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Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 4-9; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0101

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The effects of different types of physical exercises on HRV have been investigated so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the chronic effects of six-week slow and controlled breathing exercise on HRV in physically active, healthy adults. Material and Methods: A total of 22 individuals (11 female, 11 male) participated in the study voluntarily. The experimental group (EG) attended to the breathing exercises for 15 minutes per day, three days a week for six weeks. Neither the EG nor the control group (CG) did join in any regular physical activity program during the study. Both groups participated in the HRV measurements before and after the six-week of process. Results: Only the EG showed statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters. The alterations observed in LF:HF ratio, HFnu, and LFnu parameters were to reflect the increase in parasympathetic activity. Although the changes in the other parameters of HRV such as SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, TP, HF, LF, and VLF were also related to increased vagal activity, these alterations were not significant. However, no significant change was found in the CG. Conclusions: These results show that only the slow, controlled breathing exercises for six weeks could be used to improve parasympathetic activity in physically active individuals. A study could be designed where the duration is kept over 8 weeks, and the effects of physical exercises only, breathing exercises only, and physical + breathing exercises together on HRV are examined.
, , Shahram Ahanjan, Iryna Skrypchenko,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 108-113; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0205

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Athletic jumps are specific cyclically-acyclic movements that despite the good performance of the techniques require from competitors a high level of motor, specific-motor and functional abilities. The aim of this study was to examine the response effect of vertical and horizontal plyometric training on explosive capacity and kinetic variables in long jump athletes. Material and Methods. The participants of this study were twenty professional jumpers (22.5 ± 4.2 years; 178.4 ± 9.8 cm; 70.3 ± 7.6 kg) who were divided into two groups: experimental (plyometric training) and control (standard training). They participated in the last track and field championship in country, moreover, three of them participated in the last Asian games, and one athlete participated in the world track and field championship. The experiments were conducted on June-July 2019 in twenty professional athletes. All tests were performed after a standard warm up protocol. The place of camera was always determined wisely around the jumping field to attain best photography. Organizing and controlling the imaging and motor analysis processes were done by a biomechanics expert. Results. Post training results in experimental group showed more improvement in 30 m sprint, vertical jump, horizontal velocity at take-off, and long jump completion, comparing the control group. Significant between group differences in all variables were detected post training. No significant post training improvements in flight time and take off duration were reported in control group. Conclusion. Vertical and horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to be more effective in promoting improvement in explosive capacity than kinetic variables.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 132-143; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0208

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The prediction of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m performance by parameters of critical velocity was examined in this study. Material and Methods. The participants of study were consisted of thirteen amateur soccer players (n=13, age=22.69±5.29 years, weight=72.46±6.32 kg, height=176.92±6.73 cm). The 800 and 2400 m running tests were performed for determination of critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity. The critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity were determined by three mathematical models (linear total distance, linear velocity, non-linear two parameter model). The repeated sprint and sprint endurance ability was determined by running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running test. The simple and multiple linear regression analysis was used for prediction of dependent variables (running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance) by independent variables (critical velocity and anaerobic distance capacity) of study. The correlation between variables was determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. It was found that anaerobic distance capacity was a significant predictor of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m running performance (p˂0.05). However, it was determined that critical velocity predicted significantly only time parameters of running anaerobic sprint test and 800 m test (p˂0.05). Also, the parameters of 800 m test (except for average velocity) were significantly predicted by running anaerobic sprint test parameters (p˂0.05). Conclusions. It may be concluded that anaerobic distance capacity is an indicator of repeated sprint and speed endurance ability in soccer and may be used in improvement of sprint endurance performance.
Serhii Ovcharenko, , , Iryna Stepanova, Oleksandr Pikiner
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 125-131; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0207

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The article is devoted to finding ways to optimize the training of players with cerebral palsy (CP). It is determined that testing and elaboration of criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players with cerebral palsy can be used as a mean of evaluation the sportsmanship of football players of this nosology in training and competitive activities. The purpose of the study is to determine the level of physical and functional preparedness of football players with cerebral paralysis and to develop criteria for their evaluation during the intensive training period, taking into account the functional classes of athletes. Material and Methods. 25 football players with cerebral palsy, candidates and members of the national team of Ukraine, three-time Paralympic champions, multiple world and European champions took part in the study voluntarily. Athletes of the selected group have 5-8 classes of the adapted classification of the International Association of Cerebral Palsy (CP-ISRA) for CP-Football. Biochemical parameters were studied before and after training work of different focus. The value of maximum oxygen consumption (MOC) was determined by means of bicycle ergometric testing. The physical state and level of physical fitness of football players were monitored during the study. The research was conducted on the basis of the research laboratory of Prydniprovsk State Academy of Physical Culture and Sport and on the basis of the Municipal Institution "Dnipropetrovsk Medical and Physical Dispensary" of the Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council. Results. It was found that athletes with cerebral paralysis are able to adequately tolerate heavy physical loads. Football players with disabilities had biochemical parameters of blood sampling and registration of recovery processes of the cardiovascular system after training activities of different focus within the permissible norm for both healthy athletes. Obtaining such data became the basis for the intensification of training process, which promoted the development of motor skills of football players. Conclusions. Obtained data were the basis for creation the criteria for assessing the level of physical fitness of football players depending on their sports classes. In future, this will allow coaches to determine the effectiveness of the training period, obtain information about the condition of players in training, in the recovery process. On this basis it will help to individualize the workload of players and adjust the training process. The analysis of a direction of preparation and decision-making about educational process correction for football players with disabilities can be realized according to the received data in various structural formations of an annual macrocycle.
Olena Dorofieieva, Kseniia Yarymbash, Iryna Skrypchenko, , Aneliia Mytsak
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 66-73; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0201

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this research was assessment and correction of highly skilled swimmers’ operative status during competitions. Material and Methods. The authors carried out complex assessment of 46 high-skilled swimmers during competition period. The body impedance analysis and functional status express diagnosis were conducted before and after competitions. Results. The components limiting the operational state of swimmers were determined: “component composition of the body” (44.83% of the total load), “functional” (19.97%). Correlation relationships were established between the main indicators that determine the level of the operational state of athletes. The multiple regression equation was calculated, which made it possible to determine the influence of individual significant parameters on the level of the operational state of athletes and the confidence interval. A group of athletes with operational status indicators below the confidence interval received sport supplementation. Conclusion. The main characteristics of the athletes’ operative status are cellular biomarker phase, fat free mass, extracellular water, intracellular water, strength index. These characteristics should be used in assessment of both operative status and complex functional diagnosis of highly-skilled swimmers during competitions.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 297-302; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0604

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Movement variability is one of the fundamental topics concerning the control of human movement. In recent years, researches have focused on various aspects of variability, which has changed the noise to useful variable on human movement. Present study investigated movement variability level in high skilled dart players that repeated throws over many years. Material and Methods. Seven experienced dart players (three women and four men) were threw 36 darts in three sets (each set 12 throws) from a standard distance (2.37 meters), while the kinematic features of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were recorded during the throws. Qualisys motion capture system with six cameras was used to record the kinematics of the elbow. Results: entropy analysis revealed that greater variability in movement angle, velocity and acceleration resulted in better dart throwing performance but after reach to this level, throw variability was decreased. The remarkable point in these findings was that variability was constant across all samples despite the varied range of experience in throwing darts from 2.37 meters distance. Entropy analysis showed that in the throws of highly experienced individuals, variation led to greater throwing efficiency. Conclusions: these findings suggest that variability in a throwing activity, which revealed that moderate movement variability results in optimal throwing performance when dart throw has massive amount of practice during many years.
Lachezar G. Stefanov, Ivan Ivanov,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 264-270; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0507

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. To investigate how bilateral pedaling asymmetries change at exercises with different levels of intensity. Material and Methods. Eight students of cycling, average age 25.4 years, were investigated. In the experiment, we recorded the pedal force of the right and left legs during three consecutive exercises of different intensity 35%, 55% and 85% respectively. To quantify the difference in physical parameters of pedaling between the left and right legs, we used two approaches that complement each other in the analysis of bilateral asymmetry. One approach involved determining an asymmetry index, and other was statistical analysis. Results. The Student's t-test indicated that the difference between the power samples for the left and right pedals decreased at 85% exercise intensity vs. 55% with a statistical significance of α = 0.05. The bilateral asymmetry in most cases decreased or in two cases remained unchanged. The cases where there was no statistically significant difference between the power samples for both legs at 85% and 55% intensity levels had the lowest asymmetry index. Conclusions. The bilateral pedaling asymmetry is reduced at 85% exercise intensity compared to the 55% one. The reduction in asymmetry index ranges from 1% to 14.1%, Combining the asymmetry index and the Student's t-test can increase the informativeness of pedaling power data when analyzing bilateral asymmetry.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 240-247; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0504

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: One of the most widely applied methods to assess upper-body strength in children and adolescents is the handgrip strength test. While in adolescents it has been determined which elbow position, and which type of dynamometer are most appropriate for achieving the maximal grip strength, in children is still not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether elbow position and the type of dynamometer affect the handgrip strength in children. Material and Methods: Grip strength was measured by TKK and DynX dynamometers, and their validity and reliability were also analysed. A total of 60 children, 6 to 11 years old, participated in this study, and performed the handgrip strength test with their elbow extended and flexed at 90°. Results: While using the TKK dynamometer, grip strength was significantly higher when the test was performed with elbow extended, in contrast to those obtained with elbow flexed (14.58±3.04 kg vs 12.97±2.99 kg, p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 271-277; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0508

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. ln this academic research, it was aimed to compare the physical activity and skinfold thickness of the students living in the city center and rural areas. Material and Methods. 89 students attending the 6th grade level, whose total age is 12 years old, residing in the city center and rural areas of Çanakkale participated in the study. Students were examined with SenseWear armband bmi, total energy consumption, daily step count, met, active energy consumption, physical activity time, reach time and sleep times. Body mass index was determined with Holtain Skinfold Caliper. For the analysis of the dataset, the Independent Sample t test was utilized to examine the difference between the students' physical activity levels and skin fold thickness. Then, the relevance between physical activity level and skinfold thickness was examined for pearson correlation. Significance value p<.05 and p<.01were accepted. Results. ln accordance with the data obtained with SenseWear Armband, it has been determined that a statistically substantial amount of difference between BMI total energy consumption und daily step number of students living in rural and city centers is present. According to the results of skin fold thickness measurements made with skinfold calipers, there was a significant difference in triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac and femur regions (p<.05). Conclusion. As a result of the research, it is concluded that students studying in the city center have less physical activity level than students living in the rural area.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 227-239; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0503

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the coinciding anticipation timing (CAT), reaction time and dynamic balance performances of American football players according to their playing positions. Material: Thirty-five American football players, who train at least 3 days a week, and compete in Universities Protected Football 1st League, participated in this study, voluntarily. The players were divided into two playing positions: offensive (17 players, mean age: 20.76 ± 1.30 years) and defensive (18 players, mean age: 21.94 ± 2.87 years). The CAT at different stimulus speeds (6 mph, 12 mph), reaction time (visual, auditory, mixed), and dynamic balance performance (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, perimeter lenght) were measured in the laboratory environment. The CAT, reaction time, and dynamic balance performance of players were determined by Bassin Anticipation Timer, Newtest 1000, and Technobody Prokin-200, respectively. Results: The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS (20.0) program. Firstly, the raw data for CAT performance (6mph, 12 mph) were converted to absolute error score. According to Shapiro-Wilk test result, the all data showed normal distribution. Independent Sample t test was used to determine the differences between the two playing positions. In addition, the effect size between the two playing positions was calculated in parameters with showing significant differences, and Cohen’s d (1988) values were taken into account. Compared with the defensive players (20.15±3.81 ms), the absolute error scores at fast stimulus speeds (12 mph) of offensive players (17.45±3.48 ms) was found to be significantly lower (t(33) =-2.181, p=.036). The visual reaction time of offensive players (318.11± 17.47 ms) was significantly shorter than defensive players (340.58± 32.60 ms, t(26322) =-2.560, p=.017). In terms of dynamic balance parameters such as perimeter lenght, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral, there was no statistically significant difference between the playing positions (p>0.05). Conclusions: Perceptual-cognitive characteristics such as CAT, and reaction time performance differ according to the playing positions, and this difference may be related to the physical, and cognitive demands required by their playing positions.
Olga V. Limanskaya, , , Olena V. Yefimova,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 248-254; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0505

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. To determine the influence of professional training disciplines on the physical fitness level of the folk dance department students. Material and Methods. The study involved students majoring in "Choreography" (males - n = 5; females - n = 10). Tests were used to determine the level of general and special physical qualities development. It was also determined the level of physical fitness at the beginning of training and after two years of training. Results. At the beginning of the study, students had average and low rates of speed and strength qualities development and low indicators of dorsal spine mobility. There were significant changes in increasing the level of coordination and dorsal spine mobility (p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 219-226; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0502

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of exercise on the blood levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin and hematocrit in middle-aged sedentary individuals. Material and Methods. A total of 24 middle-aged (35-55 years) sedentary individuals (12 females and 12 males) living in Batman province voluntarily participated in this study. Body weight, body mass index, Homocysteine, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit blood levels were measured before and after a walking exercise scheduled for 6 weeks. Walking exercise was administered 4 days a week for the 6 weeks. Initially, the walking exercises started as 40 min and increased to 60 min towards the end of the program. In the exercises, walking tempo was kept higher than normal and in parallel to the overall health levels of the subjects. The data obtained were then analyzed through the SPSS 25.00 package program. Results. It was determined that there were statistically significant differences in the pretest and posttest parameters of body weight, body mass index, and Homocysteine values. Additionally, it was determined that, after the 6-week exercise program applied to the female and male participants, there were statistically significant differences between the pretest and posttest parameters of body weight, body mass index, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and homocysteine blood levels. Conclusions. As the conclusion, it was determined that, after the 6-week exercise program applied to a total of 24 participants (12 females and 12 males), there were statistically significant changes in the values of body weight, body mass index, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and homocysteine blood levels. It is suggested for further studies to apply nutrition programs and exercise protocols on young people regularly doing exercise and active athletes in different branches in order to contribute to sports science.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 255-263; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0506

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Hammer throwing is the most complex athletic throwing discipline with rotational trajectory and strong effect of several different forces that try to disable the projected throwing trajectory. Kinematic parameters are an important segment in the analysis of athletic disciplines, including hammer throw. They are an indicator of influence and often a difference between competitors of different or the same rank of the competition. The aim of the study was to determine the spatial and temporal differences of kinematic parameters between male and female elite hammers. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on sample of 16 Daegu World Championship finalists in 2011, to analyse differences in kinematic parameters between male and female throwers hammer. To obtain the required results, t-test for small independent samples was applied. Results. The data obtained in the study were given as Mean and Standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between male and female finalists were confirmed in the rate of ejection (t=3.684; p
Nikola Aksović, Bjelica Bjelica, , Iryna Skrypchenko, Siniša Filipović, Filip Milanović, Bojan Pavlović, Bojan Ćorluka, Radomir Pržulj
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 208-218; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0501

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Aerobic training is effective manner of exercising aimed at improving cardio-respiratory fitness of young people. However, its effects to the elderly population (over the age of 60), depending on characteristics of the participant (gender, health status, lifestyle, etc.), is still unclear. Aim of this research is systematic overview of the available literature dealing with the topic of effects of aerobic training to cardio-respiratory fitness of the elderly population over the age of 60, depending of gender (male/female), BMI (overweight/normal weight), lifestyle (active/sedentary), health status (diabetes/hypertension/metabolic syndrome). Material and methods: Total number of papers with published research results which met the criteria was 32. Walking is effective manner of exercising which influences improvement of maximum oxygen consumption (mean value: ±SD:12.91±7.40%). Introduction of activities with greater impact (bicycle and jogging) provides more effect to the cardio-respiratory fitness (mean value: ±SD:14.28±7.48%). Results: Aerobic training intensity level (moderate vs. high) makes no significant difference to the adaptive response of the cardio-respiratory fitness in elderly population. Training in duration of 6 weeks may significantly influence increase in maximum oxygen consumption, but longer training duration, however, has better effect. Endurance training has similar effects to improvement of cardio-respiratory fitness in both men and women. On the other hand, it seems that active people have lower adaptive response in comparison to sedentary people (8.3% vs. 18.84%). Effect is similar between overweight and normal weight participants (18.48% vs. 8.6%). Positive influence of aerobic training was also observed in participants with hypertension, metabolic system and diabetes type 2. Conclusion: Results clearly suggest benefits of aerobic training on cardio-respiratory fitness of elderly population. The effect may, however, vary depending of duration, type of activity, as well as characteristics of the sample.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 58-65; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0108

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of fine and gross motor skills and motor proficiency with the severity of autism disorder in children with autism. Material and Methods. 68 children with autism, ranged from 3-16 years old, were selected. Motor Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) was used to assess fine and gross motor skills and motor proficiency. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (GARS-2) test was also used for assessing the severity of autism disorder in the participants. Results. The obtained results from the Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between sub-scales of GARS-2 and MABC-2 tests (P
, , Heidar Alizaei Yousefabadi
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 24-30; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0104

Abstract:
Background and study aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contribution of energy systems in a freestyle (FS) and a Greco-Roman (GR) wrestling match, quantity and quality of obtained scores, and the competition efficiency of winners in the 2017 Wrestling World Championships (WCh) through analysing the recorded videos of all the matches of this event. Material and method. The materials of the present study were 295 FS and 266 GR recorded videos of the 2017 WCh, a multimedia player (lap top) for watching and analysing them, and a chronometer for recording the different duration of activities happening during these matches. In addition, special papers were designed in advance to make sure that all the required data were recorded properly. Result. The percentages of ATP-PC (ATP), lactic (LAC), and aerobic (AERO) energy systems were 6.66, 62.74, and 30.60 in FS, and 5.94, 67.53, and 26.53 in GR. Quantity and quality analysis of scores showed that FS wrestlers significantly scored more 1- and 4-point, while GR wrestlers were superior regarding the quality 2-point. The average competition efficiency of gold medallists was 18/43±4/67 in FS and 15/87±3/18 in GR which were statistically significantly greater than that of all other placers. Conclusion. This study showed the dominance of LAC in a wrestling match in both styles, although their relative contribution was significantly different between styles. In addition, FS wrestlers significantly scored more points, and Gold medallists demonstrated the greatest average competition efficiency compared to other medallists.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 10-14; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0102

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Sprint performance plays a major role in success of field-based team sports such as soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sprinting performance and both lower and upper extremity explosive strength in young soccer players. Material and Methods. One hundred forty-seven soccer players (mean±SD; age 11.6±1.66 years, height 143.2±11.8 cm, body mass 37.1±10.2 kg and training experience 1.11±1.5 years) voluntarily participated in this study. The sprinting performance of each player was determined using their 5, 10, 20 and 30m single sprint times. The lower and upper extremity explosive strength were evaluated by standing long jump and medicine ball throwing tests respectively. Prior to the study, each of the players was given detailed information about the risks and injuries they could encounter during the study, and parental consent was obtained by their signatures on informed voluntary consent forms since the subjects were under the age of 18. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from Ankara University Medical Faculty’s Surgical and Medical Research Ethics Committee. Results. The results indicated a strong relationship between sprinting performance and horizontal jump performance (r=-.671 ̶ -.764; p=0.001) and also a large relationship between sprinting performance and upper extremity strength (r=-.633 ̶ -.703; p=0.001). The sprint performance (n=147) also significantly correlated with body weight (r=-.345 ̶ -.373; p=0.001) and height (r=-.445 ̶ -.505; p=0.001). Conclusions. The study results suggest that upper extremity strength is as important as the lower extremity strength for sprinting performance and that trainers should emphasize lower and upper extremity strength in training intended to improve sprinting performance.
Mohamad Hasif B. Mohamad Puzi,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 31-38; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0105

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects CoBAgi Training which apply neuromuscular training, sport specific movements that couple with perturbation variation on coordination, dynamic balance and agility among adolescent handball players. Material and Methods. Quantitative randomized controlled trials quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluation used for this study. A total of 30 adolescent handball players (aged: 14.00 ± 0.83 years) were recruited as participants. Purposive sampling methods were used for these purposes. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control group (CG: n=15) and experimental group (EG: n=15). EG undergone six weeks CoBAgi training while CG followed their usual training routine with supervision of the researcher, there times a week for 6 weeks. In order to measure the effect of these training on coordination, dynamic balance and agility, participants have performed Carioca Test, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and L-Run Test during pre-training and post-training session. The data were analyzed through Independent Samples t-test with p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 39-46; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0106

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The nutritional status of children can be assessed on the basis of clinical examination, laboratory procedures and anthropometric measurements. Height and body weight are most often used to determine nutrition. Children and adolescents who are at risk of being overweight often also become obese adults. Material and Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 136 students (67 boys and 69 girls), with an average age of 11.56 years. The aim of the study was to determine the degree and differences in the degree of nutrition and body composition in boys and girls of pubertal age. Results. Based on the obtained results, T-test for small independent samples, it was determined that there are no statistically significant differences between boys and girls, both in the degree of nutrition and body composition, estimated by 10 variables using bioelectric impedance InBody 720. Also, it was found that 19.70% of boys are obese, as well as 17.40% of girls. Cumulatively with the percentage of malnourished respondents, a total of 61.50% of boys were not normally fed, as were 37.70% of girls. The obtained results indicate the need for a more extensive review of the analysed segments and a significantly larger sample of respondents, in order to act preventively in the fight against obesity, as the leading epidemiological health problem of today. Conclusion. It is obvious that physical activity based on physical education classes is not sufficient or is not sufficiently represented to meet the challenges of the modern way of life of children.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 15-23; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0103

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Rock climbing is a popular outdoor recreation and tourism activity practiced in natural areas. Rock climbing, like all of the other outdoor activities, has a variety of impacts on nature and visitors. Understanding these impacts is important for ensuring the sustainability of natural environments and activities practiced in these areas. The goal of this study was to analyze the impacts of chalk density on the rock surface, on the perceived visual quality and the willingness of participants to climb. Material and Methods: The visual research method was used in the study to analyze the perceived visual quality of climbers. Photographing technique, one of the visual research methods, was utilized in the study to determine the perceived visual quality of climbers. Eleven photographs, prepared for this purpose, were presented to 213 voluntary participants and the obtained results were evaluated. Results: Repeated measures analysis of variance test results indicate that the chalk level increase specifically designed and presented in the photographs statistically changed the perceived visual quality of participants. Impacts of the variables of gender, climbing experience, climbing level and chalk density level on perceived visual quality are compared with the ANOVA test. The results indicate that within-group variance in terms of the climbing level is statistically significant. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, the increase in chalk use density on rock surfaces has a negative impact on the perceived visual quality and willingness of participants to climb.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 47-57; doi:10.15561/26649837.2021.0107

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. It has been aimed to investigate the effects of functional and supportive classic strength trainings in basketball players on aerobic strength, dynamic balance and body composition. Material and Methods. In the study, the test group has performed functional + supportive classic strength training (n=15; 20, 8 ± 1,7 year) three days in a week for eight weeks. Within the process, test and control groups have also continued basketball technical tactics trainings two days in a week. The control group (n=15; 21, 06 ± 1,9 year) has not performed any strength training. The participants have been tested in terms of height, body weight, skinfold calipers, watt bike pro ramp aerobic capacity test and libra see saw balancing board test. When identifying the percentage of body fat, lunge formula has been used. The data has been evaluated with Repetitive Measurements Anova Test. Results. In comparing the group x time interaction, while the developmental difference in the values of VO2max Estimate (mg/kg/min), MET, the percentage of body fat and Left foot lateral balance test has been found out statistically substantial in test and control groups, no significant difference in lateral balance on both feet, right foot lateral balance the measurements and transfer balance measurements on both feet has been found out. Conclusions. As a consequence, it has been seen that functional and supportive strength trainings have contributed to the percentage of body fat, aerobic capacity and dynamic balance. In the planning of yearly training it has been seen that functional strength trainings in preparation phase will contribute to the development levels of basketball players.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 25, pp 4-9; doi:10.15561/10.15561/26649837.2021.0101

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: Heart rate variability (HRV) provides information about sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The effects of different types of physical exercises on HRV have been investigated so far. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the chronic effects of six-week slow and controlled breathing exercise on HRV in physically active, healthy adults. Material and Methods: A total of 22 individuals (11 female, 11 male) participated in the study voluntarily. The experimental group (EG) attended to the breathing exercises for 15 minutes per day, three days a week for six weeks. Neither the EG nor the control group (CG) did join in any regular physical activity program during the study. Both groups participated in the HRV measurements before and after the six-week of process. Results: Only the EG showed statistically significant changes in some HRV parameters. The alterations observed in LF:HF ratio, HFnu, and LFnu parameters were to reflect the increase in parasympathetic activity. Although the changes in the other parameters of HRV such as SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, TP, HF, LF, and VLF were also related to increased vagal activity, these alterations were not significant. However, no significant change was found in the CG. Conclusions: These results show that only the slow, controlled breathing exercises for six weeks could be used to improve parasympathetic activity in physically active individuals. A study could be designed where the duration is kept over 8 weeks, and the effects of physical exercises only, breathing exercises only, and physical + breathing exercises together on HRV are examined.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 310-315; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0606

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. To identify informative tests for complex control of coordination and speed-power abilities in fire-applied sports. Material and Methods. 38 experienced firefighter-athletes aged 15-17, who have been doing this sport for 5-6 years, took part in the research. The survey of Russian leading coaches allowed us to make up a bank of 20 tests. The Brave-Pearson correlation coefficient was used in the statistical processing of the results. The research results were processed using the Excel program. Results: Methods of controlling coordination and speed-power abilities with competitive result when overcoming a 100-meter obstacle course in fire-applied sports were experimentally substantiated. In accordance with the basic metrological requirements, close correlation relationship was found for 10 tests. Conclusion: Fire-applied sports is a complex technical type, to control the development of coordination and speed-power abilities it is necessary to rely not on one test, but on a bank of them. The identified informative tests can be recommended for complex monitoring of coordination and speed-power preparedness in fire-applied sports.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 323-330; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0608

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. This study was conducted to determine the state of readiness of prospective physical education and sports teachers, who were studying in sports education institutions in Turkey. Material and Methods. The sample of the study consisted of 552 prospective physical education and sports teachers, who were chosen by the random sampling method. To collect the data from the sample group, the “Preparedness for Teach Scale”, which consisted of 20 items and 4 subscales. The collected data were analysed for normality by using SPSS 22.0 package software. Because the data demonstrated a normal distribution, the “Independent Samples t-tests” and “One-way ANOVA tests” were conducted. To determine the level of relationship between dependent variables, “Pearson Correlation Analysis” was conducted. Results. In the gender variable of the sample group, statistically significant differences were observed in the subscales of “Designing the instructional process” and “Understanding the learner”. In the grade variable, significant differences were determined in the subscales of “Forming and effective learning atmosphere”, “Designing the instructional process” and “Techno-pedagogical competence”. In the variable of the department of education, significant differences were determined in all the subscales. Because of the correlation analysis, it was observed that there were positive and strong correlations between the subscales of “Forming an effective learning atmosphere” and “Designing the instructional process” (r= 0.807; p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 285-289; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0602

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between sprint, flexibility, upper extremity strength and Star Excursion Balance Test performances in soccer players aged 12–14 years. Material and Methods. Eighteen junior soccer players (mean age, 9.78 ± 1.6 years; height, 139.5 ± 11.0 cm; weight, 34.3 ± 9.9 kg; BMI, 17.3±2.9; leg length; 63.7±5.9 cm) participated in this study voluntarily. They were training 2 or 3 times a week with the addition of one match per month and none of them had reported injuries or diseases related to sports. After measuring the anthropometrics of the subjects, they were familiarized with the test procedures. Measurements included handgrip strength (HD), 30 sc. sit-ups (SU), standing long jump (SLJ), Countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20m-Sprint tests as independent variables, and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as dependent variables. Then, statistical analysis was applied to the data transferred to SPSS 24.0 Packet program. Results. The inconsistent correlations between variables of SEBT and selected parameters were found. The strongest significant relationships of the variables of SEBT with selected variables were observed between anterolateral (AL) and SU (r=646, p
Panagiotα Fitili, Vasilios Giovanis
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 278-284; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0601

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of this research was to study the timeline evolution of walking, as well as the Pacing Strategy Profiles of high-level women in the 20 km of race walking. Material: The practical example of applying the theoretical basis was made during the Women’s Greek Championship (Megara 2016), in which 12 athletes aged 19 to 40 participated (28.50 ± 7.20). Material and Methods. The certified distance of the 20km route was divided into 10 sections of 2 km each. The same happened with the times (intermediate, final) corresponding to the individual sections (2 km) of the route. The athletes were divided into 4 groups: the first 3, those who finished 15% slower than the first, those who finished 15% - 30% slower, and those who finished more than 30% slower than the winner. Finally became comparison of the first 6 and last 6 athletes’ groups. Results. The individual pace strategies that describe the tactics of the athletes in this race have been calculated. It was found that the winners of the race used Even Pacing Strategy, maintaining a steady speed on most of the route. As the level of women athletes became lower, Variable Pacing Strategy was used, while the athletes who finished last did not seem to be able to maintain any particular pacing strategy. Conclusions. It is suggested that athletes should follow Even Pacing Strategy during the race in order to improve their performance.
, , Oleksandra Yu. Brezdeniuk, Victoria E. Onyshchuk, Natalia V. Gavrylova, Svitlana V. Salnykova
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 290-296; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0603

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The somatotype determines not only physical development, but also the functional capabilities of the organism. Investigation of the correlation relations between the component of body and VO2 max will reveal the influence of each of the components on the aerobic capacity of men in the first period of mature age. The aim of the work – to detect the peculiarities of manifestation of maximum oxygen consumption of men with different somatotypes and to investigate the relationship with the component composition of the body. Material and Methods: The study involved 150 men aged 25-35 years. The somatotype was determined by the Heath-Carter method. The component composition of the body was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. The VO2 max indicator was determined, metered loads were performed on a bicycle ergometer. A correlation analysis of the absolute and relative VO2 max values with the fat and muscle components of the body was performed. Results. A high degree of inverse correlation between the relative VO2 max indicator with body mass in men of mesomorphic somatotype was established and a high degree of inverse correlation between the relative VO2 max indicator with body mass and BMI in men of endomorphic-mesomorphic somatotype. Conclusions: For representatives of the mesomorphic and endomorphic-mesomorphic somatotype, a larger body mass and a high degree of correlation between body mass and relative VO2 max indicator are characteristic. For representatives of the ectomorphic and balanced somatotype, a smaller body mass and a lower degree of correlation between body mass and relative VO2 max indicator max are characteristic.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 303-309; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0605

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of metabolic stress created by 6-week football training applied in the pre-season period on circulation and hematological parameters of well-trained male football players. Material and Methods. Fourteen male football players who competed in the U19 category of a football team in Turkish Football Super League participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, players’ systolic - diastolic blood pressures and resting heart rates were measured and their blood samples were taken before and after the 6-week training period. Laboratory analysis was made to determine counts and concentration percentage of erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet sub-parameters. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was performed to determine the difference between pre and post measurements. Results. Our findings indicated that baseline mean values of lymphocyte, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher than posttest mean values. The mean of diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate measured before the preseason training camp were lower than their posttest mean values (p > .05). Conclusion. It is thought that the decrease in the mean values of diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate caused by the effect of regular training during the preseason training period, while the increase in the mean values of mean cell haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration caused by the increased oxygen demand of the metabolism during the training period.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 316-322; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0607

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks theraband training on respiratory parameters, upper extremity muscle strength and 50-100m swimming performance in swimming athletes. Material and Methods. Totally 12 male swimmers participated voluntarily and were divided into two groups as control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=6). Control group did only swimming training, experimental group did theraband exercises in addition to swimming exercises. Respiratory parameters, upper extremity anaerobic performance, shoulder extension/flexion strength and swimming performance were measured. Mann Whitney-U Test was used to determine the differences between two groups. Wilcoxon Test was used to determine intra-group differences. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre and post-test values of respiratory parameters, anaerobic performance values and swimming measurements of the experimental groups (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between shoulder extension and flexion values (p0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the post-test values ​​of the experimental and control groups shoulder extension and flexion values (p0.05). Conclusions. As a result of the findings, it can be said that theraband training which is done as a land work with swimming training leads to positive effects in the upper extremity muscle strength and swimming performance development of youth swimmers.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 169-174; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0403

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate acute effects of different warm-up and stretching protocols, on 30 m. sprint, flexibility, vertical jump, strength, balance and anaerobic power performances in junior male judokas. Material and Methods: Twenty sub-elite 11-14 year old judokas who volunteered to participate in the study (age: 12,25±0,96 years; height: 1,52±0,11cm; body mass: 48,06±14,22 kg). This study consist of four different stretching and warm up protocols; without stretching (WS); static stretching (SS); dynamic warm up (DW); dynamic+static warm up (DSW). Results: The effect of the four stretching and warm up protocols were analysed by an ANOVA for repeated measures (WS x SS x DW x DSW). After stretching and warm up protocols, 30 m. sprint values are statistically significance (p0.05). There was only significant difference is found between WS and SS (p0.05), there was found significant differences between WS and DSW, SS and DSW in favour of DSW (p
, Salahuddin Khan, ,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 189-194; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0406

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The main purpose behind the study was to establish the challenges in relation to the acquisition of life skills among university student-athletes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study assessed the extent to which the concern existing resources, facilitators, and trainer attitude influences life skills acquisition among student-athletes. Material and Methods: Descriptive survey research design was followed to obtain desirable results. The target population of this study consisted of all those who participated in different sport at the university level of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Amongst them, we selected a representative sample (n=389 fifty 50% of the total population) with the help of a simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version, 24 was used to code and analyse the data. The hypotheses were tested by applying statistical tests like Step-wise regression and independents sample t-test. The significance level of 0.05 was fixed to accept or reject the set hypotheses. Results: Findings of the study indicated that existing resources, facilitators, and trainer/coach attitude significantly influences life skills acquisition among student-athletes (.001, .001 & .000 < .05). The analysed data revealed no significantly difference regarding extent to which specific challenges such as existing resources, facilitators, and trainer attitude influences the acquisition of life skills (.500, .133 & .149 > .05). Conclusions: The findings of the study revealed that all participants have agreed upon the importance of life skills. Therefore, the life skills course might be considered as an integral part of every educational curriculum of Pakistan. It is suggested that a minimum of 2 hours per week may be included in the educational curriculum of each discipline.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 195-202; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0407

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. During exercise, the effects of music on the performance have been previously evaluated. However, the superiority of the type of music and during recovery is not yet clear. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the impact of music with a spicy and light beat on changes in lactate levels, blood pressure, heart rate, and appetite during the recovery period after the endurance swimming. Material and Methods. Thirteen healthy young girls participate in three control and experimental sessions. The participants performed a swimming. Immediately after swimming, they listened to music. Also, evaluations before and after (several times) swimming were performed.Results. Five minutes after swimming there was also a significant difference between the non-sound group with the music groups (p
, Nuri M. Çelik
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 163-168; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0402

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The aim of this study is to compare the hand grip power and creatine kinase levels of male and female U-17 National Team Athletes before and after a 6-week strength training. Material and Methods. 15 female and 15 male U-17 athletes, who previously participated in international competitions, participated in our study. Besides the hand grip power and creatine kinase values, age, height, weight, and BMI (body mass index) values of the athletes were measured before and after the training. As the conclusion of the measurements, the mean age of the female participant athletes was determined as 14,93 years, their mean height was 158,3 cm, and the mean age of the male athletes was 15,73 years, while their mean height was 173,1 cm. Results: As the conclusion of the measurements, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between the right hand grip power and left hand grip power parameters of male and female participant athletes measured before and after the 6-week training. Moreover, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test measurements of creatine kinase values of both male and female athletes (p> 0,05). Conclusions. As the conclusion, it was determined that the 6-week strength trainings applied to U-17 Judo National Team athletes caused significant changes in their hand grip power and creatine kinase values. The significant results obtained from our study are considered to be originated from the duration, scope, frequency, severity, and content of the training.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 175-180; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0404

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the differences between the young soccer players (U19) in terms of anthropometric characteristics and body composition. We considered players of three the most successful clubs in three countries of the southern region of the Balkan Peninsula. Material and Methods: The first sub-sample of the subjects was consisted of 19 players of FC Radnicki from Serbia of the average age 17.84±.37. The second sub-sample was consisted of 19 players of FC Sarajevo from Bosnia and Herzegovina of the average age of 17.53±.51. The last sub-sample of the examinees was consisted of 13 players of FC Shkupi from North Macedonia of the average age 18.00±.00. Anthropometric characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of 11 variables. The significance of the differences between the young soccer players in the anthropometric characteristics and variables for assessing body composition were determined by ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc test. Results: The young soccer players of the three mentioned clubs have statistically significant differences by the two variables that estimate fat percentage and muscle mass. The young soccer players of FC Radnicki are significantly better in variable fat percentage than other players. The young soccer players of FC Skhupi have significantly less muscle mass than other players. Conclusions: The results can be useful for coaches of other clubs for making a comparison of their soccer players with the young soccer players in this research.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 181-188; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0405

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the 24 hour response of appetite and energy intake and the amount of Agouti-Related Protein to the high intensity interval exercise in obese untrained women. Methods: Ten obese untrained women were voluntarily selected according to the criteria of the research and evaluated in two experimental and control sessions. Blood samples were collected in two sessions of control and experimental group in five stages. Also, the appetite questionnaire was completed in 9 steps. Also, energy intake was recorded by them during the day. Results: Agouti-Related Protein increased significantly in experimental session immediately after exercise compared to the control session (p0.05). Conclusions: Although a session of high intensity interval exercise resulted in reduced energy intake, but this reduction was not related to just one macronutrient. Hunger and desire to eat decreased after exercise and before lunch but the Agouti-Related Protein increased after exercise.
Kenioua Mouloud,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 203-207; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0408

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. The study aimed to know the level of social responsibility and job performance among the physical education professors and examine the relationship between the social responsibility and the job performance. Material and Methods. The participants were 29 physical educations professors (male) from Institute of Physical Education and Sport University of Ouargla. The social responsibility and the job performance scales were used as search tools. Data analyses were carried out by means of statistical packet for social sciences (SPSS) 26.00 software program. The Mean, Std. Deviation and Pearson Correlation were used in the main study. In addition, alpha-Cronbach was used in the exploratory study Results. The level of social responsibility and job performance is high among physical education professors, and there is a positive correlation between social responsibility and job performance. Conclusions. Given the importance of the role of social responsibility and job performance and the lack of enough studies in this specialization, it is necessary to conduct more additional studies that would serve knowledge in this specialization.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 157-162; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0401

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim. Taekwondo (TKD) is a combat sport emphasizing on kicking techniques and dynamic footwork. Specialized balance ability is crucial for Taekwondo practitioners. Nowadays balance could be improved with specific strength training such as blood flow restriction and plyometric training. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the effect of blood flow restriction (BFR) and pliometric training methods on the development of dynamic balance at the martial art of Taekwondo. Material and Methods. Totally 31 TKD athletes between 15-19 ages participated voluntarily and were divided into three groups as blood flow restriction (n=11), plyometric training (n=10) and control groups (n=10). In addition to normal taekwondo training, 8 week training programs were applied to the pliometric and blood flow restriction groups, and no training program was applied to the control group. At the beginning and after the trainings, dynamic balance ability measured with Prokin Tecnobody equipment for 30 seconds slalom test. Results. The difference between pre-test and post-test values of BFR group’s dynamic balance (antero-posterior sway) was found to be statistically different (p<.05) while according to the pliometric training results, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05). Also, there was not any difference in terms of gender (p>.05). Conclusions. Strength development is neccessary for dynamic balance improvement in athletes. Since taekwondo athletes use strength and balance ability for rapid kicking and change direction, these motor abilities are important for success. Based on the findings of this study; it is recommended that BFR method may be useful and so it can be included in training programs.
, I.B. Hrybovska, M.V. Danylevych,
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 151-156; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0308

Abstract:
Purpose: As the latest research shows, psychomotor development and motor learning of deaf children is garnering a great deal of attention from scientists. Effectively correcting the psychomotor development of hearing-impaired kids requires a deep understanding of the disorders, structures, depth, and the children’s potential motor learning capabilities. We believe this understanding can be reached with the Bernstein approach. However, we were able to find only a handful of studies on psychomotor development of hearing-impaired children from the point of view of the theory of how motor skills are formed. Based on this theory, the purpose of this study was to create a diagnostic program that can evaluate and analyze psychomotor disorders and uncover their mechanism in hearing impaired kids compared to their peers with normal hearing. Methods: The study included 54 children from primary schools in Lviv with normal hearing and 94 primary school children with hearing loss from the Lviv Specialized Boarding School named after Maria Pokrova №101 and the Zhovkiv Training and Rehabilitation Center “Zlagoda” (51 children with hearing loss and 43 deaf children). The research sample we chose was random and the children ranged in age from 7-8 years old. To study a single motor skill based on the involvement of multiple levels of central nervous system control, the jump model was chosen. The study consisted of 10 tests, each of which was rated on a 5point scale. Gathered and analysed data were used for the quantitative method. Result: It was established that children with hearing loss had psychomotor retardation on all motor skill levels compared to their peers with normal hearing. Hearing impaired children had a low level of static and dynamic coordination, speed of movement, and motor memory. The lowest level of development was purposeful movement. Conclusions: We identified specific psychomotor disorders in primary school children with hearing loss compared to their peers with normal hearing on all levels of motor skill formation, and found correlations between the overall assessment of hearing impaired children and the studied components by level of movement construction: for any motor activity, there is a primary level, which forms the foundation of the movement and all other levels that are activated when performing the movement. The aspects of sensory-motor functions in primary school children with hearing loss depend on the level of hearing loss and consist of an absence of coordination on multiple levels of movement construction.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 137-142; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0306

Abstract:
Background and Study Aim : Karate is going to take part in the Olympic games, for the first time in Tokyo 2020. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentration of karate practitioners performing different katas in competitive conditions. Material and Methods : This study consisted of five elite male athletes (26.80±5.97 years), members of the Bulgarian national team in Shotokan karate, competing in the kata discipline. The study was conducted in competitive conditions during national competitions, in which three katas were performed by each of the competitors. Capillary blood lactate concentration (La) was determined at rest and after each kata. Heart rate (HR) was registered and physical activity was monitored by using three-dimensional accelerometers. Results: The mean La increased progressively after each following kata: 1.4±0.32 mmol/L at rest, 4.7±1.91 mmol/L after the first, 6.8±2.59 mmol/L after the second, and 7.1±2.35 mmol/L after the third kata. This increase was significant after the second (р
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 125-128; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0304

Abstract:
Backgrounds and Study Aim: To determine whether the limb length-to-body ratio in young basketball players (15-18 years) is different in comparison to those who do not play basketball, and to contribute to the hypothesis that those with which body type can be more successful in basketball . Materials and Methods: The measurements were performed on 42 individuals (29 boys, 13 girls) who have played basketball for at least three years and 41 individuals (31 boys, 10 girls) who did not play basketball. A standard form was prepared for these measurements and the measurements were made according to this form. The data were summarized using mean and standard deviation values, and their accordance with normal distribution was evaluated with the Shapiro-Wilk test. The t-test was used for evaluating the independent samples. Values of p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 111-117; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0302

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a neuro-linguistic programming course on job stress, positive organizational behavior and job motivation among physical education teachers of Khorasan Razavi province of Iran. Material: The statistical population of the study consisted 150 physical education teachers of Khorasan Razavi province. 40 physical education teachers were selected as statistical sample. At first, the questionnaires of job stress of Steinmetz (2002), Luthans Psychological Capital questionnaire (2007) and Hackman job motivation questionnaire (1976) were administered to the subjects and then the subjects received the presented protocol. At the end of the course questionnaires were re-presented. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test at 5% error level. Results: The results showed that neuro-linguistic programming had a significant increase in job motivation and positive organizational behavior and a significant decrease in teachers' job stress (P
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 129-136; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0305

Abstract:
Purpose: To develop a module of need-motivational training tasks of the section “Volleyball for students aged 11-12”. The experiment involved the schoolchildren aged 11-12 (n=43). The schoolchildren had no contraindication to the physical education. Classes according to the author’s module of need-motivational teaching tasks were conducted with the secondary school students of the fifth form “A” (n=22, experimental class). Pupils of the fifth form “B” (n=21) took a traditional training program during the physical education lesson of the “Volleyball” section. The study was conducted for two months (October-December 2018). Each pupil used a fitness bracelet during the class monitoring the heart rate at a physical education lesson. Special testing was used in three blocks. The first block is the calculation of the number of correctly performed technical actions with the ball without a partner. The second block is the calculation of the technical actions in pairs through the net. The third block is an educational game. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using t-student test. Results: A significant (p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 118-124; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0303

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in body composition-dynamic balance and functional movement capacity of 60 female high school students with body mass index (BMI) over 24.9 before and after the eight-week zumba exercise program. Material: The study included 60 volunteer healthy young women whose body mass index was higher than 24.9 (mean age: 16.75 ± 0.43 years, mean weight: 75.99±10.91 kg, mean body fat: 36.83 ± 6.1%, BMI: 29.56 ± 4.12). The portable stadiometer Seca-213 was used to determine the lengths of the study group. TANITA-Bc 545 N Innerscan Segmental Body Composition Analyzer, “Y-Balance Test was implemented to determine the dynamic balance values for the lower and upper extremities, Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test was used to determine functional movement capacity. To determine the number of heart beats during zumba exercises, Polar M430 Heart Rate Monitor was used and a total of 24 zumba exercise sessions were conducted from three days a week for eight weeks. Results: According to the findings of the study, during the 8-week zumba training program, it is seen that it provided statistically significant improvement in total body weight loss (p=.000), BMI parameter (p=.000), body fat % (p=.002), FMS values (p=.000) and lower an upper extremity dynamic balance parameters (p=.000). Conclusions: It was found that the eight-week zumba training program had positive effects body composition values, functional mobility assessment results and dynamic balance parameters of high school students with a high body mass index of 15-17 years of age.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 106-110; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0301

Abstract:
Purpose: In this study, our aim was to determine the effects of wrestling shoes, wrestling mats and wrestling styles on postural deformation of the foot and to elaborate its possible causes. Material: Study group comprised of 158 athletes (109 males, 59 females) from 26 different countries who participated in the 12th World University Wrestling Championship. Of the athletes, 102 (59 females, 43 males) performed in freestyle and 56 performed in Greco-Roman style. The age range of the athletes was 19 to 31 years and they have done wrestling for 3 to 18 years. Were evaluated to determine the relationship between flatfoot deformity and gender, age, wrestling style and years in the sport. Footprint parameters were used to determine and evaluate the overall structure of the foot. The Staheli and the Chippaux-Smirak indexes were used in the study. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v.21.0 software, with the significance level set at α=0.05. Results: No significant relationship was found either between the gender of the wrestlers or their age and their pes planus state. A significant relationship was detected between the wrestling style performed and the wrestlers’ pes planus state, and between the years in the sport and their pes planus state. Conclusion: The fact that wrestlers wear the wrestling shoes for a long time can be a cause of pes planus. The center of mass of freestyle wrestlers shifts during continuous feet movement, and the surface of their soles extends the contact surface on the mat to maintain balance. This situation can also lead to a higher prevalence of pes planus in wrestlers. In addition, the wrestling shoes wrap around the Achilles tendon and thus the stretching of this tendon is restricted. Such restriction strengthens the opinion that freestyle wrestlers experience pes planus more.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 143-150; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0307

Abstract:
Purpose: Today physical training becomes an integral part of the European education system as it brings knowledge and insight centered on principles and concepts of the 21st-century learning skills. The article offers an analysis of the structural model, content and goals of the basic physical education projects in the professional teacher training system of Denmark. As this country has gained a positive experience in creating its own strategies for reforming of all the important teacher education components, based on the widespread use of modern motion-focused technologies in the learning process. Material: Data for this study were collected from multiple sources of Ukrainian, European and Danish educational environments at various time points from 1990 to 2019. Three cultural generations of 50 scientific articles that researched the topics of physical training teachers’ education have been chosen. Results: Our research reveals that the Danish strategy of “healthy nation” with the “sports-for-all” approach calls for the new generation teachers, pedagogically competent in their physical training subjects and able to promote healthy life thinking. Conclusions: Three major projects: “Learning in motion”, “Put the school into motion”, “Learning and Talent in Sport” brought considerable impact into physical training teacher education in the Danish environment, implementing innovative ideas of the close connection between learning abilities and physical activities. The research findings may be used in reforming physical training teacher education in Ukraine, especially its transformation from traditional to innovative type by means of the overall implementation of the modern strategies, assimilating movement and physical exercises into the teaching process.
N.V. Moskalenko, V.G. Savchenko, A.V. Polyakova, , , V.V. Griukova, A.V. Mytsak
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 77-84; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0205

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to determine the physical condition of the pupils of pre-school educational establishments of various types for improving the quality of the educational process of physical education. Material and methods . The study involved 3-4 year-old children. The children attended preschool institutions of various types in the city of Dnipro. They were the children's educational establishment №282 of the combined type, the children's educational establishment №192 of the sanatorium type, the children's educational establishment №28 of the compensating type, children's educational establishment №244 and №404 of general development. Control (n = 90) and experimental (n = 95) groups were created in each age group of a particular type of institution. The differentiation of pupils of institutions of different types into two subgroups was caused by their differences in functional indicators and health status. At the beginning of the experiment, the homogeneity of the studied groups of children was noted (p> 0.05). Results. The model of organization of rational motor mode of 3-4 year-old children has been substantiated and developed. Organizational and methodological bases of realization of the model of rational motor mode of 3-4 year-old children in preschool educational institutions of various types have been developed. The influence of the developed model on the physical condition of pupils of pre-school educational institutions of different types has been determined. The study of the anthropometric parameters of children after the implementation of the developed model showed no differences in these parameters. These differences were observed in children of different types of kindergartens in all sex-age groups. The determination of functional abilities of children resulted in a significant improvement in spirometry, respiratory rate, heart rate, Ruffier test in experimental groups of children of both sexes (p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 54-58; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0201

Abstract:
Aim:The aim of this study is to examine the effects of smoking addiction and physical activity on some of the respiratory functions in female university students. Methods:103 female students who did not have any health problems, who had an average age of 20,00 (years), average height of 163,6 (cm) and average weight of 55,88 (kg) participated in the study voluntarily. Female students who participated in the study were grouped according to their states of having smoking addiction (athlete, sedentary) and doing exercise (athlete, sedentary) and later some of the respiratory functions were measured. SPSS program was used in the statistical analysis of the data obtained. Shapiro-wilk test was used to find out the normality distribution of the data. Kruskal Wallis test was used in the analysis of the data which were not normally distributed and Mann-Whitney U test was used in sub-groups. Results: FVC(Forced Vital Capasity), FEV1(Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), FEV1(Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second )/FVC(Forced Vital Capasity), PEF(Peak Expiratory Flow), FEF25-75% (Forced Expiratory Flow at 25-75% ), VC(Vital Capacity) and MVV(Maximal Voluntary Ventilation) values of the female students who were engaged in sports were found to be significantly higher when compared with the groups which were not engaged in sports (p
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 64-71; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0203

Abstract:
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effects of participation in sports on the structural deformities of the foot. Methods: A total of 2013 athletes (1301 males, 712 females) who had regularly participated in sports for a minimum of three years were included in the study. Screening of the sole was performed using a podoscope as it is a reliable and practical device. The structure of the sole was evaluated with the highly valid Staheli index. Results: A significant relationship was detected between the ages of the athletes, years in sport, branch of sports variables and the prevalence of flat foot. However, no significant relationship was found between the athletes’ gender and the prevalence of flat foot. Conclusion: It is thought that the training regimes, the floor on which the sports is performed and the shoes used in sports had effects on flat foot deformity. Based on our results, we assert that redesigning the competition shoes and using sports shoes with arch support during warm-ups, running and other sportive and educational drills outside the routine activities of the sports branch may be beneficial for foot health.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 72-76; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0204

Abstract:
Propose: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of organizational climate on the Job Performance of Instructors’ Physical Education. Material: A quantitative method was employed for this purpose; a survey research design was used. There was 169 Instructors’ Physical Education preferred through stratified sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect the data. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics (linear and multiple regression). Results: The results of the study indicated that organizational climate affect job satisfaction significantly. All the dimensions of organizational climate contribute to increasing the Instructors’ Physical Education performance. Conclusion: The current study concluded that Instructors’ Physical Education not only feel comfortable in a healthy organizational climate but also increase their level of performance. The study also depicted that effective communication structure, reward system, teamwork, career development, and effective planning and decision making strategies are the valuable ingredients to enhance the performance of Instructors’ Physical Education. Recommendation: Keeping in view the results of the current study, it is recommended that head of the institution may focus or promote supportive culture in their respective educational institutions to enhance the performance of instructors’ physical education.
Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports, Volume 24, pp 59-63; doi:10.15561/26649837.2020.0202

Abstract:
Purpose: The study aimed to know the level of citizenship and the level of social responsibility among the teachers of physical education and examine the relationship between the citizenship and the social responsibility. Material: The participants were 49 physical educations teachers’ (male) from middle schools. The citizenship and the social responsibility scales were used as search tools. Results: the level of citizenship and social responsibility is high among teachers of physical education, and there is a positive correlation between citizenship and social responsibility. Conclusion: To enrich the results of this study it is better to do other studies in the future, such as a comparative study on citizenship among teachers of physical education in the middle and secondary stage, a study on citizenship and its relationship to cultural and social background.
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