. In this research, in vitro propagation covers several activities, such as (1) shoot inductionwith the application of MS (Murashige and skoog) media enriched with ZPT 0.0; 0.1; 0.3 mg/l BAP combined with 0, 1, 2 mg/l 2ip, (2)shoot multiplication by using 0.0; 0.5; 1.0 mg/l BAP combined with 0.0; 0.1; 0.2 and 0.3 mg/l thidiazuron), (3) root induction IBA at theconcentration of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0 mg/l, and (4) acclimatization. The result showed that the best shoot induction for calli isthe in vitro stem by the application of MS + 0.3 mg/l BAP + 1 mg/l 2ip basic media. For shoot multiplication, the best media was MS + 0.5mg/l BAP + 0.1 mg/l ; while the best formula for root induction was MS + 1 mg/l IBA. The best media for plantlet acclimatization is compost+ soil mixture in 1:1 ratio.
, Hilwan Yuda Teruna, Yum Eryanti
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 17, pp 10-15;

Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Lamiaceae which have been widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In the present study, the extracts of the leaves of P. amboinicus that was extracted by different solvents were evaluated for their antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The fresh leaves of the plant were extracted using subsequent methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion assay. The results of antioxidant activity test showed that dichloromethane extract of the leaves had the highest antioxidant activity among all with IC50 value of 50.2 μg/mL Methanol and n-hexane extracts were still active in DPPH with IC50 value of 71.3 μg/mL and 205.9 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the dichloromethane and methanol ektracts have shown a promising antibacterial activity in E. coli. The findings indicated that dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves of P. amboinicus were potential further study as herbal medicine as they showed high antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
Adisyahputra Adisyahputra, Sudarsono Sudarsono, Kukuh Setiawan
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 73-89;

The aim of this research is to analyze and examine the inheritance of stomatal density trait and RWL as a variable in drought tolerance ofpeanut. The experiment was conducted by using cv. Kelinci that is sensitive genotype as female parent and US 605 which is tolerantgenotype as male parent, including population off spring from hybrid cv. Kelinci (P1) with US 605 (P2). Stomatal density was determinedby making leaf imprint and by observing leaf imprint under microscope. Relative water loss was determined by dipping peanut leaf in PEG40% for 48 hours. Result of the analysis showed that stomatal density and RWL were not only controlled by qualitative characters of majorgene, but also controlled by quantitative character of minor gene by polygenic with the complex gene action. Both characters seem toinfluence more as genetic factor and have high level fixation additive varians which can give the opportunity to obtain the tolerant offspring.
Baharuddin Hamzah, Noor Jalaluddin, Abdul Wahid Wahab, Ambo Upe
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 13, pp 269-275;

The effects of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions to copper(II) extraction using liquid membrane emulsion with 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-on (HPMBP) as an extractant was studied. The optimum condition forcopper(II) extraction were as follows: emulsification rate=2000 rpm, emulsification time=10 minutes, extractionrate=300 rpm, extraction time=15 minutes, concentration of mixed surfactant (span 80+span 20)=3%, volumeratio of membrane phase and internal phase=1:1, concentration of HPMBP=0.020 M, concentration of HCl=1M,volume ratio of emulsion and external phase=1:7. The result showed that the extraction of copper(II) by liquidmembrane emulsion with HPMBP as an extractant was selective to cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions, relatively. Theresult also showed that in the extraction of 500 mg/l copper(II), the presence of 500 mg/l of nickel(II) was decreasingthe percentage of copper(II) extraction to be 83.73. While, the presence of 500 mg/l of cadmium(II) does notinfluence the percentage extraction of copper(II), relatively.
, Zeily Nurachman
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 99-105;

Cereals in animal feed contain anti-nutrients of phytic acid that has capability of chelating proteins and cations. Phytasecan be employed to reduce phytic acid through hydrolyzing phytic acid into free phosphate group and lower derivate ofinositol phosphate. The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize phytase obtained from chicken manure bacteria.The study included the screening of phytase-producing bacteria from chicken manure, the homology analysis of bacterium,and the determination of phytase activity. Phytase activity was measured from concentration of free phosphate. The resultsshowed that one phytase-producing isolate obtained from chicken manure grew in the medium containing 5% rice branextract at 37°C for 5 d. Based on a phylogeny is tree analysis of the genes related to 16S rRNA, the isolate was identified asAcinetobacter sp. TZ1. The extracellular phytase expressed by Acinetobacter sp. TZ1 exhibited optimum reactions at pH5 and 50°C. The enzyme showed activity of 64,6 nmol mL–1min–1 and specific activity of 236 nmol min–1mg–1. Relativemolecular mass of phytase TZ1 was ~35 kDa. Phytase obtained is potential to improve animal feed quality by hydrolyzingphytic acid.
Purwantiningsih Sugita, Suminar Setiati Achmadi, Yuyu Yundhana
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 13, pp 21-26;

Study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen through optimum chitosan-CMC microcapsule has been carried out. Into228.6 ml of 1.0% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, 38.1 ml of CMC solution was added with concentrationvariation of 0.075; 0.0875; and 0.10% (w/v). Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, withconcentrations varied: 3; 4.5; and 6% (v/v). All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into eachmicrocapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Everymixture was then added with 5 ml of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature.Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. Thedissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen microcapsules were investigated in gastric and intestinal medium.Microcapsule morphology before and after dissolution as well as empty microcapsule (blank) were observed withSEM. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen in chitosan-CMC microcapsule. Optimization byusing Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, CMC and glu of0.0925% (w/v) and 3.01% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen at constant chitosan concentration 1.0%(w/v). Result of SEM morphology and In vitro dissolution profile showed that ketoprofen in chitosan-CMCmicrocapsule was relatively well than chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Kinetically, dissolution of ketoprofen frommicrocapsule in intestinal pH condition was first order with release rate constant, k, of 7.285  10-4 % min-1 andrelease half-time, t1/2, of approximately 15 hours.
Maria Erna, Emriadi Emriadi, Admin Alif, Syukri Arief, Mohd Jain Noordin
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 12, pp 87-92;

Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was synthesized with different methods by reacting chitosan with monochloroaceticacid in the presence of sodium hydroxide under variation conditions. The above samples were characterized byFourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and soluble in water in range of pH. The CMc were soluble in watera wide range of pH and applied as corrosion inhibitor for steel in water. The inhibiting influence of CMC was studiedby potentiodynamic polarization method. It was found thad corrosion rate was dependent on water pH and CMCconcentration. The results show that optimum the inhibition efficiency at pH 5 and 1 ppm concentration CMC, i.e.,77%. The adsorption of used compound on the steel surface obeys modified Langmuir isotherm. Polarizationmeasurement show that the CMC acts essentially as a anodic-type inhibitor.
Arini Pradita Roselyn, Endang Linirin Widiastuti, G. Nugroho Susanto, Sutyarso '
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 17, pp 22-32;

Lung cancer is a disease that causes high mortality. Drugs used to prevent and cure cancer mostly causes intoxicity to the normal tissues due to its less effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to find out any agent or substance which works much more effective and safe for cancer treatment. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of taurine on the lung tissue of mice (Mus musculus) induced by carcinogenic benzo(α)pyrene. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 5 replications. Six treatment groups were perfomed. Group I was given 0.2 mL of corn oil and given aquadest until the end of the study period, group II was induced by benzo(α)pyrene without administration of taurine, group III before induced with benzo(α)pyrene, was given taurine dosage 7.8 mg/BW/day for two weeks, group IV after induced benzo(α)pyrene, was given taurine with dosage 3.9 mg/BW/day, group V after induced benzo(α)pyrene, was given taurine with dosage7. 8 mg/BW/day, group VI after induced with benzo(α)pyrene, was given taurine with dosage 15.6 mg/BW/day. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis analysis and one way ANOVA with LSD (p>0,05) showed that taurine reduced lung tissue damage 72.73% due to the administration of benzo(α)pyrene of 0.3 mg/BW/day. In addition, the effective dose of taurine reduce lung tissue damage was 15.6 mg/BW/day.
Dwi Julian Sugianto, Karna Wijaya, Iqmal Tahir
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 16, pp 10-22;

Preparation and characterization of nickel-molybdenum catalysts supported on activated natural zeolite over hydrorackingof coal tar have been done. Modification of catalyst was included activation of zeolite by HCl 6N, wet impregnation of Ni-Mo metal and leaching the Ni-Mo from zeolite surfaces with EDTA solution.The parameters of catalyst have been determinedi.e acid site number, the ratio of Si/Al, crystallinity, content of Ni-Mo metal, specific surface area, total pore volume, and poreaverage diameter. The hydrocracking of coal tar was carried out at the optimum temperature (450°C) by flowing H2 gas (flowrate of 20 mL/min) on the coal tar with ratio of feed:catalyst was 10:1. The resulting liquid product was analyzed by GC/GCMS.The result showed that catalytic hydrocracking with ZAA catalyst had the highest conversion of liquid products,which were 40.51% (w/w) compared to Ni-Mo/ZAA catalyst gave 28.61% and Ni-Mo/ZAA(E) gaves 28.06% (w/w). Thehighest light fractions (67.63% (w/w)) produced by using Ni-Mo/ZAA catalyst and the highest medium fractions wereproduced over ZAA catalyst which was 36.61% (w/w) and the highest total conversion on the product with Ni-Mo/ZAA(E)catalyst produced was 50.05% (w/w). The product analyzed with GC-MS result on the 9th highest peak showed that thehydrocracking products resulted over Ni-Mo/ZAA mostly were phenol and its derivatives.
Solihudin Solihudin, Atiek Rostika Noviyanti, Iman Rahayu
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 17, pp 33-41;

The highest content in rice husk is ash with its main component of silica. Silica in ash causes the low adsorption capacity. Activated carbon from rice husk can be obtained by lowering the ash content. The aim of this study is determine the effect of particle size of charcoal and reflux time the ash content using a solution of potassium carbonate. The activation of rice husk char was carried out by using reflux methods with a potassium carbonate solution. The resulted carbon was washed using hydrochloric acid tested using iodine and methylene blue to examine of its adsorbance. The particle size of rice husk and reflux time decrease ash content in rice husk. In general, husk with the size of 80 mesh can produce carbon with low ash content and high absorption using reflux time at least for 120 minutes. Rice husk size of 100 mesh refluxing with potassium carbonate for 150 minutes can reduce the ash content as 91.85% and adsorptivity of the iodine at 331 mg.g -1 .
Dwi Lestari, E. L. Widiastuti, N. Nurcahyani, G. N. Susanto
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 16, pp 72-78;

Gourami (Osphronemus gouramy Lac.) as one of the freshwater fishes, are easily to be cultured but slow in growth rate. One of the ways to enhance their growth rate is by feeding them with high nutritious food. Sargassum sp. and inositol are known compound able to stimulate the growth of some fishes. The study was conducted to determine the effect of Sargassum sp and inositol on commercial feed to the growth rate and survival of juvenile gouramy. The study was conducted from January to April 2015 in Aquatic Laboratory of Biology Department - University of Lampung. Completely randomized designed was used with 4 treatment groups and 5 replications. Anova and Tukey at 5% levels were applied to this study. The result indicated that addition of inositol and Sargassum sp on commercial food significantly affected the gourami growth parameters such as the body weight, body length, body width as well as juvenile gouramy spesific growth rate and their survival rate.
, Wahyuda Rachman, Betty Natalie Fitriatin, Dedi Nursyamsi
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 115-120;

Organochlorine insecticide hed been banned for agriculture but nowadays its residue was still found in some agriculturalsoil. One of ways to lower organochlorine residue in soil is by using degrading-organochlorine microbial consortiaaccompanied by compost application. However, application of exogenous microbes might affect bacterial and fungalpopulation in soil and hence plant growth. The pot experiment has been set up to verify the influence of Pseudomonasmallei and Trichoderma sp. and compost on total bacteria and fungi on rhizosphere of caisim (Brassica juncea L.) grownon Andisols which were contaminated with organochlorine insecticide of Heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT.Experimental design was Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replicates. The first factor was microbial consortiaof P.mallei and Trichoderma sp., and the second one was the kind of compost. The result showed that effect of microbialconsortia on total bacteria population was determined by the kind of compost. Total bacterial population in rhizosphere ofcaisim grown with cow manure compost and microbial consortia was more increased. However, microbial consortia as wellas any kind of compost did not influence total fungal population in caisim rhizosphere. Amount of leaf increased due tomicrobial and compost application however plant yield did not.
, Mustofa Mustofa, Nazudin Nazudin
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 57-62;

To develop new potential antimalarial drugs of 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 derivatives from 8-aminoquinoline as startingmaterial were synthesized in good yields. The synthesis of 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 derivatives compoundswith 8-aminoquinoline 4 as starting material through three steps has been carried out. The first step of reactions is aldolcondensation of benzaldehyde 1 with acetaldehyde 2. The result of reactions is cinnamaldehyde 3 (92.14%) in the form ofyellow solid. The second step of reactions was synthesized of 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 (brown solid, 54.63%)through cyclization of 8-aminoquinoline 4 with cinnamaldehyde 3 compound. The third step of reactions is methylation andethylation of 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline using dimethyl sulphate (DMS) and diethyl sulphate (DES) reagents that it wasrefluxed for 17 and 19 h, respectively. The results of reactions are (1)-N-methyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate 6and (1)-N-ethyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate 7 in yield from 90.62% and 89.70%, respectively. The results oftesting in vitro antiplasmodial activity at chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FCR3 strain to 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 derivatives obtained that (1)-N-ethyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate 7 compound has higherantimalarial activity (IC 50 :0.13 ± 0.02 μM) than antimalarial activity of (1)-N-methyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate6 compound (IC 50 :0.25 ± 0.01 μM) and 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 compound (IC 50 :2.45 ± 0.09 μM). While, the resultsof testing in vitro antiplasmodial activity at chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain to 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 derivatives obtained that (1)-N-methyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate 6 compound has higherantimalarial activity (IC 50 :0.10± 0.04 μM) than antimalarial activity of (1)-N-ethyl-9-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulphate7 (IC 50 :0.18 ± 0.01 μM) and 2-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline 5 compound (IC 50 :0.55 ± 0.07 μM).
Ani Mulyasuryani, Bambang Ismuyanto, Danar Purwonugroho
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 1-6;

The activated carbon from the coconut shell can be used as an adsorbent for the recovery of gold. The optimum condition for gold recoverywas obtained at pH 3 (for adsorption) and pH 5 (for desorption) with 1 M thyocyanate solution and a 5 cm length of column (the mass ofactivated carbon is 20 grams). In this condition, the average gold recovery is 90.00%, silver 7.28% and copper 4.93%, that were used severalgold ore samples. The average purity degree of gold is 49.67%, depend on the concentration of gold, silver and copper in the gold oresample.
Mery Sukmiwati, Siti Salmah, Sanusi Ibrahim, Dian Handayani, Pradina Purwati
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 131-137;

This study was aimed to investigate diversity of sea cucumber. Samples were collected in the coastal waters of Natuna, Riau Islands in June 2009. Samples were taken from 2 locations: Sepempang and Pengadah beach. Sampling was done by using a transect quadrant of 5x5 m. This sampling and observation on its microhabitat were conducted by snorkeling. Analyses on the sea cucumber community structure were based on its diversity, equitability, density and frequency of occurance. The result showed that at both locations there are 16 species from two families: Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae. The higher diversity index (H) was 3.256 and equitability index (e) was 0.993. The higher density of species were 0.0032 ind/m2. The higher frequency of occurance was 27.71% by H. atra.
Andi Hairil Alimuddin, Sabirin Matsjeh, Chairil Anwar, Mustofa Mustofa
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 15, pp 68-74;

This research was aimed to utilize eugenol isolated from clove leave oil in the synthesis of isoflavones. Eugenol was usedas a raw material by converting into 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl cyanide through several stages of reactions. These stages weremethylation of eugenol, isomerization of methyleugenol, oxydation of methylisoeugenol, reduction of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, halogenation of 3,4-imethoxybenzyl alcohol and nitrilization of 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride to3.4-dimethoxybenzyl cyanide. Methylation of eugenol using dimethylsulfate and NaOH catalyst produced methyleugenolin 93.60% purity. Isomerization of methyleugenol employing base of potassium tertiary butoxide (t-BuOK) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) gave methylisoeugenol with 87.15% yield and 98.10% purity. Oxidation of methylisoeugenol usingpotassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) was performed catalyst transfer phase (CTP) system of polysorbate 80 to 83.40% 3.4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde yield and 90.20% purity. Reduction of 3.4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with sodium borohidrat (NaBH 4 )produced 98% yield. Halogenation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol by SOCl 2 to 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride followed bynitrilisation using sodium cyanide produced 3.4-dimethoxybenzyl cyanide with 83.90% purity after reflux for 20 hours.
Nova Hariani, , Resti Rahayu
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 86-89;

The aim of this research is to gain further understanding of how particular insect species respons to different host plants. This research isconsidered as preliminary research in integrated pest management for Spodoptera exigua. We report herein the consumption and utilizationof green onion (Allium fistulosum), caisin (Brassica rapa subsp. Parachinensis) and celery (Apium graveolens) by Spodoptera exigua. Theevaluation of indices of food consumption, growth and food utilization showed that caisin (Brassica rapa subsp. Parachinensis) was the bestfood for the last instar larvae of S. exigua as compared with celery or green onion. Growth rates and efficiency of conversion of ingestedfood to biomass (ECI) were significantly higher for larvae fed caisin (11.93%) than for those given green onion (8.06%) or celery (7.74%)Although the protein content of caisin (2.23%) was a bit lower than that of green onion (2.45%) but higher than celery (1.28%), we suspectthat the larvae performed best in caisin due to good balance between protein and carbohydrate as well as water content in caisin as comparedwith other host plants.
Yulmira Yanti
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 14, pp 32-36;

The activity of peroxidase were observed in leave of banana clone Kepok resulting by treatments EMS. The phenotype of peroxidase wasanalyzed from the banana clones resulting the induced by EMS and without induction after inoculated with pathogen Banana Blood deasesBacterium (BBD). The objectives of research are know variation of activity and band pattern of peroxidase. Induced mutation treatmentsconsist of control, 0.2% EMS for 1 and 3 hours, 0.5% for 1 and 3 hours, each treatments was provided five banana clones. The result showedthat variant value and coefisien variant of peroxidase activity in leaf tissue of clone treated by EMS increased compare to the control. Avariant control is 0.28 with coefisien variant is 29.92%, while variant value of treatment is 8.45 with coefisien variant is 75.75%.Appearance of peroxidase bands on clone resulting by EMS treatments were emerged four band pattern. The first and control band patternhas relative migration distance is 20 and 30, the second 15, 40 and 60, the third is 15, 35 and 50. There are four bands with different relativemigration distance that indicated polymorphic.
Jurnal Natur Indonesia, Volume 13, pp 276-280;

The adsorption isotherms of phenol from aqueous solution onto adsorbents obtained from egg shell (ESA) andpalm shell (PSA) were investigated. The objectives of the investigation were to understand the effect of bothadsorbents on solution pH and to study the adsorption equilibrium of phenol onto the adsorbents. The effect ofadsorbent on pH of solution was studied by shaking the adsorbent of 0.1 to 1.5 g with 100 ml of acidic aqueoussolution for 30 min at room temperature. The adsorption experiments were performed by stirring appropriateamount of adsorbent with 100 ml of 50 mg/l concentration of phenol at constant temperature and pressure. TheLangmuir and Fraundlich adsorption models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants werecalculated using linier regression analysis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbentsincreases with increasing of dosage and contact time. Also, pH of solution affected the adsorption isotherm ofphenol, where maximum adsorption was observed at pH values lower than 9.
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