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V. Bogolyubov, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, S. Pustova
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.005

Abstract:
An important direction in the development of regional policy is the realization of the active role of regions as subjects of transition to sustainable development of society. Scientific support of regional management requires additional social and ecological-economic system researches taking into account indicators and factors of sustainable development. On the way to the implementation of the concept of sustainable development of the regions, the main problem is the need to develop an effective system for assessing the progress made in this direction with the help of qualitative and quantitative indicators. After all, these indicators should cover three important components of sustainable development of the regions, provide reliable information for further evaluation and forecasting, be understandable to all stakeholders. Today, there is no single approach to determining both the number of indicators to effectively assess the sustainability of regional development and the issues they should cover. Without effective indicators of sustainable development it is impossible to ensure high quality and efficiency of the management decision-making process in all spheres of society. The article identifies and substantiates a set of environmental indicators and indicators that are used to develop projects for the development of settlements and regions. The authors identify the main problems associated with the assessment of sustainable development in the regions and outline the prospects for further research in this area. A brief analysis of indicator systems for forecasting the state of the environment on the example of the settlement of Velyka Snitynka is given. The following research methods are used in the work: theoretical (study and analysis of scientific literature in the fields of ecology, philosophy, pedagogy, methodology; statistical (descriptive and mathematical); sociological; field, expeditionary (population survey, observation and analysis of socio-ecological factors in the village of Velyka Snitinka). The analysis of the main ecological problems of the studied village is made and the main sources of pollution are defined. Indicators and approaches to forecasting the main indicators of the region's development with the use of statistical data are presented, on the basis of which priority tasks and priority measures are developed.
O.A. Kovalenko, National Museum Of Natural History Of Nas Of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.001

Abstract:
National Nature Park “Pyryatynsky” is a valuable reserve of flora and vegetation of the Left-Bank Dnipro. The extensive hydrological network of the Udai River and the wide representation within this nature reserve of floodplain reservoirs are the reason for the high diversity of plant communities of higher aquatic vegetation. In this article we classified the communities of order Callitricho-Batrachietalia in National nature park "Pyryatynskyi" and identify the features of their syntaxonomic and ecological differentiation. Fragmentary and non-comlete information about this type of vegetation are existed in literature, however, without geobotanical releves and detailed characteristics of the structure of phytoceonoses, synecology and synchorology. All obtained results based on original field data. In total, 22 geobotanical releves were performed during the period 2010–2017. The description of communities was carried out within their natural boundaries. Treatment of fitosociological data was performed with the JUICE software package. The nomenclature of syntaxons was consistent with the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (ICFN).The order of Callitricho-Batrachietalia on the territory of NPP "Pyriatynsky" is represented by alliance Batrachion aquatilis Gehu 1961 and 4 associations (Batrachietum aquatilis Gehu 1961, Potameto perfoliati–Batrachietum circinati Sauer 1937, Hottonietum palustris Sauer 1947, Veronico beccabungae–Callitrichetum stagnalis (Oberdorfer 1957) Th. Müller 1962). This is first prodrome of order Callitricho-Batrachietalia for territory of National Nature Park “Pyryatynskyi”. The communities of this syntaxon occupy small areas and have a limited distribution in the region. Most of them are rare and vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions. Monitoring of their structure, chorology and dynamics is an important task to maintain and preserve the species and coenotic diversity of NPP "Pyryatynsky".
M. Savchuk, State University of Infrastructure and Transport, O. Sorochinska, A. Tsiko, O. Pilipchuk
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.004

Abstract:
The paper presents results of the study phytotoxicity level of soil that are contaminated due to the operation of the railway. The urgency of the work is determined by the growth of man-made load on the environment by rail. The aim of the presented work was to assess the phytotoxicity of soils near railway tracks using a bioassay for watercress to determine the level of their anthropogenic pollution. The object of the study were soil samples taken in the area adjacent to the tracks on the section of the railway Bakhmach-Hrebinka near the station of the city Pyriatyn. Soil sampling was carried out in accordance with DSTU ISO 10381-1: 2004. Assessment of soil contamination was assessed by bioindication using watercress test. According to the results of the research, it was found that the germination energy, seed germination and growth rates of watercress plants decreased on soil samples taken closer to the railway tracks. Weak levels of contamination were observed on soils selected at a distance of 5 meters from the railway, germination energy and seed germination were - 58 and 77%, respectively, the remaining samples did not show a significant effect on the sowing quality of watercress seeds. It was found that in plants grown on sample 4 (100 meters from the railway tracks) the length of the root system was 46 mm, while in samples 1, 2, 3 the indicator decreased respectively by 50, 32 and 9%, . The aerial part of watercress plants grown on 4 samples was 42 mm, while in samples 1,2,3, the figure decreased respectively by 43, 9 and 2%, . Therefore, it can be argued that the soil samples taken in the area adjacent to the tracks on the railway line Bakhmach-Grebinka, at a distance of 5 meters from the tracks, are low-contaminated, while the rest of the samples according to research are unpolluted and meet sanitary requirements on planning and development of settlements.
O. Klyachenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. Shliakhtun
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.002

Abstract:
National Nature Park “Pyryatynsky” is a valuable reserve of flora and vegetation of the Left-Bank Dnipro. The extensive hydrological network of the Udai River and the wide representation within this nature reserve of floodplain reservoirs are the reason for the high diversity of plant communities of higher aquatic vegetation. In this article we classified the communities of order Callitricho-Batrachietalia in National nature park "Pyryatynskyi" and identify the features of their syntaxonomic and ecological differentiation. Fragmentary and non-comlete information about this type of vegetation are existed in literature, however, without geobotanical releves and detailed characteristics of the structure of phytoceonoses, synecology and synchorology. All obtained results based on original field data. In total, 22 geobotanical releves were performed during the period 2010–2017. The description of communities was carried out within their natural boundaries. Treatment of fitosociological data was performed with the JUICE software package. The nomenclature of syntaxons was consistent with the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (ICFN).The order of Callitricho-Batrachietalia on the territory of NPP "Pyriatynsky" is represented by alliance Batrachion aquatilis Gehu 1961 and 4 associations (Batrachietum aquatilis Gehu 1961, Potameto perfoliati–Batrachietum circinati Sauer 1937, Hottonietum palustris Sauer 1947, Veronico beccabungae–Callitrichetum stagnalis (Oberdorfer 1957) Th. Müller 1962). This is first prodrome of order Callitricho-Batrachietalia for territory of National Nature Park “Pyryatynskyi”. The communities of this syntaxon occupy small areas and have a limited distribution in the region. Most of them are rare and vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions. Monitoring of their structure, chorology and dynamics is an important task to maintain and preserve the species and coenotic diversity of NPP "Pyryatynsky".
O. Kravets, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, T. Stefanovska
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.006

Abstract:
The Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine is characterized by the most favorable soil and climatic conditions for industrial cultivation of black currant (Ribes Nigrum L.), but pests can cause considerable damage to plantations. Among the dominant phytophages of black currant, the most common and dangerous are intrastem pests: jewel beetle (Agrilus ribesi Schaefer) and currant clearwing (Synanthedon tipuliformis Cl.). By monitoring black currant plantations by these pests for 2-3 years and understanding the factors influencing their development, it is possible to build a phenological calendar of pests, which will allow to carry out the necessary protection measures in a timely manner. As these pests are intrastem, this means that the damage is caused mainly by larvae. Controlling their numbers is not an easy task, because the use of pesticides can’t achieve high efficiency. That is why the development of biological protection is important, namely the use of entomophages and entomopathogenic nematodes to control the number of these pests.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A. Skuba
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.003

Abstract:
The study presents the results of obtaining regenerated plants of asparagus from seeds. Surface sterilizing the seeds by 0,75% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min is effective, during this obtained 83% viable sterile plants. The Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6‑benzylaminopurine (2 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and thiamine (0,4 mg/L) was found to be the best for seed germination. The expediency of using kinetin (1 mg/L) as a growth regulator to obtain a homogeneous plant material was established. The reproduction coefficient was 6,0. Only 11% of the explants formed callus. For the selection needs and production of somaclonal variants, the use of the culture medium with indole-3-acetic acid (0,2 mg/L) and 6‑benzylaminopurine (1 mg/L) is justified. In this condition reproduction coefficient was 3,7, and the level of different intensity callusogenesis was 59%. The rooting of obtained plants was performed in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with a half dose of macro- and micronutrients and growth regulators. Rooting frequency was up to 63%. The knowledge of hormonal requirements helps to promote isolated tissue and cells technologies of asparagus with purpose of rapid propagation and obtaining healthy, high-quality planting material.
T. Stefanovska, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, P. Chumak, Polissya’s National University
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.03.007

Abstract:
The results of long-term survey of аrumored scales (Sternorrhyncha: Diaspididae) that was provided in urban landscapes in Forest- Steppe and Steppeе zones of Ukraine are presented. The species composition of alien armored scales consists of 24 species from 19 genera. 10 species were found in open field whereas 14 species were registered in green house. The most distributed were A. nerii, D. boisduvalii та D. bromeliae. The vast majority of species found in survey belong to polyphagous and represent alien species. Due to climate change, in summer there has been a shift of sub tropically originated armor scales( Aspidiotus nerii, Diaspis boisduvalii and D. bromeliae) from greenhouses to open field host plants. The coconut scale Pinnaspis buxi Bouch was recorder for the first time in this study. The features of the invasive armored scales adaptation in light of the of their development is discussed. Analysis of some important aspects of the development of morphological features of armored scales and other soft scales species of under the influence of abiotic factors indicated that the evolution of this group of insects occurred not only by adaptation but also by avoiding environmental influences. The evolution of environmental avoidance has taken place in all families of Coccoidea. The formation of the shield is seen not only as a way to avoid the influence of the environment, but as the transition of these insects to another level of evolution − the transformation of the environment to their needs.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A. Kovpak
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 24-40; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.003

Abstract:
Novelties of this study include a synthesis of water quality parameters for the upstream sub-basin of the Dnieper River. This upstream sub-basin includes the Desna River. The synthesis revels new insights on the sources of the water pollution and the status of the water quality for different purposes such as drinking, aquaculture and recreation. The main research objective was to identify the main sources of water pollution and how those sources could decrease the water quality. As a result of our analysis, we conclude the following. The levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen in the Desna River (upstream sub-basin) are by 2-43 times and up to 53 times higher than the water quality thresholds, respectively. This poses a risk for recreational activities since too much nutrients often lead to blooms of harmful algae. We also find an increased level of biological oxygen demand in the river for drinking purposes. For aquaculture, decreased levels of dissolved oxygen are found. Climate change has an impact on water quality. For example, extreme floods caused by too much precipitation can bring pollutants to nearby waters. Monthly average temperature has increased by +2.7 degrees contributing to increased microbiological processes that could stimulate blooms of harmful algae. Main sources of water pollution are sewage discharges in cities, agricultural runoff and erosion activities after floods.
V. Chaika, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, M. Lisovyy, N Miniailo
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.002

Abstract:
The planet is experiencing an era of the sixth mass extinction of biota. Of particular concern is the impoverishment of insect populations, which account for about two-thirds of all biota species on the planet and are important for maintaining ecosystem stability and providing ecosystem services. Plant pollination is one of the most important ecosystem services on which human food security and the functioning of natural ecosystems depend. The economic value of pollination of entomophytic plants by honey bees for global crop production is estimated at $ 518 billion per year. In Ukraine, research on the ecological and economic assessment of ecosystem services is not conducted enough, which determines the relevance of our work. It is established that the total cost of the ecosystem pollination service of only four studied entomophilous crops in Ukraine (sunflower, rapeseed, buckwheat and open ground cucumber) is UAH 149.11 billion, which convincingly demonstrates the economic relevance of preserving the biodiversity of pollinating insects.
M Kyryk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A Gryganskyi, A Vuek, M Pikovskyi, Inc. Ues
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 64-70; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.006

Abstract:
The results of studies conducted during the harvest of fruiting bodies of oyster mushrooms indicate that the development of harmful micromycetes during the first wave of fruiting was less than in the second about twice. It is established that the distribution of microorganisms is also influenced by the placement of substrate blocks in the fructification premises. In the first wave of fruiting, the number of affected blocks varied depending on the tier location. The least affected blocks were found on the 3rd tier, which is the highest – 3,6 %. The yield loss on this tier was 3.1 kg of mushrooms. On the second tier, the percentage of the contaminated blocks was 10,4. The largest amount of infected substrate was observed on the 1st tier – 27,1 %. The increase in the affected blocks on the 1st and 2nd tiers is due to excessive moisture, which leads to the flow of drops from the upper bags to the lower ones. Observation during the second wave of fructification has shown, that the dissemination and development of the diseases was considerably bigger. In the 1st tier, the substrate blocks were infected with the micromycetes by 34,6 %, and the rate of disease development was 13,4 %. The smallest amount of infected substrate was found on the 3rd tier – 4,4 %, and the rate of micromycetes was 1,8 %. Substrate blocks having infection with 4-5 point development were removed and disposed. The average lesion score ranged from 2 to 3. During the first and second waves of fruiting, the frequency of micromycetes on substrate blocks increases due to the development of Trichoderma (up to 69,4 %), Penicillium (up to 15,7 %), and Aspergillus spp. (up to 8,3 %), commonly known as green mold substrate pathogens.
L. Bondareva, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 47-53; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.007

Abstract:
On the territory of the Academician A.V. Fomin Botanical garden three species of mites of the superfamily Eriophyoidea were found in pear orchards. It has been found that Eriophyes pyri Pgst and Epitrimerus pyri Nal. dominate. For the first time, individuals of Epitrimerus marginemtorguens Nal., have been found on pear 12 leaves. Eriophyes pyri is a widespread and dangerous pest of pears in all localities of cultivating this plant species in Ukraine. Epitrimerus pyri is less harmful in pear plantations of the botanical garden. Epitrimerus marginemtorguens appeared mainly in the second half of the growing season. The phenology of four-legged mites has been clarified and the sequence of Eriophyes pyri leaf population on a growing pear shoot has been determined. The period of formation of 7–9 ordinal leaves on the growing shoot is the key moment when the first generation of mites leaves the old galls and colonizes the newly formed leaves. During this period, the phytophagy moves from a hidden to an open way of life and is available for methods and means used in plant protection. A similar moment is also observed during the migration of the second generation to the apical leaves and the third generation – to the buds for wintering, but this process is greatly extended over time and is not so suitable for applying the acaricides.
D Gentosh, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, O. Bashta, K. Shvydchenko
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 54-63; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.005

Abstract:
The energy of germination and laboratory germination of Echinacea purpurea seeds have been studied, as it is the sowing qualities of seeds that are the basis for successful reproduction of the species in culture. Peculiarities of germination of culture seeds depending on harvest terms are studied. It is noted that the seeds of 2017-2018 are not conditioned and are not recommended for cultivation in medicinal crops in order to obtain quality medicinal raw materials according to generally accepted standards, while the seeds of 2020 harvest have a fairly high quality and belong to the basic category. The article also presents data on the effect of disinfection with ethyl alcohol on the sowing qualities of Echinacea purpurea seeds, the tendency to increase germination energy and germination in the variant with treated seeds. Seeds, endowed with a high rate of laboratory germination, belongs to the category of original and is recommended for further propagation. Such seeds may have good field germination, although this figure will be slightly lower in any case, because the laboratory for growing seeds creates optimal conditions, which is not always possible in the field. This is usually associated with the influence of biotic and abiotic factors: temperature, humidity, light, conditions and timing of sowing, soil fertility, its infestation by pests and pathogens, and so on. In the course of studies of germination energy and laboratory germination, attention was paid to the degree of damage to the seeds of Echinacea purpurea by mold fungi. On average, when determining the energy of germination, the degree of damage by molds was weak, but when determining laboratory germination, a large degree of damage to achenes by molds was additionally manifested. When comparing the degree of fungal infestation of treated and non-disinfected seeds, we noted a low degree of infestation (for disinfected achenes) and a medium degree of infestation (for non-disinfected seeds). When determining the germination energy of disinfected echinacea seeds, the signs of purple lesions were generally invisible.
I. Horobtsov, National Aviation University, M Radomska, L Cherniak
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 5-16; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.001

Abstract:
The paper considers issues of interaction between aviation and avifauna, relevant in terms of flight safety and safety of habitats for birds living in the impact area of ​​ airports. A number of parameters of aircraft and air traffic flow significantly affect the behavior and diversity of birds living in the respective areas. The analysis showed that species composition of avifauna at airports includes very few fully synanthropic species, while semi-synanthropes, such as members of the family Corvidae, are often found in airport areas and, due to their size and behavior, are of major hazard to aircrafts. A variety of methods for assessing the level of ornithological hazard are proposed by researchers and used in some countries. The authors presented a matrix method for assessing the risk of collisions between birds and aircraft, adapted to the conditions of Ukrainian airports. In particular, this method takes into account the peculiarities of avifauna monitoring carried out at the airports of Ukraine and the range of data on birds that may be available at these enterprises. The proposed analytical approach to ornithological risk assessment and ornithological management was tested on the example of Boryspil Airport, for which the attractiveness of the territory for birds, focal species of birds that need the most attention during ornithological observations by the airport staff, and the risk level were determined. It is necessary to expand the list of indicators according to which data should be collected during routine ornithological monitoring of airports.
L. Vagaliuk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.02.004

Abstract:
Biodiversity ensures the functioning of ecosystems that provides oxygen, clean air and water, plant pollination, pest control, wastewater treatment and many ecosystem services. Recreational resources rely on our unique biodiversity, such as bird watching, hiking, camping, fishing etc. But it is known that anthropogenic load leads to degradation or destruction of natural landscapes. One of the manifestations of degradation is the fragmentation and division of solid forests or steppes into separate territories. As a result, they are transformed into small islands of nature surrounded by arable land, settlements, roads and railways. The leading ecologists think that a significant influence on the level of biodiversity has been identified (According to National report on the state of the environment in Ukraine in 2020). It was a result of anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Therefore, determining the level of entomofauna biodiversity in different stations is relevant. During the research, the condition of entomofauna on the natural, semi- natural stations and sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of the Poultry Farm Kyivska was assessed. As a result of analytical and faunal studies, constant-dominant orders were 2 revealed in research areas: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. These orders include more than 80% of species and others only about 20% of insect species. The low number of species of entomofauna of dendrobionts is established due to excessive anthropogenic load and the depleted species diversity of trees and shrubs. Preservation of the ecological stability of landscapes by reproduction and maintenance of biodiversity requires the additional creation of protective forest plantations with high species richness of plants.
V. Serdiuk, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.005

Abstract:
Agriculture, especially livestock, is rated as one of the most polluting industries in the world. In the other hand there is a modern approach to the technology implementation, and is this true that with its usage the impact on the environment is so critical and inevitably leads to environmental catastrophe. It is important to investigate and scientifically substantiate the impact of modern livestock complexes on the environment, especially on groundwater resources objectively,. And only after a number of studies conducted on pig farms with a capacity of 30 and 50 thousand heads per year it would be possible to determine next: is livestock an object of ultra-intensive pollution, or it is an object that does not have a significant negative impact on the environment and is also an economic and food lever of the country. The research was conducted on the example of the company JV LLC "NYVA PEREIASLAVSCHYNY" that is located in two districts of Kyiv region – Brovarskyi and Boryspilskyi. The sanitary protection zone size is 1500 meters to the nearest residential development (MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF UKRAINE, 1996). Projects to reduce the sanitary protection zone have not been developed as there is no need for it. Research of water quality was performed according to State Sanitary Regulations and Rules “Hygienic Requirements to Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption” “2.2.4-171-10” (State Water Agency of Ukraine, 2010). It was conducted on samples that were taken from 4 artesian wells that are located on the territory of the pig breeding farm № 11. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of the pig breeding farm’s № 11 activity on the underground aquifer and surface water body. To reach this target water samples were collected according to the requirements established in the conclusion on environmental impact assessment from wells in the villages and river. Studies that were conducted during 2020 showed that the quality of water in wells meets the requirements for drinking water. Water samples from wells and ponds showed deviations from the norm up to 10 times. Previous studies did not set a negative impact of the pig breeding farm № 11 on groundwater quality.
О. S. Malyshevska, Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.006

Abstract:
Biotesting to assess the complex relationships between soil, contaminants and living organisms and to determine the impact on ecosystems of pollutants whose concentrations may be beyond the sensitivity of the methods of determination and the composition of which cannot be determined. The aim is to establish the level of phytoxicity of wastes of mechanical processing of polymer mixtures, which are extracted from solid household waste with the help of indicator plants. Methods. Evaluation of phytotoxic effects was performed by vegetation methods according to ISO: 17402-2008, 17126-2005a, 11269-1: 2012a, 11269-2: 2012b. Contamination levels of the test samples were assessed according to ISO 16198.Objects of research: watercress seeds, mustard, wheat, corn, soybeans, barley and sludge from the processing of polymer mixtures composed of polymer particles of different composition and quantity, along with the remnants of paper labels. Studies of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni) were performed by atomic absorption method on a spectrophotometer type CAS-120.1 in accordance with generally accepted methods. Results. The studied sludge does not negatively affect the process of germination of watercress, mustard, corn. The level of phytotoxic effect of sludge on the germination of soybeans and barley was within acceptable limits and did not exceed 3.33%. The study of migration of heavy metals present in the sludge and their accumulation during the growth and development of plants showed their insignificant content regardless of the sludge content. Only the lead content was higher than in the control 2.13 times and 1.83 times higher than in "relatively clean soil". Conclusions. Determination of phytotoxicity of this type of sludge on the process of germination and vegetation changes of plants should be carried out on the most sensitive crops - watercress and mustard. A study of the migration of heavy metals present in the sludge and their accumulation during plant growth showed the presence of bound forms of heavy metals copper, nickel, cadmium and zinc - the migration of which has not been established. However, mobile forms of lead that migrate from the sludge and accumulate in plants have been identified.
O.O. Kravchenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, N.V. Zhitkevich, T.T. Hnatiuk, V.V. Borodai, V.V. Chobotar, D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the NAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.004

Abstract:
Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of soybean yields largely depend on the effectiveness of measures against pathogens caused by phytopathogenic bacteria, which lead to the loss of 30-40% of grain yield. One of the elements of biologization is the use of trace elements in the cultivation of soybeans. The work has been devoted to determining the sensitivity of highly active strains of nodule bacteria and representatives of pathogens of soybean bacteriosis to trace elements preparations Dobrodiy Comfort and Dobrodiy Comfort-Copper, which were obtained by electropulse ablation, and comparing their action with traditional chemical pesticides. For comparison, the drugs of traditional cultivation of soybeans have been used: Rankona, Maxim XL, Rydomil Gold, Propuls. Classical microbiological, phytopathological, statistical method shas been used in the work. In particular, the reliability of the influence of factors has been established by the value of the probability level "p", which was calculated using the program STATISTICA 8. The obtained results have indicated a high sensitivity of yellow pigment pathogens of soybean bacteriosis to preparations Dobrodiy Comfort and Dobrodiy Comfort-copper in native form. The causative agent of angular spot of soybeans has not been sensitive to these compositions. Study have shown that Dobrodiy Comfort and Dobrodiy Comfort-copper are non-toxic to bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. According to the results of preparations titration, work has been determined that the effect of these preparations on phytopathogens remains in the range of 10-3-10-4. According to the For the first time absence of antibacterial activity at the specified dilution and toxic effect on nodule bacteria, the use of ecological drugs Dobrodiy-Comfort and Dobrodiy Comfort-Copper in the system of soybean protection against bacterial diseases has been analyzed and recommended.
M. Pavlovska, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. Solomenko, I.E. Prekrasna, State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center Ministry of Education and Science
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.007

Abstract:
The present analytical review is dedicated to the current perspective of the issue of the Black sea xenobiotics pollution. The Black sea is extremely vulnerable to pollution impact, as it is a semi-closed water-body under the influence of significant inflow from the Danube, Dnipro and Dnister rivers. According to the recent data from the UNDP EMBLAS project 80 types of organic pollutants were identified in the Black Sea water samples. Those included 17 pesticides with the concentration above the safety thresholds both in the offshore and in the coastal waters. It has been previously shown that xenobiotics’ inflow results in taxonomic and functional shift of microbial communities inhabiting aquatic environment. Microbial-mediated degradation and biological pump control the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ flux in marine ecosystems, which prevents their accumulation in the food web. The data on xenobiotics pollution in both water column and sediments is summarized in the present review. The recent studies targeting the microbial communities’ role in biotransformation and translocation of substances with xenobiotic behavior are analyzed. The significance and topicality of the case-studies focusing on aquatic microbial communities functional response towards xenobiotics’ pollution is highlighted and the Black Sea ecosystem is suggested as the plausible example for addressing the above mentioned issues
S. Yu. Moroz, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A.V. Fokin
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.009

Abstract:
We have evaluated the distribution of the sunflower tumbling beetle (STB) to optimize the methods of its monitoring and to establish the spatial localization of the phytophage concentration in order to increase the efficiency of measures to regulate its abundance. We counted the STB after harvest at least in 20 points of the field; we collected stems and their root parts in plots 1x1 m, opened them and counted the number of larvae in each stem; we also counted broken plants at a height of 50-60 cm. Svedberg and Lloyd models used to analyze the distribution (uniform, random, contagious) of the STB population on the crops of F1 hybrid "Sonyachny Nastriy". The data obtained as a result of solid - by field squares (grid) and W-like route surveys processed according to their parameters. The last ones was process both with application of statistical correction of plots according to the number of the STB (larvae / plant) - by changing the index of abundance by the size of an accounting plot, which is different from the average area, and by results of direct counts carried out in one or another point of the field. The distribution can be spatial - within the entire agrocenosis, and linear - within the vector (strip of registration plots). It can also be based on complete (grid data) or incomplete (en-route counts) information. Lloyd's model assumes a higher probability of random values of distribution. When estimating the distribution based on incomplete information, the values of the Swedberg and Lloyd coefficients for the spatial distribution are 1.708 and 1.604 for W-route with area-adjusted abundance and 1.692 and 1.596 without adjustment respectively, which gives values of contagious and random distribution. Applying the linear version of the estimate gives a contagious distribution for the Swedberg and Lloyd models for the 1st vector and an even distribution for the 2nd and 3rd vectors. When estimating the distribution based on complete information (the "grid" variant), the spatial distribution of Lloyd - 0.657 and Swedberg - 0.957 is uniform, but for the latter it is very close to the random distribution. The linear distribution by Swedberg varies from contagious - 1.287 to uniform - 0.916 and 0.447, and by Lloyd - from random - 1.237 to uniform - 0.499 and 0.014. Given incomplete information, the polynomial trends allow us to determine the magnitude of the uncertainty in the distribution as the geometric distance between the points of intersection of the trend lines with the 45o optimization line and the Swedberg contagion and Lloyd's randomness levels. Provided the information is complete, linear trends allow us to determine the magnitude of the uncertainty in the distribution as the geometric distance between the points of intersection of the trend lines with the Swedberg-Lloyd uniformity levels. "Grid" of these counts allows revealing marginal effects in spatial distribution of phytophage population, the number of which is maximal in the marginal strip bordering the forest belt, and minimal in the center of agrocenosis. Under the condition of incomplete information it was found that according to Swedberg criterion the spatial distribution of the STB is contagious and Lloyd's is random, the linear distribution for both models changes from contagious to uniform; under the condition of full information it is found that on the basis of Swedberg-Lloyd models the spatial distribution of the stonefly is uniform, linear distribution for the Swedberg model changes from contagious to uniform, Lloyd - from random to uniform; estimation of the spatial distribution of the population on the basis of full information is the most optimal because it allows to determine the marginal effects.
I. Gumeniuk, Institute of agroecology and environmental management of NAAS of Ukraine, A. Levishko, O. Demyanyuk
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.008

Abstract:
The efficiency of the formation and functioning of the soybean symbiotic system during the crops treatment with glyphosate and pre-sowing seed inoculation with different strains of Bradyrhizobium in the field studied. It is known, that glyphosate can affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation through direct action on rhizobia and symbiotic formations, we took plant samples for analysis after four weeks of glyphosate treatment and determined the aboveground mass of plants and symbiotic apparatus formation evaluated by the number of nodules, their mass and nitrogen fixation activity. It was shown that the late treatment (35 days after sowing) with glyphosate does not provide a sufficient level of weed control and under such conditions inhibits the development and growth of soybean plants, reduces the growth of aboveground and root mass. Treatment of plants with glyphosate before the formation of symbiotic apparatus (21 days after sowing) reduces nitrogen fixation activity by 3550%, but it does not have a significant effect on the formation of soybean yield. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis of intensification of the nitrogen complex during late treatment of plants with glyphosate in plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain EL-35 and the composition of strains of B. japonicum EM-24 and B. japonicum EL-35. The most effective for inoculation of soybean plants was a mixture of the studied strains of B. japonicum EM-24 and B. japonicum EL-35, which provides high nitrogen fixation activity and productivity. Therefore, to reduce the negative impact of glyphosate on the nitrogen fixation activity of symbiotic systems and to obtain high soybean productivity, it is necessary to select rhizobia strains with a high rate of symbiotic system formation, because even a slight decrease in nitrogen fixation can have long-term negative consequences.
O. L. Klyachenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.003

Abstract:
To conduct successful selective work aimed at high-yielding sugar beet hybrid creation, it is important to study the source material, its diversity and economically valuable features and patterns of their inheritance. The physiological approach and the development of ways to improve and estimate the population, based on physiological and biochemical indicators contribute to a deeper understanding of the production process. Therefore, the main goal of our work was to conduct a comparative physiological and biochemical evaluation of the production process of different sugar beet genotypes. Research objects were the MS hybrids with different combining ability and inbred lines of the I1 – I4 sugar beet generation. Research methods: physiological, biochemical and statistical. Genotypic features of multi-seeded diploid pollinators by physiological and biochemical parameters of individual metabolic links in the early stages of plant ontogenesis were established and the influence of inbreeding on photosynthetic productivity of plants was revealed. In simple MS hybrids obtained with the participation of combinational (by sugar content) O-type line comparing to one MS tester, a high positive heterosis in PHA and sugar content and a positive correlation between those traits were found. In hybrid combinations created by crossing combinational diploid pollinators compared to one MS tester showed positive heterosis in leaf surface area, chlorophyll content (a + b) and sucrose in the roots.
, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, , D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the NAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.002

Abstract:
Effective and economical methods of detection and identification necessary for the study of ecology, pathogenesis and limiting the spread of phytopathogenic bacteria, as well as for seed certification programs. The available methods for the detection and identification of four main causative agents of bacterial diseases of tomatoes Xanthomonas vesicatonia, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which are common in Ukraine. These methods include microbiological using selective media, serological, molecular methods based on the amplification of unique DNA sequences. The use of modern biochemical test systems has eliminated the need to identify phytopathogenic bacteria using long-term routine methods. Commercially available commercial test systems provide rapid identification at the species level and also detect new and quarantine pathogens. PCR-based methods have advantages over traditional diagnostic tests because isolates do not need to be cultured before detection and protocols are highly sensitive and fast.
О.і. Кitayev, Institute of Horticulture NAAS of Ukraine, , O.A. Kishchak, V.V. Filyov, L.P. Symyrenko Research Station of Pomology of the Institute of Horticulture NAAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2021.01.001

Abstract:
The authors present the results of researching the functioning of the leaf apparatus of the plum promise cultivars and elite forms bred at the L.P. Symyrenko Research Station of Pomology that was carried out for the purpose of determining their potential adaptability and productivity. The plants functional state was studied by means of the portable fluorimetr ‘Floratest’ establishing the inductive changes of the leaves chlorophyll fluorescence. The analysis of the green pigments in them was conducted in spirit extracts applying the spectrophotometric method. The considerable negative correlation was revealed (r = -0,71) between the a/b chlorophylls correlation and pigments summary content (in mg/g of the humid substance), on the one hand, and the chlorophyll b and chlorophylls a/b correlation (r = -0,85), on the other hand. That proves the high regulatory capacity and adaptive ability (at the level of the chlorophylls certain forms synthesis) of the leaves chloroplasts pigment systems of all the investigated crop cultivars and elite forms to the changes of the light regime in the tree crown. Concerning the parameters which characterize the plants potential photosynthetic effectivity and productivity the variety Oda has been recognized the most productive one among early ripening, Cacakska Najbolja, Zamanchivaya and Yantarna Mliivs’ka among middle-ripening, Stanley, Bluefree and forms 8124 and 8143 among late-ripening. The form 9996 had the lowest photosynthetic processes efficiency as for all the parameters. The rather high adaptability has been detected of the leaf apparatus of the trees of all the cultivars and forms to the changes of the enlightenment conditions as regards the indicators of the chlorophylls Fpl 1 and Fpl 2 fluorescence induction and green pigments content in the leaves. According to the plateau Kpl coefficient the viral infection was not revealed.
G. M. Maruschak, Rice Institute of NAAS, M. M. Lisovoy, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.003

Abstract:
Emphasis is placed on the efficiency of production of alternative types of biofuels by rational selection of species and the intensity of biomass formation of plants of the appropriate chemical composition. It is determined that favorable natural and climatic conditions of the South of Ukraine, the presence of built rice irrigation systems make it possible to obtain high yields of high quality rice grain, while forming significant amounts of by-products in the form of straw, husk, flour, which are a source of solid biofuel.As a result of research of bioenergetic potential of Ukrainian rice varieties it is shown that the highest values of energy yield under the use of by-products (straw and husk) are characterized by Viscount and Premium varieties, which studied to determine the impact of agronomic factors on the formation of rice productivity. straw and husks as sources of bioenergy plant raw materials as solid biofuels.
L. O. Kriuchkova, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, D. R. Olifer
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.007

Abstract:
Isolates of Gaeumannomyces spp. obtained from diseased roots of winter wheat showing take-all symptoms were characterized by pathogenicity. All isolates were more pathogenic on wheat and barley than on oat, and were identified as Gaeumannomyces tritici. Most isolates of G. tritici were characterized as middle pathogenic, the pathogenicity of one isolate was higher than those of others, and two isolates showed the lowest pathogenicity. In growth chamber assay, the effect of two Bacillus strains, B. subtilis 16 and B. pumilus 11, on take-all of wheat was studied. Pathogen inoculation was made by isolates of G. tritici of different pathogenicity. It was found that effective biological control depends on take-all severity, which, in turn, co-ordinates with the pathogenicity of fungal isolate. Applying the bacterial cells into the plant growth substrate stimulated the seedling growth when artificial inoculation was performed with a middle pathogenic isolate of G. tritici, and the disease severity was middle. There was no growth promotion by bacterial inoculant at slight disease severity. No stimulating effect was also observed at the high disease severity, where pathogen inoculation was performed with a highly pathogenic isolate of G. tritici.
V. P. Strokal, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, A. V. Kovpak
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.004

Abstract:
This review article aims to increase our understanding in the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of implementing the basin approach for water resources management in Ukraine. To this end, this article implements that SWOT analysis for discussing the transition from the administrative approach towards the basin approach. The SWOT analysis consists of the four main aspects: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Strengths and Weakness include strong and weak points of implementing the basin approach, respectively. Opportunities are windows for implementing actions to facilitate the basin approach and increase the effectiveness of this approach. Threats include risks for implementing the basin approach. In order to better understand opportunities, the main drivers and causes of water pollution are also discussed in the article. Results of the review show that climate change affects the availability of water resources strongly. Human activities namely the poultry production are important polluters of water resources. The article summarizes the correct water resources management approaches and proposes four main strategies for implementing the basin approach within the SWOT analysis. The first strategy deals with the successful transition from the administrative management towards the basin management of water resources. The second strategy deals with an increase in the access of the public to the water resources information including water quality. The third strategy deals with integrating the European Union water-related directives in the national environmental policies. The fourth strategy deals with reducing pollution levels in water systems through improved technologies. Next steps are to develop an integrated approach to account for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the four strategies. It is important to develop water indicators to facilitate an integrated assessment of water resources for different water uses while accounting for water quality. Future research can focus on future scenarios to project water quality under global change and to assess effects of the national policies on reducing future water pollution from urbanization and agricultural sectors.
V. V. Borodai, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, O. V. Subin, A. F. Likhanov
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.002

Abstract:
Due to the large number of functional groups in chitosan is provide the possibility of formation bonds with chemical compounds, which allows you to create polymeric complexes with new physicochemical properties and biological activity. Therefore, chitosan is widely used as a biopolymeric carrier of degradable preparation of different orientation, which ensures their effective and prolonged action. Compositions of chitosan with natural biopreservatives, which allow to obtain promising plant protection products and agricultural products, deserve special attention. Recent developments, as well as the need for safe, practical and effective food preservatives have aroused increased interest in substances such as sorbate and its combined use with chitosan. In recent decades, sorbate and chitosan have been tested and widely used in the storage of various foods around the world. The issues of adaptogenic action, antimicrobial activity of chitosan in combination with biologically active components remain little studied in Ukraine. Given the global trend towards a gradual transition to organic production, the study of the mechanisms of action of chitosan and its compounds with organic acids is a promising area of research in the control of pathogenic microorganisms for storage of fruits and vegetables. The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of the integrated use of chitosan with sorbic acid against phytopathogenic microorganisms. The research used methods generally accepted in microbiology and phytopathology. Specificity of antimicrobial activity and prolongation of action of chitosan, sorbic acid and their mixture with respect to different isolates and strains of phytopathogenic microorganisms has been established. The bacteriostatic effect of a mixture of chitosan and sorbic acid in the variant with bacterial isolates, which was observed during 5 days was investigated. The composition of chitosan and sorbic acid contributed to the inhibition of mycelial growth of isolates of pathogens of the genera Fusarium and Alternaria.
L. O. Kriuchkova, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, T. I. Patyka
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.006

Abstract:
The effect of Bacillus strains, B. subtilis 16 and B. pumilus 11, on two barley diseases caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker has been studied. It was found that the activity depends on both the resistance of the cultivar against disease and the bacterial strain. The severity of spot blotch of barley decreased significantly when the cell suspension of B. subtilis strain16 was sprayed on the leaves of disease-susceptible cultivars Nashсhadok, but failed to inhibit the disease on the leaves of resistant cultivars. Applying the cell suspensions into plant growth media significantly inhibited the common root rot on susceptible cultivar Syaivo, which, however, was not accompanied by an increase in the biomass of seedlings. A significant increase in the weight of shoots and roots of seedlings was observed on cultivars with medium resistance to the disease: Sebastian and Antey.
A. G. Babich, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, R. D. Suhareva, О. А. Babich, I. V. Prichodko, UkrNDSKR IZR NAAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.008

Abstract:
Detection of globoderosis foci, especially in the early stages of land settlement, is difficult, as typical signs of damage (growth retardation, chlorosis, leaf wilting, etc.) appear visually only after many years of cultivation of nightshade crops in monoculture or with minimal breaks. Under such conditions, the highest probability of their detection is provided by the selection of soil samples by the envelope method. At the same time, in comparison with other monitoring schemes, a more uniform coverage of the surveyed area is achieved. When conducting rapid analysis of moist soil, to increase the secretion of cysts, you should use a saturated solution of NaCl salt at the rate of 50 grams per 1 liter of water. Identification of cyst-forming potato nematodes should be carried out according to a set of morphometric parameters, biological features (using varieties-differentiators) and biochemical differences. Given the current high cost of biochemical methods of diagnosis, it is advisable to use them primarily to identify quarantine and new to science species of cyst-forming nematodes.
M. O. Kvitko, Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, V. M. Savosko, Yu. V. Likholat, I. P. Hrygoryk, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.001

Abstract:
It is shown that the finding environment importance artificial forest communities are an important prerequisite for optimizing the state environment in the industrialized regions of Ukraine. The aim of this work is to analyze from the point of ecosystem approach to analyze artificial forest communities as a promising factor of ecological safety of the Kryvyi Rih mining and metallurgical region. The materials of the work were scientific publications and the results of their own field studies, which were performed during 2013-2019 on the territory of natural and artificially created forest phytocenoses, located in contrasting ecological conditions and representing the main varieties of tree plantations. It is proved that in the forest cultivar phytocenoses of the region tree species of plants are in a stressful state, because they are constantly affected by adverse environmental factors of natural and anthropogenic genesis. We have made the assumption that the artificial forest communities of the Kryvyi Rih region should become one of the key environmental factors that determine its ecological safety, both individually in this region and in Ukraine as a whole. To solve this problem, it is necessary to achieve optimal forest cover of Kryvyi Rih region (8-10%) by creating new plantations and taking into account scientific prerequisites and ordering existing ones. To solve this problem, it is necessary to achieve optimal forest cover of Kryvyi Rih region (8-10%) by creating new plantations and taking into account scientific prerequisites and ordering existing ones. To resolve this issue, it is necessary to achieve optimal forest cover of the Kryvyi Rih region (8-10%) by creating new forest plantations and arranging existing trees, taking into account the scientific prerequisites.
M. M. Ladyka, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, I. G. Rubezhnіak, A. V. Doroshenko
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.04.005

Abstract:
The study of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the soil microbiota, which adequately reflects the degree of anthropogenic load, can be applied as an indicator of assessment of the ecological status of the soil of anthropogenically transformed biogeocoenosis.The aim of the article is to analyze the species composition of micromycetes of drained soils of the Trubizh river Basin as an indicator of the ecological condition of the soil of different degrees of economic activity. For microbiological analysis samples of organogenic (lowland deep and medium peat soils) and mineral (meadow-chernozemic) soils were used. The samples selected from four experimental plots with different degrees of anthropogenic load. In particular, the first plot is a long-term use fallow (more than 15 years) on deep peatlands, the second one is a field with corn for grain on medium peatlands. The third plot is a field with post-harvest soybean residues on medium peatlands and fourth one is fallow with annual and perennial grasses on meadow-chernozemic soils. Soil samples were taken from the root layer at a depth of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm according to the current DSTU. Isolation of micromycetes was carried out by dilution method of soil with the object of estimation of the concentration (number of colonies, micromycetes). The count of micromycetes was estimated on surface of potato-glucose agar and Chapek's agar plates and was determined by the number of colony forming units (CFU). It was established that in the plot with increased anthropogenic impact (field with corn for grain on medium peatlands) the total number of isolated micromycetes was twice less than in plots of fallow lands and soybean. There was observed very poor species compositions (13 species). 2 species (15%) of Zygomycota, where predominant concentration was Mucor plumbeus in the soil layer 0-20 cm and 11 species (85%) of Ascomycota were found. In all plots, the basis of micromycete complexes was formed by fungi-destructors of plant remains and root secretions of the genus Penicillium. The micromycetes of drained soils of the Trubizh river Basin was presented the biggest phylum Ascomycota (83-95.5%) and the phylum Zygomycota (4.5-17%) also.
F.S. Melnychuk, State Enterprise ", S.A. Alekseeva, O.V. Hordiienko, L.M. Melnychuk, K.B. Shatkovska, Central Laboratory Of Water And Soil Quality", State Enterprise "central Laboratory Of Water And Soil Quality", Institute of Water Problems and Reclamation of NAAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 92-105; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.010

Abstract:
The article summarizes the results of determining the effectiveness of insecticides against the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) and aphids (Aphididae) with various methods of their application. Tests of a wide range of drugs with different active substances have provided high rates of stored yield in the system of potatoes’ protection. The investigated preptns showed a high level of protection against damage of plants by the Colorado potato beetle, when processing potato tubers. So, the effectiveness of the Prestige insecticides, 290 FS, Emesto Quantum 273,5 FS and Celest Top 312,5 FS, in the phase of active growth of the culture was 91,2-97,6%, and the duration of the protective effect was much longer than in Cruiser 350 FS, l.s.c, where the death rate was 86,1%. The predominant method of insecticidal treatments is the spraying of the aerial parts of plants during the growing season, as a rule, during the period of mass revival and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae. The greatest efficacy of insecticides on day 3 was noted on the options with the introduction of Confidor, 20% w.s.c., Calypso, 48% s.c. and Enzhio, 24,7% s.c., respectively 99,5%, 99,2% and 99,3%. The largest decrease in the number and population of potato plant aphids was noted with the use of the sample Enzhio, 24,7% s.c. at the recommended consumption rate – 98,2%. Along with this, other methods of insecticides’ applications are being developed and improved, in particular, the introduction of preps with drip irrigation. The effectiveness of the insecticides Enzhio, 24,7% s.c., Confidor, 20% w.s.c., was on par with Calypso, 48% s.c. The lowest protection observed in the areas of Actara’s, 24% c.p. application. In a field assessment of the insecticide’ use against aphids on a drip irrigation, it was noted that, with the usage of the Enzhio, 24,7% s.c., the efficiency was 99,4%. The use of other insecticides also contributed to a decrease in the population of potato plants by insect-pests and provided high protection at the level of 93,1-95,4%. Accordingly, the yield of potato tubers with the application of Enzhio, 24.7% s.c. was maximum and amounted to 29,7 t/ha.
V. V. Makovskyi, M. M. Hryshko National Botanic Garden
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.003

Abstract:
To investigate the phenorhythmics of introduced woody vines of the family Vitaceae of the genus Ampelopsis Michx. and Parthenocissus Planch., to determine the possibilities of their use in cultural phytocenoses of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Phenological observations were conducted during 2012–2014. Plants of the investigated taxa belong to the collection fund of the exposition-collection area “Climbing plants” of the M. M. Hryshko National Botanic Garden of the NAS of Ukraine. The distribution by phenogroups of the investigated plants and the construction of the phenospectrum of seasonal development were performed using appropriate methods. Results.The end of the vegetation of the representatives of the genus Parthenocissus occurred before the end of the growing season 16.X ±6,13 (P. inserta)–23.X ±7,41(P. tricuspidata Veitchii’), and in plants of the genus Ampelopsis coincided with this date 4.XI ±7,36 (A. aconitifolia f. glabra)–13.XI ±7,85(A. brevipedunculata). Flowering of the representatives of the genus Parthenocissus lasted 22,3 ±4,1 (P. tricuspidata Veitchii’)–81,7±2,1 (P. quinquefolia f. engelmannii) days, and plants of the genus Ampelopsis – 98,3±7,7 (A. aconitifolia)–107,0 ±7,3 (A. brevipedunculata) days. The period from tying to ripening of fruits in representatives of the genus Parthenocissus was 47,0 ±5,66 (P. quinquefolia)–59,0 ±3,74 (P. tricuspidata Veitchii’) days, and plants of the genus Ampelopsis – 35,7 ±3,77 (A. aconitifolia f. glabra)–41,3±5,79 (A. brevipedunculata) days. Conclusions. It was found that members of the genus Parthenocissus are characterized by timely entry into the period of winter dormancy, shorter flowering period and longer fruit ripening compared with plants of the genus Ampelopsis. Given the native areals of plants of the studied species, which cover dry with low rainfall and cold wet regions, we can conclude that they are all characterized by high plasticity and resistance to environmental conditions, as phenological observations noted their annual flowering and fruiting. This indicates a high degree of compliance of their genetically fixed phenorhythmics with the climatic conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
O.A. Boyko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, V.P. Landin, P.V. Didenko, A.V. Biletskyi, P.Yu. Vashkevych, N.P. Sus, A.L. Boyko
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 5-13; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.001

Abstract:
The radiologically, ecologically and biologically safe mushroom raw materials are necessary to create some environmentally friendly bioorganic stimulators of plant growth and development and many other products. Therefore, we researched the population density of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P.Kumm, Armillariella mellea (Vah1. ex Fr.) Karst., whitch are often used to create plant growth stimulants, in their natural habitat under conditions of radioactive contamination and pathogen damage. The study was conducted in six biogeocenoses: Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn Oblast, Ukraine), Regional Landscape Park «Islands of Izmail» (Odessa Oblast, Ukraine), around the urban-type settlement of Kornyn (Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine), around the village of Korolivka (Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine), around the village of Lysivka (Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine), around the city of Vyshhorod (Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine). Pathogens were identified by standard mycological, bacteriological and virological methods. Radiocesium contamination density of soil, as a parameter of radioactive contamination, was determined by spectrophotometric method. The highest population density of Ganoderma lucidum was in Regional Landscape Park «Islands of Izmail». In this biogeocenosis, G. lucidum was almost not affected by pathogens, and radiocesium contamination density of soil was 18.5 kBq/m2. Agaricus bisporus and Armillariella mellea grew in biotopes with high radiocesium contamination density of soil. For example, in forest ecosystems around the city of Vyshhorod, where the average radiocesium contamination density of soil was 111.0 kBq/m2, population density of A. mellea was 0,39 fruit bodies per m2. At the same time, 15% of A. mellea in this biogeocenosis were affected by various pathogens. Thus, the use of wild mushrooms as raw materials should be preceded by testing for biological and radiological contamination.
Y. Ruban, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, K. Shavanova, V. Illienko, K. Korepanova, D. Samofalova, S. Nikonov, N. Shpyrka, N. Nesterova, O. Pareniuk, et al.
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 83-91; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.009

Abstract:
The presence of specific components in the environment can change the state of cenoses. The effect of ionizing radiation on plant communities, animals and humans have been well studied, while the effect on soil microflora has not been insufficiently studied. In this paper investigated the effect of radionuclide contamination on microflora of soil samples from the territory of PTLRW "Red Forest 1" (trench), "Red Forest 2" (outside the trench), " Cooling Pond " and " Zalissia ". Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content was obtained by PLFA analysis. The highest level of total PLFA was observed in the territory of "Zalissia" which was 17.40 ± 10.59 μg / h. From the territory of PTLRW "Red Forest 1" (trench) and "Red Forest 2" (outside the trench) the level of total PLFA was 16.29 ± 3.43 μg / g and 16.40 ± 2.90 μg / h, respectively. The PLFA content of the "Cooling Pond" was significantly different from the "Red Forest" and " Zalissia ". The taxonomic groups assessment of the samples, a fungus, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria content increased in PTLRW "Red Forest" relative to the point "Zalissia ".
V.A. Bohoslavets, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Yu.V. Kolomiiets, L.M. Butsenko, Yu.M. Bohdan, Institute of Microbiology and Virology. D.K. Zabolotny NAS of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 52-62; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.006

Abstract:
The specific conditions of the protected ground, the almost constant tomato culture without substitution of the substrate, the elevated temperature and humidity lead to the accumulation of a large number of pathogens of bacterial diseases, which limit the increase in yield of this crop. The aim of the work was to characterize the symptoms, determine the etiology of wet rot of tomatoes for growing in protected ground and propose measures to control the pathogen. The study was conducted by standard microbiological and phytopathological methods. The pathogenic properties of the isolates were studied on vegetative tomato plants using a suspension of bacterial cells with a titer of 107 CFU/ml. It was established that the defeat of tomato plants with soft bacterial rot in closed ground conditions prevails in the second half of the growing season. The development of the disease was 30‒34% for a prevalence of 45%. Diseases of tomato plants in greenhouses in the Kiev region of Ukraine are of bacterial origin, caused by the soft rot pathogen P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Characteristic symptoms of wet tomato rot are discoloration, chlorosis and leaf necrosis, void stems, the appearance of depressed water-saturated areas in the stalk, accompanied by decay of the fetus. Effective control measures can be preventive and agricultural measures
M.Yu. Mazura, Institute of Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.004

Abstract:
The content and dynamics of chlorophylls a and b of the photosynthetic organ (leaf) of representatives of the genus Canna L. were studied at different phases of plant growth and development: at the beginning of the growing season, in the generative phase, at the end of the growing season under conditions of Kryvyi Rih. A high content of chlorophylls in the leaves of most of the studied canna varieties was noted, compared with the species (with the exception of C. indica). A common trend for canna plants was an increase in the total number of chlorophylls in generative phase. Varieties of canna Capter, Vesolyye notki, Richard Wallis, which have litle leaf parameters, were characterized by a low total content of photopigments during the growing season and chlorophyll b in the generative phase, which indicates a significant sensitivity of plants to arid conditions in the region. Plants of the Fauervogel, Rosenkranzen and Krymskiye Zori varieties (with large leaf blades) were characterized by a high concentration of green pigments during the growing season, and chlorophyll b in the generative phase, this feature in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus is consistent with a high assessment of the level of adaptation of these plants in drought conditions. Therefore, indicators of the state of the assimilation apparatus of plants of the genus Canna L. can be used to determine their level of fitness for moisture deficiency during introduction studies.
V.A. Gaychenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, T.V. Shupova, Institute ofEvolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 74-82; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.008

Abstract:
Bird communities was researched according to the transect method in the nesting period of 2013 and 2015. 4 model forest plots in the Boyarskaya Experimental Station were selected. All of them are culturelphytocenoses based onPinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Q. rubra L. The species composition of birds, their abundance, α-diversity indices, synanthropization index of bird communities (to Jedryctkowski) were analyzed. The similarity of bird communities was determined using cluster analysis in "Origin Pro 9.0". 65 bird species of 11 orders were recorded. 35 species of them live in the species reserve. On model plots that not have conservation status, the number of species in bird communities is 20–27. In plots with a dominance of Q. robur, 42 species were recorded, with a dominance of P. sylvestris - 35 species of the birds. Dominants in bird communities Parus major L. and Fringilla coelebs L. The presence in the list of subdominants Anthus trivialis L. and Phylloscopus sibilatrix Bechstein is a positive characteristic of the forest. The synanthropic of bird communities increases according to the increase in anthropic load: the synanthropization index from 0.4 to 0.65, the relative abundance of synanthropic birds in communities from 0.66 to 0.81. There are no alien birds. The species diversity and the number of bird species in the communities decreases along the gradient of increasing anthropic load. The similarity of bird communities and their α-diversity depends by the anthropic load, and not by the ratio of the species composition of the forest trees. The distribution of relative abundance of species in bird communities, on the contrary, is associated with the ratio of the species composition of trees. In forest plots dominated by P. sylvestris, bird communities are balanced, in plots with a predominance of Q. robur, disturbances in the development of bird communities are noticeable.
О.о. Kravchenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, В.м. Galimova, V.A. Kopilevich, А.м. Churilov, V.V. Chobotar
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 63-73; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.007

Abstract:
The work is devoted to the actual problem of environmental safety and quality assessment of various water sources Mohyliv-Podilsky district of Vinnitsa region. It has been carried out hydrochemical analysis and calculated an index of pollution of natural waters, biological testing performed using a battery of test organisms, given recommendations to improve the water quality of the study area.It has been established that the most indicative parameters of pollution of water supply sources are hardness indicators, concentration of cadmium, lead, nitrates. None of the investigated sources have corresponded to the “clean water” indicator. Water samples that as a result of hydro-chemical analysis had been characterized by relatively safe, exhibited chronic toxicity for invertebrates. It has been found that water from a centralized source is characterized by the acute toxicity and leads to changes in living organisms at the cellular level. It is recommended to carry out quarterly water sampling in the indicated sources; minimization of the use of nitrogen fertilizers in settlements, in particular, near water supply sources.
V.O. Chamara, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, O. Yu. Strashok, O.V. Kolesnichenko
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 43-51; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.005

Abstract:
Today, there is such a significant anthropogenic impact on nature all over the world that natural compensatory processes can not to deal with its harmful effects, especially in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the current issues of urboecology and urban greening. Lawn is a multifunctional plant formation, an integral elements of urban landscapes, the basis of compositional solutions for urban greening and the main buffer element in the city. The lawn is the most important element of landscaping in any type of greenery, which plays a sanitary role. The analysis of the state of multifunctional lawns in cities and the development its ecological and biological standards for creating stable sward in urban areas is relevant. The authors present the results of the assessment of decorative effect and quality of the structure of lawn coverings for different functional purpose in the city Brovary. We chose on the territory of Brovary different lawns for multifunctional purpose: park “Peremoha”, park named after T.G. Shevchenko, park “Sosnovyi”, cemetery “Stare”, school territory № 9, boulevard “Nezalezhnosti”, stadium “Spartak”, stadium near school № 7, stadium of Brovary Higher School of Physical Culture. Determination of turf grass and weed vegetation we carried out in accordance with the “Determinant of higher plants of Ukraine” (1987). The actual weed-infested determined by the survey method and evaluated in points. For the Latin names of plants, we use The Plant List. The assessment of lawn decorative effect (general decorativeness) carried out with the 5-point scale (Laptev, 1983). We analyzed the quality of the structure of the lawn culture phytocenosis with 6-point scale of Laptev, which consists from the number of units of shoots per area of 100 cm2. Thus, we can group the experimental lawn coverings by qualitative characteristics of the state, where 5 objects from 9 experimental (park “Sosnovyi”, cemetery “Stare”, school territory № 9, boulevard “Nezalezhnosti”, stadium of Brovary Higher School of Physical Culture) evaluated in the lowest indicators and need a complete renovation. On the territory of the cemetery “Stare” lawn we found the largest number of weed species and we noted such species as: Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex FH Wigg., Plantago major L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Capsella bursa-pastoris L. Medik., Elytrigia repens L. (Nevski), Poa annua L., Chenopodium album L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve. Indicators of the general decorativeness of lawns in the park “Peremoha” and the stadium near the school № 7 were the same, but the results of quality analysis of the structure of lawn indicate low shoot-forming ability of turf grasses, which is essential indicator for sport lawns for formation of a resistant turf to various types of loading. The lawns on the territory of park “Peremoha”, stadium “Spartak” and stadium near school № 7 characterized by good and mediocre quality of sward and require such agronomic operations as aeration, grounding and fertilization. Sport lawns in the city Brovary characterized by high indicators of weed-infested (3 points) that in turn influences both on decorative effect and complex estimation indicators of a lawn covering. It should also be noted that the frequency of fertilization for sports lawns is higher than for other types. The research results show that the lawn on the territory boulevard “Nezalezhnosti” estimated in 3 points by general decorativeness, because the projective cover was mosaic-group (Laptev, 1983) and 2 points – the quality of the structure of the lawn. In our opinion, such low rates are probably caused by anthropogenic load, as the research object located right next to the highway, but studies of this nature need to be continued. According to the results, it is established that the condition of the lawns in Brovary for different functional purpose differs greatly in quality indicators (Laptev, 1983): sports – mediocre condition, decorative – satisfactory (except for the park “Sosnovyi”), special purpose – unsatisfactory condition. The authors propose agro-technical operations to improve the quality and decorative effect of lawns in the city. However, areas of lawn coverings with "bad" grass quality indicators require restoration.
S.N. Koniakin, Institute of Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, H.Yu. Honchar, A.S. Kumpanenko, O.V. Kolesnichenko, M.G. Povoznikov, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 14-24; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.03.002

Abstract:
Green areas of the city (remnants of the natural landscape, parks, squares, etc.) are a refuge for most diverse organisms, include insects too. Such places provide them with fodder and nesting resources under certain conditions. However, as a result of the sanitary measures of a care, the simplification of the vegetation, etc., these places become unattractive to biota, which leads to the reduction of the most common urbotolerant species of insects. In order to preserve and maintain populations of some insect species, artificial nesting structures are installed in the most attractive and safe areas. We studied the trap nest (a set of reed tubes) for insects, which was located on the territory of the botanical garden NUBIP of Ukraine. As a result of the study of 50 separate nests, the species composition of individual groups of the wild bees and wasps inhabiting such nests was described. Measurements of individual nests (diameter and length of the reed tube) were made and it was found that the population of the insects, in particular Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Apoidea, Megachilidae) and the wasps of the genus Trypoxylon Latreille, 1896 (Crabronidae) is almost 95 % with dominance of O. bicornis (78 %). It was determined that Osmia are not preferred to the nest with tubes of larger diameter or length, but the diameter and length of the reed tubes are positively correlated with the number of the bees larvae in the nest (the correlation coefficients are 0.44 and 0.48, p = 0.05, respectively). The wasps (Trypoxylon sp.) was preferred to the tubes with a diameter of mainly 0.5-0.7 cm (r = 0.56, p = 0.05). In addition, the composition of kleptoparasites, which lead to the death of the bee larvae, was studied. Thus, 20 % of Osmia nests were infected with flies Cacoxenus indagator Loew, 1858 (Diptera, Drosophilidae), and 10 % of the nests contained pollen mite Chaetodactylus osmiae (Dufour, 1839) (Arachnida, Sarcoptiformes).
M. Pavlovska, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, L. Solomenko, E. Prekrasna, E. Dykyi, State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center Mes
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 50-59; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.050

Abstract:
Biotransformation and bioremediation mediated by microbial communities is known to determine the fate of pollutants in the ecosystems and their effect on other biota preventing from xenobiotics accumulation in the food web. These processes are even more important in semi-closed marine ecosystems, which receive plenty of river run-off, such as the Black Sea. An ubiquity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds, are present in the Black Sea water in concentrations, which exceeded maximum permissible, according to the results of the Joint Black Sea Surveys 2016 conducted in the course of UNDP EMBLAS project. In addition, the presence of pesticides, herbicides and pharmaceutical products was detected at the majority of monitoring stations. Therefore, it is expedient to assess microbial communities’ taxonomic and functional diversity with the emphasis on xenobiotics’ biotransformation potential, in order to analyze the Black Sea ecosystem functional response towards constant pollution inflow. Such research has the potential to contribute to the estimation of Marine Framework Strategy Directive indicators and to Black Sea ecological status assessment. Black Sea microbial taxonomic diversity was assessed in seawater and sediments samples collected during Joint Open Sea Survey conducted in the course of UNDP EMBLAS-II project. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and 16S V3 was sequenced at Ion Proton platform. Consequently, prokaryotic taxonomic diversity was determined with QIIME-II pipeline using Green Genes and SILVA databases. Our data indicates the presence of a number of taxonomic groups, known to be responsible for organic pollutants’ degradation. Such taxa, as Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Halomonadaceae Oceanospirillaceae, Alcanivoracaceae, Bacilliaceae, Actinomycetales and Acidobacteriaceae were detected in Black Sea water at the majority of the stations. Sediments samples were characterized by overall higher bacterial diversity and harbored Alteromonadales and Piscirickettsiaceae, which have experimentally proven polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation capability. Besides, Desulfuromonadaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Syntrophaceae, Peptococcaceae and Dehalococcoideaceae, previously shown to act in organochlorine compounds biotransformation, comprised a significant portion of sediments microbial community. The results obtained are the baseline for subsequent detailed studies of Black Sea microbial communities functional biodegradation potential. This, in turn, sets the background for the research of ecosystem adaptation strategies to anthropogenic xenobiotic pollution and to the identification of novel metabolic pathways involved in this process.
, Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, N. V. Tovstolyak, Yu. V. Lykholat, I. P. Grygoryuk, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 12-27; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.012

Abstract:
For a natural environment phyto-optimization a correlation dependencies between dendometric indicators and a stand diversity indices in gardens & parks cultivated plant communities at Kryvyi Rih district had been analyzed. In 22 research plots at 10 gardens & parks both field and desk studies were conducted by conventional methods. In each plot: floral composition has been documented; woody stems of diameter at breast height and woody height were measured; tree-density, basal area of the tree and volume of the tree were computed. The woodlands diversity indices (Shannon’s diversity, Pielou’s evenness, Simpson’s diversity and Margalef’s richness) were calculated by classical formulas The taxonomic composition of the stand contained 23 species from 13 genera, 12 families and one department - Polotonosynye. The dendrometric indicators of the stand confirmed that forest species plants are in a stress state as a permanent impact result by adverse environmental factors that are natural and anthropogenic genesis. The correlated calculations confirmed that between the dendrometric indices and the stands indices diversity is a statistically significant relationship. Among the dendrometric indicators, the tree-density and volume of the tree were the most sensitive to the stands indices diversity. Among the diversity indices, Pielou’s evenness index was the most informative indicator
A. Kyrychenko, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, K. Hrynchuk, I. Antipov, A. Likhanov
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 69-79; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.069

Abstract:
Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is one of the most harmful and widespread bean viruses. The pathogen can be transmitted with seeds and pollen with a fairly high frequency. With efficient spread by vectors to susceptible crops, even a low level of seed infection can lead to an epidemic situation. In Ukraine BCMV is widespread in all dry bean growing areas and may cause serious crop losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of Bean common mosaic virus seed transmission in Phaseolus vulgaris cv Chervona shapochka. Whereas high incidence of seed transmission occurred in direct relation to virus invasion of an immature embryo we tended to follow the virus infection in reproductive tissues of bean. To determine the possibility of vertical transmission of BCMV via pollen, detection of virus RNA in pollen grains by PCR has been carried out. In the study biological methods (mechanical inoculation of viruses, detection of virus infectivity in indicator plants) and molecular biological techniques (total RNA extraction from the plant tissues, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) were used. It was shown P. vulgaris cv Chervona shapochka transmitted the BCMV strain in 77 % of the seed produced by infected plants. The date obtained indicates a high level of seed transmission of the virus. According to the findings virus infected seeds have a great value in disease spreading. The viral RNA has been detected in plant generative organs and some components of the seed and flower. Also virus particles were found in pollen grains of Phaseolus vulgaris plants. Diffuse granular viral inclusions were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of developing embryo cells.
, D.K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the NASU, , , National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.028

Abstract:
За дії пестицидів збільшується частота появи морфологічно відмінних форм у фітопатогенних бактерій виду Pseudomonas syringae, що призводить до ускладнень у разі ізоляції збудників та їхньої ідентифікації за ознаками фенотипу. Метою роботи було вивчення біологічних властивостей S- і R-форм збудника базального бактеріозу пшениці P. syringae pv. atrofaciens. Встановлено, що R-дисоціанти штамів P. syringae pv. atrofaciens УКМ В-1011 та P. syringae pv. atrofaciens 9780 за фізіолого-біохімічними властивостями не відрізнялися між собою і від вихідної S-форми цих штамів. R-форми P. syringae pv. atrofaciens УКМ В-1011 та P. syringae pv. atrofaciens 9780 краще формують біоплівку порівняно з S-формою цих штамів, що забезпечує їм конкурентну перевагу під час формування популяцій у філосфері. Показано, що R-форми не втрачають вірулентних властивостей, які притаманні вихідній S-формі P. syringae pv. atrofacіens. Збільшення в популяції P. syringae pv. atrofacіens кількості особин, що характеризуються підвищеною здатністю до формування біоплівки за збереження вірулентних властивостей, може посилювати ризик виникнення епіфітотій, спричинених цим збудником.
M.Y. Pikovskyi, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, M.M. Kyryk, V.V. Bоrodai
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 60-68; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.060

Abstract:
Phytotoxicity of isolates in S. sclerotiorum populations extracted from different geographic conditions and host plants has been established. The results of studies of the influence of culture filtrates of 42 isolates of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary of different geographical origin on the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of winter wheat plants are presented. All the isolates tested showed a phytotoxic effect, which consisted of reduced seed germination, inhibition of root system growth and seedlings. S. sclerotiorum isolates extracted from soybean and rapeseed plants (Kyiv region, Vasylkiv district) showed the most negative impact on seed germination rates. Their phytotoxic effect caused a decrease in seed germination by 12.4-13.4 % less than in the control. S. sclerotiorum isolates also induced a reduction in the root length of the plant and inhibition of seedling growth compared to a control average of 1.0 to 57.9%. In particular, 71-100% of fungus isolates extracted from soybean and rapeseed plants (Kyiv region, Vasylkiv district) had a high degree of toxicity.
D. Monoshyn, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, T. Shupova, L. Rudchenko, V. Gaychenko, Institute of Evolution Ecology NAS Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 38-41; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.038

Abstract:
The study of the radioactivity of insects - herpetobiont elytra that belong to different trophic groups shown the presence of incorporated 137Cs, there were concentrated about 20% of total animal radioactivity. The comparison of the radionuclide comparison was done in both dried and fresh samples. Radioactive contamination of integument comes mainly from the terminal phase of metamorphosis (at the ninth phase).
I.G. Rubezhniak, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.042

Abstract:
Annotation. The purpose of this work was conducting study of the antibacterial activity of cultural filtrates of 125 micromycete strains isolated from different samples. Different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as test-organisms have been applicable. Activity of 64 strains has been established. Genus Aspergillus and Penicillium was characterized wide spectrum of activity. The strains of genus Aureobasidium and Paecilomyces as A. pullulans 41, P. variotii 68 have been shown antibacterial action against test-organisms. It is found that strains of M. vinacea exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 904 and E. coli 906. Most strains did not show antibacterial effect. The results obtained confirm that antibacterial potential of strains of A. pullulans, P. variotii and M. vinacea is the most potential for researches of biologically active substances.
L. Khrokalo, National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, V. Vorobyova, G. Vasyliev, N. Ryzhenko, K. Glagun, O. Korniakova, O. Salamaha, Ye. Sirosh
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 11, pp 5-11; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2020.01.005

Abstract:
Resistance of E. coli to nanodispersed systems, obtained on the basis of vegetal extracts and silver nitrate, has been determined in liquid nutrient medium. Vegetal extracts got by water maceration of berry pomaces with ultrasound treatment. Zeta potential of obtained AgNPs were in a band from -15 to -24 mV and average sizes of particles were 80-92 nm. Antimicrobial action of silver nanosystems was tested in 10-times reiterative; the statistical processing of results involved using S-criterion for rejecting gross errors and calculating the average value of suspension optical density with mean square deviation. Control absence of growth was performed on Endo agar. Silver nanosystems on grape crests and pomace, and currant pomace extracts were stable and active against E. coli UKM В-906. The minimal bactericidal concentration is 7,5% for the silver nanosystem on grape extract, and 10% for currants extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration are 3,5% and 4,2% correspondently.
O. O. Pasichna, Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, O. M. Arsan, O. O. Godlevska, L. O. Gorbatyuk, T. V. Vitovetska, National University of Biology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, Kyiv National University of Budapest and Architecture
Biological Systems: Theory and Innovation, Volume 10, pp 84-92; https://doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2019.03.084

Abstract:
The study of short-term (during of 1 day) and chronic (14 days) influence of copper (II) and manganese (II) ions on photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids of submerged higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L. and green filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. was done. The peculiarities of metals accumulation by the macrophytes with increasing of concentration of Cu2+ and Mn2+ in the aquatic environment and exposure time were established. The connection between sensitivity of gas exchange functions and pigment system of the macrophytes to influence of the metals ions and their accumulation by plant organisms was revealed. The assessment of adaptive capacity of the investigated macrophytes to increasing Cu2+ and Mn2+ concentration in the aquatic environment was carried out.Keywords: copper, manganese, submerged higher aquatic plants, green filamentous algae, photosynthesis, respiration, pigments, adaptation
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