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Results in Journal International Journal of Pathogen Research: 205

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Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Ijeoma Onyinye Okolo, Henrietta Onyinye Uzoeto, Justina Nnenna Ngwu, Ismaila Danjuma Mohammed, Ezinwanne Blessing Chukwu, Agabus Chidiebube Nwuzo, Benneth Mark Okike, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2207

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Antibiotic-resistance among microbiota found within the oral cavity is a growing concern due to extensive use of antibiotics in dental practice both for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons, but has so far received little attention in recent time. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of non-oral bacteria isolates from patients attending dental clinic at Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Medical Center Enugu (FEDCODTTEN) Methodology: A total of two hundred (200) oral swab samples were collected from patients with dental disease, placed in sterilized Brain Heart Infusion broth and immediately transported to the Microbiology Laboratory Unit of Federal College of Dental Technology and Therapy Enugu, for bacteriological analysis using standard microbiological methods for isolation and characterization. Antibiogram studies of non-oral bacteria was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was determined for Multidrug Resistant (MDR) non-oral bacteria. Results: Phenotypic characterization of non-oral bacteria revealed an occurrence rate of S. aureus 35(17.5%) followed by E. coli 18(9.0%), Salmonella typhi 16(8.0 %) and K. oxytoca 4(2.0%) as the least predominant bacteria species. Among the oral site, lower right quadrant showed increase isolation rate of 30(15.0%) bacteria followed by lower left quadrant 23(11.5%) while upper right quadrant accounted 15(7.5 %) with the least isolation rate. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of non-oral bacteria in right quadrant and left quadrant samples from dental disease patients (P < 0.05). Non-oral bacteria isolate exhibited 57.1-100% resistant to Ertapenem, colisitn, amoxillicin, azetronam, colistin, ampicillin and clindamycin with Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index (MARI) ranged from 0.4-0.7, indicating high level of multi-drug resistance but were susceptible to ciprofloxacin 77.8%, gentamicin 100% and imipenem 100%. Conclusion: The high antibiotic resistant and increase multi-drug resistance outcome reported among non-oral bacteria in this study calls for strengthened efforts in antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control measures in dental practices with the need to implement regular awareness programs at time interval to control and manage multi-drug resistance bacteria through judicious use of antibiotic to re-establish dominance over multi-drug resistance non-oral bacteria implicated in dental diseases.
, Greg Ndubuisi Arji, Chukwudi Uche Ngwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i2206

Abstract:
Background: Sickle cell anemia patients are a cohort of at-risk individuals for Hepatitis B virus infection due to their life-long dependency on transfusion therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations stipulates testing and vaccination for at-risk individuals. Objective: The objectives of the present study are to assess the level of knowledge of sickle cell disease patients to HBV infection, identify their HBV vaccination status and to assess the barrier that prevents patients from being tested and vaccinated for HBV infection. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The subjects comprised of 120 sickle cell disease patients who were recruited through consecutive sampling using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires and data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for Microsoft Window Version 23. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 24 +6 years. About 57.5% of the respondents are aware of Hepatitis B virus infection but only 15% had good knowledge of the disease. About 80.8% of the respondents have not been tested for Hepatitis B infection while 70% has not been vaccinated. The cost of testing for HBV infection and vaccination was identified as a major factor that prevented many of the patients from identifying their HBV status as well as getting vaccinated as about 80% of the respondents have not been tested due to high cost of testing while 84.2% have not been vaccinated due to high cost of the vaccine. Conclusion: There should be universal health education to sickle cell anemia patients on the need for Hepatitis B virus infection test and vaccination as well as a health insurance scheme that will cover the cost of Hepatitis B virus testing and vaccination for patients.
Ajanaobionye Theophilus I., Eze Emmanuel A., , Anyaegbunam Zikora K. G.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1204

Abstract:
Background: Disinfectants and conventional antibiotics are used daily in Nigeria’s households and hospitals, in various approaches and at exceptional concentrations with inside to combat infectious diseases. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance globally has made most chemotherapeutic agents less efficient to target pathogens. Aim: This research was done to determine the efficacy of some disinfectants and conventional antibiotics used against ESKAPE pathogens. Methodology: The in vitro efficacy of the disinfectants and antibiotics were compared using the disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Results: Inhibition zone diameters were observed in all of the disinfectants and conventional antibiotics at concentration-dependent for the tested pathogenic isolates. Chloroxylenol was effective at higher concentrations and showed a progressive decrease in zones of inhibition as the concentration decreases. Ethanol was effective at 70% and 35% concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus. Hypochlorite was effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli at a 100% - 25% concentration and effective against Staphylococcus aureus at 100% and 50% concentrations. Therefore, the efficacy of disinfectants and antibiotics arise to be crucial however concentration-dependent. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study may be used as an alternative for medical applications. However, inappropriate disinfectant and conventional antibiotic use resulted in emergence of resistant microorganisms; hence these therapeutic agents should be used properly at a sufficient concentration to prevent diseases caused by these pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, the need to compare the efficacy of these disinfectants and conventional antibiotics against ESKAPE pathogens in vivo is very important.
Okoyomoh Kingsley, Elendu Melford Uche, Obioha Kennedy Chinonye, Chris Akunne Wariso
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 19-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i1203

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to evaluate the lipid profile of Plasmodium berghei infected rats treated with aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis. Twenty five (25) adult male wistar rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats per group. Group I was the normal control fed only rat chow and water, Group II was infected with the parasite without treatment. Groups III and IV were infected with Plasmodium berghei and afterwards treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis respectively, while Group V was infected and treated with a standard drug (chloroquine). Treatment lasted for 7 days after which animals were sacrificed and blood sample collected. Evaluation of lipid profile was performed by standard procedures. Plasmodium berghei infection significantly (P<0.05) increased Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglyceride (TG) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) but significantly (P<0.05) decreased High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) an observation which was reversed following treatment with the aqueous extract of Cassia spectabilis in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, extract of the said plant wields the potential to recover a stable lipid profile in Plasmodium berghei infected rats.
, Pamela Aoun, Wissam Sharrouf
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130262

Abstract:
Introduction: In order to keep their dentures clean and properly stored, patients generally soak them in water at night. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast fungus that colonizes dentures, and in some conditions, it becomes an opportunistic pathogen and causes fungal infections known as candidiasis. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of distilled water on Candida albicans colonizing dentures. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women; age range 40-75 years) with complete maxillary dentures infected by Candida albicans were included in this study. The dentures of these patients were soaked in distilled water for 4 days (8 hours at night). Swab samples from the dentures were collected before and after distilled water use and examined mycologically. Results: The Candida albicans colony counts increased after soaking the dentures in distilled water for 8 hours for 4 days. Conclusion: Patients should be dissuaded from soaking their dentures overnight in distilled water as the result is a significant increase in fungal colonization.
Hafiz G. A., Hamad H. A., Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdalrazig Bilal, , Selma K., Maha Kh, Ali Abdelgani Elgadal
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130261

Abstract:
Aims: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan- and to evaluate the sensitivity of RBPT, mRBPT, and milk ring test for serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Study Design: Collect serum and milk samples and apply the recommended tests for diagnosis. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Al Gadarif state regional laboratory and Central Veterinary Research Laboratory (CVRL) in 2015. Methodology: A total of 367 serum samples were collected from 12 localities which include: Al Fao, Fashaga, Baldiat Al Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, West Gadarif, Basonda, Al Gorisha, Al rhad,Mafaza , Butana, East Galapat and Gla nahl. Also, 100 bulk milk samples have been collected from Baldiat Al Gadarif, West Gadarif, Wasat Gadarif, and Fashaga and subjected to the milk ring test. All collected sera samples were tested for Brucella antibodies using the following serological tests: Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), modified Rose Bengal Plate test (mRBT 1:2 and 1:3) and, c.ELISA test, the last test was done for 143 serum samples only. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 35.7%, 38.4%, 42.2% and 8.4% using RBPT, mRBPT (1:2), mRBPT (1:3) and c.ELISA tests respectively. According to this study the lowest seroprevalence was observed in Al Fao locality (11.1%), and the highest seroprevalence was in Al Gorisha Locality (71.4%).There was similarity in seroprevalence rate results using RBPT (1:2) and RBPT (1:3) in Al rahd (43.6%), Al Gorisha (85.7%) and Mafaza (50%) localities. Seroprevalence rate showed 10.9% and 9.1% in males and females respectively. There was no association between sex-as risk factor- and cattle brucellosis. Using the milk ring test the overall prevalence of positive milk samples was 39% (39/100). The highest prevalence was in Fashaga (60%), followed by Wasat Gadarif (46.7%). Baldiat Al Gadarif showed the lowest prevalence (22.9%). Conclusion: The serological investigation proved the occurrence of bovine brucellosis in Al Gadarif state -Eastern Sudan - using the recommended tests.
Pauline U. Umeanaeto, Chukwujindu Odagwe, Ifenna C. Onwuagana, , Ginika L. Onwuachusi, Justina C. Akulue, Stella C. Afulukwe
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v11i130260

Abstract:
Women has been reported to be more susceptible to malaria parasites infection during pregnancy. The disease causes severe anemia in pregnancy sometimes resulting to maternal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world including Nigeria. A study to determine malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women attending General hospital Enugwu-Ukwu, Anambra State, Nigeria, was conducted between July and December, 2019. The specific objectives were to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and anemia among the pregnant women as well and the relationship between malaria and anemia. Two milliliters of venous blood were collected from 408 pregnant women during antenatal visits. Thick and thin blood films were made, stained with 10% Giemsa stain and examined under the microscope for malaria parasites. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was estimated using cyanmethemoglobin method. Hemoglobin concentration below 11.0g/dl was regarded as anemia in pregnancy. Of 408 blood samples collected, 112(27.5%) were positive for malaria parasites. The age group 15–20 years had the highest prevalence 8(40%) while the age group 36–40 years had the least 24(23.1%). The primigravidae had the highest malaria prevalence 72(36%), while the multigravidae had the least 40(19.2%). The pregnant women in first trimester had the highest malaria prevalence 48(50%), while those in third trimester had the least 24(16.7%). Malaria parasitaemia in relation to trimester was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 248(60.7%) pregnant women had a Hb value less than 11g/dl. The multigravidae had the highest Hb 128(61.5%), while the primigravidae had the least 120(60%). Health education and proper administration of Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPT) during pregnancy is recommended for malaria prevention and control in pregnancy.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430259

Abstract:
Objective: Present studies were carried out to examine the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) from laboratory and field populations of Lahore city against four major groups of commonly used insecticides; Imidacloprid 5% SC, phenyl-pyrazoles* (fipronil 2.5% EC), pyrethroids (Deltamethrin 2.5% SC) and organophosphates (DDVP 50% EC) world health organization standard procedures were observed. Methods: For laboratory strain, adults and larvae were collected from the Insectary of the National Institute of Malaria Research and Training (NIMRT), Lahore, Pakistan. Insecticides of four major groups. Larval bioassays were conducted according to the World Health Organization procedure with minor modifications. Larval mortality was finalized after 48 hours for Deltamethrine, Imidacloprid, DDVP, and 72 hours for Fipronil. Results: Larval and adult toxicity results were different for wild and laboratory strains exposed to different groups of insecticides. Regression analysis showed non-significant trends in mortality. Imidacloprid proved to be the most toxic to wild larval strains of Ae.aegypti collected from different localities of Lahore while Fipronil was also active for wild larval samples. Conclusion: Deltamethrin showed the least activity against both adults and larval strains. The susceptibility of the field strains was lower than laboratory strains; the ratio varies from insecticide to insecticide.
N. V. Elosiuba, K. F. Obiagwu, P. U. Umeanaeto, , G. L. Onwuachusi, I. E. Obiefule, C. O. Aniefuna, C. B. Chukwubude, C. I. Nzeukwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430258

Abstract:
Trichomonas vaginalis is transmitted sexually in humans affecting both male and female genital tracts. A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection among women attending Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH) Awka, Anambra State was conducted between November 2021 and January 2022. A total of 200 apparently healthy women between the ages of 19 – 42 years volunteered and participated in the study. The study participants included pregnant and non-pregnant women, married, singles and widows from various occupations. Their urine samples were collected, centrifuged and examined under the microscope within 2 hours of collection. Diagnosis was made by detection of T. vaginalis in the wet preparation of urine deposits. An overall prevalence of 3.0% was observed among the study participants. Prevalence of T. vaginalis was highest (5.9%) among the age group 25-30 years and no infection was observed among the age group 37-42 years. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the age groups (P>0.05). Highest prevalence of 3.2% was observed among pregnant women while the least (2.7%) was observed in non-pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between pregnant and non-pregnant groups (P>0.05). The highest prevalence (7.5%) was observed among the students while no infection was observed among the civil servants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of infection among the occupational groups (P>0.05). Married women recorded the highest prevalence (3.3%) and no infection was observed among the widows. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection in different marital status (P>0.05). Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnant women. Routine screening for this infection during pregnancy is recommended in order to reduce potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.
, Felix Akinsola Akinyosoye
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430257

Abstract:
Aims: TheoCcurrence and antibiotic resistance patterns of enteric bacteria isolated from well water sources and their physicochemical profile was ascertained in this study. Molecular analysis of the bacterial isolates from well water samples was conducted via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification. Study Design: Experimental design. Methodology: A total of 12 wells were collected in triplicates from groundwater sources (wells), and mean values were obtained. The first batch of samples were collected during the dry season in January and February, 2020. The second batch of samples were collected during the rainy season in July 2020. The detection of coliforms and other enteric bacteria were conducted via the most probable number (MPN) method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification and characterization of bacterial isolates were employed. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. The determination of the physicochemical properties of the well water samples were conducted following customary protocol. Results: Well water sample 7 had the highest count at 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 200 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, while well water sample 4, 10, and 11 had 14 bacterial counts/100ml in dry season, well water sample 2 had 140 bacterial counts/100ml in the dry season and 250 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season, whilst sample 11 had 7 bacterial counts/100ml in the rainy season. Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysentariae were the Gram-negative organisms enumerated and molecularly-identified as Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. Pnuemoniae HS11286, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar typhimurium and Shigella dysentariae HNCMB 20080 from the well water samples with percentage identity of 97.19%, 87.44%, 80.45% and 96.19% respectively. Klebsiella pnuemoniae showed high resistant rate in augmentin at 67% in dry season and 100% in the rainy season. Shigella dysentariae showed 8.3% resistance to augmentin in the dry season and 75% in the rainy season. E. coli showed 67% and 58% resistance in the dry and rainy season respectively. Water hardness had the highest mean of 98.5 and 99.5 mg/L in dry and rainy season respectively while turbidity, and alkalinity had the least mean value at 1.2 (NTU) and 0.62 mg/L, 1.4 (NTU) and 0.7mg/L in both dry and rainy seasons. Conclusion: Findings provided information on the poor quality of the well water, which will be useful in groundwater treatment strategies and policy formulation by appropriate groundwater source protection bodies.
N. E. Ewa-Udu, F. C. Nwanebu, H. O. Stanley, I. W. Okereke
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430255

Abstract:
The crude extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis were investigated with the aim of determining the antibacterial activity, qualitative and quantitative properties, the best solvent used for extraction, the most active ingredients and the organism that is most susceptible to them. Ethanol, petroleum ether and water (warm) were used as solvents. Agar well diffusion method was used for the susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the extracts, with streptomycin as positive control and sterile water as negative control. Ethanol extracts of the plant showed most activities, whereas petroleum ether and water (warm) extracts had no activity on the test organisms. The ethanol extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with inhibition zone of 6.0±0.04 mm, 5.5±0.70 mm and 7.5±0.70 mm respectively. This study reveals that the ethanol extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis have antimicrobial effect on three test pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Kiteme M. Purity, Onyango O. Benson, Njagi C. Eric, Ogolla O. Fredrick
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i430254

Abstract:
Health care is a basic need to humans which can only be achieved with medicines with high efficacy against disease causing pathogens. Globally, gastrointestinal infections are major health concern particularly to travelers since over 60% visiting tropical and subtropical regions develop diarrhea. Herbal plants have been used for decades to treat gastrointestinal infections globally including Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya. However, there is little information on the demography of herbalist and the plants used in treatment of gastrointestinal infections such as typhoid, cholera and shigellosis. A cross sectional survey was carried out involving thirty herbalists to assess their demographic data and to establish herbs commonly used to treat typhoid, cholera and shigellosis in Tharaka-Nithi County. Data collected was subjected to Chi square test of association and descriptive statistics and presented in percentages. There were more male herbalists (65.52%) in the study than female herbalist (34.48%). Most of the herbalist (65.52%) were aged above 70 years. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between herbalists’ level of education and age (X2 (6, N = 30) = 17.349, p = 0.008). Most herbalists were found to have below primary education level 58.62%. Aloe vera, Aspilia pluriseta, Ficus sycomorus and Physalis peruviana were identified as commonly used plants for treatment of cholera with Aspilia pluriseta being most preferred (27%) by herbalist above the age of 70 years. Vangueria infausta, Eucalyptus globulus, Carissa edulis and Erythrina abysinnica were commonly used for treatment of shigellosis with Eucalyptus globulus being most preferred (58.6%) by herbalist above the age of 70 years. Erythrina abysinnica, Carissa edulis, Vangueria infausta and Eucalyptus globulus were commonly used for treatment of typhoid while 50.0% of herbalist above the age of 70 preferred Erythrina abysinnica. Most of the herbalists had below primary education level. In conclusion, herbal medicine is mostly dispensed by older people in Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya. Different herbal plants are used in the treatment of cholera, shigellosis and typhoid.
Augusta Nkiruka Onugha, , Mercy Ngozi Madubuike, Okechukwu Charles Josephat
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330252

Abstract:
Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by distinct species of a single-celled parasite called Plasmodium sp. However, an infected adult female Anopheles sp. mosquito that feeds on blood is responsible for the transmission of malaria. In the year 2020, approximately 241 million malaria cases and 627 thousand malaria deaths were recorded globally. In most tropical and subtropical regions of the world, malaria is one of the leading causes of death. Its transmission cuts across 86 countries with African continent recording approximately 95% deaths in 2020. Africa is mostly affected due to its weather conditions that support the easy spread of Plasmodium falciparum. Over time, relevant interventions have been made by researchers in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of malaria. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to its treatment and management globally. This review article is focused on the therapeutic intervention on malaria globally. Thus, published primary literatures reporting several relevant and new therapeutic interventions in malaria, as globally attained in the past years were collated and vital information critically reviewed. It is important to note that, the risk of contracting malaria is dependent on the region visited, length of stay, immunity, exposure and compliance with prophylaxis. Hence, to select treatment best suitable as a first-line therapy, combination antimalarial therapy, which consists of two or more antimalarial agents with different mechanisms of action was introduced and has been widely accepted and endorsed to prevent the development of drug resistance. Yet, immunization still remains the best measure for the eradication of malaria.
Abdelhakam H. Ali, Abdulwahab A. Fadil M., Susan Ali Zroog, Babbiker Mohammed Taher Gorish
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 23-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330251

Abstract:
Background: Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and non-developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae—can cause several eye infections. This study was aimed to isolate contaminating bacteria from eye lenses solution. Methods: The samples were collected from solution bottles of eye lenses with the help of sterile cotton tipped swabs that were pre- moistened with sterile normal saline, then sample directly cultured on solid media. All samples were inoculated on to blood agar, MacConkey’s agar were incubated at 37oC for 24-48 h, Cultures were considered negative if no growth was detected within 48 hours of incubation. Bacterial culture obtained was identified using Gram’s staining, on the basis of culture diagnosis by growing on media and performing biochemical test. Results: A total of 150 samples from aqueous solution of contact eye lenses were used to isolate bacteria from it. Out of these samples 84 bacteria were isolated from aqueous solution while 66 were without growth. The most frequent isolated bacteria were P.aeurogenosa 39(46%) followed by S. epidermidis 27 (32%) then S. aureus 12 (14%) and E. coli 6(7%) respectively which is significant result (P-Value of 0.005). Conclusion: The study revealed that contact lenses solution under investigation contains different types of bacteria and pseudomonas is more frequent bacteria. Furthermore the contact lenses with multiple use and users which not have difference types of bacteria growth.
, Lurys Bourdett-Stanziola, Doris Quan, Manuel Cuevas-Abrego, Armando A. Durant-Archibold
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 17-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330250

Abstract:
The epidemiology of animal rotaviruses infection and their association with illnesses in humans remains unknown in Central America and the world. In this study, we performed a genotyping of rotavirus strains by RT-PCR for-G (VP7) and P (VP4), in samples of diarrhea in calves and piglets, in Honduras and Panama. Mixed infections and combinations of genotypes G (VP7) and P (VP4) were identified in calves in Honduras: 3 (4%) G2P [6], 2 (2%) G2P [4], in piglets: 4 (5%) G4P [6], and in calves in Panama: 63 (72%) G10 P [2], 12 (13%) G8 P [11], 9 (10%) G6 P [11] and 3 (3%) G10 P [1].This investigation represents the first report of bovine and porcine rotavirus strains in Honduras and Panama.
, Kouakou Désiré N’Goran, Dramane Kone, Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou, Daouda Kone
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330249

Abstract:
The study aimed at controlling the mycelial growth and germination of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Petri dish by using three plant defense stimulators. Approximately, 2 mL of each stimulator (Vacciplant®, Callel® and calliete®) were added to the different M. fijiensis culture media. The results obtained show that Vacciplant® and Callel® promote the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis contrary to calliete® which inhibits it. Indeed, it causes total mortality (100%) of conidia at the sporulation stage.
J. O. K. Abioye, Olokun Alexander Lanzema, Gwaze Rejoice Danladi
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i330248

Abstract:
Listeriosis is an emerging infection with major public health concerns worldwide because of occurrence of associated food-borne outbreak and significant risk of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to isolate Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat samples in selected markets in Nasarawa State, determine the level of contamination, as well as the antibiogram of the isolates. A total of 60 samples of raw meat were collected from different animals, including 4 samples of cow meat, 4 samples of goat meat and 4 samples of chicken meat, from each market. In all, 60 raw meat samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically using the method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2009). Out of the 60 samples analyzed Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 32 samples, giving an overall prevalence of 53.5%. Sixteen out of 20 (80%) of cow meat samples, 10 out of 20 (50%) of goat meat samples, and 6 out of 20 (30%) of chicken meat samples were infected with Listeria monocytogenes. All the isolates were further subjected to biochemical analysis for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in over 50% of the raw meat samples analyzed. The 53.5% prevalence was considered high and indicated the hazard linked to the consumption of the raw meats sold in Nasarawa State if not properly cooked. The susceptibility tests were also conducted using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics such as Septrin, Ampiclox, Erythromycin, Zithromycin, Amoxillin, and Pefloxacin. However, some of the isolates were relatively sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Sreptomycin, Gentamycin, and Rifampicin. The results signal a chemotherapeutic problem in case of any outbreak of the infection.
Ijeoma F. Ndu, Easter G. Nwokah, Amba O. Ollor, Confidence K. Wachukwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 44-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230247

Abstract:
Aim: To assess the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) resistant genes in Salmonella spp isolated from ready-to-eat foods and food handlers in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in selected places in Port Harcourt, between November 2019 and June 2021. Methodology: A total of 350 food specimens and 230 food handlers were collected and the social demographic information were collected using a questionnaire survey. The samples were analysed for contamination with Salmonella species using conventional and molecular methods. Salmonella species were isolated from samples using Salmonella-Shigella agar (SSA), Xylose-lysine desoxycholate agar (XLD), MacConkey agar (MA), Blood agar (BA) after pre-enrichment and enrichment method has been done using peptone water broth and Selenite F. Salmonella Chromogenic medium (SCM) was also used to confirm the isolate. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase genes (CTX-M, SHV, and TEM) in the Salmonella isolates were screened using double disc synergy method and also investigated using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results: Results showed that of the 11 Salmonella species isolated from the food handlers, 7(63.6%) harboured extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes while 18 (64.3%) out of 28 Salmonella isolated from street vended food sample were positive for ESBL genes. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of ESBL producers observed in the street vended food and those in food handlers’ sample (P= 0.964) PCR result revealed the presence of genes encoding for TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Conclusion: Street vended foods such as white rice/stew, jollof rice, rice/beans stew, porridge beans, beans/stew, moi moi, abacha, and roasted plantain in Port Harcourt harbour Salmonella species that possess the following Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) genes as CTX-M, SHV and TEM. This should receive particular attention, as the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes isolated, indicate public health hazard and gives a warning signal for the possible occurrence of food borne diseases and multi-drug resistance.
, I. F. Bamidele
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230244

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the microbial indoor air quality of primary and secondary schools in Obio- Akpor and Emohua Local Government Areas in Rivers State, Nigeria. Three public and three private schools were sampled. Air samples were collected using the gravitational sedimentation method. The samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria and fungi, using Nutrient agar and Potato dextrose agar respectively. The bacterial population in the classroom and toilets ranged from 983-5899 CFU/m3 and 786-2751 CFU/m3 respectively, while the fungal population ranged from 1336-2319 CFU/m3 and 786-2637 CFU/m3. The bacteria isolated were identified as belonging to eight genera: Bacillus, Chromobacter, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Staphylococcus, with Bacillus and Staphylococcus occurring more frequently. The fungal isolates were identified as belonging to eight genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Microsporum, Mucor, Penicillium, with Rhizopus; Aspergillus and Mucor occurring more frequently. Some of the isolates identified in this study are of public health significance capable of causing respiratory disorders, bacteremia, pulmonary allergic diseases and gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, it is recommended that schools should maintain proper sanitary practices, maintain good ventilation systems and have less populated classrooms.
A. L. Utshudi, R. O. Oleko, C. T. Kayembe, D. O. Onautshu, E. M. Kitete, E. M. Lengbye, B. M. Mbala,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230246

Abstract:
Background: The Plant of Jatropha gossypiifolia is known for their many biological activities including anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and other. Aim: To carry out recent informations regarding phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, bioactivities, toxicology, antiviral and medicinal  activities of the plant. Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge. Results: After literature review, we could notice that Jatropha gossypiifolia has antibacterial, and antiviral properties on different types of viruses. Leaves, roots, latex, seeds, fr,uits and other parts have been reported to have different compounds which have interesting bioactivities and medicinal properties. Conclusion: This work can orient or guide scientifics research for the development of anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-Hepatitis B virus, and anti-Covid-19 herbal drugs also nutritional values from Jatropha gossypiifolia for the benefit the of human beings.
, Mubashar Hussain, Mujahid Ali, Syed Ali Zafar, Asad Nadeem Pasha, Hassan Bashir, Naveed Ali Ashraf, Abdullah Javed, Waqar Ali Shah
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230243

Abstract:
This study summarizes the importance of melatonin in different plants and fungi. In this review, we discussed the biosynthetic pathway of melatonin, its metabolites, and its oxidative reduction. Melatonin is a molecule derived from tryptophan, with pleiotropic activity. It is present in nearly every organism. Its synthetic course depends on the organism in which it resides. The tryptophan to the melatonin pathway, for example, varies in plants and animals. It is thought that the synthetic mechanism for melatonin was inherited in eukaryotes from bacteria caused by endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, the synthetic pathways of melatonin in microorganisms are unknown. The metabolism of melatonin is exceptionally complex with these enzymatic processes developed out of cytochrome C. As well as the enzymatic degradation, melatonin is metabolized by interactive pseudoenzymes and free radicals processes.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i230242

Abstract:
Foliar phytoplasma disease of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has a devastating socioeconomic impact on host crop species and a huge problem to farmers and scientists. Therefore, this study investigates the in vitro effect of alum on microorganisms associated with foliar phytoplasma disease (FPD) of Noni. Bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified by culture-dependent technique using standard microbiological procedures and susceptibility of species were evaluated by disc and agar well diffusion techniques and inhibition zones (IZs) were measured in millimeter (mm). The microbes identified were Bacillus subtilis, B. tequilensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia species as well as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus,A. niger and Penicillium species. Relative abundance (%) of bacterial species occurred in the order; S. aureus > B. tequilensis > B. cereus and least being Br. vesicularis whereas fungi were A. fumigatus (75%), A. niger and A. flavus (50%) respectively and Penicillium (25%) species. Susceptibility test efficacy of Alum was concentration dependent with Serratia sp. as (6.0mm) and S. aureus (4.0mm) whilst A. flavus (36.0mm), A. fumigatus (32.5mm), Penicillium (30.2mm) and A. niger (30.0mm) at 5.0% Alum concentrations as the largest IZs respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Alum against all the microflora were < 2.0gm/mL except for S. aureus which portends a good future prospects in agronomy. However, the higher concentrations of Alum compared favourably with Ketoconazole (control) but showed wide disparity with Ofloxacin (control). This study, however, may proffer solutions for the prevention and management of FPD or foliar related diseases by periodic spraying or fumigation with Alum.
, A. O. Saba, G. N. Ani, A. A. Olayeri, T. E. Falebita, Z. O. Diyaolu, F. O. Alonge, U. O. Jibrin-Yekini, K. E. Iyanda, M. A. Azeez
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130241

Abstract:
Aim: The purpose of this research was to examine selected fruits sold within the state of Lagos and to assess their level of contamination by parasites. Methodology: It was carried out in Amuwo Odofin, Alimosho and Ojo Local Government Areas of Lagos State between April 2021 and July 2021. A total of hundred fruits were randomly purchased from three markets in the study areas. Samples collected included Apple (Malus domestica)(n =20), Grapefruit (Citrus maxima)(n =20), Golden melon (Cucumis melo)(n =20), Mango (Mangifera indica)(n =20), and Pear (Pyruscommunis)(n =20). Laboratory analysis was done by using a light microscope to examine sediments gotten from washing the fruits with saline solution. Chi- square test of independence was also calculated to determine the relationship between the fruit type and parasite occurrence. Results: Out of 100 samples collected, 74% were contaminated with 41% having a single contamination while 33% had multiple contamination. The apple was the most contaminated fruit with 85% of the fruit positive while golden melon was the least contaminated as only 60% of the fruit were positive. The parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (71%), Entamoeba histolytica (18%), Enterobiusvermicularis (10%), Giardia lamblia (16%), Hookworm species (44%), Strongyloidesstercoralis (4%), Taenia species(1%) Trichuris trichiuria (11%), and Toxoplasma gondii (3%). A chi-square test of independence could not determine any significant relationship between parasite occurrence and market as well as fruit type and parasite occurrence. Conclusion: The percentage of contaminated fruits in this study is high and this is strong evidence that fruit contributes to the spread of parasites within Lagos State. It is recommended that proper sanitation and hygienic practices should be observed from the cultivation of the fruits on the farm till they are put on display at the market. Fruits bought at markets should also be washed properly before consumption.
, Adedoyin Ayowole Bello, Folarin Moses Thomas, Oluwasegun Victor Omoniyi
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130240

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile and the production of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) by Escherichia coli isolated from cow dung in Owo metropolis. The isolation of Escherichia coli was done using MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and was conventionally characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the isolates were by disc diffusion method against ceftazidime (30 µg), cefuroxime (30 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), cefixime (5 µg), ofloxacin (5 µg), augmentin (30 µg), nitrofurantoin (300 µg) and ciprofloxacin (5 µg). Detection of MBL producing isolates was by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test. The isolates showed highest resistance to augmentin (97.8%) and least resistance to nitrofurantoin (20.0%). Out of the 45 Escherichia coli isolated from cow dung, 8 (17.8%) produced MBL and were all multidrug resistant. The production of MBL and the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance observed among the Escherichia coli in this study infer that cow dung does not only serve as a reservoir for MBL-producers but also as source for the growth and dissemination of clinically significant antibiotic resistant species. Hence, the use of antibiotics as growth enhancers in cow production should be discouraged to help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and thus, preserve the efficacy of available antibiotics.
, Oyewumi Zainab Shefiu, Mekidani Salu Jacob, Ekemezie Success Chiamaka, Amienyo Charity Ada
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130239

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of extracts of some selected plant materials in the control of Powdery Mildew of Okra plant. Study Design: Completely randomized design. Place of Study: This study was carried out in the Biology Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology. Methodology: Three Okra farms showing symptoms of powdery mildew disease were surveyed, disease occurrence was recorded, and disease incidence was calculated. Leaves of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) showing symptoms of powdery mildew were collected from the farms. The disease incidence was recorded and the samples of infected leaves were collected from the farms and taken to the laboratory for microscopic examination. The fungus associated with the disease was isolated and cultured to obtain a pure culture. Pathogenicity test was carried out on a healthy okra plant. Extraction of the two plants were done using methanol and it was then diluted to different concentrations. The antifungal susceptibility test on Golovinomyces cichoracearum was carried out using the agar diffusion method and recorded at various concentrations of 50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, and 6.25 mg/ml under in-vitro conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and antifungal activity were recorded at these concentrations. Results: Results of phytochemical analysis showed that Alkaloids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, Flavanoids, Tannins and Resins were present in both Allium sativum (garlic) and Azadirachta indica (neem). These phytochemicals present are suspected to be responsible for the antifungal activity of the plants. Out of the two plants, neem leaf extract was found to be best in the inhibition of the fungus at 50 mg/ml with a significantly high inhibition of 26.77±0.50 after the treatment. At P<= 0.05 there was a significant difference in the antifungal activity of the extract of A. indica on Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Conclusion: The extracts of both Allium sativum (garlic) and Azadirachta indic (neem) possess antifungal properties, and may have the potential for the production of biopesticides, that can be used for the control of fungi.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130238

Abstract:
Introduction: Environmental health encompasses the assessment and control of the environmental factors that can potentially affect health and is targeted towards preventing diseases and creating health-supportive environment. Although, the environmental health indicators are made up of intermediate and impact indicators; these indicators are most routinely used for monitoring the three most common environmental health problems faced in developing countries, which includes Malaria, ARI (Acute Respiratory Infection) and Diarrhoea. This study shows the interrelationship between environmental health condition and WASH diseases (Cholera, Typhoid fever, and Diarrheal). Materials and Methods: A pre-test on analysis of Environmental Health condition in Obio-Akpo LGA, multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting a total of 50 respondent who were women, questionnaires were used to elicit data from the respondents and the data was analysed using descriptive statistics, prevalence and correlation. Results: The women in the study area indicated their willingness to participate in the survey when compared to the men, with the women having 50(100%) and the men 0(0%) participation. It was common among the respondents that 37(74%) wash their hands with soap and water while others 13(26%) wash their hands at times with soap and water, and at times they just rinse their hands with water. The diseases related to WASH that occurred in the past 12months among the respondents were 6(12%) had Cholera, Diarrhoea occurred in 10(20%) of the respondents, Typhoid malaria occurred in 13(26%) of the respondents, also Skin Infection and COVID-19 were 1(2%) each. While 19(38%) of the respondents had none of the diseases related to WASH in the past 12 months. The type of toilet facilities had a negative relationship to the prevalence of diseases with a 0.01 level of significance. Discussion: There was prevalence of WASH disease among the respondents and it was above average, it is recommended that the government and non-governmental organisations should provide water in homes and public spaces due to the strong correlation between hand washing and prevalence of diseases.
, H. T. Ekiyor, D. N. Girah, G. Eyi, M. F. Ekanem, M. B. Elleh
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v10i130237

Abstract:
Plants are a source of first-line treatment for most humans, particularly in Africa and offer nutrition for most terrestrial ecosystems. The world's attention have been called repeatedly to the therapeutic marvels of plants, one of which is Garcinia kola. This study aims to determine the antisalmonella efficacy of several Garcinia kola leaf and seed extracts. Extracts of leaves, seeds, and seed/leaf were obtained using methanol and ethanol as extraction solvents. Inoculated Salmonella typhi were observed for 24 hours using the well diffusion method to determine zones of inhibition. All extracts were found to be effective against S. typhi. 100/50 mg/ml methanol leave extract produced a 14/12mm zone of inhibition, whereas 100/50 mg/ml methanol seed extract produced a 13/11mm zone of inhibition. 100/50 mg/ml ethanol leave extract showed a 17/10mm inhibition zone, while 100/50 mg/ml ethanol seed extract showed a 16/14mm inhibition zone. The inhibition zone of methanol seed/leaf extract of 100/50 mg/ml was 17/12mm, while the inhibition zone of ethanol seed/leaf extract was 19/14mm. While all concentrations of plant extracts were effective against S. typhi, greater concentrations created larger zones of inhibition and the plant extracts outperformed the control. Seed/leaf extracts outperformed seed extract and leaf extract in most cases. The results showed that ethanol was a better extraction liquid and that the leaf extracts were more potent; however, this is not true in all cases. To stimulate local mitigation of illnesses caused by Salmonella typhi, more research on the antisalmonella effectiveness of Garcinia kola seed and leaf extracts should be done.
Ngozi A. Ujoh, Smart E. Amala, Easter G. Nwokah, Confidence K. Wachukwu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430234

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the prevalent rates of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and non-O157 strains in of isolates from meat, human stool and abattoir waste water, collected from selected sources in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Study Design: Case-controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Selected places in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between November, 2020 to November, 2021. Methodology: Three hundred and forty -nine (349) samples were analyzed, 80 meat and 63 waste waters from five abattoirs cited in the city, 46 meat samples from five selected sites sold by roadside butchers, 109 patient stool samples and 30 stool samples from food sellers, in addition to 20 stool samples from healthy subjects and 1 commercial bottled water which served as control samples. Tryptone soya broth (TSB) as an enrichment media, selective agar media namely; Eosin methylene blue agar, cefixime tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC), Chromagar STEC were used to isolate STEC from the samples and serology done with O157 latex agglutinating kit to confirm E. coli O157:H7 serogroup. Results: The results showed that Isolation rates obtained for E. coli O157:H7 and non O157 respectively were: abattoir meat 11(13.8%);13(16.3%), roadside meat 5(10.9%); 10(21.7%), clinical stool 7(6.4%); 27(24.7%), food sellers’ stool 4(13.3%);6(20%), waste abattoir water 2(3%); 14(22.2%). Food sellers and abattoir effluents were found to be potential sources of STEC dissemination in Port Harcourt. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using chi- square which showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the rate of isolation of E. coli O157: H7 and non- O157 strain from the samples. Conclusion: The detection of E.coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains in raw meat (food), environment and clinical samples in Port Harcourt may give rise to a potential widespread public health hazard if strict adherence to proper hygiene management are not place to regulate food processing in other to reduce contamination and foodborne infections.
Vathsala Palakkod Govindan, P. Krishna Murthy
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430235

Abstract:
Many malaria endemic nations are pursuing malaria elimination and these technical challenges require the development of integrated approaches, among which safe and effective malaria vaccines could be a crucial tool. Due to non-availability of malaria vaccine, the control efforts rely heavily on treatment with new antimalarial agents preferably acting on newer targets. In this study, the protected serum proteomics after garlic and arteether combination treatment of P.berghei infected mice has been analyzed by western blotting. One of the identified host parasites specific proteins, peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA) is known to catalyze the interconversion of the cis and trans and mediate certain protein folding events both in in vitro and in vivo conditions. This study hypothesizes that, overexpressed PPIA might lead to misfold of the parasite protein which are needed for parasite multiplication and in turn lead to the parasite death or in the protection of combination drug treated samples.
Alaa Abd Alazeem Alabbadi, Moshrega Mahgoub Ahmed, Mazin Babekir Musa Bashir, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Babbiker Mohammed Taher Gorish
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430233

Abstract:
Background: Bacterial resistance is a more serious threat, and herbal medicines have been used as an alternative solution to this problem. Honey has been used to treat bacterial infections for decades. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Laboratory Medicine, Shendi, Sudan between October 2021 and November 2021. In this study, 50 different clinical samples were collected from different microbiology laboratories in Shendi City, and different Gram-positive cocci bacteria were isolated and identified by Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to the bee honey was determined using agar well diffusion technique. Results: Out of a total of 50 clinical specimens cultured the most frequent isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (46%), Streptococcus epidermidis (36%), Streptococcus viridian's (10%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4%), while the least isolated bacteria was Enterococcus fecalis (4%). On the other hand, 100% (v/v) honey was more effective than the tested antibiotics, inhibiting 74% of clinical isolates, while 38% of microorganisms were inhibited by only 50% (v/v) honey and 14% of organisms inhibited by 25% (v/v) Honey. Bee honey showed a clear effect on the isolated bacteria. Conclusion: Based on these results, we can conclude that honey has broad activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, honey can be considered as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent. The medicinal use of Sudanese honey and the assumption that the possibility of local production of bioactive honey requires additional investigation.
, Nanret Joshua Gusen, Clifford Tochukwu Okoye, Musa Sani Modibbo, Patience O. Nwadiaro
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430232

Abstract:
Aim: This study is aimed at Isolating and Identifying the Toxigenic Aspergillus species Associated With Sorghum Grains and Locally Brewed Beer (Burkutu) in Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Methodology: Sorghum grains and locally brewed beer (Burkutu) were collected from three different locations; Gyel, Kugiya, and Doruwa Market of Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, and Screened for their fungal and total aflatoxin level. The grains were blended for 30 seconds using a high-speed blender. 1 gram of the blended sorghum and 1ml of the Burkutu sample (local beer) were cultured into freshly prepared PDA supplemented with 0.5mg/ml of gentamycin and streptomycin to suppress bacterial growth. This was then incubated at a temperature of 37°C for 72 hours after which various fungi colonies were observed and counted with a colony counter. The fungi isolated were further sub-cultured to obtain pure cultures after which they were classified using conidial morphology as obtained from microscopy. Lactophenol cotton blue mount was also carried out to identify the exact fungi with reference to a mycological atlas. The colony-forming unit for each sample was determined, and the Aflatoxin test was carried out using a Mycotoxin kit (the Rida Quick Scan method) to determine the Total aflatoxin level. Results: The Aspergillus species found in both Sorghum grains and Burkuru (local beer) were: Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusflavus, and Aspergillusfumigatus. For sorghum grains, Aspergillusniger had the highest frequency of occurrence (42.86%) while Aspergillusflavus & Aspergillusfumigatus occurred equally with (28.57%) respectively. Aspergillusflavus had the highest frequency of occurrence in Burkutu (50%), followed by Aspergillusniger (33.33%) and the least was Aspergillusfumigatus (16.67%). The highest aflatoxin level for grains was detected in Kugiya which had (3.6 parts per billion) followed by the grain sample from Gyel which had (3.0 Ppb) and the least was Doruwa (2.8 Ppb). Burkutu had the highest total level of aflatoxin (3.1Ppb) in the sample from Gyel, followed by Burkutu from Doruwa (2.6 Ppb) and the least was from Kugiya (2.4 Ppb). Conclusion: Both the sorghum grains and Locally Brewed Beer (Burkutu) collected from the Bukuru Metropolis of Jos South Local Government Area, Nigeria were significantly contaminated by the toxigenic Aspergillus species. This indicates possible health hazards for humans and animals ingesting these substances. However, effective screening of these grains for aflatoxins is advocated to ensure the safety of both grains and their products.
M. Y. Iliyasu, U. M. Askira, I. M. Tom, M. R. Sahal, S.Y. Dogonjeji, H. Tahir, Z. M. Kabeer, H. S. Musa, S. M. Panda, A. B. Sama’Ila
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i430230

Abstract:
Background: Cryptosporidium is an etiologic agent of gastro-intestinal disorders and severe, profuse watery diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients, such as people living with HIV/AIDS. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium parvum among HIV patients who usually received antiretroviral therapy (ART) in four selected hospitals in Maiduguri Metropolis. Study Design: This is a clinical laboratory study of opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS Patients. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, the University of Maiduguri in collaboration with the Biological Sciences Department, ATBU Bauchi, Nigeria, between March 2021, and February 2022. Methods: A total of 400 faecal specimens were collected from confirmed HIV-positive patients and screened for Cryptosporidium-specific antigen by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Genomic DNA Extraction was done by Quick-DNATM Faecal Microbe Miniprep with PCR amplification and sequencing of 18s SSU rRNA gene using specific reference primers. Results: Out of the 70 HIV/AIDS and Cryptosporidium co-infected patients, 20 of the samples contained 18s SSU rRNA genes, with the highest frequency (45.0%) found in patients from the University Teaching Hospital. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that there is significant intra-species diversity in the genus Cryptosporidium. The four human C. parvum isolates differ from the bovine and the two avian isolates in three regions of the 18s rRNA gene. Conclusion: The human genotype (genotype I) found in this study is exclusively human and in a single non-human primate, in bovine genotype (genotype II) has proved to be anthroponotic and zoonotic to the livestock. The study, therefore, advocates further genotyping of Cryptosporidium from both HIV-infected patients and immunocompetent hosts from various regions together with surveillance of animal and environmental reservoirs is highly recommended.
A. L. Utshudi, R. O. Oleko, C. T. Kayembe, D. O. Onautshu, E. M. Kitete, B. M. Mbala,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 33-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330228

Abstract:
Background: The Plant of Jatropha curcas is known for their many biological activities including antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial. Aim: To provide update knowledge on the phytochemistry, toxicology and antiviral activity of some medically interesting Jatropha curcas. Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge. Results: The literature review shows that Jatropha curcas have antiviral properties on different types of viruses. Different parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, latex, seeds, fruits and other parts have been reported to have different compounds which have interesting bioactivities and antiviral properties. Conclusion: The present mini-review can therefore help inform future scientific research towards the development of anti-Hepatitis B virus and antiCovid-19 herbal drugs of relevance as well as nutraceuticals from J. curcas for the improvement of human health and wellbeing using reverse pharmacology approach. Molecular docking of some naturally occurring isolate compounds against anti-Hepatitis B virus protease is in progress.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 47-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330229

Abstract:
Aims: In this study, the antibiofilm activity of citric acid on P. fluorescens isolated from raw milk samples was studied. Background: Due to the resistance it gives to Pseudomonas bacteria, the presence of biofilm has been mentioned in recent studies. Biofilm is defined as the irreversible mucoid layer that microorganisms form on any surface and milk biofilms, which are the cause of contamination in milk, are a major concern in the dairy industry. Methods: In this study, antibiofilm activity of citric acid and chlorine was investigated in 16 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from raw milk samples. For this purpose, the prevention and removal of biofilm formation of P. fluorescens strains was determined comparatively after treatment with microtitration plates with chlorine or citric acid. Results: It was found that after treatment of microplates with citric acid, biofilm formation in P. fluorescens isolates was prevented by 52% and eliminated by 71-78%. It was also found that after the microplates were treated with chlorine, biofilm formation was prevented by 48% and eliminated by 61%. Conclusion: This study showed that it was observed that citric acid can be used as an antibiofilm against biofilms produced by P. fluorescens bacteria.
Adamya Aggarwal,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330227

Abstract:
The SARS-CoV-2 virus’s prominence, severity, and unique characteristics—including its ability to mutate quickly and cause idiosyncratic symptoms—has prompted researchers to fully focus on understanding the pathological process behind infection and developing an effective vaccine. To achieve this objective, several animal models, from small animals to non-human primates (NHPs), have been developed to identify different immunizing agents, which can provide protection against coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this review, we discuss the possible advantages and drawbacks of these animal models including their susceptibility to infection, and pathological manifestations. While vaccination efforts have been successful, there still remain several limitations and areas for improvement. The individuals at the high risk of contracting viral infection may need individualized immunization plans and newer antigenic targets must be discovered to combat the virus’s mutations. Animal models can serve as a valuable tool to develop better vaccines that can provide protection against COVID-19.
, Muataz Mohamed Eldirdery
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330226

Abstract:
This study was designed to investigate the possibility of infection via food with pathogenic organisms. It was carried out in the city Omdurman in Khartoum States during the period from December 2015 to November 2019. The objectives of the study were to identify the causative intestinal parasites in the examined individuals. A total of 600 stool specimens and 256 vegetables samples were examined. fecal samples were observed macroscopically for the consistency and presence of mucus, blood, worm larvae and cestodes segments. The samples were then examined by wet smear and formal - ether concentration technique. A bout 200 -300 grams of each vegetable and fruit were washed in 50 ml of sterile normal saline and filtrate was centrifuged then sediment was examined microscopically. Result showed that the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites microscopically was found to be 179/600(29.8%). Entamoeba histolytica cyst was reported in mothers 28 (62.2%) as twofold as in children 13 (28.9%), while in food handlers was recorded in 4(8.9%). Gardia Lamblia was more dominated in mothers 48(58.5%) as twice as seen in children 24 (29.3%), whereas in food a handler was noted in 10(12.2%). Taenia spp was found only in mothers 5 (71.4%) and children 2 (28.6%). Moreover, Ascaris lumbricoides was also seen in mothers 11(61.1%) and children 7 (38.9%). Among the examined vegetables and fruits samples, G.lamblia found to be the most dominated parasite 26 (66.7%), followed by E. histolytica 8 (20.5%) and A.lumbrucoides 5 (12.8%) respectively. In conclusion, the overall of the prevalence intestinal parasites was more pronounced among mothers and their children's. G. Lamblia and E. histolytica were the most predominated parasites seen microscopically among participants. Mothers should be examined periodically for their health status regarding intestinal parasites to increase the awareness prompt detection.
, K. G. Adegoke
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i330225

Abstract:
Background/Aims: Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester that are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Towels are a prime location for germs, and they can be picked up by contact with wet skin. The aim of this research work is to isolate, identify, and evaluate the occurrence of bacterial contaminations from individual bath towels of students from the University of Medical Sciences Ondo and their harmful consequence to public health. Microbiological screening of seventy-two (72) bath towels from 5 of the university hostels for bacterial contamination was carried out. Methods: Bacterial isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility test were carried out using basic microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was also carried out using Mueller Hinton agar to determine the susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated. Results and conclusion: Biochemical analysis of bacterial isolates revealed a general contamination by mainly nine bacterial species associated with human nose, stomach, intestine and skin flora in decreasing frequency of occurrence: Staphylococcus aureus (38.8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (18.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%), Shigella sp. (8.3%), Bacillus sp. (7.0%), Escherichia coli (4.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (4.2%), Micrococcus sp. (2.8%), Salmonella sp. (1.4%). Antibiotics susceptibility testing was carried out and recorded on each of the bacterial isolates. Most of the bacterial isolates showed resistance and susceptibility to certain antibiotics which helps in the perfect and effective choice of antibiotics if these species cause infections. Therefore, there is a need to adopt adequate measures for the regular cleaning and washing of towels, while also maintaining good personal hygienic practices to prevent the transfer and spread of pathogens from these towels and avoiding sharing of towels.
Doneh Linda Sornka, Stephenson Lawson, C. K. Wachukwu, S. D. Abbey
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i230222

Abstract:
The importance of herbs in trado-medicine cannot be overemphasized; however, some herbs prepared in liquid form, and sold in Nigeria markets may be contaminated by microorganisms, fumigants, endotoxin, pesticides and toxic metals, and that the presence of contaminants in herbal products can reduce or even destroy the therapeutic activity of the product, as well as causing adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of some liquid herbal products sold in Port Harcourt Metropolis. Three (3) different liquid herbal products (Goko cleanser, Mekocin and Omega roots) were used for the study, and were coded as HEB B, HEB C and HEB D respectively. The liquid herbal products were analyzed for their microbiological qualities by testing for the presence of total bacterial load, isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms of the herbal products using various culture media. The microbial isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, biochemical testing and Gram staining. The predominant bacteria isolate from Goko cleanser (HEB B) is Bacillus spp, from Mekocin (HEB C) are Bacillus spp and Aspergillus spp, and from Omega roots (HEB D) is Shigella spp. The descriptive analyses for average bacteria in colony-forming unit/ml from Goko cleanser (HEB B), Mekocin (HEB C) and Omega roots (HEB D) were 24.60±2.24, 48.00±9.08 and 50.70±44.60 respectively. The presence of these microorganisms may be attributed to the source of raw materials and possible contamination in the manufacturing process. It is therefore recommended that herbal medicine producers be properly educated on the dangers associated with intake of microbial contaminants. Also regulatory agencies such as NAFDAC should periodically access the quality of herbal products particularly in Port Harcourt Metropolis and the Nigerian markets in general.
Chibuenyim Maxwell Enwerem, Joy Nkeiruka Dike- Ndudim,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i230223

Abstract:
The Assessment of bacteriological and antibiogram of uropathogens among students in the faculty of Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri with the aim to determine the prevalence of the isolates and to test which antibiotic has the greatest antagonistic activity against the different isolates in the study area. Fifty (50) students made up of both sexes were examined using their midstream urine samples as specimen. The study took note of the students’ age, sex and department. The urine samples were cultured on Nutrient agar, Mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar using pour plate method and were incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. After which the total bacterial counts were carried out and based on the count, it was categorized as being significant, suspected and non-significant. The colonies were then sub cultured for further identification. The pure isolates produced were stained using Gram stain, examined microscopically and further tested using relevant biochemical tests. It was found that a total of 35 bacteria were isolated which includes E.coli 14(40%) being the most predominant organism, followed by Staphylococus aureus 13(37.1%), Proteus mirabilis 7(20%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(2.9). Out of the fifty (50) urine samples investigated, 24 samples were significant for UTI (105 CFU/ml), 2 samples were suspected for UTI (102 – 104 CFU/ml), while 24 were not significant for UTI (below 102CFU/ml). Based on departmental studies, the subjects from the Department of Nutrition and Diatetics and Optometry had the highest significance of UTI, (60%) respectively. The results of susceptibility tests showed that Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic in inhibiting the bacterial growth (98.8% of antibiotic activity). The present study therefore, revealed that the urine samples collected from students in Faculty of Health sciences, Imo State University, Owerri had significant UTI and most of the isolates (98.8%) were sensitivity to Imipenem. UTI testing should be conducted periodically, and those who are infected should be treated with antibiotics like Imipenem to avoid complications. New antimicrobials and therapeutic agents with great efficacy, no side effects, ease of availability, and low cost should also be created. In order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic medication should be started following a laboratory culture and sensitivity report. This would not only aid in the prudent use of antibiotics, but it would also help to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistant strains in the research region and the general community.
, N. V. Chiejina, K. I. Ugwuoke, F. E. Akanwa, A. K. Onifade, M. Tatfeng
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i230221

Abstract:
Leaf blight and corm rot of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski is the most disparaging disease of taro inducing severe losses in yield and quality of taro corms. Investigations were carried out in Umudike in 2016 and 2017 to determine the pathotypes present in that locality with a view to screening them on available taro genotypes for resistant cultivars. Symptomatic taro plant samples were collected from Taro Project Farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike. Leaf tissue sections were excised from the periphery of lesions on symptomatic leaf, surface sterilized in 10% Sodium Hypochlorite solution for 2 minutes, rinsed in three changes of sterile distilled water and plated on Water Agar (WA). Mycelia emerging from diseased tissues after incubation were aseptically transferred to Corn Meal Agar (CMA). A total of 15 fungal isolates under 6 groups of species were obtained and these isolates were transferred to Carrot Agar (CA) from time to time until pure cultures were obtained. Based on varied cultural patterns, morphological characteristics and microscopic examination, the isolates were identified as Phytophthora sp, Fusarium sp FSSC, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and F. equiseti. Pathogenicity test confirmed that only Phytophthora sp induced leaf blight on detached leaf of taro plant. Molecular characterization of the isolates via Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence analyses confirmed that the already implicated Phytophthora species was Phytophthora sansomeana. This is apparently the first report of P. sansomeana as a taro leaf blight pathogen in addition to the already known P. colocasisae.
Joy Nkeiruka Dike-Ndudim, Sunday Olaniran Ayodeji, , Chidinma Ursula Uwandu
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i230220

Abstract:
A large majority of cervical cancer (more than 95%) is due to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV type 16 account more than half of cervical cancers Worldwide. This study investigated the sero-prevalence of HPV-16 IgG antibodies among women attending General Hospital Kagarko, Kagarko Local government, Kaduna State. Serum samples and questionnaires were administered to 110 women for collection of data. HPV-16 specific IgG antibodies were detected by the use of an HPV-16 virus-like particle ELISA. The highest HPV-16 IgG sero-positivity 24.5% (27/110), was found at the age >20-59 years and at 95% confidence interval. Sero-positivity increased from 9.5% in women having one lifetime sex partner to 62.5% in women with more than three sex partners (p=0.006). Age at first intercourse, number of lifetime sex partners, and having had sex with men who have multiple sex partners were significantly associated with HPV-16 IgG antibodies. These information on HPV sero-epidemiology will be important for designing prevention efforts including vaccine programs.
Adam A. Ikey, Giresse N. Kasiama, Carlos N. Kabengele, Michel L. Kapembo, Etienne N. Matshimba, Juvenal Bete, Jason T. Kilembe, Clément L. Ikoto, K. N. Ngbolua, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, et al.
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i230219

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile of Centella asiatica, Citrus grandis and Zanthoxylum gilletii leaves, in solution and the thin layer chromatography chemical screening and to evaluate the antibacterial photodynamic activity of the species extracts. Materials and Methods: The search of the secondary metabolites in solution and by thin layer chromatography, the alkaloids and polyphenols extraction were carried out using standard protocols. The antibacterial photodynamic activity was performed using microdilution method in solution and solid culture media. Results:Centella asiatica and Citrus grandis showed the same phytochemical profile, with the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids and polyphenols such as: flavonoids, free quinones, anthocyanins, leuco-anthocyanins and tannins. Zanthoxylum gilletii extract showed similar profile with the absence of anthocyanins and leucoanthocyanins. The polyphenolic extracts of both Centella asiatica and Citrus grandis leaves were active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli after one and two hours of solar exposition, respectively. Whereas for Zanthoxylum gilletii extract, one hour was sufficient to completely destroy both bacterial strains. Conclusion: Polyphenolic extracts from Centella asiatica, Citrus grandis and Zanthoxylum gilletii leaves showed a photodynamic effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Nseobong Godwin Akpan,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 34-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i130218

Abstract:
Anaemia and mycoses are being diagnosed with increasing frequency among immuno-compromised subjects. Fungal respiratory infections are important causes of mortality and morbidity among immuno-compromised individuals. The goal of this research was to systematically review the prevalence of anaemia and mycoses among immuno-compromised subjects in Nigeria based on published articles. We reviewed a total of 23 studies published between 2009 and 2021 comprising retrospective studies, cross-sectional studies and case reports. The overall prevalence of anaemia in this study was between 16.2%-75.5% while mycoses prevalence was between 8.7-73.6% among immuno-compromised subjects in reviewed Nigerian populations. This study revealed that the prevalence of anaemia in South-South, South-East and Abuja (North Central Nigeria) were between 47.4%-73.5%, 44.6%-75.5% and 16.2% respectively among immuno-compromised HIV/AIDS and/or TB co-infections. The prevalence of mycoses in South-South, South-East, Western Nigeria and Northern Nigeria were between 25.3%-36%, 22.4%-52.5%, 8.7-33% and 12.7%-73.6% respectively among immuno-compromised subjects. This study confirm that anaemia and mycoses are common among immuno-compromised subjects in Nigeria; with pulmonary mycoses and low CD4 being important risk factors.
M. M. Musuasua, O. N. Kabena, L. K. Kalanda, B. G. M. Kangudia, D. B Mutembue, D. M. Y. Masens,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 22-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i130217

Abstract:
Aims: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical study and to evaluate in vitro the antibacterial activities of aqueous extracts of different parts of P. muellerianus, a plant widely used traditionally in Kasai Oriental to treat various pathologies including several bacteriosis. Study Design: Based on the results of an ethnobotanical survey in Kasaï Oriental, P. muellerianus was selected because of the diversity of recipes involving it, its frequency of citation, its level of preference as well as the diversity of diseases treated and the plebiscite of its effectiveness by traditional healers. To contribute to the enhancement of this plant traditionally used against various bacteriosis and to confirm its therapeutic power, the phytochemical screening of its different parts was carried out and the antibacterial potential of various aqueous extracts was evaluated in vitro. Place and duration of Study: Analyzes were carried out from February to September 2017 at the Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis laboratories of the Congolese Office of Control of Mbujimayi as well as at the Biology and Chemistry laboratories of ISP Mbujimayi. Methodology: Fourteen bioactive chemical groups were investigated in the leaves, stem barks and those of the roots of this plant according to standard methods of characterization based on precipitation, coloring and moss reactions. In vitro, the diameters of the zones of inhibition as well as the MIC and MBC of each of different aqueous extracts were determined against 20 bacterial strains of 13 species responsible for bacterial diseases in humans. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that all three parts of P. muellerianus contain abundant and diverse bioactive chemical groups. This species contains alkaloids, quinones, steroids, terpenes, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. In vitro bacteria-aqueous extract interaction tests demonstrated that all three aqueous extracts have inhibitory activity on several of the 20 bacterial strains tested. According to MIC and MBC, inhibitory performance varies depending on the germs and extracts. The sensitivity of different bacterial strains to an extract is also variable; each extract having its spectrum of inhibitory actions. Conclusion: The results confirm the therapeutic potential of P. muellerianus by the presence of several bioactive substances in all its parts and by the diversity of the inhibitory activity of different extracts on several of a few bacterial strains submitted to the tests.
Mahamat Ali Bolti, , Adamou Abassi, Sory Traoré, Oumaima Djarma, Henry Fissou, Joseph Mad-Toingue, Assi Constant, Ali Mahamat Moussa
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i130216

Abstract:
Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients admitted for Covid-19 in the department of Covid-19 of the University Hospital Center of Renaissance (UHCR) of N’Djamena in Chad. The pandemic of the sickness of Covid-19 constitutes a real public health problem in the world since its appearance in December 2019. Materials and Methods: This was an observational, transversal and descriptive study carried out from 19 March 2020 to 19 November 2021. All patients diagnosed with Covid-19, confirmed at least either by RT-PCR or chest computed tomography (CT) were included. The healing was defined through the disappearance of clinical signs and two negative RT-PCRs at 72 hours intervals. Results: Our study included 825 patients of which 613 (74.34%) men (sex ratio 2.9). Age Medium for patients was 50 ± 4 years with extreme ranging from 19 to 84 years old. Six hundred and thirty-three (76.70%) patients came directly from their residences. Respectively 82 and 71 were transferred from the provincial hospital of Farcha (9.9%) and from a private health structure (8.7%). Three hundred and thirteen patients had at least a comorbidity especially arterial hypertension (n = 173; 21%); the diabetes (n = 156; 19.7%); chronic renal failure (n = 28; 3.5%); heart disease (n =27; 3.3%) and obesity (n= 14; 1.6%), HIV infection (n = 9; 1.09%). five hundred and seventy-two (61.12%) patients performed the CT and all the RT-PCR. Four hundred and ninety-two patients (59.60%) presented severe forms of the disease, 160 (19.40%) were critical and 124 (15.10%) were moderates. The hospital lethality was 16.24% (n = 134). The treatment consisted in the administration of Hydroxychloroquine-Azythromycin in 99.4% of cases (n = 813) and by covid-organics in 0.6% of cases (n = 5). Conclusion: The infected patients with Covid-19 were admitted with the advance stage of the disease. Lethality was associate with the presence of comorbidities. The sensitization of the population on the importance of vaccination, barrier measures and recourse to care are necessary.
, V. N. Elosiuba, R. E. Ikeh, F. C. Ezeala, U. C. Ngenegbo, A. E. Onyido
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i130215

Abstract:
Intestinal parasites have been known to cause severe symptoms of malnourishment and abdominal pains as well as impairment of physical and mental development especially in children. Poor hygiene among food vendors is a major risk factor for human infections with protozoan cysts, helminth eggs and larvae. This cross-sectional study on intestinal parasites among food vendors in Awkuzu, Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State was carried out between April and June, 2021. Two hundred consenting males (32%) and females (68%) were studied under age-groups of ≤ 20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, and >50 years. Stool sample submitted by each participant was routinely examined in our mobile laboratory using Saline/iodine wet preparation and Formol-ether concentration techniques. Parasites were identified with standard keys. Data obtained were analyzed using the Chi-square test for homogeneity of infection among gender and age groups. Forty-eight (24.0%) of all stool samples were positive for intestinal parasite infections; with overall prevalence of 12.5, 6.0 and 5.5% for helminth, protozoa, and mixed helminth-protozoa infections, respectively. Overall frequency of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was 42.7%, followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (24%) while Entamoeba histolytica, Taenia spp., Hookworm spp., and Giardia lamblia recorded 10.7, 9.3, 8.0 and 5.3% respectively. Overall gender prevalence revealed that a total of 27 (13.5 %) males were infected and 21 (10.5 %) females were infected, there was no significant difference (p50 age group. This study has demonstrated intestinal parasite infections among food vendors studied. Irregular deworming and poor hand hygiene among food vendors are potential risks for food-borne diseases transmission to unsuspecting food consumers. Health education and social behavioral change communication on the importance of regular deworming, improved hand hygiene and WASH practices, as well as provision of better waste management infrastructure should be put in place to prevent any outbreak of food-borne diseases in the area.
Ho Ngoc Nha Yen, Doan Ngoc Phuong Chau, Huynh Hong Phien, Bui Van Tron, Nguyen Van Ngon, Tran Van Be Nam, Nguyen Huu Thuan,
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2022/v9i130214

Abstract:
Insects are introduced as the largest group of animals in the animal kingdom. There is always a risk of disease outbreaks from insects that greatly affects people's health. Hundreds of thousands of species have been determined, whereas many others remained unnamed and unidentified. This study was carried out to identify the insect species obtained in Mo Cay Bac district, Ben Tre province, Vietnam, and identify the human pathogenic bacteria that parasitize on this insect. The study results showed that the insect carried Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, two strains of bacteria capable of causing festering wounds; whereas, the antibiotic Gentamicin (10 µg/mL) was shown to be capable of inhibiting Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA fragment of COII gene, the insect species has been identified as a species belonging to the Scatopsidae family, which belongs to complete metamorphosis. Its life cycle lasts 7-8 days and goes through 4 stages, including egg (1 day), larva (3-4 days), pupa (2-3 days), and adult. This insect species carry the biological characteristics of an entirely new insect species.
O. O. Ogunfolakan, Olowe O. A., S. S. Taiwo, , B. T. Bamigboye, A. H. Egbebi, A. T. Okunlola, A. M. Olaniyan
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 40-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i430213

Abstract:
The emergence of microbial resistance to antibiotics on daily basis has become a major global challenge. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients due to emergence of unique community-associated strains has become a great problem in Nigeria in particular and the entire world in general. In this study, a total of four hundred (400) clinical specimens were collected from hospitalized patients at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH), Ado-Ekiti and Federal Teaching Hospital (FETHI), Ido-Ekiti and from apparently healthy individuals from both communities. Standard bacteriological procedures were employed to isolate and identify these organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to identify S. aureus nuc gene, as well as mecA and aac resistance genes. Seventy seven (19.3%) S. aureus isolates were phenotypically identified; 43 (21.5%) hospital-associated (23 from EKSUTH and 20 from FETHI) and 34 (17.0%) community-associated (27 from Ado-Ekiti and 7 from Ido-Ekiti communities). No S. sciuri was phenotypically isolated in both locations. Fifty five (71.4 %) of the 77 S. aureus isolates were nuc gene positive, while 11 (20%) of the 55 isolates were mecA gene positive, implying that they were MRSA. Of the 11 isolates, 6 (19.4%) were hospital-associated MRSA while 5 (20.8 %) were community-associated MRSA. Phenotypic resistance of S. aureus to cefoxitin in the two locations ranged between 77.8 – 100%, but 80% of cefoxitin-resistant nuc gene positive S. aureus lacked mecA gene. S. aureus isolates exhibited high phenotypic resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and fusidic acid but susceptible to clindamycin and gentamycin. The prevalence of clinical MRSA infection of 20% in this study is relatively high. However, there was 0% prevalence of S. sciuri colonization. Cefoxitin disc test demonstrated low specificity as a phenotypic marker of methicillin resistance.There is need to institute control measures for MRSA infections and colonization in this environment.
, F. M. Thomas, R. R. Awoniyi
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i430212

Abstract:
Escherichia coli which synthesize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) have been implicated in severe human diseases. There is substantial evidence that cattle faeces have a role in developing and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens, raising public health concerns. The study is aimed at detecting ESBL-producing E. coli associated with cattle faeces within Owo metropolis. Freshly passed faecal samples were taken aseptically from 9 apparently healthy cattle that were about to be slaughtered and placed in correctly labeled sterile capped universal bottles with sterile spatula. Using standardized method, Escherichia coli was isolated on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method, and the expression of ESBL was detected by the double disc synergy test. According to the findings, 25 (55.6%) of the 45 E. coli isolates showed probable production of ESBL during screening and 11 (44.0%) were confirmed to be ESBL producers. The isolates' antibiotic resistance pattern revealed that they were most resistant to gentamicin (81.8%) and least resistant to imipenem (9.1%). As a result, imipenem was the most effective antibiotic against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Antibiotypes of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates also showed that 9 (81.8%) of ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were multidrug-resistant. This studies confirmed that E. coli isolated from bovine faeces had high prevalence of antibiotic resistance and revealed that ESBL-producing bacteria are present in cattle and subsequent consumers. This necessitates the implementation of mitigating strategies to limit the transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from animals to humans.
, Oluwabukola Atinuke Popoola
International Journal of Pathogen Research pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijpr/2021/v7i330184

Abstract:
Antibiotic therapy has been the mainstay of treatment of bacterial infections and the initial successes of the earlier generations of antibiotics for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections spurred further efforts to discover newer antibiotics. Antibiotic Susceptibility Test (AST) is a standardized procedure usually carried out on cultivable bacterial pathogens to determine their sensitivity to specific antibiotics, and to guide physicians on the best antibiotic treatment regimens for specific infections. The quality assurance and control for antibiotic susceptibility tests should be prioritized in deliberate efforts to reduce the burden of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections in developing countries.
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