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Results in Journal Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology: 40

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Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 78-89; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.078089

Abstract:
Traditional farming is labour-intensive, and the need to constantly check crops may be a strain on farmers. On another side, agricultural yield space is shrinking by the day. So, without a question, managing a huge amount of food that is legally right for us is a very difficult problem for any human being. There may always be a footprint available to meet the high demand. By achieving the idea of smart farming based on new technology by using the Internet of Things (IoT), the authors have presented a strategy in this study work by which a farmer may manage water irrigation, detect the total amount of brightness, and monitor the moisture level of soil and current status of crops using IoT. By utilizing such a technology, the farmer would obtain an auto lighting system, an auto water irrigation system, prohibit external vehicles, and conserve electricity by utilizing real-time data obtained from various types of sensors and utilizing a Wi-Fi system. The suggested system's hardware is all directly linked to the NodeMCU ESP8266. An algorithm has been created to manage the entire project. The solar panel will supply the entire system's necessary electric power, allowing us to save money, conserve electricity, and make the total system more environmentally friendly. This work’s suggested system can identify meteorological conditions that are beneficial to agriculture. This proposed concept has exceptional performance potential as an interface between sensors as input and the IoT as an output medium. The suggested system is compared to other existing systems in a variety of ways.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 65-77; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.065077

Abstract:
The education sector plays a vital role in achieving long-term economic and national development. During the last decades, due to the availability of resources and technology, efficient and higher standards in education have become easier to attain. The amount of data in educational institutions is growing rapidly. Through the data mining and machine learning methodologies, it has become easier to look into data from a different perspective and extract various information from the data. In our research, we use various algorithms to find out the correlation between features and predict students’ performance using their academic records. We try to find out the factors which affect and influence the performance of students. We implemented both unsupervised and supervised learning algorithms in our research. K-mean clustering has been used as an unsupervised learning method to group the students and find out the dependencies between the features. For prediction purposes, we use classification techniques like KNN and Linear Regression to predict students’ performance. Our research not only aims into finding useful information but also provides insight into students’ preferred teaching methods, potentiality, and performance. This information can guide the students for their future and guide them to their preferred fields according to their skill sets.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 52-64; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.052064

Abstract:
Flood bunds are earthen embankments constructed along rivers to control the floods. Historically speaking, floods in Indus River Basin (IRB) in Pakistan have been posing serious threats and damages to infrastructure and human lives. A long infrastructure of flood bunds (about 6807km) exists parallel to the main river to agricultural crops, human settlements, livestock, industries, etc. from the hydro-disasters arising from the floods in the country. Punjab Province has been severely hit by heavy floods causing severe loss to human lives, infrastructure, crops, livestock, etc. A study was carried out to evaluate the “health” of flood bunds by investigating their geotechnical, geometrical, geochemical, and hydraulic properties to ascertain strength against breaching during floods. A length of about 731 km of river Chenab in Punjab Province of Pakistan was selected to investigate the vulnerability of flood embankments at 78 sites of 38 flood bunds which were found critical after the 2014 flood in Pakistan. Different field activities including density test, measurement of geometrical parameters, collection of undisturbed/disturbed soil samples, physical inspections, and collection of ground-water samples from bore holes were performed. Laboratory tests including soil texture, Atterberg’s limits, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability, direct shear, etc. were performed in laboratories of Irrigation Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. An Index called river embankment breaching vulnerability index (REBVI) has been prescribed and calculated to evaluate the strength of the flood embankments against breaching. Cluster analysis has been carried out for different indicators keeping in view the value of REBVI. On the basis of REBVI and Cluster analysis, it was concluded that 11 out of 78 sites are showing high strength against the breaching action, while 35 sites indicated low potential against the breaching action. In other words, it has been found that the consistency of the embankment is very high for 11 sites and high for 35 flood bund sites. The consistency of the embankments is medium, low, and very low at the remaining 16, 12, and 4 flood bund sites due to moderate vulnerability, high probability of embankment breaching, and very high vulnerability respectively.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.045051

Abstract:
We can see considerable growth in the field of science and technology over the past few decades. This growth has also brought an enormous threat to the data used by users. Encryption and decryption of data play an important role in safeguarding the data. Many authors have contributed much outstanding research on unauthorized access to user data. In this journal, I have proposed an algorithm for data encryption using images. My main aim is to provide a new and highly customizable approach to protecting data using images and eliminating the use of plaintext. In my research, I will use images to encrypt and decrypt data rather than using plaintext.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.032044

Abstract:
The Earth Observation (EO) data of various Spatio-temporal resolutions are used to study potential sources of landslide hazards in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India. The studies are made in all the eight states of NER, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura on different project modes during the past decade. All types of landslides of various magnitudes and dimensions are triggered by rainfall, earthquakes, or by combined effects in this tectonically active region. Anthropogenic factors also play a role in places, particularly in urban areas. The NER is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, and it falls in the highest seismic risk zone, (Zone V), in the seismic zoning map of India. The region also receives much rainfall because of its geographic and climatic conditions. We report how the physiography, as well as the local geology, plays the main role in the failure of the rock formation and over-burden causing the landslide hazards, which create severe communication disruption and sometimes casualties. Fragile, soft, and weathered rock formations along the steep slope make the terrain much more susceptible to landslides. Deep-seated landslides disrupt transportation networks for a longer duration while shallow slides, mostly affect the urban life for a short duration. The reported causalities associated with landslide hazards are much high in the NER compared to other parts of India.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.027031

Abstract:
In the Bangla language, there are 50 complex-shaped characters and working with this huge amount of characters with an appropriate set of features is a tough problem to recognize handwritten characters. Moreover, ambiguity and precision errors are common in handwritten words. Furthermore, among a large number of complex-shaped letters, some are quite similar in shape, making handwritten Bangla characters difficult to recognize. In this work, we proposed a convolutional neural network-based approach for recognizing the handwritten Bangla alphabet. In character recognition, the convolutional neural network (CNN) outperforms most of the other models. However, to guarantee a satisfactory performance, CNNs usually need a great number of samples. Bangla handwriting recognition has been a hot topic for several years, but due to the similarity of many Bangla characters, it's difficult to achieve good results. By training and testing on Bangla character datasets, the model gets a 90.22% validation accuracy for Bangalekha isolated dataset and 93.22% validation accuracy for the Ekush dataset.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.013026

Abstract:
The rapid growth of Deep Learning (DL) based applications is taking place in this modern world. Deep Learning is used to solve so many critical problems such as big data analysis, computer vision, and human brain interfacing. The advancement of deep learning can also causes some national and some international threats to privacy, democracy, and national security. Deepfake videos are growing so fast having an impact on political, social, and personal life. Deepfake videos use artificial intelligence and can appear very convincing, even to a trained eye. Often obscene videos are made using deepfakes which tarnishes people's reputation. Deepfakes are a general public concern, thus it's important to develop methods to detect them. This survey paper includes a survey of deepfake creation algorithms and, more crucially we added some approaches of deepfake detection that proposed by researchers to date. Here we go over the problems, trends in the field, and future directions for deepfake technology in detail. This paper gives a complete overview of deepfake approaches and supports the implementation of novel and more reliable methods to cope with the highly complicated deepfakes by studying the background of deepfakes and state-of-the-art deepfake detection methods.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.008012

Abstract:
Electrification of the rural areas which are located far from the grid is comparatively more expensive due to the high cost associated with power transmission. Renewable energy-based hybrid micro-grid systems can be a cost-effective method for the supply of electricity in these remote areas. This study aims at assessing the technical and economic viability of a hybrid micro-grid system for rural areas of Bangladesh. A hybrid microgrid system consisting of PV solar cells, wind turbine, and Diesel Generator has been designed for remote regions of Kuakata, Patuakhali. A combination of different technologies capable of generating electricity has been used to ensure the reliable and continuous supply of electrical power. HOMER, a simulation software, has been used for optimizing multiple energy sources to maintain an uninterrupted supply of power in a cost-effective way. Finally, cost analysis and consistency checking have been done by another simulation software called RETScreen.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.022.01007

Abstract:
As a sustainable alternative to fossil fuel, hydropower is becoming increasingly popular since the concern over global warming is growing worldwide. Conventional hydropower technology involves the use of hydraulic turbines, which require a large static head of water created by constructing a dam across the river. This technology, though widely used, has a negative impact on river hydrology and aquatic lives. Hydrokinetic turbine, on the other hand, having a working principle similar to wind turbine doesn’t require a dam or barrier and has negligible impact on the aquatic environment. Bangladesh being the land of rivers can effectively implement hydrokinetic turbine-based technology for supplying electricity in off-grid remote areas. In this article, a review of hydrokinetic turbine technology for extracting the kinetic energy of rivers and oceans has been conducted. The status, merits, and applications of this technology have been briefly discussed. Finally, the prospect of this technology in Bangladesh has been assessed.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 128-136; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.01280136

Abstract:
Recently, the degradation of concrete has become a serious problem worldwide and one of the principle factors of degradation is the carbonation process. It is well established that environmental conditions affect the carbonation progress of concrete among the most important factors that can greatly affect the carbonation resistance of concrete are relative humidity (RH) and temperature. Carbonation has become a threat to concrete structures, especially in urban and industrial areas. Thus, it is necessary to have a proper design to maintain the structure's stability against degradation caused by carbonation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental and climatic conditions on the carbonation rate of concrete. The specimens were prepared using OPC and fly ash (FA). After 28 days of air curing, specimens were exposed to different climate conditions under sheltered and un-sheltered conditions. The carbonation tests were conducted at the ages of 6 and 12 months. It was found that the carbonation rates were significantly influenced by the climate and environmental conditions; the specimens exposed to a relatively dry environment and low annual precipitations have shown higher carbonation during one-year exposure. Moreover, in unsheltered conditions, the annual precipitation significantly affects the carbonation rate of concrete. Furthermore, it was observed that a 20% replacement of FA does not enhance the carbonation resistance of concrete.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 119-127; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.01190127

Abstract:
In the current condition, it is difficult to increase plant development and reduce expenses in agricultural sectors; nevertheless, an advanced thought leads to the use of an automated model that introduces automation in the irrigation system, which can aid in improved water and human resources management. An automated model has been developed using sensors and microcontroller technology, to make the most efficient use of water supply for irrigation. A soil moisture content detector is inserted into the soil of the crops, and an ultrasonic sensor is placed above the soil of the crops to measure the water level after irrigation has begun. A C++ program with threshold values for the moisture sensor was used to start the system in the crop field depending on the soil moisture level, and an ultrasonic sensor was used to control the water in the crop field. The Arduino UNO board is a microcontroller inbuilt of Atmel in the mega AVR family (ATMega328) and the sensors were used to lead the model in turning ON/OFF. A microcontroller was included in this model to run the program by receiving sensor input signals and converting them to soil water content and water level values in the crop field. The microcontroller began by receiving input values, which resulted in an output instructing the relay to turn on the groundwater pump. An LCD screen has also been interfaced with the microcontroller to show the percentage of moisture in the soil, field water level, and pump condition. When the soil moisture level reaches 99 percent and the water level reaches 6 cm after 2.5 and 4 minutes, respectively, the pump is turned off. This model, according to the study, might save water, time, and reduce human effort.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 97-118; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.0970118

Abstract:
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), At least 2.2 billion individuals worldwide have near or far vision impairment out of 7.9 billion populations. In at least 1 billion cases, or about half of them, vision impairment might have been prevented or is currently untreated. The primary causes of vision impairment and loss are uncorrected errors and eye disorders. The majority of persons over the age of Fifty have visual impairment or blindness. Visual impairment or visual misfortunes are two terms that might be used to describe visual handicaps. This impairment makes it difficult for them to go about their daily activities such as shopping, strolling, mingling, and driving. The white stick is regarded as a symbol of opportunity, liberty, and security. In this paper, we attempted to discuss a comprehensive study of all the equipment and systems related to the simplification of visually impaired people's daily lives. Those devices can be portable or wearable or could be a system to detect objects. The emphasis was on the striking characteristics of that equipment, as well as the analysis was conducted predicated on a few variables such as power usage, mass, economics, and client. The aim was always to lay the groundwork for future researchers in the area by developing a handheld device or an efficient algorithm to protect visually impaired people.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 82-96; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.082096

Abstract:
The experiment was conducted in two consecutive crop seasons (2015-16 and 2016-17) at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Hathazari, Chattogram during Rabi season (November to March) with 3 duplicate laid out Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to compare the rehearsal of high-placed outcome, early maturing and heat tolerant varieties under increasing temperature. BARI released early maturing wheat varieties were used for optimum sowing time and heat tolerance as an adaptive mechanism suffering from terminal heat stress. Six heat-tolerant early maturing wheat varieties were (BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, BARI Gom 27, BARI Gom 28, BARI Gom 29, and BARI Gom 30). The highest crop output was gained from BARI Gom 30 (4.33 t/ha) followed by BARI Gom 26 (4.06 t/ha) in a couple of years. The lowest yield was found from BARI Gom 27 (2.66t/ha) followed by BARI Gom 29 (3.53 t/ha), BARI Gom 28 (3.36 t/ha), and BARI Gom 25 (3.13 t/ha) both years. Crop output of wheat and amount of spike showed significant difference and rest of the parameters were insignificant. The earliest maturing variety was BARI Gom 30 and produced a maximum crop yield than others. BARI Gom 30 showed a maximum benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 1.73 and BARI Gom 27exhibited the lowest benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 1.06. This result of the experiment showed that early high yielding variety and the best adaptive variety was BARI Gom 30 among the six varieties in Chattogram.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.073081

Abstract:
In an emergency, an urgent blood transfusion from a person to the patient is required and blood group identification is the first process to do so. In addition, a hemoglobin test is often required to make decisions about blood transfusion as well as to check anemia. Hemoglobin testing is also required for complete blood count and monitoring a number of diseases. These blood tests are almost difficult in rural areas where lab facilities are not sufficient. Researchers proposed a number of methods to identify blood groups using computer vision techniques. However, no study was conducted to identify blood group and hemoglobin level in a work using image processing techniques and an android mobile application which shows high detection accuracy. In this paper, manual clinical experiments have been replaced by an android app using image processing techniques to detect blood groups and hemoglobin levels except users require using antigen before taking samples. The proposed technique is divided into two portions. The first portion is blood group detection, which is done by taking a blood sample and performing the grayscale conversion, binary conversion, segmentation, edge detection, and computation to make the decision. The second section describes how to determine hemoglobin levels by comparing a blood sample image to a hemoglobin color scale (HCS). Here, the Hemoglobin value is determined from their RGB values. It has been discovered that the proposed approaches are capable of detecting hemoglobin levels and blood groups in a cost-effective and error-free manner. As a result, the tests can be conducted in a remote area without adequate lab facilities and the proposed work can solve major steps in blood transfusion difficulties and anemia.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 57-63; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.057063

Abstract:
A wireless robotic system has been proposed for radiation measurement and monitoring around nuclear facilities. The purpose of the robot is to assist the radiation workers from getting unwanted radiation exposure. The system includes a ground vehicle, GM tube-based radiation counting unit, Raspberry Pi, Pi camera module, and web-based controlling and monitoring unit. With the developed robotic system, the robot is controlled from a server to be moved towards the desired location and measure the radiation level. Radiation level of natural back several radioactive point sources (Cs 137, Co 60, Mn 54) located at different places in the laboratory, has been measured and compared with a GM tube-based commercial survey meter Gamma Scout, w/ALERT model. Analyzing the measured data a deviation has been found varying from 0.29 to 2.18. The proposed system is suitable for radiation detection and measurement in absence of radiation workers in nuclear facilities.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.045056

Abstract:
LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) has revolutionized the approach to time series prediction many folds due to its appropriate capability to forecast through Non-Linear forecasting methods. It’s observed that RNN has the capability to similarly think through given enough training in accordance to desired functionality models. Due to the Gated Structure referring to storing relevant information and forgetting the irrelevant information’s LSTM made revolutionary accomplishments towards non-linear forecasting that is dependent on human-like behavior. In this research, we have focused on making a comparison between two different portfolio’s which will depend upon LSTM’s future forecasting capability in terms of predicting the best possible output which gets illustrated through Portfolio Optimization principles
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 64-72; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.064072

Abstract:
This study investigated the management of household solid waste in Kabul city, a planned urban city in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. The study involved assessment of waste quantification and composition, handling, collection, and disposal as well as public concern and attitude towards waste management. A questionnaire survey was conducted from 270 households (10%) selected on the basis of stratified random sampling. Quantification/ composition was determined by manually sorting and weighing daily waste from sampled households using the standard method ASTM-D5231-92. The solid waste generated per capita was 0.557±0.138 kilograms per capita per day (kg/c/d) (SD=0.138) and (3.75±0.33 kilograms per household per day (kg/h/d) whereas the total waste generation from Kabul city was estimated at 9.5 tons/d with a major fraction of food waste (92.5%) followed by glass (1.8%), metal and yard waste (1.6% each), paper (1.4%) and plastic (1.1%) insight income families. Nearly one-third of the households had no storage and practiced open disposal in street sand empty plots. Waste collection by the municipal authority was unsystematic and random with daily collection from only 10% of the households mostly using donkey carts. Key issues of public concern were improper solid waste management, waste burning, pollution of water bodies, disposal in empty plots and streets, and open dumping. Public awareness about solid waste issues was high however only 15% showed a willingness to pay for waste management.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.034044

Abstract:
A survey was conducted to investigate rice storage practices at the farmer’s level and the prevalence of insects’ status through a pretested questionnaire in Mymensingh and Jashore districts, Bangladesh. For seed purposes, large, medium, and small farmers store about 40, 10, and 5 kg, respectively in the Aman season for 7 months whereas in the Boro season large and medium farmers keep about 80 and 20 kg for 5 months. Average storage time was the highest (7 months) for Boro and Aman rice by large and small farmers, respectively for consumption. Eleven storage items namely, Dole, Motka, Tin, Plastic Drum, Gunny Bag, Bamboo Gola, Dhari, Bamboo Auri, Berh, Steel Drum, and Plastic Bag were found. About 57 and 74% of farmers stored rice, among them 47 and 58% used traditional Dole in Jashore and Mymensingh, respectively. Tin and Berh (1%) were the least used storage structures. About 11 and 17%; 3 and 4% of farmers used neem leaf and chemicals especially phostoxin in storage as an insect repellent in these areas, respectively. The use of Plastic Bags increased sharply due to lightweight, availability, and low price, whereas Bamboo Gola, Berh, Motka users decreased remarkably. Relative abundance of the insect species was: Rice Moth Sitotroga cerealla, Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae, Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castoreum, and Lesser Meal Worm Alphitobious diaperinus. Maximum insect infestation was found in stored paddy in Dole followed by Motka, and Plastic Bag; and the least amount was observed in Plastic Drum in both regions. Three fourth of the respondents took no measures to control insect pests in stored rice.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 26-33; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.026033

Abstract:
In septic tanks, various types of toxic and non-toxic gases are found such as Carbon-di-Oxide (CO2), Carbon-mono-Oxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Methane (CH4), and so on. In this paper, a toxic gas detection system for a septic tank has been presented, where MQ-135, MQ-136, MQ-4, and MQ-7 sensors are employed for combined detection of CO2, H2S, CH4, and CO gases respectively. With the change of concentration of gases, the sensor resistance changes, and accordingly an analog voltage is produced across the sensor. The analog voltages from the sensors are fed to a microcontroller, which reads the values and converts the values into gas concentration in PPM (parts per million). The PPM values for all four gases are displayed on an LCD, where two levels are assigned as “Safe” and “Danger” based on the concentration of each gas. “Safe” status means the concentration of gas is not harmful and “Danger” status means the concentration of gas is harmful. A buzzer will give an alarm when the gas concentration status becomes “Danger”. Furthermore, a Bluetooth device is interfaced with the microcontroller for transferring the gas concentration data to a smartphone. For the Smartphone, application software has been developed to monitor the concentration of each toxic gas. The prototype system has been developed and tested which gives satisfactory results. It is supposed to be a helpful and cost-effective system for cleaners working in septic tanks.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 21-25; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.021025

Abstract:
General Relativity describes the movement of bodies in strong gravitational fields with the geometrical structure of the dynamical space-time continuum. Accelerating objects produce changes in the curvature which propagate outwards at the speed of light in a wave-like manner which transports energy as gravitational radiation and this phenomenon are known as gravitational waves.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 10-20; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.01020

Abstract:
This study represents work in progress towards a complete system of a humanoid robot. With this aim, the system must be capable to interact with a human, Give response to the question, do gestures, assist with finding an information, remember different types of thing, find internet data regarding the user’s query, find errors in its system and save a log file in order to further development and debug, autonomous servo control with the help of PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controlling. Open CV, Servo Control (Head) the system integrates with facial and object recognition to achieve its objectives based on PID quality, among other advanced capabilities derived from Open CV (camera). Details of the implementation of the currently developed system will be displayed. Towards the end, after success in the preliminary results obtained on our campus, we are encouraged to do so in order to obtain a complete prototype.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.021.0109

Abstract:
End the age of digitalization, data generated from numerous online and offline sources in every second. The Data are having a considerable amount of size and several properties termed as Bigdata. It is challenging to store, manage processes, analyze, visualize, and extract useful information from Bigdata using traditional approaches in local machines. To resolve this cloud computing platform is the solution. Cloud computing has high-level processing units, storage, and applications that do not depend on user devices' performance. Many users can access resources and demanded services remotely from the cloud on a pay-as-use basis. That is why users are not needed to buy and install costly resources locally. Some cloud services providers are Google, AWS, IBM, and Microsoft, and they have their Bigdata analyzing robust systems and products in a cost-efficient manner. There are many Cloud Service Providers (CSP's) having different services of Bigdata analyzing filed. However, we discuss in the paper about an excellent service BigQuery in the Data warehouse product of Google to analyze and represent numerous samples of datasets in real-time for making the right decisions within a short time.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 113-116; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.01130116

Abstract:
Almost all solar electricity generation systems are now operated with flat plate solar panels. These flat plate solar panels have a lot of expensive collector area although still deliver only low-grade temperature which is a boundless problem for assuring the optimum uses of the rated capacity of solar panels. Using heliostats can reduce this problem significantly. Heliostats consist of a single or a set of mirrors that track the sun’s position and reflect the sun rays into a central receiving point. With the movement of the sun, these mirrors are adjusted accordingly to track the sun to ensure the highest amount of sunlight reflected onto the same collection point. The system is cheaper than any other solar tracking system presently used in our country. This paper describes an improved design of a solar electricity generation system having a capacity of 1Wp with heliostats on an experimental basis. It will also demonstrate a comparison of a generation of a 1Wp solar system with and without heliostats. Successful outcomes of this experiment will lead us to implement the heliostats-based tracking system into the large-scale solar electricity generation systems.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 106-112; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.01060112

Abstract:
The use of jute fabrics is showing an increasing trend in textile, building and automobile sectors. Electrical properties such as conductivity, resistance, di-electric constant, insulation, etc. are the essential factor for consideration for using jute fabrics in these sectors. For this reason, a study was carried out to find out the changes in electrical properties of woven and nonwoven jute fabrics at different input voltage. The electrical resistance of jute fabrics was measured by a digital impedance meter. Effects of input voltage, gauge length, and type of fabrics on electrical resistance were studied and analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the electrical resistance of woven and needle punched nonwoven jute fabrics decreased with the increase of input voltage and increased with the increase in gauge length. The highest value of electrical resistance in woven jute fabrics was 394 Mohm/cm at 2 cm gauge length and 60 V of the input voltage. In nonwoven jute fabrics, the maximum electrical resistance was 257 M ohm/cm which was obtained at 2 cm gauge length and 60 V of electrical resistance. Woven jute fabric showed a higher value of resistance than nonwoven jute fabric for different voltages. It was also observed that the electrical resistance varied with the type of fabrics used in this study.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 91-100; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.0910100

Abstract:
This study was designed to investigate the production merchandising of a denim pant. Denim pants are a significant prospect for the RMG sector in Bangladesh with a huge future. Without a doubt, pricing is the key important factor in the global competitive market. It is difficult to stay in the clothing market without spending the minimum on clothing. The research center on the whole factor which is directly involved to the FOB cost of basic denim pants where it includes textile cost, labor cost, and accessories cost, savings, charge making cost, washing and packing cost which are shown chronologically. With the aim that the total price spans can be contained as well as demonstrating the sum FOB cost. Merchandising means buying, producing, and selling any goods or products, or services for the local or international market. All activities related to the export purchase collection of any garment of a certain design for a certain quantity, production of the garment with precise attention to the garment level required for garment analysis, production of that quantity of garment required, and production timetable and exporting the samples within the fixed time frame, maybe called apparel merchandising. In production merchandising, a production merchandiser executed production-related all activities in the garments factory. In this study, basic 5 pocket denim pant (ladies) is used and the total order size was 23920pcs. The importer and Country name was Pizzaitalia-Italy.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 101-105; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.01010105

Abstract:
This study was calculated to investigate the time and action (TNA) plan of a T-shirt manufacturing. A time and action calendar determine the final date/time in which the main activities of an order should be against a scheduled distribution window. To ensure timely supply within a specific delivery date of buyers in the knit garments industry, Time and Action Calendar or TNA, a popular tool that is used for tracking and following up in preproduction processes. The acquaintance about the TNA plan will also help to organize the production time-efficient manner that is better production on lead time from buyers. Creating a TNA The calendar doesn't just flow the name and duration of the activity; It’s also about technically The duration of the activity works, understandably determining the foregoing and subsequent activities. TNA is the table of activities of specific order and Process flow Sort by the table of tasks that require to be finished. The two key important dates are the cut-off date (PCD) and the ex-factory date as per the TNA plan. TNA largely turned on the order, the prerequisites of the machine, and the specific approach flow of available yield capacity. TNA plan is measured by the time frame which is related to buyers' lead time to export a particular order. The TNA obtained by taking it the requisition of 8101 pieces of a basic t-shirt, made out of 95% cotton and 5% elastane 160 GSM single jersey fabrics. The order is for SS 2019 and the buyer is GAP, delivery date October 8, 2019, and shipment at New York, USA.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 85-90; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.085090

Abstract:
Advancement in medical science has always been one of the most vital aspects of the human race. With the progress in technology, the use of modern techniques and equipment is always imposed on treatment purposes. Nowadays, machine learning techniques have widely been used in medical science for assuring accuracy. In this work, we have constructed computational model building techniques for liver disease prediction accurately. We used some efficient classification algorithms: Random Forest, Perceptron, Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for predicting liver diseases. Our works provide the implementation of hybrid model construction and comparative analysis for improving prediction performance. At first, classification algorithms are applied to the original liver patient datasets collected from the UCI repository. Then we analyzed features and tweaked to improve the performance of our predictor and made a comparative analysis among the classifiers. We examined that, KNN algorithm outperformed all other techniques with feature selection.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 77-84; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.06677084

Abstract:
In the modern age, wireless communication is very helpful in various mobile antenna communication systems. In mobile communication systems, the transmission of data transfer rates is very high and it plays an important role in several services like video, top-quality audio, and mobile integrated service digital network. During the transmission of data at higher data transmission rates through the mobile radio channels, the channel impulse response can spread over many symbol periods as well as cause inter-symbol interference (ISI). Wireless transmission is suffering from fading and interference effects which may be combated with equalizer. Due to fading and interference, it creates a problem for signal recovery in wireless communication. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different types of equalizers such as ZF and MMSE for BPSK modulation. The simulation result has been developed by using MATLAB toolbox version 2015a and a multi-tap ISI channel is considered. By analyzing the simulation result it shows that if the number of tap lengths is increasing, BER will decrease in ZF equalizer. And finally shows BER vs SNR comparison of two different types of an equalizer and is able to find out MMSE performance is better than ZF equalizer.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 66-76; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.066076

Abstract:
Tanguar haor is located in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and frequently experienced extreme events such as high rainfall that affect the haor basin area with flash floods on a regular basis. Tanguar haor is usually foreseen to severe disastrous conditions for the reason of changes in rainfall patterns and water extent. The study was conducted at Tanguar haor of Sunamganj district. This study mainly focuses on the year to year rainfall variability (2001-2018) and water extent (2002-2018) in the Tanguar haor area. The specific objective of the study was to explore the effect of rainfall variability and water extent in Tanguar haor. Information and data were collected mainly from secondary sources. Analysis of data and assess the ecological effect of changes in rainfall patterns and water extent were the main activities of the study along with others. The findings of the study were changeability in rainfall patterns and water extent frequently caused a flash flood in pre-monsoon and monsoon season in the Tanguar haor area. Flash flood causes a vast amount of financial loss for the living people of the Tanguar haor that makes them more vulnerable to live well. The result of this study may help to gather new knowledge on the consequences of rainfall variability and water extent in the haor basin area. It may add significance to the management of flash flood and severe stress in the haor basin area.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 54-65; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.054065

Abstract:
In modern life, with the ability to perform tasks, the virtual assistant (VA) can make our lives easier and smart. The virtual assistant can perform as a librarian, very smartly, and effectively. We build our VA with Raspberry Pi and Alexa Voice Service. As a result, few discussions that occur in library environments such as find books, short review books, university notice are accurately performed. The common way of communication used by people in day to day life is through speech. If the assistant system can be heard to the customer for the handle of the day to day affairs, then grant the right reply, it will be much simple for customers to transmit with their assistant system, and the assistant will be much better “Smart” as a personal assistant. We heard a very old story “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves”, where the mouth of a treasure cave secured by magic. It unrolls on the words "unroll sesame" and seals itself on the words "near sesame". The magic is a VA in the modern world. The VA system built on artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, natural language processing, and voice recognition technology.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 42-53; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.042053

Abstract:
Column adsorption of the As (III) & As (V) using rice husk mediated carbon embedded silica (CES) and zeolite (Z-RHA) has been proved promising technique rather than the other conventional methods. The present work investigates the adsorption capability of newly manufactured CES and Z-RHA to remove As (III) & As (V) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis have been investigated for the characterization of synthesized materials. The effects of different parameters like initial concentrations, column diameter, column height, particle size distribution have been investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of CES adsorbents for As (III) is 98% and for As (V) is 85%, and of Z-RHA for As (III) is 95% and for As (V) is 92%. To describe the adsorption behavior the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models as well as to kinetics models like Adam-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon Nelson model were applied. Finally, to dispose of the rice husk mediated adsorbents after arsenic treatment solidification has been done.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 31-41; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.031041

Abstract:
In Bangladesh, disposal of raw sewage directly into the streams is a common culture. Installing a complete wastewater treatment plant everywhere is not possible for developing or least developed countries. Bar screen can be advantageous in separating solid waste from the raw sewage. Solid waste separation from municipal sewage can play an important role in improving the environmental condition. The objective of this study was to observe the effect of bar screen in raw sewage pretreatment. This study was carried out in Khulna city area to investigate the condition of forty-seven outfalls through which the raw sewage is being disposed to the streams. As part of the study, a bar screen was temporarily installed on a drain inside Khulna University of Engineering & Technology campus. The capability and effect of the temporarily installed bar screen were observed and studied over a period of time. From twelve hours of observation of the installed bar screen, around 20% removal found for BOD and COD. Reduction of electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) found near 20% also. Removal percentage of BOD, COD, EC, and TDS obtained higher after one hour of installing the bar screen while 24 hours of observation exhibited a comparatively lower rate of removal. The optimum condition of the bar screen notified at 12 hours which indicated the incorporation of cleaning procedure after every twelve hours to sustain the performance. Furthermore, the differences between raw sewage and bar screen treated sewage were studied; and the possibility of using bar screens on every outfall of Khulna city area was discussed in this study.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.024030

Abstract:
In this paper, the finite volume method has been used to investigate one-dimensional conductive heat transfer throw a uniform plane wall. Then the step by step procedures of this numerical solution is described and implemented in a real-world problem where tri-diagonal matrix algorithm and Gaussian elimination matrix method are applied to solve the system of our discretized algebraic system of equations. Finally, to check the accuracy of our method, a comparison between the numerical solution obtained by finite volume techniques and the exact solution is presented which shows a minimum error compared to other existing methods.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.016023

Abstract:
The number of transistors per chip, feature sizes, frequencies, transistor densities, number of cores, thermal design powers, die areas, and storage capacities of Integrated Circuits (ICs) used for different processing units and memories were collected from various websites from 1973 to 2019 and plotted against year of introduction of ICs in semi-log paper to find the trend with R-squared (R2) value using Microsoft Excel. The R2 values of the trend lines for the above parameters were over 0.922 which indicated that more than 92% of data satisfied the fitting lines except for thermal design power (R2 = 0.7) and die area (R2 = 0.4 to 0.6). It was observed that the growths of transistor counts, transistor densities, frequencies, and thermal design powers for different processing units were growing exponentially and doubled every 16.8 to 24 months from 1973 to 2019 except the growth of thermal design powers (TDP) and frequencies of ICs which were increased up to 2003. After that, the growth of TDP and frequencies are nearly linear up to the present day. The growth of the above parameters for ICs of different memories was a little faster, it was doubled every 14 to 16 months. The feature sizes shrunk 2 times every 18 months. A strong relation was found between feature sizes and transistor densities (R2 = 0.9) and observed that one fold of feature size decreased for the increasing of 2-3 folds of transistor densities. It was observed that different parameters for ICs designing from 1973 to 2019 kept pace with Moore's law. It may be concluded that the decrease of feature size, increasing of transistor count and transistor density in ICs design will follow Moore's law for some more years with the limitation of frequency and power of ICs.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.07015

Abstract:
As Bangladesh is an agricultural country, the economy, as well as the food security of this country, mostly depends on the production level of different crops over the year. Therefore, there exists immense pressure on exaggerated crop production due to the fast growth of the population. But, the average production level is being hampered by the bad nature of the weather. We have conducted a survey on near about 100 farmers of two northern districts of Bangladesh: Pabna and Rajshahi and assessed the impact of rough nature on production. According to farmers and agriculturalists, it is noticed that rough weather causes about 30% to 70% production shortage than expectation with all other factors remaining constant. In this study, we have adopted Human-computer interaction (HCI) based approach (Soft System Methodology-SSM) to this aspect for efficacious collaboration with root-level farmers and agricultural trainers providing ease for understanding weather-related issues on the production of crops. Finally, some machine learning algorithms were also implemented on the obtained dataset to accurately classify the range of production level of rice and a comparison is made among the algorithms based on performance metrics. Moreover, an android based application is created to depict the summary of the study.
Sharmin Akter
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.020.0106

Abstract:
In this research, the electrical resistance of needle-punched non-woven jute fabric at different input voltage was measured. Here, to determine the electrical resistance, a device named the digital impedance meter has been used. The specific resistance for the different gauge lengths of non-woven jute fabric has been observed to enhance the use of jute fabric for electrical purposes. It has been observed that the electrical resistance increased with the higher value of gauge length and decreased with the increase of input voltage.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.019.21030

Abstract:
The comparison of the quality parameter between Cotton and melange processes for different count and melange ratios have been studied. Here the yarns are produced from Indian cotton, Australia cotton, US cotton, China Black Viscose, and Indian Black Viscose (Melange). During the project work, different properties for the different machines in the same setting and ratios have been observed. All observations have completed by the latest model LMW (LR 9/AX) Auto Doffer Ring Machine. The quality parameters, for instance, mass irregularity (U%, CVm%,) Imperfection index (IPI), Count Strength Product (CSP), and hairiness were tested and then analyzed. For melange yarn, for different ratios, the best results have been given by 100% cotton yarn, because there is no blending between two different fibers. The quality parameter and characteristics have been presented for different types of fiber (100 % cotton, Black Viscose) and produced yarn (100 % Cotton, 5% Melange, 10% Melange, and 15 % Melange ratio) from the fiber. The productivity of melange yarn base on different condition is increased than 100% cotton yarn.
Ripon Bagchi
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 14-20; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.019.14020

Abstract:
Bangladesh is likely to be one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate change due to geographical location and geo-morphological conditions. Bangladesh experiences extremely disastrous situations like a cyclone, flood, saline water intrusion, water logging, heavy rainfall, river erosion, storm surge, etc. that occur frequently in the coastal part of Bangladesh. This results in a huge loss of lives, damages properties and degrades the integrity of the environmental components. This study was conducted on 2 villages (Chotta Chalna and Shivnagar) of Dacope Upazila of Khulna district with the purpose of assessing existing climate change adaptation scenarios and techniques for mitigating climate change-related risks. Necessary data were collected from various sources namely direct household survey, focus group discussion, and key informants interview and from various journals, related thesis papers. About 46% of the respondents cited cyclone is the most terrific type hazard and 17.33% of respondents cited salinity intrusion is the second devastating type hazard that they faced. The results show that the study area climate change risks are very high and existing climate change adaptation techniques are not effective enough to mitigate the risks. Sustainable climate change adaptation strategies are much needed to mitigate the climate change risks of the study area.
Tarequl Islam
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 6-13; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.019.06013

Abstract:
The security factor is one of the major concerns in today’s world. As security is the breath of communication, as much as we can make our communication system secure, the system will be more trustworthy and be more restricted to snap as well as can save guard from the unauthorized attempt. Either symmetric or asymmetric encryption was used in the earlier method to ensure data security. However, any of them alone makes the system either unsecured or time-consuming. In our thesis work, we have used both the techniques together to make the system as much as reliable and also to make it faster using the hybridization of asymmetric RSA encryption and symmetric modified vigenere technique. This hybridization method sends the vigenere table as an encrypted string using an asymmetric process with the collaboration of the RSA encryption algorithm where the string will be encrypted by the public key generated by the receiver. Later the string will be decrypted using the receiver’s private key. Therefore, we can claim that the extended vigenere method with the collaboration of RSA makes the overall communication more secure, stable, reliable, and faster.
Australian Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.34104/ajeit.019.0105

Abstract:
A theoretical work has done to observe the existence of dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in a multi-ion dusty plasma system consisting of inertial positive and negative ions, Maxwell’s electrons, and arbitrary charged stationary dust. In this short communication, our research declares that with these components the derivation of Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and mixed K-dV (mK-dV) is possible. Here reductive perturbation method has been employed in all these approaches. The first K-dV equation has been derived which gave both bright and dark solitons but for a very limited region. Then the mK-dV equation has been derived that gave bright soliton for a large region, but no dark soliton has been observed.
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