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Results in Journal International Journal of Pathogen Research: 150

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, Esy Maryanti
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330206

Abstract:
The interaction of ectoparasite in correlation to its host’s skin is important. The extent of interaction somewhat makes these parasites able to survive in the harsh conditon of the host’s skin. Their existence mostly in the context of gaining their nutrition and perhaps continue its regeneration. Because these diseases caused by ectoparasite are easility transmitted, widespread, and the state of polyparasitism is often took place in a single vulnerable host, and significant primary and secondary morbidity and or complication occurs, which can worsen the course of the inital disease. This minireview aim to discuss about the interlinkage of some EPSD agents in correlation to its host’s skin, their interaction and what makes these endoparasites able to survive in the skin in the context of gaining their nutrition.
, N. T. Dabo
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330204

Abstract:
Introduction: Nigeria had planned to introduce the rotavirus vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme in 2014, but this has yet to be done. Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality due to diarrhoeal diseases with little information on specific, prevalent genotypes. Aim: The study's main objectives were to identify the predominant rotavirus genotypes and examine the effects of existing local vaccination programs on prevailing rotavirus genotypes and on preventing rotavirus diarrhoea. Methodology: A one-year prospective descriptive study of children under 5 with acute diarrhoea was conducted from June 2018 to May 2019. Children with acute diarrhoea attending Asokoro District Hospital, Abuja. Children without diarrhoea were also recruited as a control group. Rotavirus ELISA and RNA extraction were done with commercially available kits, and positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR and electrophoresis to determine VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes. Results: Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) of controls, with November, December. The predominant VP7 genotypes was G1 (n=116, 50.2%) followed by G9 (n=66, 28.5%). Viral Protein, VP4 (P) was mostly P [8] (n=143, 74.8%) followed by P [4] (n=21, 10.9%). The predominant genotype combinations found were G1 P [8] (n=108, 46.7%), G9 P [8] (n=62, 26.8%), and G2 P [4] (n=18, 7.7%). Very few mixed infections were found in the study, 2 (0.8%). Among 94 unvaccinated children with rotavirus isolates that were genotyped, G1 P [8] (n=88, 49.4%) and G9 P [8] (n=43, 24.1%) were predominant. Among 32 vaccinated children, G1 P [8] (n=13, 40.2%) and G9 P [8] (n=9, 28.1%) were predominant. Conclusion: The emergence of new genotypes such as G 12 P [4] found in this study emphasize the need for continued prospective monitoring of rotavirus at the molecular level to detect new threats to vaccine programs in future.
Ngela A. Muute, Benjamin Muli, Orek Charles
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i330203

Abstract:
Production of common bean in Kenya is constrained by pests and diseases and to improve bean yields amongst majority small-scale farmers, appropriate management strategies should be adopted. Bean common mosaic disease (BCMD) caused by bean common mosaic virus and vectored by bean aphids and infected seeds, substantially inhibit common bean production in Kenya. An extensive and diagnostic field survey was conducted in six agro ecological zones (AEZs) of lower eastern Kenya during the long and short rains of 2018 to determine BCMD incidence (BCMD-I), severity (BCMD-S), bean aphid abundance (BAA), bean aphid incidence (BAI) and the management strategies applied by farmers. Significant (P≤0.001) variations observed for these traits between bean varieties, rainy seasons and AEZs implied that farmers could select and grow a tolerant bean variety or grow a variety either in a season or an AEZ with low BCMD and bean aphid pressure. Such included AEZ-UMSA with least mean BCMD-I (42%), BCMD-S (1.9) and BAI (11%) compared to two AEZs (LHSH & LM4) that showed BCMD-I of >70%, BCMD-S >3.0 and BAI >50%. The AEZs differences could be attributed to variations in altitudes, temperature and humidity that influences vector (aphid) movement. Of the nine bean varieties identified during the survey, Selian 14 was the most preferred by farmers (at ~35%) with relatively lower BCMD-I (~49%) and BAI (~35%) compared to the least (75% of farmers could generally identify diseased or pest-infested bean crops and stage of growth of the crop most affected. None (0%) could however identify BCMD symptoms although ~40% identified the vector bean aphids with ~26% implementing some form of aphid or pest management strategy. On management, season-driven early planting and bean intercropping were the most applied strategies (>80%), crop rotation and weed control accounted for ~71%, certified seeds at 1% and non-chemical or pesticide applications (0%). Both low adoption of certified seeds and no chemical aphid control were attributed to high costs, despite the possibility the two factors could have contributed to higher incidences and severity of BCMD in the study area as the disease is both seed and vector-borne. In summary, lack of knowledge and training among farmers on diagnosis and management of aphid-pests and BCMD, were cited as the main constraints for low bean cultivation. This study therefore recommends provision of adequate extension services and farmer training in lower eastern Kenya for improved bean yield and subsequent better family livelihoods and income.
, Moses Nkechukwu Ikegbunam, Emmanuel Chigozie Udegbunam, Chioma Abana, Stephen Nnaemeka Ezekwueche, Ogadinma Daughter Okengwu, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230202

Abstract:
Each year, an estimated number of 300–500 million people are infected with malaria parasite, with an undesirable effect of over one million deaths. Pregnant women as well as young children, non-immune travellers visiting malaria-endemic zones are at the highest risk of suffering or experiencing life - threatening malaria infection. Maternal immunity, parasite density, parity, inadequate antenatal care services, drug misuse and abuse as well intermitted preventive treatment drug failure cum resistance are the most associated risk factors of malaria in pregnancy obtainable in endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Identification and understanding of these factors will play a major role in reducing the burden as well as eliminating malaria disease among pregnant women living in endemic regions.
, N. T. Dabo
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 44-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230201

Abstract:
Introduction: Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children, and Nigeria has the continent's highest mortality with little information on the specific cause, proportion affected by Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus, and the prevalent genotypes for Rotavirus. Aim: To identify children with diarrhoea, in Abuja in the Federal Capital Territory; to estimate the proportion of children with Cryptosporidium and rotavirus diarrhoea. Study Design: One-year cross-sectional study of children under five years with acute diarrhea. Duration: The study was conducted in Abuja from June 2018 to May 2019. Methodology: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus ELISA were done with commercially available kits. Results: Stool samples were collected from 1450 participants, of whom 1185 (81.7%) were ambulatory, 109 (7.5%) were hospitalized, and 156 (10.7%) were controls without diarrhoea. Cryptosporidium-ELISA was positive among 274 (21.1%) children with diarrhoea and 23 (1.7%) of children without diarrhoea, with August and September as peak months for infection. Rotavirus-ELISA was positive among 231 (17.8%) children with diarrhoea and 29 (2.2%) controls, with November, December, and January as peak months. Children of 12 to 17 months were most affected for both and Rotavirus (39.8%) and Cryptosporidium (37.2%). Conclusion: Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus are essential pathogens in children, especially among Rotavirus unvaccinated children in Abuja. Local and national infrastructure is inadequate for essential surveillance of diarrhoeal disease, and this will have to be improved, together with access to virological and parasitic stool testing, to monitor the planned vaccine program, especially for Rotavirus.
, J. O. Balogun, E. O. Akele, S. A. Adedayo, O. A. Bello
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230200

Abstract:
The purpose of this research work is to compare the activity of medicinal plant(Aframomum melegueta) and conventional antibiotic against Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in a major primary health center in Akoko, south ,Ondo state Nigeria. The target Asymptomatic Bacteriuria isolates which is inherent in pregnant women with no observable features. The rate of growth/ death of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Isolates were x-rayed. Bacteria were isolated from Urine of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Public health care Akungba Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria and were identified using conventional method. The antibiotic susceptibility test and antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta were determined using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. The eleven(11) bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae (three,3), Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis(Two,2),Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae (Two,2), Escherichia coli (three,3), Bacillus cereus, Serratia mercesiens, Enterobacter aerogens. E. coli and klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common isolates. The second most common isotales was Enterobacter cloacae.. Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis were resistant to Ampicillin, Ceporex, Nalixadic acid and Septrin. E. coli, the most common isolate was sensitive to Gentamycin and most of the antibiotics used. The antimicrobial screening of ethanol seed extract of Aframomum melegueta shows zones of inhibition with diameter ranging from 1-25mm. Secondary metabolite screening indicates the presence of flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to determine the Growth dynamic /Death rate of the isolates, the addition of antibiotics to the organism at the 48th hour speed up the death rate of the isolates, the addition of ethanol seed extract at the 48th hour also speed up the death rate of the isolates from the urine samples. The results of this study validate the use of Aframomum melegueta seed in the traditional treatment of Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.
, Chidinma S. John, Israel C. Omekara, Daniel A. Nwaubani
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230199

Abstract:
The right to obtain safe food is one of the most vital and fundamental human rights that must not be compromised or neglected; this is important because foodborne diseases can lead to prolonged disability and even death. Our study examined 28 samples of ready-to-eat foods, of which 27 samples (96.4%), contained bacterial contaminants. The bacterial pathogens isolated include Escherichia coli (50%), Salmonella spp (75%) and Staphylococcus aureus (85.7%). All the samples of jollof rice (100%), bean porride (100%) and eba (100%) were contaminated while 85.7% of egusi soup samples contained bacterial contaminants. The presence of these bacterial pathogens in the ready-to-eat foods poses huge risk to public health. It calls for immediate and sustainable action to prevent the possibility of foodborne disease out-break and intoxication capable of harming public health and socio-economic development.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i230198

Abstract:
Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals and are increasingly recognized as significant human pathogens and capable of causing major therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus species in two local cheese sample collected from Akungba and Ikare. The isolation of Enterococcus was carried out using standard culture-based techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Enterococcus species was determined using disk diffusion method. A total number of 93 presumptive Enterococcus species were recovered from forty two different samples over a period of three months. The bacterial count observed on the Bile Aesculin agar ranged from 1.5x104 cfu/ml to 4.6x104 cfu/ml with Akungba sample having the highest bacterial load of 4.6x104 cfu/ml. The Morphology and biochemical characteristics of suspected Enterococcus spp. isolated from the cheese sample revealed Enterococci feacalis as the isolated bacteria. The isolated Enterococcus species were tested against a panel of six antibiotics which include Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem. It was observed that the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, imipinem and ciprofloxacin while they are resistant to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The prevalence of Enterococci was confirmed with Enterococcus feacium and Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species isolated in both cheese sample. The ability of Enterococcus species to survive a range of adverse environments allows multiple routes of cross-contamination of Enterococci in causing human disease, including those from food. Overall, greater understanding of the ability of Enterococcus species to survive stresses, of virulence traits and especially of increasing antibiotic resistance, is needed in order to fully appreciate the complexity of Enterococcus species in causing disease.
, B. Samuel-Penu, S. O. Minimah
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 37-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130196

Abstract:
The susceptibility of fungal isolates associated with indoor air of medical institutions to commonly used antifungal agents were investigated using the open plate technique on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates. The well in agar diffusion technique was used in determining the antifungal susceptibility. The antifungal agents used were fluconazole and ketoconazole and these drugs were prepared into four concentrations. Result showed reduced antifungal activity as the concentration decreased. Results of fluconazole against the fungal isolates showed that Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida sp, and Mucor sp were all sensitive at 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, and 1.25 mg/ml while Rhizopus sp was only sensitive at the 5mg/ml concentration. Antifungal activity of ketoconazole showed that Aspergillus flavus, Candida sp, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were all sensitive at the 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.63 mg/ml concentrations while A. niger was susceptible to ketoconazole at 5 and 2.5 mg/ml concentrations. The MIC of Ketoconazole against Candida sp, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp was 0.63 mg/ml. while the MIC of Aspergillus niger was at 2.5 mg/ml. There was highly significant difference (P≤0.05) in the response of the fungal isolates to fluconazole and ketoconazole in all concentrations of the drugs. Result also showed that both drugs were more effective against Candida sp and because of the effectiveness of ketoconazole on other isolates, it is recommended for use in treating mycoses caused by these fungi from this site.
Viany Nankeng Manhafo, , Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu, Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Aline Camerl Nzeffouo Selabi, Monique Odette Kamtchueng, Michael Junior Piameu Chadou
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130195

Abstract:
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible of a wide range of both community and Hospital acquired infections. Several genomic variability underlie the diversity of S. aureus strains responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Objective: To assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired S. aureus isolated from pus samples in patients received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Study Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out over a period of five months (from January to May 2021) involving a total of 52 participants received at the traumatology unit of Our Lady of Health Centre of Batseng'la in Dschang, Western Cameroon. Methods: Pus samples collected from participants were seeded on Chapman Agar at 37°C for 24 hours. The colonies identification was based on catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25 Software. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 22 of the 54 pus samples analysed, giving a positivity rate of 42.3%. The majority of strains (63.6%) were isolated from subjects less than 21 years old. From the strains isolated, 40.9% were MRSA and 86.4% presented multi-resistance patterns to the antibiotics tested. All strains of MRSA were found to be cross-resistant with one or more other antibiotics. Conclusion: The multi-resistance of community acquired S. aureus to antibiotics is a reality. Adequate care should be taken while handling suppurating wounds and abscesses. Especially in younger ager individuals, as this may help in timely setting up proper care and treatment protocols necessary to overcome drug resistance of such extremely flexible pathogens.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130194

Abstract:
Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Transmission occurs via the bite of female mosquito, Anopheles spp. Epidemiologically, global number of malaria patient are located in Southeast Asia and Africa. Until nowadays, millions of people still living in endemic area, with children and pregnant women are among the most vulnerable group in the population. Although there have been many advances in treatment and management, but the potential for harm remains; one of the example is lung involvement in patients with severe malaria. This paper aim to discuss briefly about lung derangement in the severe malaria and the inflammatory response related to the lung dysfunction. The severity of pulmonary impairment due to complications of malaria is determined not only by the initiation of antimalarial treatment but also by the hosts associated immune response.
, R. Meenakshi Sundaram, S. S. Somanathan, T. Purushoth Prabhu, K. P. Rama, S. Jeya Shanmuga Priya
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130193

Abstract:
The word Chyavanprash (CP) comprises of ‘Chyawan’ and ‘Prasha’. Chyavan represents ‘degenerative change’ and Prasha symbolises a drug. Enhancement of immunity and longevity of life were the main reasons for which CP was consumed since ancient times. CP has about 50 herbs, spices and minerals along with a range of pharmacological activities on almost all organ systems of the human body. COVID-19 actually means coronavirus disease 2019. COVID-19 targets and affects multiple organs like lungs, heart, kidney etc, thus increasing the mortality and morbidity rates. The medication cost and side effects have made the allopathic system of medicine the least sought after. The rapid spread rate of the infection has urged mankind to look at alternative remedies to fight the novel coronavirus. AYUSH is a government organisation under the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy which aims to promote indigenous alternative medicine systems in India. AYUSH recommends various measures to fight the novel coronavirus infection. Chyavanprash is one such important formulation proposed by the AYUSH for COVID-19. The purpose of our review is to highlight the constituents and pharmacological activities of CP in the prophylaxis, manage and treatment of COVID-19 by collecting and compiling the published research on COVID-19. The review also focuses on understanding the mechanism behind the multimodal activity of CP. References relevant to our topic were screened based on relevance to our topic.
, Ebenezer Olayemi Dada
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i130192

Abstract:
Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Sida acuta crude extracts on some enteric bacteria. Study Design: Experimental design. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at The Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Ethanol and cold water were used as extracting solvents. The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of the crude plant extracts were carried out using standard techniques. The clinical and typed bacteria isolates used are Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference to compare the sensitivity of the bacterial strains. Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical screening of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of S. acuta revealed the presence of alkaloids; tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phlobatanin, and terpenoid. Quantitative result showed that alkaloids and terpenoids were significantly (p ≥ 0.05.) higher in ethanol (9.41±0.06) and 7.66±0.06) compared to aqueous extract (6.61±0.05 and 5.55±0.05). The ethanol extract showed highest inhibitory effect (32.00±1.00) on clinical S. dysentariae and typed S. typhimurium at 200mg/ml. Highest inhibition observed for the aqueous extract at 200mg/ml was (24.67±1.03) and (24.33±1.03) for clinical S. typhimurium and E. coli respectively. The antibiotics sensitivity test showed that only ofloxacin was effective against the enteric bacterial isolates. Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed the potency of Sida acuta, as herbal candidate for the treatment of human enteric bacteria especially on S. dysentariae, S. typhimurium and E. coli at 200mg/ml which validates the antibacterial potency of Sida acuta and its potential as an herbal candidate for treating human enteric bacterial infections.
Basil Kum Meh, , Rose Sangong Efeutmecheh, Idriss Fotso, Moubarak Ben Halid Tinsobad, Ferdinand Tingomd
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 48-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430191

Abstract:
Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic left no nation indifferent in adopting measures to fight against the spread of the disease. This survey aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Cameroonians towards preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19 in Cameroon. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional online survey conducted nationwide via self-administration of a google form questionnaire in March 2020. Questionnaires were shared via Facebook and WhatsApp. Being a Cameroonian based in Cameroon was the main inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Amongst the 444 respondents who completed the survey, 232(52.3%) were males and females 212 (47.7%) with the majority, 221 (49.8%) between the ages of 26 to 35. Most, (99.6%) respondents had heard of COVID-19 mainly via social media 244 (55.0%) and TV/Radio, 139(31.3%). Difficulty in breathing was the most known symptom 402(90.54%). Cameroonians are quite knowledgeable about COVID-19 (444/446 i.e. 99.6% of respondents). Less than a half, 174 (39.19%) were aware of; 13 preventive measures and over 384 (86.49%) of 7 additional measures. More than half of the participants 261(58.8%) were optimistic that the pandemic will stop if people respect the hygienic and governmental preventive measures. A majority, 91% affirmed practicing handwashingbut only 76(19.3%) did it properly. Participants demonstrated less compliance to social distancing, 230(51.8%). A significant relationship was noted between knowledge on COVID-19 and handwashing with soap (p=0.005; r=0.320) as well as the use of face masks (r=0.701, p=0.001). Conclusion: The governmental measures and hygienic preventive measures are known to Cameroonians but the compliance to these measures is moderate.
, Kosisochukwu Sylvia Anarado, Seye Babatunde
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430190

Abstract:
Helicobacter pylori infection occurs worldwide, though the burden differs greatly between countries and within populations. Studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori infection is higher in developing countries, including Nigeria and among populations of low socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection amongst students of Bingham University, Karu, Nassarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 565 blood samples were collected from students with their consents after completing a self-administered questionnaire. Each blood sample was spun for 5 minutes at 1000 rpm to get the serum, which was used to determine the presence of H. pylori antibody using a Helicobacter pylori test cassette. Of the 565 students screened, 31 were found to be positive, giving a prevalence of 5.5% (95%CI=3.6-7.4). Prevalence among the female students was higher at 6.3% in contrast to the male 4.5%, though this difference was not statistically significant (chi-square=0.904, P-value=0.34). Students aged 26-30 years showed the highest prevalence of 8.8% above 4.2%, 5.6% of the age ranges 15-20 and 21-25 years, respectively. Seropositivity of H. pylori increased with students’ year of study, with 100 Level having 9.3%, followed by 6.3% in 200 level. The 300 and 400 Levels had 5.8% and 2.5, respectively. Also, the students who were knowledgeable about the infection and those who were not had 15.7% and 3.2% seroprevalence, respectively. The low prevalence of the infection obtained in this study did not show sex or age differencesand could be as a result of the good sanitary living conditions or good feeding habits of the students. It is recommended that infected students should eat at regular intervals, obtain adequate treatment after stool analysis to confirm the infection, and also practice good sanitary habits. The school authority should keep on improving the living conditions of the students as this will enhance lower prevalence or total elimination of the infection.
M. U. Iduh, K. Mohammed, I. Isah, O. F. Ashcroft, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 22-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430189

Abstract:
Background: Gastro Intestinal Helminths infection is one of the major health burdens in developing countries particularly in Sub -Saharan Africa. It has been estimated to affect about 2.5 billion people globally and 250 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children. Aims: The study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastro intestinal helminths infections among people of Wamakko and Tambuwal local government area in Sokoto state. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among Hausa- Fulani in wamakko and Tambuwal area in Sokoto, from June 2019 to October 2019. Methodology: Parasitological examination was carried out on stool samples from 243 participants using microscopy following formal ether concentration methods. Results: Finding revealed that 29 (12%) were positive for gastro intestinal helminths infections. Males recorded more prevalence (11.9%) than the females (11.8%). Conclusion: Gastro intestinal helminths parasites continue to remain a serious public health problem in North-western Nigeria. Low level of education, occupational status, and poor water supply seems to be among significant risk factors for these infections. Creating awareness, increase level of sanitation, good water supply and de-worming programme among school children will reduce prevalence and intensity of gastro intestinal helminths parasitic infections in the study area.
, Tochukwu Okoye Clifford, Okwoli Agaba Abuche
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 15-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430188

Abstract:
Aim: The Aim of this study is to determine the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Tamarindus indica and peel extract Citrus sinensis on Root Knot Nematodes, in vitro. Study Design: The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design. Place of Study: This study was carried out in the biology laboratory of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria. Methods: Extraction of phytochemicals from Tamarindus indica leaf and Citrus sinensis peels was carried out using an aqueous solvent. Tamarindus indica leaves and Citrus sinensis peels were collected within the province of Jos, and were dried at constant room temperature to a constant weight after which pulverized, sieved and soaked in water for 24 hours. The extraction was done using the cold maceration method. Eighty (80) second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations (100, 80, 60, 40, and 20mg/ml) for 6, 12, 18, 24. 30, 32 and 48 hours and, each treatment was replicated 5 times. The average number of dead nematodes per concentration were determined and recorded as mean ± SEM with statistical value at P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: Results of phytochemical analysis showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Phenols, and Cardioglycosides were present in T. indica leaf extracts while C. sinensis peels contains Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannins, Phenols, and Resins. These phytochemicals present are suspected to be responsible for the nematicidal activities of the plants. Nematode mortality in the two treatment groups (T. indica and C. sinensis extracts) was highest at 100mg/ml concentration (48 hours of exposure); It was followed by 80mg/ml in decreasing order while the least mortality rate was recorded at 20mg/ml. Hence, as the concentration of the extracts were increased with increase in time, high nematode mortality was observed. Percentage mortality of treated nematodes was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for all concentrations of the extracts at the different time intervals when compared to the control. Statistical analysis showed that T. indica had significantly higher effect on Root-Knot nematodes mortality than C. sinensis at varying concentrations and time of exposure. Benefits of Results: Synthetic pesticides are the principal means used to control nematodes, but the natural products may provide a safe alternative. Hence, the active compounds (phytochemicals) in T. indica L. and C. sinensis L. can be harnessed to be used as biopesticides. Conclusion: The study suggests that extracts of T. indica and C. sinensis can be utilized in the control of root knot nematodes and may have the potential for the production of biopesticides that can be used for the control of nematodes as it displayed nematicidal activities.
Anthony Kayode Onifade,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i430187

Abstract:
Packaged water, most especially sachet and bottled water, is one of the major sources of drinking water in Nigeria, especially for commuters, whose major way of quenching thirst is to buy from road side vendors and previous studies has shown that packaged water does not always measure up to standard. Aim: Investigations were done to determine adherence to physiochemical, microbiological standards. Antibiotic susceptibility profile and plasmid profiling of enumerated bacteria using disc diffusion method were carried out on vended packaged water samples. Location of Study: Eleven brands of sachet water and seven brands of bottled water samples vended in Akure, Ondo State were randomly selected. Methodology: Physiochemical analysis was carried out and the parameters were checked in line with standard organization of Nigeria (SON) specifications. Isolation of bacteria was carried out using standard procedures and isolates were identified by various biochemical tests. Plasmid analysis and curing was conducted following standard protocols Results: Total bacterial counts of sachet water brands ranged from 0.2 × 102 to 4.5 × 102 CFU/ml while that of bottled water brands ranged from 0.1 × 102 to 4.2 × 102 CFU/ml. Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Shigella dysentariae. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the samples. Conclusion: Most packaged water (Bottled water, sachet water) samples are improperly handled and produced, which could serve as a source for spread of antibiotic-resistant potential pathogens, a risk to public health. better surveillance should be done on packaged water sale and production, public health education is encouraged for safety of residents in the Metropolis.
, Imran Javed, Muhammad Amjad, Kashif Kareem, Muhammad Wakeel, Muhammad Kaleem
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330186

Abstract:
Rota virus that cause diarrhea and other diseases in small infants is belonging to a virus family called Reoviridae with death rate of about more than 200000 annually. Although many vaccines are available for Rotavirus infection but still primary reason of death among infants. To prevent infection caused by this virus as diarrhea and other gastroenteritis in piglets we use a resveratrol, a natural phenol and a phytoalexin with a potential of strong antibiotic and antiviral, which has preventive and protecting outcome against Rotavirus infection in piglets. Pretreatment done and resveratrol dry suspension added to the adequate essential nutrient (basal diet) and the animal through oral route done Rotavirus and then know about the outcome of resveratrol dry suspension. Therefore, our main concern is to use the resveratrol dry suspension, which produced immunity in piglets against Rotavirus. It has positive outcome and reduced the diarrhea and other gastroenteritis. Therefore, the outcome of resveratrol dry suspension shows that it could be the best one to treat the diarrhea and other disease, which caused by this virus.
Dada Ebenezer,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 22-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330185

Abstract:
Aim: This study was conducted to verify the hematological and histopathological outcome of cooked ethanol seed extract of Tetracarpidium conophorum in swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65). Study Design: Descriptive study. Methodology: Standard methods were conducted to determine the phyto-chemical profile of cooked T. conophorum seed ethanol extract, hematological, histopathological indices and biochemical assay. Mice were assembled into five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) of seven each. The mice in group 4 were treated with a customary antimalarial drug (chloroquine as positive control) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, while mice in groups 3, 2 and 1 was administered with increasing dosages (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) of seed extracts for four consecutive days respectively. Results: The qualitative phytochemical screening of T. conophorum seed extract revealed the presence of bioactive components such as saponin, tannins, flavonoid, terpenoid. Saponin (16.82 mg/100 g) was the highest occurring phytochemical followed by terpenoid (10.39 mg/100 g), glycoside (5.9 mg/100 g), tannin (2.8 mg/100 g) and flavonoid (1.17 mg/100 g), while steroid only had a trace presence. Hematological parameters revealed mice in all groups do not possess significantly different mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Mice in group 5 (infected and not treated) demonstrated lowest values of hemoglobin, platelet, and packed cell volume with a significantly lower % eosin. There was considerable decrease in the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in group 5 compared to mice in groups 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: Ameliorative effects of seed extract were observed on the liver and kidney of mice at dose levels (200 mg/kg) used, but the 400 mg/kg restored the kidney but had adverse effect on the liver. This study therefore shows that cooked T. conophorum is generally less effective and could not be employed for treatment of malaria.
C. O. Aleke, K. O. Ugwu, O. N. Akoma, I. M. Ezeonu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330183

Abstract:
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the significant healthcare and hygienic-based diseases ravaging millions of people, especially in third world countries with poor hospital settings. This cross-sectional and laboratory investigation was done to determine the incidence of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the uropathogenic bacterial isolates from hospital patients in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria. Urine specimens of fifty patients were collected and analyzed between May and June 2018. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern for all isolates. Bacteriuria was observed in urine specimens of 31 (62%) out of the 50 participants, with the specimens of 13 yielding significant growth at 42% rate of nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs). The most predominant bacterial isolate of urinary tract infection was Staphylococcus spp. (31%); followed by Escherichia, Klebsiella and Proteus with (23%) each. Isolates were mostly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (87.1%), while other isolates were mainly resistant to Zinnacef (937%). Pertinent recommendations were made with respect to treatment, multidrug resistance mitigation and aseptic and optimal health services delivery practices.
Obinaju N. Queenette, , Anyadoh-Nwadike O. Sylvia, Nwakwasi U. Emmanuel
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 44-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230181

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal bacterial flora of the skin, intestine and upper respiratory tract of both humans and animals and has the potential of causing staphylococcal infections if there is a breach in the hosts’ defense mechanism. These infections could range from mild superficial skin infections to more severe and even fatally invasive diseases such as sepsis and toxic shock syndrome. The infectivity of S. aureus is attributed to its ability to withstand extreme conditions and its possession of various virulence factors. The aim of this project was to study the effect of ciprofloxacin on the growth and biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus using time kill study, resazurin and live/dead staining of biofilms and Real-time polymerase chain reaction. The identity of the given CM10 strain was confirmed when the result of the API-Staph was in total accordance with the results obtained from the colony morphology and phenotypic characterization tests (Coagulase/protein A, Gram, and Catalase tests). CM10 strain of S. aureus was not susceptible to 0.25mg/L of ciprofloxacin used for the time kill experiment but was susceptible to a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5mg/L. The difference between the ciprofloxacin treated biofilms of CM10 strain and the untreated biofilms was significant (P<0.05) showing that ciprofloxacin has an adverse effect on the cells in the biofilm. The results of this study provide an insight on the growth as well as the biofilm forming ability of CM10 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be an effective antibacterial against this strain of S. aureus by its inhibitory effect on the growth as well as biofilm forming ability of this strain of S. aureus. This information would assist in developing novel anti-biofilm therapies to help in the management of biofilm mediated infections thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality rate of staphylococcal infections.
, Sylvain Diembi, Boris. Otouana, G. C. Gouoni, A. B. Ecokounda Okoko, F. Itiere Odzili, Jean Felix Peko, Gottran Ondzotto
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330182

Abstract:
Introduction: Carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract have a tropism on the epidermoid mucosa. HPV infection remains one of the risk factors for this cancer. This work aimed to study the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in carcinomas of the VADS. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study with retrospective data collection over 7 years. The molecular analysis was conducted in Pointe-Noire using Xpert® HPV technology (GeneXpert, Cepheid). The variables studied were anatomopathological and virological. Results: The overall molecular prevalence of oncogenic HPV was 28.1%. HPV-16 and HPV-18/45 were the incriminating genotypes in 88.9% and 11.4% of cases, respectively. A statistically significant association was found between co-infection with HPV-oncogenes in subjects over 40 years of age (P=0.01) and the development of these HPVs in squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.02). Notably, oncogenic HPV was found in the majority of laryngeal carcinomas. Conclusion: In countries with limited resources, the Xpert HPV technology from GéneXpert is a reliable and rapid solution for the virological diagnosis of oncogenic HPV associated with carcinomas of the VADS. HPV-16 remains the most prevalent genotype.
L. Preethi, G. Asvitha, S. Ankul Singh,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 40-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230179

Abstract:
Coronaviruses are closely related virus causing several types of respiratory tract infections ranging from common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). There are many other ways in which Covid-19 will impact the existing public health issues. With the rising number of covid19 cases, it has been reported that people with the weaker immune system are at higher risk. We identified the mechanism of action of cyclophosphamide and its impact on the lung. Pulmonary side effects associated with cyclophosphamide are rare and dose-related. They manifest as early-onset pneumonitis, in patients with symptoms especially like cough and dyspnea. Acrolein in cyclophosphamide is the main component linked with the toxic effect. We hypothesize that use of cyclophosphamide, an antineoplastic agent and immunosuppressive agent used in treating many cancers and autoimmune disorders (like rheumatoid arthritis and ANCA vasculitis), induces severe lung toxicity which can be one of the contributing factors for the increased risk of COVID 19 complication. These factors are to be recognized to improve prevention and control of the disease.
Kayode Anthony Onifade,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 18-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230178

Abstract:
Aim: This study was conducted to comparatively investigate the soil and air microflora of selected locations within the Federal University of Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria. Study design: Experimental design Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at The Federal University Technology, Akure (FUTA), Ondo State, Nigeria comprising; School of Sciences, School of Agricultural and Agricultural Technology, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, School of Health and Health Technology, Microbiology department, FUTA Health Centre, postgraduate hostel, female hostels (main Jibowu and Jibowu annex 1) and the male hostels (Akindeko and Abiola hall of residence) between June and July, 2019. Methodology: Isolation of bacteria and fungi from soil samples and air was conducted using specified techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted via agar disc diffusion technique. Plasmid analysis and curing was conducted via standard protocols. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus were isolated as soil and air microflora while Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, with Fusarium oxysporium were isolated from soil as A. flavus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum was implicated in air. Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis showed utmost resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cloxacillin, augmentin, ceftriaxone, whereas Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris were susceptible to gentamycin at 17.66±1.52 mm and 16.00±2.00 mm respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to gentamycin and ofloxacin at 17.30±0.57 mm and 18.66±0.57 mm. The multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains were positive for plasmid DNA with 10 kilobase pairs, but were sensitive to all the antibiotics after curing indicating plasmid-borne resistance. Conclusion: Findings from this study inferred possible health consequences of MDR soil and air microflora as potential threat to human health which necessitates proper sanitary practices across different sampling areas adopted for this study to reduce potential incidence of bacterial and mycotic infections.
, Michael Bayode, Ikeoluwa Aina, Jeremiah Adesanya, Oluwaseun Areo
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230177

Abstract:
Aim: The prevalence, sensitivity profile and resistance of Gram-positive bacteria in wounds to commercial antibiotics were ascertained in this study. Place and duration of study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Nigeria, between January and June 2019. Methodology: Wound swabs sample collection, isolation of bacteria, identification of Gram-positive bacteria isolates and antibiotics sensitivity testing of isolated bacteria were determined employing standard protocols. Result: Three Gram-positive bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified to be S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. pyogenes. S. aureus had the highest prevalence of 53% followed by S. epidermidis with 42% and S. pyogenes accounting for the least occurrence of 5%. Ninety percent (90%) of ten S. aureus strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin while only 10% had intermediate activity. The least resistance of S. aureus strains was against pefloxacin (40%), while to streptomycin, 87.5% of eight S. epidermidis strains were resistant and 12.5% had intermediate sensitivity. Susceptibility was observed in S. epidermidis against pefloxacin (12.5%) while 50% had intermediate sensitivity and 37.5% were resistant. The highest zone of inhibition of S. epidermidis was observed in strain 7 against pefloxacin (16.00±1.00 mm) and in S. aureus by strain 5 against pefloxacin (16.50±2.50 mm). Conclusion: Pefloxacin-sensitive Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species from wound swabs could become resistant overtime and this calls for incessant vigilance on Gram-positive wound bacteria antibiotic-susceptibility appraisal particularly in an antibiotics-abuse setting.
, M. O. Enemali, I. I. Achimugu, R. Isah, M. Miftahu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i230176

Abstract:
The current study evaluated the hematological changes in albino mice following infection with P. berghei and treatment with sodium bicarbonate; an alkaline substance intended to alkalinize the pH in the parasite environment. Twenty albino mice were randomly divided into five groups of four mice each. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were the test groups and administered 84mg/kg b.w of sodium bicarbonate injection once, twice and thrice respectively. Groups 1 received dH20, group 2; only P. berghei. Three days later, hematological parameters and differential cells were analyzed. PCV was significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups 2(32.00±0.70), 3(34.00±0.70), 4(34.00±0.70), 5(33.00±0.70) compared to control (35.00±0.70). Haemoglobin decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 (11.00±0.70) compared to control (11.80±0.70). WBC showed significant (p<0.05) increase in the test groups; 2(3600.00±70.71), 3(4600.00±70.71), 4(4800.00±70.71), 5 (4800.00±70.71) compared to control (3200.00±70.71). Platelets decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the test groups; 2(90.00±.70), 3(87.00±.70), 4(84.00±.70), 5(86.00±.70) compared to control (92.00±.70). The percentage neutrophils was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 2(61.00±0.70), significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups 3(58.00±0.70), 4(57.00±0.70), 5(57.00±0.70) compared to control (60.00±0.70). Leucocytes increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 2(36.00±0.70), 3(38.00±0.70), 4(38.00±0.70), 5(40.0±0.70) compared to control (32.00±0.70). Monocyte was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the test groups; 2(2.00±0.07), 3(2.00±0.07), 4(2.00±0.10) and 5(1.00±0.89) compared to control (4.00±0.07). Eosinophils decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 2(1.00±0.35), increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 4(3.00±0.70) compared to control (2.00±0.70). Basophils were not detected in neither of the groups. This study revealed that sodium bicarbonate administered to albino mice infected with P. berghei caused the elevation of some hematological parameters and differential cells.
, David C. Ekwe, Emmanuel A. Eze
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 37-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i130175

Abstract:
Background: Antibiotics once seen as miracle drugs are now becoming inefficient in treating various bacterial diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin and mineral supplements on the antibiogram profile of some of the multidrug-resistant bacteria, which the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has dubbed ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp), the predominant cause of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Methodology: The in vitro effects were evaluated using the disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) technique. All test bacteria were inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), supplemented with varying concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 25 mg/ml) of vitamin (A, C, or E) and mineral (calcium or iron). Agar without supplements served as the control. The effects of vitamin and mineral supplements were determined by measuring the zones of inhibition to the nearest millimeter as compared to the control. Result: Zones of inhibition for nalidixic acid and ampicillin on P. aeruginosa significantly increased from 5mm to 32mm and 0mm to 18mm respectively, with increasing concentration of vitamin C. Similarly, nalidixic acid and ampicillin zones of inhibition on P. aeruginosa increased from 5mm to 12mm and 0mm to 18mm respectively, with increasing concentration of vitamin A. Vitamin C resulted in significant decreases in all of the zones of inhibition for all antibiotics against E. coli, except reflacine and ciproflox. Varying concentrations of iron led to a sharp decrease in the zones of inhibition for all antibiotics against S. aureus and K. pneumonia. Significant changes were also observed in all zones of inhibitions for all antibiotics studied under varying concentrations of calcium. Conclusion: The effects of vitamin and mineral supplements appear to be important but concentration-dependent. However, there is a need to evaluate the in vivo effects of these vitamin and mineral supplements.
Victorien Dougnon, Phénix Assogba, Jibril Mohammed, Jerrold Agbankpe, Esther Deguenon, Kafayath Fabiyi, Jacques Dougnon, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Honoré Bankole
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i130174

Abstract:
Objective: The emergence and increasing spread of resistance to antibiotics in uropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae is a huge public health problem and increase the morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to produce scientific data on the virulence and level of resistance of these bacteria in Benin. Results: This study was conducted on 230 strains of enterobacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections. These virulence factors sought were hemolysis, hemagglutination, serum resistance, biofilm formation, and the production of lipase, protease and lecithinase. The molecular characterization of the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes was accomplished by PCR according to the different conditions for each gene. The bacteria possessed several types of virulence factors such as hemagglutinin (28.26%), lipase production (23.92%) and hemolysin production (17.83%). The virulence gene identified were FimH (74.79%), PapC (30.44%), Iss (11.34%) and Biofilm (3.92%). The antibiotic resistance genes such as Bla-SHV (49.56%), Bla-CTX-M15, Bla-CTX-M2 (33.92%), Bla-CTX-M9 (19.13%) and bla-CTX-M1 (11.74%) were also detected. Conclusion: These results filled the national gap about virulence and antimicrobial resistance of enterobacteria responsible of urinary tract infection and may be used to improve the management of patients in Benin.
, N. P. Akani, O. Aniwoko
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 17-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i130173

Abstract:
The microbiome of the vagina is characterized by a community bacteria playing important roles in the overall health status of the female genital tract. This study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from the female genital tract and as well evaluate the antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the vaginal bacterial isolates. For this purpose, a total of fifty (50) vaginal swab samples were collected (using sterile swab sticks) from females attending a tertiary institution in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, and subjected to standard bacteriological analysis. Antibiotics sensitivity analysis was carried out using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A total of 160 bacterial isolates were obtained from the subjects of different age brackets in the study population. Molecular identification based on the nucleic acid sequence of the bacterial isolates revealed the isolates to be Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus flexus and Lysinibacillus macrolides. The result further showed that Escherichia coli was the most occurring bacterial isolate. Also, female subjects within the age bracket 21-23 years recorded the highest number of bacterial isolates (67) and 24-26 years had the least number of bacterial isolates (36). The antibiotic sensitivity analysis revealed that Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to 50% of the antibiotics tested, whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant to all (100% of) the antibiotics tested. The study has revealed that the vaginal microbiome of healthy female subjects is characterised by diverse species of bacteria, including opportunistic bacterial pathogens. The study therefore, recommended that regular screening for bacterial vaginosis as well as personal hygiene, sensitization programs to improve knowledge of women, should be encouraged.
, Emeji Roseline
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i130172

Abstract:
Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause disease in mammals and birds. COVID-19 infection is caused by a single stranded RNA virus called SARS-CoV-2 that is similar to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The aim of this review is to identify how COVID-19 infects man, the preventive approach and treatment possibility with ivermectin drug. The possible main source of transmission is thought to be a close contact with infected person or animal and respiratory droplets while the mucous membrane; conjunctiva, mouth, nasal cavity, and throat are the main routes of transmission. The virus enters the human through the ACE2 receptor which are found in the mucous membrane. This is an important step for coronavirus infection establishment. To stay safe from coronavirus, physical distancing, wearing of face mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, cleaning/washing your hands, the use of hand sanitizers and coughing into a bent elbow are precautionary measures to avoid contracting the infection. Ivemectin blocks the initiation of the binding of the viral protein to the cytoplasmic receptor (imp α/β). The inhibitory role of ivemectin prevents further increase in the viral load. Ivermectin drug could be a remarkable medical breakthrough for the lasting treatment of the infection; however, more clinical trials are suggested in this area.
, Jeremiah Owubokiri Ngowari, Orudukobipi Tamunonengiye-Ofori
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 43-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i430170

Abstract:
The pandemic of COVID-19 infection has had an untold adverse impact on patients living with chronic disease, across various ethnicity/race, age and gender. Underlying hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory illness are key risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and systematic inflammation. Patients who are immunosuppressed by virtue of their chronic disease, age or a therapy have been identified as susceptible groups. The redirection of healthcare services towards the increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients has compromised the healthcare delivery to patients with chronic illness. Movement restriction measures as approach to curb the spread of the infection have also compromised the metabolic health of many patients who need enhanced physical activity to improve their health. Media publications on COVID-19 infection and restrictions may have also contributed to the poor mental health of some individuals, especially patients with underlying mental conditions or its risk factors. The inadequate or availability of quality health care system across low income and developing regions especially, those with older age groups, has further accelerated the spread and death rate from COVID-19. Future research should be directed towards protecting vulnerable groups from possible waves of COVID-19 as a measure to reduce the negative impact of the pandemic on these individuals.
Sompa Reza, Ila Ismail,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i130171

Abstract:
Burden, due to foodborne diseases, particularly Salmonella infection, is high in developing countries like Bangladesh. This research aimed at the molecular characterization of Salmonella spp., isolated from selected school canteen’s fast foods in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated foodborne pathogens. The school cafeterias were selected by the convenience sampling method. The samples were collected aseptically, and serial dilutions were made. The bacterial colonies were isolated by spread plate technique using appropriate media, and bacterial identification was carried out using gram staining and biochemical tests such as MIU, KIA, Oxidase, and Catalase test. The strain of Salmonella spp. was confirmed by molecular characterization employing the 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The susceptibility of the isolates to various antibiotics was observed by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Most of the samples were found to contain an unacceptable level of a total aerobic count, which ranged from 5.6×105 to 6.1×107 and 3.4×104 to 7.2×107 for burger and sandwich samples, respectively. Significant isolates from the pathogenic strains were Salmonella spp., Shigella, Klebsiella, Proteus, E. coli, Vibrio spp., Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and others. The further molecular characterization of isolated Salmonella spp. suggests the similarity with Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen SeqrSC0091. Most isolates were resistant against Ampicillin (100%), Azithromycin (60.87%), Tetracycline (39.43%), Colistin (32.61%), while were highly sensitive to Gentamycin and Chloramphenicol. The presence of multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens at this high level in the school cafeteria’s fast foods signifies an increased risk for the children’s health.
, Y. B. Ngwai, G. R. I. Pennap, I. H. Nkene, R. H. Abimiku
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i430169

Abstract:
Aims: This study investigates and reports the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamase in Escherichia coli isolates in poultry droppings sourced from selected poultry farms in Karu, Nigeria Study Design: Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between August 2019 and February 2020. Methodology: Escherichia coli was isolated from the samples using standard cultural and microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The detection of ESBL production in E. coli isolates was carried out using double disc synergy test. In addition, molecular detection of ESBL genes was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Results: All (100%) samples collected had E. coli. Antibiotic resistances in the isolates in decreasing order were as follows: ampicillin (96.7%), streptomycin (94.4%), sulphamethoxazole /trimethoprim (87.8%), amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid (61.1%), gentamicin (52.2%), ciprofloxacin (40.0%), ceftazidime (35.6%), cefotaxime (31.1%), imipenems (22.2%), cefoxitin (13.3%). The commonest antibiotic resistant phenotype was AMP-SXT-S-CTX-CN (8.8%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was observed in 92.2% (83/90) of the isolates with the common MAR indices being 0.5 (26.5%), 0.6 (19.2%), 0.4 (13.2%) and 0.9 (10.8%). Fifty nine of the eighty beta-lactam resistant isolates (73.7%) were confirmed ESBL producers. 55 of the 59 ESBL positive isolates (93.2%) carried bla genes as follows: blaSHV (50/55, 90.9%), blaTEM (31/55, 56.3%) and blaCTX-M (46/55, 83.6%). Thirty six (65.5%) of the 55 isolates carried two bla genes (blaSHV and blaTEM, blaTEM and blaCTX-M, and blaCTX-M and blaSHV). Conclusion: The E. coli isolates showed lower resistances to cefoxitin, imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin and most isolates were MAR, with resistance to 5 antibiotics being the most predominant. In addition, blaSHV gene was the most common ESBL gene detected in the confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli isolates.
Hubert Bolie, Bekolo Ndongo, Patrice Zemko Ngatsi, William Norbert Tueguem Kuate, Sylvere Landry Lontsi Dida, Arnaud Essogue Etame, Charles Salé Essomé,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i430167

Abstract:
Background: Cercospora leaf spot disease of okra whose pathogen is Cercospora malayensis causes yield losses of up to 60% in plantations. To limit productivity losses, fungicides are commonly used, but are expensive and degrade the environment. Aims: This study aims to test in vitro efficacy of Annona muricata seed extracts against Cercospora malayensis. Study Design: Four extracts were used in this study (the ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous extract of A. muricata seeds at the concentrations C1 = 7.5 μl/ml, C2 = 15 μl/ml, C3 = 30 μl/ml and C4 = 60 μl/ml as well as the synthetic fungicide at the concentration of 3.33 g/l) in triplicate. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed, the radial growth of pure explants (7 mm diameter) of C. malayensis deposited in sterile Petri dishes containing the PDA medium supplemented with the different concentrations of extracts and incubated at 23 ± 1°C for 6 days were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50, MIC90) were calculated. Results: The extracts of A. muricata seeds are rich in tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. The ethyl acetate extract at the concentration C3 resulted in 100% total inhibition of growth of C. malayensis in the Petri dishes. The other extracts resulted in total inhibition of the growth of C. malayensis at C4. The low MIC50 values (12.9 and 21 μl/ml) were obtained with the ethyl acetate and acetone extract, respectively. The ethyl acetate and aqueous extract at the C4 concentration were found to be fungicidal. Conclusion: The extracts were found to be potential fungicide against the C. malayensis strain and might be an alternative in the fight against fungal diseases of okra as their activity was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide Monchamp 72 WP.
, Patience O. Osariemen
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i430168

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail raw beef in Choba market, Nigeria. Study design: The study is based on a completely randomized design with two replicates and the mean being calculated. Place and Duration of Study: Major’s Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt within three months. Methodology: The presence, characterization and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus from 30 retail raw beef samples was done using standard microbiological method involving the use of mannitol salt agar (MSA) and Mueller Hinton agar (MHA). Results: All the samples were positive for Staphylococcus species of which 18 (60.00%) were positive for S. aureus. The S. aureus strains were least resistant to gentamycin (22.22%) and cotrimoxazole (38.89%) with varying resistance against erythromycin (83.33%), tetracycline (88.88) and chloramphenicol (61.11%). All the S. aureus isolates in this study were 100% resistant to cloxacillin, amoxicillin and augmentin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination. These results also showed the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the raw beef samples examined. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested high-level contamination of meat with multi-drug resistant S. aureus and this highlights the public health consequences associated with consuming such unhygienic products if poorly prepared.
, Adegboyega C. Odebode
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i430166

Abstract:
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an essential vegetable crop consumed worldwide. Major limiting factors in its production include fungal foliar diseases. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the fungi associated with diseased tomato leaves. Infected leaf samples (3 per plant, 30 plants per farm) of Kerewa variety were randomly collected at the expression of disease symptoms from 3 farms in Alapoti, Ogun State. Samples were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar for fungal isolation. All isolates were identified using morphological and microscopic features. Pathogenicity test was conducted based on Koch’s postulates. Identified symptoms on the leaf samples were chlorosis, leaf spot and wilt. Fungi isolated from diseased tomato leaves were Aspergillus aculeatus, A. niger, A. tamarii, A. ustus, A. versicolor, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium oxysporum, Phialophora melinii, Phomopsis sp. and Trichodema asperellum. Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis sp. were found to be the causal organisms of the leaf infections. Due to the effect of the leaf diseases of the overall productivity of tomato, it is important to put in place adequate control measures to mitigate the effect of the diseases.
, N. N. Odu, V. Daminabo
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 52-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330165

Abstract:
Fish are generally regarded as safe, nutritious and beneficial but aquaculture products have sometimes been associated with certain food safety issues. Consumption of fish may also cause diseases due to infection or intoxication, Hence, the aim of this study is to characterize using genomic analysis and plasmid profile of Listeria and Salmonella species isolated from Oreochromis niloticus sold in Port Harcourt. A total of one hundred and eighty samples (180) were collected from three different markets namely; Creek road, Mile one and Rumuokoro markets over a period of six months. The samples were labelled and transported in an ice packed coolers to the laboratory for analyses. Standard analytical protocols were employed to determine the bacteriological characteristics of the various parts such as Intestine, Gill, flesh of the sample. Statistical analyses were carried out using ANOVA and All pairs tukey-kramer. Results obtained from the study showed that the total heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 5.1 to 5.9 x10 x106cfu/g across the markets for the flesh part, 6.0 to 7.7 x106 cfu/g (Gill) and 7.1 to 7.6 x106 cfu/g for the intestinal samples. Total coliform count ranged from 4.2 to 5.4 x104cfu/g (flesh), 5.2 to 5.4 x104 cfu/g ((Gill) and 6.1 to 8.0 x104 cfu/g (Intestine). Listeria count range from 2.7 to 2.9 x104 cfu/g (Fresh), 3.3 to 3.7 cfu/g (Gill)), and 3.8 to 4.3 cfu/g (Intestine), and Salmonella count ranged from 1.0 x103 - 1 .1 x103 cfu/g (Flesh) 1.0 to 1.6 x103 cfu/g (Gill) and 1.2 to 2.0 x103 cfu/g (intestine). This results shows that the intestines harbours more bacterial load than the gill and flesh. Mean values for all the microbial counts were significantly different (P<0.05) in the three samples across the sampled markets The result of the conventional and genomics identification confirms the following species of Listeria and Salmonella: L. grayi VD-Sfg with accession number MW020239 having a closest gene bank match with Listeria grayi CIP 100% identified, L. monocytogenes VD-Sfg with accession number MW020240 closest to L. monocytogenes NCTC 10357 with 99.73% identified, L. seeligeri VD-SFF accession number MW020241 closet to L. seeligeri ATCC 35967 with 98.95%, L. welshimeri VD-SF MW020242 closest to L. welshimeri ATCC 35897 with 99.9%, L. monocytogenes VD-Fg MW020243 closet to L. monocytogenes NCTC 10357 eith 99.73% identity, S. bongori VD-SwfiA MW020245 closest to S. bongori NCTC 12419 and S. enterica VD-SwfiD MW20244 closest with S. entrica LT2 both with 100% identity. Gel electrophoresis of the plasmid DNA showed that all the isolates possess plasmid. This finding is of public health concern as these organisms are the known causes of food-borne diseases and also serve as reservoirs for resistance plasmids that may be transferred to otherwise susceptible bacteria making them resistant, thus increasing the occurrence of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms.
Okere J. Kelechi, , Iheagwam S. Kelechi, Emeka J. Emmanuel, Nzenwa P. Odinaka
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 27-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330163

Abstract:
Water pollution is a global problem. The study was carried out to assess the microbial constituents in water and sediment of Rivers Otamiri and Nworie during dry and rainy seasons (March and September, 2020) with comparison to WHO benchmark for drinking water .Samples were randomly collected at six (6) sampling points and analyzed using routine microbiological protocols. The results revealed detectable amount of microbial activates in surface water of both rivers during the dry and rainy season. During the rainy season, a THB bioload average of 2.02x104 and 5.1x104CFU/mL for Nworie and Otamiri river respectively were measured. For the TCC, the average was 9.8x103 and 2.5x104 CFU/mL, while in the dry period there was corresponding reduction in the bioload value for both rivers. THB average value for Nworie river was 1.34x104 CFU/mL, with corresponding 3.5x104 values for Otamiri river, while in same inclination, TCC measured 6.1x103 and 1.8x104 CFU/mL. There were noteworthy variations in the values for the two rivers as well as in the two seasons. TBC value for Otamiri measured about 1.5 folds than the value for Nworie. In same trend, TCC value for Nworie measured about 39%. All values measured were above WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The biochemical and cultural features of the isolated microorganism in water showed the presence of E. coli identified in the entire stations (100%), Salmonella and faecal coliform occurred 83.3% each, while Vibrio and Shigella were detected in 4 of the 6 stations. The mean total bacterial count, total coliform count and total E. coli, were not in conformity with World Health Organization (WHO) Standard for drinking water and thus constitute a threat to the River; these were attributed to indiscriminate waste dumps around the rivers. The study underscores the need for adequate waste management system to forestall outbreak of pathogenic diseases in the area.
, Edward M. Mugalavai, Nicodemus O. Nyandiko
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 15-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330162

Abstract:
Currently, 85 per cent of the world’s human population lives in the drier half of the Earth, which exacerbates the water risks including lack of access to safe water, poor basic sanitation and water-related disasters and diseases. Vihiga County is located in the western region of Kenya (former western province). The county covers a total area of 531.0 Km2. This paper examines the impact of water related risks on the livelihood of residents in Vihiga County. The study used evaluation research design. A sample size of 384 households was used to obtain data from the households. Sampling technique comprised of multistage sampling for the households, Quota sampling for the Focus Group Discussions and purposive sampling for the Key Informants. Primary data was gathered by use of questionnaires, Key Informant Interview guides, observation checklists and Focus Group Discussions. Secondary data was collected by use of publications, journals, and internet access. Quantitative data was analysed using Microsoft excel, and Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) version 20.0. Results reveal that majority of the household respondents had experienced different forms of water related risks including, water pollution at 42%, inadequate water infrastructure 32%, poor water governance 10%, water scarcity 7% and environmental flows at 4% respectively. The study established that the existing Water Funded Projects (WFPs) initiatives include protected water springs at 31%, water kiosks 21%, boreholes at 18%, open wells 14 %, rain water harvesting at 12% while 4% of household respondents had piped water. The results (X25, 0.05=69.76; p-value=0.000) indicating that Water Funded Projects (WFPs) initiatives have positively influenced reduction in water related risks.
, Deurnaye Placide, Abdoul Madjerembe, Mbou T. Pavel Rony, Djongnang Gabriel, Boydoul F. Ulrich, Djile Bouba, Ambang Zachee
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330161

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this work was to evaluate effect of Mancozeb 80 WP against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the agent responsible of anthracnose of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.). Study Design: The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in Laboratory of Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maroua during six months. Field trial was carried out in Kelo, Chad during three months. Methodology: Isolates were obtained from diseased organs (leaves and fruits) from Kélo in Chad and Maroua in Cameroon. The concentrations used in the laboratory were C1 (5 mg/ml), C2 (0.5 mg/ml), C3 (0.05 mg/ml), C4 (0.005 mg/ml), C5 (0.0 mg/ml). Radial growth, sporulation, conidial germination and pathogenicity were used to characterize and evaluate the effect of Mancozeb on the isolates in vitro. The preventive test was performed on three-month-old plants previously treated with Mancozeb. The concentration of 5 g/l was applied to the field and the incidence and severity were used to calculate the AUIPC (Area Under Disease Incidence Progress Curve) and AUSiPC (Area Under Disease Severity Index Progress Curve) curves. Results: Mancozeb reduced radial growth of all isolates at concentrations C1 (5 mg/ml), C2 (0.5 mg/ml) and C3 (0.05 mg/ml). The percentages of inhibition ranged from 50 to 100%. Mancozeb 80 WP completely (100%) inhibited the germination of C. gloeosporioides conidia in vitro. Mancozeb has protected cashew plants in vivo at the concentration C1 (5 mg/ml). AUIPC and AUSiPC were higher on control plants and lower on Mancozeb-treated plants. Conclusion: Mancozeb 80 WP may be associated in integrated pest management strategy against anthracnose.
, Nega Berhane
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 58-70; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i230160

Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious chronic human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. M. tuberculosis has a great capability of resistance with plentiful natural and acquired mechanisms in their genome that contribute to the spread of highly drug resistance strains and became major public health concern. The majority of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis strains has been resulted from a numbers of chromosomal mutation events most of which are due to the mechanisms of epistasis that leads to the creation of resistance genes to anti-TB drugs. Epistasis can occur when two or more mutations interact with each other to express new phenotypic traits to modify their fitness cost. Thus, the objective of this review was to assessed the molecular mechanisms of epistasis and its consequences in the evolution and managements of antibiotic resistance-TB. The epistatic interactions within and between resistance gene mutations in M. tuberculosis could be detected by co-culture competitive fitness experimental assay under optimal growth conditions that showed either significantly negative or improving deleterious positive fitness effect. Molecular mechanisms of epistatic interaction could have important practical consequences in the trajectory of drug resistance, evolution of antimicrobial resistance and management of antibiotic resistance-TB. Understanding the evolution of M. tuberculosis under antibiotic treatments is a burning issue today. Unlike the deleterious positive epistasis, the beneficial negative epistatic interaction of resistance gene mutations under multidrug therapy method and/or collateral drug sensitivity approaches based on the knowledge of drug combinations help to mitigate the spread of drug-resistant strains, reduce treatment duration, minimize adverse drug effects on evolution of MDR/XDR-TB and improve treatment outcomes of TB patients.
, M. E. Amesi
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i230159

Abstract:
This study was conducted to assess the outdoor air quality of some urban slums in Port Harcourt. Six sampling sites were selected, from the Port Harcourt urban slums; two sites from each slum represented with a suffix 1 or 2. The slums are designated Marine base (#1 and #2), RSU BG, Obudu 2, Bundu (#1 and #2). The air quality was analyzed using portable handheld air quality analyzer and the microbiological parameters were determined by standard cultural method. The study revealed that the sampled sites were laden with bacterial and fungal species. namely; Klebsiella sp., Micrococcus sp., Escherichia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Baccilus sp., Aeromonas sp., Streptococus sp., Serratia sp., Aerococcus sp., Proteus sp. Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., Candida sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus sp. and Tricorderma sp. Highest obtained noise level was at Marine base 1 which was 66 db, highest relative humidity of 54.8% at RSU BG, CO2 (ppm) values of 4.8, 80, 796, 850, 638, 698 for Marine base 2, Marine base 1, Obudu 2, RSU BG, Bundu 1 and Bundu 2 respectively. The values for NO2 (ppm) was (0.05, 0.053, 0.071, 0.022, 0.035, 0.023), suspended particulate matter (ppm) was (7.1, 8.7, 9.5, 9.5, 6.2, 6.2), SO2 (ppm) was (0.42, 0.15, 0.50, 0.34, 1.26, 0.41) CO (ppm) was (4.8, 1.7, 2.2, 3.0, 3.9, 3.6) and volatile organic compound (ppm) was (1.0, 1.1, 0.9, 75 and 1.2). This study has shown that Port Harcourt urban slums are experiencing some degree of contamination not acceptable for healthy living that requires attention to curb. These areas require all-round improvement in sanitation. M Give one sentence on methodology.
, Adeyemi. O. Binuyo, Muhammad Akram, Gamberini Maria Cristina
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 40-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i330164

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) is a very infectious symptomatic and asymptomatic infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SAR-COV-2). COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which spreads between people, mainly when an infected person is in close contact with another uninfected person. In this research work, a mathematical model for the novel COVID 19 viral infectious disease which is ravaging the world today including Nigeria was considered.. The mathematical model consists of four different compartments namely, susceptible, infected, vaccine and recovered under convex incident rate. The formulation of the mathematical model and some qualitative aspects for the model including the basic reproductive number of the model, existence of equilibria and its stability results by using various tools of nonlinear analysis were done. On the basis of simulations using Matlab Software package. Dynamical behaviour were observed in the mathematical model due to the vaccine of susceptible and infected individuals or one of those two classes of individuals. The x – rays features of this paper is to formulate and analyse a mathematical model that extends and complements the ones in the literature by incorporating the vaccination class denoted by V(t). Mathematical models are widely used to examine, explain, and state the relevance of the use of vaccines to prevent the spread of the dynamics of infectious diseases (COVID 19) transmission among the Nigerian populace.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 17-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i230157

Abstract:
COVID-19 is perceived as a major threat to public health and a danger to the economy globally, affecting people’s lives by influencing their everyday behaviour and causing feelings of panic anxiety, depression, and often triggering intense fear. The study was aimed at determining the perception, practice and coping strategies of adolescents in Rivers state, Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescent via an online Google doc questionnaire administered through WhatsApp instant messaging and about 200 responses were received within two month. About (45%) were middle adolescent (14-16 years), 52% were females, 74% in secondary school and 64% from monogamous family. Majority (66%) believed in the existence COVID-19, 36% of the adolescents perceived it was a deadly disease, 17% said it was a pandemic, 18% reported is a deadly virus that kills people fast and 6% said is a disease that ruined the whole world. About 54% were worried and perceived they might be infected with coronavirus. Majority (94%) practiced one or more forms of COVID-19 preventive practices. Following the coping strategies, majority of the adolescents used more of emotion-focused way of coping than problem-focused way of coping. The male gender used more of problem focused way of coping than the female gender. Findings of this research are useful to better understand the coping strategies utilized by adolescents and help formulate intervention strategies to tackle various psychosocial problems during COVID-19 among adolescents.
, Hamzah Abdul Majid Serag
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 28-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i230158

Abstract:
This paper is a preliminary step towards the assessment of an alarming widespread belief that victims of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 include the quality and accuracy of scientific publications about it. Our initial results suggest that this belief cannot be readily ignored, denied, dismissed or refuted, since some genuine supporting evidence can be forwarded for it. This evidence includes an obvious increase in retractions of papers published about the COVID-19 pandemic plus an extra-ordinary phenomenon of inconsistency that we report herein. In fact, we provide a novel method for validating any purported set of the four most prominent indicators of diagnostic testing (Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, and Negative Predictive Value), by observing that these indicators constitute three rather than four independent quantities. This observation has virtually been unheard of in the open medical literature, and hence researchers have not taken it into consideration. We define two functions, which serve as consistency criteria, since each of them checks consistency for any set of four numerical values (naturally belonging to the interval [0.0,1.0]) claimed to be the four basic diagnostic indicators. Most of the data we came across in various international journals met our criteria for consistency, but in a few cases, there were obvious unexplained blunders. We explored the same consistency problem for some diagnostic data published in 2020 concerning the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and observed that the afore-mentioned unexplained blunders tended to be on the rise. A systematic extensive statistical assessment of this presumed tendency is warranted.
Aristote Matondo, Jason T. Kilembe, Etienne M. Ngoyi, Carlos N. Kabengele, Giresse N. Kasiama, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Clement M. Mbadiko, Clement L. Inkoto, Gedeon N. Bongo, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i230156

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aims at identifying potential inhibitors from a set of ten compounds from Ocimum basilicum against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, the chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro). Materials and Methods: Computational studies by molecular docking (Autodock tool) were used to obtain the scoring function of ten phytochemicals in interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the high-docking score compounds was addressed by using SwissADME and pkCSM webservers. Results: Three high-docking score ligands were identified as hit compounds mainly the oleanolic acid (-8.55 kcal/mol), the ursolic acid (-8.21 kcal/mol) and apigenin (-7.52 kcal/mol). Their pharmacokinetic profile revealed that they have good therapeutic profile of druggability and safe. The biological activities of the three compounds especially their anti-inflammatory properties in relation with the excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines in the most severe form of the COVID-19 were also highlighted. Conclusion: COVID-19 outbreak is a serious public health threat that requires immediate action. In order to combat this pandemic, several strategies are used and the identification of potential inhibitors of the main protease of the virus is one of the widely used strategies. Here, three potential inhibitors from Ocimum basilicum plant (leaves) were pinpointed. Further in-vitro and in-vivo studies are needed that will clarify the role of Ocimum basilicum for the management of COVID-19 disease.
, Falilat Azeez
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i130154

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 [1] is an emerging public health problem threatening the life of millions of people. Farmers and cultivators in countries like Nigeria are rapidly starting to bear the impact of the pandemic. The study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perception and practices to COVID-19 among female farmers. A descriptive cross sectional design was used for this study, employing multistage sampling technique to recruit respondents. About (39%) of the respondents fell between 30-39 years with the median age of 35 years; majorities (56.9%) had attended secondary education and (49.2%) were married. More than half (56.4%) were into subsistence farming and they planted mostly tubers and vegetables. About (32.3%) of them did not believe in the existence of COVID-19. To (43.6%) of the farmersCOVID-19 was perceived as a virus, (32.3%) as a deadly disease, (12.8%) as political means of making money and (4.6%) as a high fever just like malaria and typhoid. Around (34.4%) reported the symptoms of COVID 19 as dry cough, (23.6%) as fever, (9%) as sneezing and (7.3%) as difficulty in breathing. Also, about (17.9%) reported that COVID 19 spreads through handshaking, (16.9%) through droplets (sneezing and coughing), (3.1%) through airborne and (20%) don’t know how COVID 19 spreads. With regards to practice, (25.6%) wash their hands 4 to 6 times per day and 5(2.6%) rarely washed their hands, about (28.2%) always wore their facemask and (36.4%) always used alcohol based sanitizer. There was a statistical association between age, level of education and the perception of female farmers to COVID-19 (P < 0.005).Also, an association was found between perception of COVID-19 and practices (P < 0.005). The study revealed poor perception and knowledge to COVID-19, which affects their adherence to public health hygiene. Since majority (73.3%) of the female farmers sourced information from radios/televisions, more awareness should be made in these platforms especially using their local dialect.
, Moses Enemadukwu Abalaka, Innocent Apameio Jesse, Daniel Edisha Garba, Abimbola Emmanuel
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i130153

Abstract:
Milk is a non-transparent, yellowish-white substance secreted by the mammary glands of all mammals. It contains proteins, minerals, carbohydrates, fat, and vitamins that meet the dietary requirements of the body than any food in a single diet. As a result of their highly nutritious nature, milk supports the rapid growth of many microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk sold by different vendors in Minna central market, Niger state, Nigeria by pour plate method. The highest bacterial count was 7.5 107 CFU/mL and the lowest bacterial count was 2.5 107 CFU/mL. Bacteria isolated from five different cow's milk samples were identified through their cultural and biochemical properties to be Bacillus badius, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. The frequency occurrence of the bacterial isolates were Bacillus spp. (61.9%), Staphylococcus spp. (19.0%), E. coli (14.3%)and Salmonella spp. (5%). The presence of these bacterial isolates and the colony forming unity count observed in these samples indicated poor hygiene and sanitation during milking and post milking processes. Therefore, efforts should be intensified to pasteurize the milk before consumption in order to guarantee the safety of the consumers.
, D. N. Ogbonna, N. N. Odu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 15-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v6i130152

Abstract:
Fishes are highly perishable, and prone to vast variations in quality due to differences in species, feeding habits as well as the environmental and preservation factors. This study Compared the bacteriological quality of Frozen and Salt Water Tilapia Fishes (Oreochromos niloticus and Oreochromos aureus) sold in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Total number of sixty (60) samples were evaluated. Frozen tilapia (36) and salt water tilapia fishes (24) were obtained from the three sampling markets using sterile bags which were properly labelled. The samples were transported to the Laboratory for analyses within 2 hours of collection in a thermos box containing ice pack and standard microbiological procedures were employed in the bacteriological evaluations. Different parts of the fishes such as Intestine, gills and flesh of the samples were dissected and used for bacteriological analysis. Statistical analyses were carried out using ANOVA and All pairs tukey- kramer. Results obtained from the study showed that the highest number of total heterotrophic bacteria count was obtained from frozen fish gills which was 7.7 x 106±0.98 cfu/g while the least count of 4.7 x 106±0.67 cfu/g was from salt water tilapia fish flesh. Total coliform count ranged from 3.3 x104±0.91 cfu/g to 8.0 x104±0.44a cfu/g for salt water flesh and frozen fish intestine from different markets respectively. Listeria species count ranged from 1.3 x104± 0.30 cfu/g to 4.3 x104±0.57 cfu/g for salt water fish intestine and frozen fish flesh respectively. Total Salmonella count ranged from 1.0 x103±0 cfu/g to 6.2x103±1.30cfu/g for frozen fish flesh and salt water fish intestine. These values were above the WHO permissible limit. Mean values for all the microbial counts were significantly different at (P<0.05) in the two samples across the sampled markets comparatively, frozen fish has more bacteriological load than salt water fish, this may be attributed to the handling, hygiene storage of the respective fishes as well as storage conditions. Listeria species were identified as L. monocytogenes, L. graji, L. seeligeri, L. ivanovii, and L. welshmeri by genomic studies. While three species of Salmonella such as S. arizonae, S. gallinarum, S. typhi were isolated. Other bacterial isolates were identified as Vibrio spp, Bacillus spp Staphylococcus spp Shigella spp Pseudomonas spp. Enterobacter spp. E. coli, Micrococcus spp. Acinetobacter spp. Klebsiella spp. This study revealed that fish sold at different markets in Port Harcourt especially frozen fish, is highly contaminated with different kinds of bacterial pathogens which may constitute potential public health hazard due to the unhygienic nature of fish vendors which predisposes frozen fishes to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore proper blanching and heating methods should be employed during preparations of fishes to avoid cross contamination and food intoxication/ poisoning before consumption. It is important that all hazard analysis critical control point be adhered to for good production processes.
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