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Results in Journal South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology: 254

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, Gloria Owhorji
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230249

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the fungal population and physicochemistry of abattoir impacted soil in Iwofe, Rivers State. Study Design: This study focused on Abattoir impacted soil. Statistical analysis of data and interpretation was carried out. Place and Duration of Study: Abattoir impacted soil was collected from three points in an abattoir located in Iwofe, Rivers State while the unpolluted soil which served as control was collected from the Rivers State University, Port Harcourt in January, 2021. Methodology: Standard microbiological techniques were used: the fungal population was determined by inoculating aliquots of an appropriate dilution resulting from a ten-fold serial dilution on prepared Sabouraud dextrose agar plates in duplicates. Plates were later incubated for 3-5 days after which colonies were enumerated and used in obtaining the fungal population in the soil samples while distinct colonies were subcultured for macroscopic and microscopic identification of fungi. The physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed using standard methods. Results: Fungal load in the control and abattoir impacted soil were 1.09×105 and 3.9×104 CFU/g, respectively. The fungal load of the control soil was significantly higher (P˂0.05) than the abattoir impacted soil. The fungal isolates identified in the abattoir impacted soil were Microsporium sp, Aspergillus niger and Candida sp while Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Mucor sp and Rhizopus sp were identified from the control soil. The pH, temperature, nitrate and phosphate of the abattoir soil were 6.7, 28.33℃, 27.83(mgKg-1) and 1055(mgKg-1), respectively. The concentrations of Cadmium, Iron and Lead in the abattoir Impacted soil and control soil were 0.81, 563.35 and 7.12 mgKg-1, 0.51, 582.0 and 3.18 mgKg-1, respectively. The physico chemistry and heavy metals in the abattoir soil were within acceptable limits. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings from this study showed that heavy metals in abattoir impacted soil had an impact in the fungal population which led to the isolation of only three fungal isolates belonging to Microsporium sp, Candida sp and Aspergillus niger. More so, despite the presence of heavy metals in the abattoir impacted soil, the metals were all within permissible limits. Thus, the abattoir impacted soil was not heavily polluted.
J. P. Alimi, S. A. Ahemen, K. O. Zaka, N. B. Yepshak, D. A. Balogun
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230248

Abstract:
The microbial properties of food are important quality characteristics of food materials as it relates directly with the health of the consumer. This study examined the microbiological properties of high quality cassava flours produced from low postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) cassava. Wholesome four varieties of yellow-fleshed Low PPD cassava and one variety of high PPD cassava were, peeled, washed, grated, pressed, pulverized, flash dried at 120 °C for 8 minutes, milled with cyclone hammer mill fitted with a screen of 250 µm aperture size, cooled and packed into high density polyethylene bag. The high quality cassava flours produced were analyzed for total viable fungal and bacteria count, fungi isolated were further characterized and identified using molecular methods. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 25.0 and significant means were separated applying Duncan multiple range test. The mold count ranged from 1.50±0.71 - 2.50±0.71 cfu/ml, with flour produced from IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 and TMEB 419 having the lowest count while the highest was recorded in IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, respectively. The yeast count ranged from 1.00±0.00 - 2.0±0.00 cfu/ml, with flours produced from IITA-TMS-IBA-070593 and IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 having the lowest count while the highest was recorded in flour from IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, respectively. The total viable bacterial and fungal count (microbiological quality) of the flours prepared from IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, IITA-TMS-IBA-070593, IITA-TMS-IBA-011412, IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 and TMEB 419 cassava varieties were within the permissible limit of the microbial load of food allowed for human consumption according to the Standard Organization of Nigeria and CODEX alimentraius.
, A. K. Chandana
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230247

Abstract:
Clitoria ternatea commonly known as Butterfly pea is a standard Ayurvedic medicinal plant used in many parts of south Asian countries. Traditional medicinal plants are a great alternative to find new treatments and for the development of novel antimicrobials to combat many diseases. In Ayurveda and traditional and folk medicine in several countries, decoction and extracts made from C. ternatea are recommended to be used for various medical treatments. C. ternatea extracts claimed to possess antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties, which had been supported and validated by many in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, biologically active compound/s isolation and development novel compounds still remain in its infancy. Despite its enormous potential health benefits, only a single commercial product managed to reach industrial level production. C. ternatea cyclotide studies are also limited despite the fact that it the fastest known natural ligase discovered to date. These cyclotides are rapid peptide ligators and has been the focus of many recent studies on peptide ligation and cyclization for biotechnological applications. In this mini summary we have tried to point out innate unique biological properties of C. ternatea and suggested few future studies, more specifically on C. ternatea cyclotides development against bacterial heat shock proteins (Hsp 100) for novel antimicrobial discovery and development.
Kingsley Kelechi Onyekachi, Joy Nkeiruka Dike-Ndudim, Emeka Simon Anikwo,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230246

Abstract:
This work was carried out in order to detect the presence of bacterial agent in the bottled water samples, and to evaluate the physicochemical qualities of these bottled water. Twenty samples selected from four different brands of bottled water sold in Owerri, were examined to determine their bacteriological and physicochemical qualities. Bacteriological analyses using Membrane filtration technique was carried out to determine the heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and fecal coliform counts. Physicochemical qualities were also determined using standard methods. The heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 0.00 to 12.00 CFU/ml, total coliform count ranged from 0.00 to 7.50 coliform/100ml. There was absence of fecal coliform in the samples. The pH, Color, Turbidity and Conductivity of the samples ranged from 5.18 to 7.28, 0.00 to 18.00 PCU, 0.55 to 1.62 NTU and 16.00 to 262.00 µs/cm respectively. The Chloride, Iron and Nitrite content of the samples ranged from 16.99 to 27.98 mg/L, 0.01 to 0.07 mg/L Fe, and 0.00 to 0.34 mg/L respectively. The bacterial species isolated belong to the genera Staphylococcus, Proteus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Escherichia. Quality wise, most of the water samples met the XYZ standard for bacteriological and physicochemical quality for drinking water with the exception of few. It can be deduced from this study, that none of the bottled water is suitable for drinking with regards to the bacteriological and physicochemical parameters tested. Though some samples passed the bacteriological examination, most of them were acidic and therefore not safe for consumption.
, Bonifácio Peixoto Magalhães, Gesiane Ribeiro Guimarães, Wanderson Silva Dos Santos, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i230245

Abstract:
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum has been studied in different countries as mycoinsecticide against grasshoppers. One of the utilization strategies considered is the association between entomopathogenic fungi and sublethal dosages of chemical insecticides compatible with the biological control agent. The effect of different chemical insecticides at concentrations varying from 5 to 5000 ppm on the conidial germination and growth of the fungus M. anisopliae var. acridum (CG 423) was assessed for compatibility evalution. The best results with inhibitory concentration (IC50) on germination (liquid medium) and radial colonial growth (solid medium) of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum at 28°C was obtained with Teflubenzuron.
, EdwinG Centeno, Manuel Cuevas-Abrego, Armando A. Durant-Archibold, Eduardo Ortega-Barría, Filemón Bucardo
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 46-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130244

Abstract:
Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in young children and animal worldwide. In some countries in Latin American specifically in Central American and Caribbean countries, rotavirus infections are not subject to specific surveillance. This review is about the unusually strains detected and potential zoonotic of rotavirus in Latin American. Although, interspecies transmission has not been documented to occur directly, an increase of the number of reports of atypical rotavirus genotypes; apparently derived from transmission between animal of farm, domestic and wild with humans, has been reported in some Latin American countries and the world. We consider that the rapid increase in the detection of new unusual strains with genetic heterogeneity, raises interesting questions about the evolution of rotavirus in The Latin American region. The emergence of novel strains derived from interspecies transmission has implications for the design and implementation of successful human rotavirus vaccine strategies.
, Omokaro Obire
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130243

Abstract:
Wastewater samples from abattoirs in Bayelsa and Rivers State were evaluated for their microbiological and physicochemical properties. The microbiological parameters were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques while the Physicochemical parameters were analyzed based on the APHA standard method. The mean range of the total heterotrophic bacterial, bacterial, total coliform, total Vibrio, total hydrocarbon utilizing, total heterotrophic fungal and hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts of the wastewater were: (1.9×107to 5.2×107, 2.1×105 to 4.0 × 105, 1.0×103 to 3.1 × 103, 1.0×105 to 2.2×105, 1.8×105 to c4.1×105 and 1.1×103 to 3.2 ×103)CFU/ml respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the counts for the bacterial and fungal counts. Bacillus sp (17.32%), Escherichia coli (16.33%), Streptococcus sp (15.34%), Staphylococcus sp (14.35%), Pseudomonas sp (11.38%), Shigella sp (10.39%) Alcaligenes sp (9.9%), Vibrio sp (6.93%) and Salmonella sp (4.93%), were the bacteria isolated. The percentage of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolates were: Bacillus sp (34.28%), Pseudomonas sp (26.71%), Alcaligenes sp (20%). Escherichia coli (14.28%), Staphylococcus sp (5.71%). Among the fungi isolated Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp, Geotrichum sp were found in 18.75% each while Penicillium sp recorded 23% occurrence, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida sp were found in 6.25% occurrence each but Mucor sp exhibited 8.33% of occurrence. The percentages of occurrence of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi were Aspergillus sp (22.22%), Fusarium sp (16.66%), Penicillium sp (33.33%), Geotrichum sp (16.66%), Mucor sp (5.55%) and Candida (5.55%). The mean of physicochemical parameters was: pH: 6.7-9.1, EC: 156-4981, Turbidity: 11.1-149NTU, TSS: 62-239, TDS: 104-3320, NO3: 20.97-30.97, SO4: 14.5-54.6, PO4: 1.78-20.21, salinity: 41.25-2800, DO: 4.29-41.18, COD:3600-5476.0 and BOD-:1600.0-7761.4. The high microbial load and physicochemical parameters in these wastewaters is alarming and could pose serious human health and environmental challenges if the disposal of untreated wastewater continues unabated.
Dolly Solanki,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130242

Abstract:
Background: The bacteriology of thoracic empyema has been changing since the introduction of antibiotics. Gram stain and culture has for decades been the “gold standard” for the detection of microorganisms in pleural fluid samples. The present retrospective study was designed to review our experience with the microbial causes of empyema and their antibiotic sensitive patterns. The knowledge of likely prevalent strains along with their antimicrobial sensitive pattern helps in the framing of antibiotic policy and better management of patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was including 500 cases suspected of bacteriological infection of pleural fluid in patients admitted in ward of PDU Government Hospital, Rajkot. The performa include serial number, register number, age, sex, ward, clinical features of patients and investigation. All the samples were inoculated into Blood agar and MacConkey agar and Nutrient agar. All the plates were incubated aerobically at 370 C and results were read after 24 hours. If no growth present it is further incubated for next 24 hours. One smear was prepared on clean glass slide, then air dried and was heat fixed. Gram staining was done by standard technique. Results: This study include 500 cases of pleural effusion from January 2015 to July 2016, out of which 87 cases show positive Bacterial culture growth and 232 cases were adenosine deaminase positive. In total 87 positive bacterial cultures, 20(22%) show bacterial pathogens in gram stain. Total positive culture found in 17.4%. Among them; most common Bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 40 (45%) patients, this was followed by Klebsiella pneumonaie in 21 (24%), Staphylococcus aureus in 10 (11.49%), Acinetobacter spp. in 4 (4.59%), Proteus spp.in 3 (3.44%) and Providencia in 1 (1.14%). Conclusion: Pleural space infection continues to be prevalent in our country particularly in the lower socioeconomic strata due to the delay in seeking medical care, inappropriate antibiotics and dosages and duration of antibiotic treatment. All gram positive bacteria isolate were 100% sensitivity to Rifampicin, Vancomycin, Linezolid.
, I. M. Ikeh, H. O. Stanley
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130241

Abstract:
The keypads of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) are subjected to several microbial contaminations due to their large dermal contact by numerous users and different personal hygiene practice. The study investigated the bacterial diversity and level of contamination obtainable on the ATM keypads during transactions and antibiotics susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The population of culturable bacterial isolates was determined by plating. Isolates were characterized culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. The total culturable heterotrophic bacterial counts ranssged from 5.23 to 9.25 log cfu/g. The bacterial identified and frequency of occurrence is Staphylococcus aureus (17.5%), Escherichia coli (22.5%), Bacillus spp (17.5%), Salmonella spp (10.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.0%), Proteus spp (7.5%) and Klebsiella spp (15.0%) respectively. Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to Chloramphenicol (37mm) and were more resistant to Rifampicin (00mm) and Levofloxacin (00mm) respectively. The Gram negative isolates in the study were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin and more resistant to ceporex, nalidixic acid, septrin and ampicillin respectively. The highest gram negative isolates that showed more susceptible to all the used gram negative antibiotics were Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp while the lowest were Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp respectively. The study has revealed that bacterial contamination on ATM keypads is of health significance and could result to public health challenges if not properly managed. Therefore, adequate hand- washing hygienic practices and cleaning agents are advocated towards reducing the related ill- health among ATM users.
J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i130240

Abstract:
Aim: Bioremediation of soil play a critical role in removing pollutants from crude oil polluted soil. To investigate the mycoflora of crude oil polluted area of Ukwa West Local Government in the present Abia State. Methodology: Portions of the soil samples collected from three (3) locations were plated out separately on Yeast Starch Agar, Starch Agar, and Cellulose Agar using soil plate methods. The culture plates were examined after 5-7 and 14 days for the presence of fungi. Pure cultures of the isolates were obtained by subculturing and the physico-chemical properties of the soil samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Twenty species (20) of fungi were isolated from the crude oil polluted soil sample and represented by their respective genera. Eight (8) species of Aspergillus representing 40%, two (2) species of Thermomyces representing 10% each, and one (1) species of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Curvularia, Trichoderma, Scopulariopsis, Sporotrichum and Basipetospora representing 5% each. Aspergillus species were predominant which include among others A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, A. terreus. The physico-chemical properties of the soil sample were found to be varied and have affected the distribution and population of fungi. The pH values ranged from 4.81- 5.58 as compared to the control ranging from 5.72- 6.50 for soil samples A, B and C. The moisture content values ranged between 26.46-29.59% as compared to the control ranging from 29.41-32.51%. The soil was found to be high in organic matter content with values of 70.3-82.7% as compared to the control which was 94% for each of the locations. Conclusion: Crude oil polluted soils of Ukwa West of Abia State, Nigeria is rich in fungal biodiversity with the soil’s samples having different physico-chemical properties.
N. U. Nwogwugwu, E. C. Chinakwe, C. E. Ihejirika, E. C. Ezenweani, C. C. Ngumah, E. E. Mike Anosike
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330230

Abstract:
Aim: To assess the microbiological quality of uncooked smoked horse mackerel fish (Trachurus trachurus) sold in Owerri and ascertain the presence and prevalence of microorganisms of public health importance. Study Design: Random sampling was done. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri; from October, 2019 to April, 2020. Methodology: Smoked fish samples (n=20) were purchased randomly from retailers in Relief, Naze, Eziobodo and Obinze markets and taken to the laboratory for isolation and identification of microorganisms. Standard microbiological methods were employed to analyze for viable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts on nutrient agar and potato dextrose agar respectively, using the spread and streak plate techniques. Coliform counts were done on MacConkey agar. Biochemical characterization of the microorganisms was adopted for their identification. Results: Bacteria identified included Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Salmonella and Micrococcus species. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts and coliform counts ranged from 2.8 x 106 cfu/g to 1.6 x 108 cfu/g and 2.7 x 104 cfu/g to 5.3 x 105 cfu/g respectively. Fungal species identified were Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus and Fusarium spp and fungal counts as high as 4.5 x 105 cfu/g were recorded. Conclusion: The high level of microbial contamination of the samples and the presence of organisms of public health importance signifies an obvious danger to human health. Eating smoked fish without proper cooking should be discouraged by the relevant authorities. Also, food safety authorities should intensify their monitoring efforts towards controlling such contaminations and averting possible outbreaks of diseases.
, P. C. Meregini-Ikechukwu, L. B. Kpormon
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 40-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430237

Abstract:
Disposal of wastewater and other effluents into water bodies from activities around water bodies have for long been of major concern and challenge to the environment leading to several infectious diseases. The amount of industrial untreated solid wastes from companies, wastewater from car washing activities, open drainages and agricultural runoffs located close to Elechi creek constitutes the wastewater effluents received by the creek thus resulting in the imbalance of the ecosystem. The study was therefore aimed at determining the microbiology of water quality at different stations of the Elechi creek. Surface water, wastewater and sediment samples were collected during a seven month period and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results obtained revealed that the average microbial counts ranged as follows: Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.12±0.13x108 to 1.28±0.09x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 6.4±0.21 to 7.8±0.13 cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.9±0.06 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 7.9±0.11 to 8.5±0.14 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 5.4±0.13 to 7.9±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 5.9±0.13 to 7.4±0.09 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 2.5±0.08 to 4.8 ±0.10 cfu/ml, in surface water, Total Heterotrophic bacteria 1.02±0.08 x108 cfu/ml to 2.68±0.08 x108 cfu/ml, Total coliform count; 4.4±0.10a to 4.9±0.11a cfu/ml, Total Staphylococcus Count;4.7±0.10 to 5.9±0.12 cfu/ml, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.08 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 3.2±0.16 to 4.6±0.08 cfu/ml, Total Vibrio Count; 2.0±0.15 to 4.8±0.11 cfu/ml, and Total Pseudomonad Count2.7±0.13 to 3.9±0.09cfu/ml, in wastewater and Total Heterotrophic bacteria 2.16±0.07 x109 cfu/g to 2.24±0.09 x109 cfu/g, Total coliform count; 1.01±0.13 to 1.36±0.06b cfu/g, Total Staphylococcus Count; 6.8±0.11 to 9.1±0.08 cfu/g, Total Shigella count; 4.0±0.09 to 6.5±0.06 cfu/ml, Total Salmonella Count; 4.1±0.11 to 9.7±0.12 cfu/g, Total Vibrio Count; 6.8±0.10 to 9.5±0.09 cfu/g, and Total Pseudomonad Count; 4.0±0.16 to 5.9±0.07 cfu/g, in sediment samples. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Providencia, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Enterobacter were isolated and identified. The occurrences of these bacterial isolates as potential pathogens could cause poor water quality through fouling and render the water for various uses and may pose a public health threat to our water resources. Adherence to good hygienic practices and proper treatment of wastewater before discharge into the environment should be encouraged to minimize the spread of infectious diseases and fouling of water bodies. This may also affect the aquatic life in such ecosystems.
Prosperity C. Ewoh,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430236

Abstract:
The aim of this research work was to determine the aerating duration that would be effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation of crude-oil polluted river. Sediment and river-water were placed in four glass troughs labeled CT (control), A, B, and C. The setups were polluted with crude-oil, and allowed undisturbed for 2 weeks. Subsequently, accessible crude-oil on the surface was removed; bacteria and nutrients were then added. Air was bubbled for 3 hours into setups A, B, and C, at daily, 3 days, and 7 days interval respectively. Aeration was not applied to setup CT. On day 1, 7, 14, and 21, hydrocarbon concentration was determined; populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) were also determined. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegraded “completely” was calculated using first-order reaction equation. The results obtained showed that 71.43, 86.39, 83.17, and 15.42 % hydrocarbon degradation were obtained in setup A, B, C, and CT respectively. The time it will take for hydrocarbons in the setups to biodegrade “completely” were 129, 89, 101, and 1079 days for A, B, C, and CT respectively. There was slight reduction in population of HUB in setup CT, fairly stable population in setup A, and increase in population of HUB in setups B and C. It is concluded that aerating crude-oil polluted aquatic environment for 3 hours at 3 days interval will be more effective in enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation rate during bioremediation.
N. E. Nwakoby, J. I. Ezeogo, M. U. Orji, C. F. Ejimofor
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430235

Abstract:
Wastes from cassava processing mills are usually discharged uncontrollably into the environment where they cause serious environmental challenges. This research work was undertaken to investigate the effects of cassava mill effluent on the microbiological quality of soils and to determine the effects of the polluted soils on the growth of plants. Fresh cassava mill effluent and unpolluted soil samples were collected and analyzed microbiologically. The soil sample was polluted with the cassava mill effluent and the polluted soil was also subjected to microbiological analyses for 31days. Germination and growth of pumpkin plants were also investigated using soil samples polluted with different concentrations of the cassava mill effluent. The microbial population of the effluent showed presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp, and Candida spp. The bacterial count was 1.4x104cfu/ml while the fungal count was 1.1x103cfu/ml. The results of the analyses of the unpolluted soil and the effluent polluted soil samples showed that the effluent had noticeable effects on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the soil. The total microbial count increased from 2.2x105 cfu/g to 4.6x105cfu/g for bacteria and 1.6x104cfu/g to 3.3x105cfu/g for fungi. The polluted soil showed higher diversity of micro-organisms. The isolated organisms were: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus spp, Proteus spp, Enterobacter spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, and Rhizopus spp. The polluted soil also, at higher concentrations of the effluent inhibited the germination of plants. This research revealed that effluents from cassava processing mills have significant effects on the microbiological properties of the surrounding soils and also affected the growth of plants on these soils negatively. It therefore suggested that this effluent should be treated properly before disposal to the environment.
J. C. Ozougwu, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Imakwu, A. E. Nwafia, C. U. Uzochukwu, C. P. Ihevueme
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430234

Abstract:
The bacteriological assessment of indoor air of the male hostel at Rhema University Nigeria was undertaken in this study. Bacteriological analyses of Air samples from male hostels was carried out weekly for 4 weeks using standard microbiological methods in June, 2021 to determine their bacteriological content. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables. The result showed that the concentration of bacteria isolates increased as the duration of exposure of the media increased. The highest bacteria concentration was seen at room 205 at 40 minutes (29.8 x 102CFU/M3) and the least at room 204 at 20 minutes (0.9 x 101 CFU/M3). The concentration of bacteria at other rooms were room 305 at 40 minutes (17.7 x 102 CFU/M3), room 304 at 20 minutes had 1.3 x 101 CFU/M3, room 405 at 40 minutes had 17.8 x 102 CFU/M3, room 404 at 20 minutes had 3.6 x 101 CFU/M3, room 504 at 40 minutes had 17.6 x 102 CFU/M3 and room 503 at 20 minutes had 11.9 x 102 CFU/M3. A total of eleven (11) different bacteria species were isolated and identified as Staphylococcus aureus (100%), Escherichia coli (75%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (75%), Klebsiella spp (75%), Bacillus subtilis (75%), Streptococcus pyogenes (50%), Bacillus megaterium (50%), Bacillus cereus (50%) and Serratia marcescens (25%). Staphylococcus aureus is the most occurring bacteria specie (100%) while Serratia marcescens is the least occurring bacteria specie (25%). Potential pathogenicity testing of isolates revealed Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes as potential pathogenic species found in the hostel rooms. Bearing in mind that some of the bacteria species isolated showed potential pathogenic abilities, it means that the air quality of the male hostel rooms may have health implications. There is therefore need for periodic air quality evaluation in the male hostel to discover and manage those environmental variables which favours the multiplication of bacteria. Students are advised to implement good sanitation and hygiene practices to improve indoor air quality in the hostels and prevent possible infection or disease.
, Utpalendu Paul, Subhadeep Banerjee
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i430233

Abstract:
Lactic acid (LA) is one of the primary metabolites that is considered to be a natural product derived from microorganisms such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). The most prominent LA- producing LAB is the genus of Lactobacillus spp. and is found in almost all dairy products along with non-dairy food products. The application of LA can be found in various sectors including food, fermentation, pharmaceuticals, and chemical industries. LAB have lots of perspective in the production of organic acids as well as complex compounds that find potential application in food products such as yoghurt, cheese, buttermilk in addition to therapeutics uses such as probiotics that help in preventing gastrointestinal infections; improve pathogen protection; and alter host immunological responses. Moreover, fermentation with LAB also facilitates efficient nutrient quality and provides an effective method of food preservation. The present study provides an overview of the potential application of LA produced by Lactobacillus spp. in different sectors.
C. L. C. Ndukwu, N. P. Akani, S. A. Wemedo, T. Sampson
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330232

Abstract:
An essential mandate of food and drug regulatory agencies is to ensure that products offered for public consumption are free from such level of microbial contamination as to endanger the health of consumers. A number of herbal remedies offered to the public were found not to be regulated as evidenced by the absence of regulation numbers on the labels. Thus, this study sought to determine the level of bacterial contamination of packaged, labeled, non-regulated herbal remedies sold in Port Harcourt. Seventy two samples of twelve different locally produced, liquid, packaged, labeled, orally administered, non-regulated herbal remedies were purchased randomly from retail outlets within Port Harcourt metropolis. They were assessed for total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBC) and total coliform counts (TCC). One hundred and sixty four bacterial strains obtained were characterized and identified by standard techniques employing Gram staining and biochemical methods. The mean THBC was 3.77±0.77 Log10cfu/ml ranging from 3.20±0.99 to 4.37±0.91Log10cfu/ml. The mean TCC was 3.17±1.02 Log10cfu/ml; with the range between 2.32±1.81 and 3.98±0.47 Log10cfu/ml. All 164 bacterial isolates belong to eleven genera, and 22 species namely Staphylococcus aureus (59;36.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (13; 7.9%), Enterobacter pyrinus (10; 6.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10; 6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10; 6.1%), Bacillus subtilis, (8; 4.9%) Enterobacter aerogenes (7;4.3%), Serratia rubidaea (7;4.3%), Proteus (Cosenza) myxofaciens (6;3.7%), Staphylococcus epidimidis (6;3.7%) Serratia marcescens (4;2.4%) Bacillus cereus (3;1.8%), Citrobacter rodentium (3;1.8%), Enterobacter hormaechei, (3;1.8%) Klebsiella oxytoca, (3;1.8%) Proteus mirabilis (3;1.8%). Hafnia alvei (2;1.2%), Salmonella pullorum (2;1.2%), Streptococcus pyogenes (2;1.2%) Enterobacter cancerogenus (1; 0.6%) Salmonella enterica (1; 0.6%), Salmonella typhi (1; 0.6%). Given that these products were processed, packaged, labeled and offered for sale to the public without regulatory numbers, it is suggested that regulatory agencies should ensure that all such products are brought within the ambits of the regulatory laws.
, Anil Kanga
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330231

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Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the evolution of sepsis there is an increase in vascular permeability leading to coagulation abnormalities and subsequent dysfunction of major organs.1 Bloodstream infections are a cause of life-threatening complications in all age groups of the population especially the extreme age groups who are very much prone to the risk. Antibiotic usage is associated with bacteremia, septicemia, and mortality through many factors. We are aware that Gram-negative bacteria due to many causes are becoming increasingly resistant to the currently used antimicrobial therapy. Here, in this study, we report the incidence and etiology and of the Gram-Negative bacterial isolates and their clinical significance from our tertiary care institute located in the Northern part of India. Materials and Methods: Prospective Observational Study conducted in the Department of Microbiology IGMC Shimla for a tenure of one year to determine the incidence and etiology of Gram-negative bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial resistance profile. All the blood culture samples received in the Department of Microbiology IGMC Shimla for culture by Bactec Bd fx from July 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study except for falling in the exclusion criteria. The blood culture was observed in the Bactec bd fx system for at least 5 days before they are reported as sterile. Results: Among the total 1275 cultures which were positive for bacteria, 931(73.02%) were positive for Gram-negative bacteria. Among the total of 931culture that were positive for Gram-negative bacteria, The Non-fermenter group of organisms was isolated in 292(31.36%) cultures, followed by E. coli 266(28.57%). Among the total of 931 cultures positive for GNB, a maximum of 335 (35.98%) belonged to 0-1 year. Among them, 574 (61.65%) were males while 357 (38.35%) were females. Conclusion: Nonfermenter group was the commonest organism among Gram-negative isolates. Infants were more commonly positive as compared to another age group. Males were more commonly culture positive as compared to females among gram-negative isolates.
A. P. Unamadu, , C. U. Ezebialu, I. A. Nwafor, O. C. Edward
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330229

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic virus which is one of the major causes of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The virus, estimated to infect about 3% of the world population, is primarily transmitted through the parenteral route which includes injection drug use, blood transfusion, unsafe injection practices, and other healthcare related procedures. HCV causes acute hepatitis which is mostly subclinical, but which gradually evolves into chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected. HCV infected people are at risk for developing chronic liver disease (CLD), cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been estimated that HCV accounts for 27% of cirrhosis and 25% of HCC worldwide. This work evaluated the prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus among patients of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka in Anambra state Nigeria. For the purpose of this study, two hundred (200) venous blood samples were drawn from patients (80 males and 120 females) in the ART and GOPD phlebotomy units and screened with in vitro anti HCV strip for qualitative diagnosis. 100 out the 200 samples were HIV positive samples whereas 100 remaining samples weren’t. At the end, results showed 11 positive samples out of the 200 patients screened. That is, 5.5% of the study population were infected with hepatitis C virus. 5 out of the 11 positive samples (2.5%) were HIV positive while 6(3%) of the total positive were not. Of the 6 age groups (200 samples) tested for HCV, age groups (25-34) and (45-54) had the highest number of infection i.e. 3 (4.9%) and 3(11.1%) respectively. Age groups 15-24 and 55-64 had 2(5.4%) and 2(11.1%) each. While in (35-44) age group, only 1(2.3%) person was infected and none was infected in those 65 years and above. Then, while 7 (63.6%) of the HCV positive population were male, 4 (36.4%) were female. Of the 11 persons infected with hepatitis C, 72% had multiple sex partners,45% had HIV,18% had tattoos, and 9% had been transfused in the past. Howbeit, HCV has no preventive vaccines; hence the call for greater awareness, public education and encouragement of early diagnosis to curb the prevalence rate of HCV.
A. T. Umar, A. Haruna, H. U. Puma, M. Bashir, I. Halima, U. A. Kawuwa, I. Ya’U
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i330228

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Aim: Consumable items frequently get contaminated with bacteria harbored by their packaging materials. These bacteria result in food-borne diseases when consumed along with the food by susceptible individuals, leading to illnesses and possibly death of these individuals. Study Design: The study was designed to determine the presence of bacterial contaminants in new unused disposable food packs used in commercial area of Gombe State University. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out in the department of microbiology, Gombe state university between March, 2018 and June, 2018. Methodology: 30 disposable food packs were collected using simple random sampling method. Sterile swab sticks were used to swab the interior portion of the packs inside a disinfected glass cupboard, the swabs were serially diluted to tenth fold. Spread plate method was used to inoculate the samples on a nutrient agar plates and incubated at 36oC for 24hours. Viable count method was used to enumerate the number of colonies formed, and the bacteria were identified based on their macroscopic characteristics, Gram’s reaction, microscopy, and standard biochemical tests. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the sensitivity of these isolates to some antibiotics. Results: Out of the 30 samples, 23 samples were positive for bacterial growths with discrete CFU/ml ranging from 3.0×105 to 5.9×105, these bacteria were identified to be Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The sensitivity test results revealed that all the isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, augmentin, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin, with the exception of S. aureus which was found to be resistant to ampicillin. Conclusion: These disposable food packs have been shown to contain notable amounts of these bacteria, and so proper sanitation, such as rinsing in boiled water should be ensured before using the food packs.
, Igu Ebenezer K., Akpi Uchenna K., Amadi Onyetugo C., Ugwu Kenneth
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i230227

Abstract:
Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the antibacterial activities of extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, as well as their synergistic activities with some selected antibiotics against the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Onions (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum) were used in this study. The study assessed how extracts of the plants alone or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics inhibited the growth of some bacterial pathogens using agar well diffusion method. Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka over a period of 6 months. Methodology: Extracts of Allium cepa and Allium sativum were obtained using ethanol, methanol and water (aqueous). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by agar well diffusion technique. Results: All extracts obtained showed evidence of antimicrobial property measured as the Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) on the test microorganisms. Values of these IZDs showed remarkable increases when used synergistically with antibiotics. For instance, aqueous extract of Allium sativum increased from a mean value of 16.5mm at 1.0mg/ml to values of 30.0mm and 38.0mm when used with tetracycline and ampicloxacillin respectively against Escherichia coli. The MIC and MBC values also dropped progressively, indicating that fewer synergistic mixtures were required to exert the same effects on the tested organisms. The phytochemical analysis strongly indicated the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids, among other plant metabolites. Conclusion: This result indicates that Allium cepa and Allium sativum showed strong antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogens E. coli and S. aureus; and that synergism of the extracts with some antibiotics improved those activities. The potential of developing antimicrobials from these plants appears promising.
, J. C. Orji, C. E. Nwanyanwu, R. C. Nwokorie, E. S. Asiwe
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i230226

Abstract:
Toxicity of Cadmium (Cd), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as single compounds and binary mixtures on Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp isolated from garden soil was assessed using inhibition of total dehydrogenase as toxicity response. Binary mixtures of metal and chlorophenol were composed using arbitrary concentration ratios (%) corresponding to metal/phenol mixtures of 20/80; 40/60; 50/50 and 30/70; 45/55, 50/50 for the chemical pairs: Cd/4-CP and Cd/2,4-DCP respectively. Results obtained showed that the binary mixtures of Cd/4-CP and Cd/2,4-DCP all exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in the test isolates. The binary mixture of CD/4-CP exhibited higher toxicity in ratio 40/60 and 20/80 for the isolates Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp with IC50 values of 0.212±0.002 and 0.158± 0.008mM respectively. While for the mixture of Cd/2,4-DCP, toxicity was highest at the 50/50 and 45/55 ratio for Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp with IC50 values of 0.069±0.001mM and 0.068±0.001mM respectively. The binary mixtures of the chemicals evaluated showed a progressive inhibition of dehydrogenase activity with Pseudomonas sp showing a higher susceptibility. Isobolographic analysis of binary mixture interaction against Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp showed largely synergistic interactions. The combination of Cd with the chlorophenols resulted in a synergistic increase in the toxicity of the compounds to the test isolates. The toxicity of Cd/4-CP binary mixture ratios to dehydrogenase activity of Bacillus sp and Pseudomonas sp was in the order 40:60>50:50>20:80 and 20:80>50:50>40:60 respectively; similarly that of Cd/2,4-DCP mixtures were 50:50>45:55>30:70 and 45:55>50:50>30:70 for Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp respectively. The trend and implications of the toxicity interactions are further discussed.
A. A. Ibiene, , E. O. Stella, F. E. Amos, L. Nnodim, G. A. Uzah
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i230225

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Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely studied bacterium and it is known for its use in pest management. It is selectively active on pests and less likely to cause resistance; hence it is considered a suitable replacement to chemical pesticides. The study assessed the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis in controlling mosquito larvae. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates selected were tested against secondary stage larvae of mosquito. Thirty-six larvae (6 each) were transferred into each test tubes (7 x 9) cm with 30ml sterile distilled water. The stock suspension of cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis in broth was diluted to 107, 106, 10 5, 104, 103 and 102 in sterile water, following the McFarland standard method for microbial load count. The test tubes were kept at room temperature, larval mortality was observed over time within 24hrs. The results showed that all mosquito larvae died at the 107 and 106 dilutions but at dilutions 105, 104 and 103 though affecting mosquito larvae, it was highly dependent on time because there was a decrease in concentration. The study showed that B. thuringiensis is safe for use in aquatic environments, including drinking-water reservoirs, for the control of mosquito, black fly and nuisance insect larvae. The products should contain the ICPs and be free from other microorganisms and biologically active metabolites.
K. Mohammed, M. U. Iduh, S. M. Saheed, O. F. Ashcroft, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i230224

Abstract:
Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. It was estimated that 219 million cases of malaria occur in 87 countries, with an estimated death of 435,000 in 2017 among pregnant women. Other species include P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. malariae is a blood parasite of human and is one of the major public health burdens in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that about 3.5 billion people globally and 450 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children. Aims: This study was aimed at comparing RDTs against microscopy in the detection of malaria parasite among pregnant women. Samples were collected and analyzed following cross-sectional comparative study design. It was conducted between Septembers to November 2019. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among patients attending Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Sokoto State, between March and November, 2019. Methodology: A total of 106 participants were enrolled for the study. Standard parasitological examination was carried out on blood samples using microscopy followed by Rapid Diagnostic test (RDTs). Results: Finding revealed, in this study, CareStart kit had sensitivity of 77.7%, specificity of 100s%. It is expected that any RDT used for malaria diagnosis should have a high sensitivity of 95% and specificity 97% (WHO, 2003); this is in contrast with the RDTs results in this study. The false negative (FN) Carestart and SD-Bioline kits in this study were 10% and 21%, respectively using microscopy as the gold standard due to lack of sensitivity of RDTs at low parsitaemia compared to microscopy. The false positive rate in this study for the Carestart and SD-Bioline kits are 0% and 0% respectively. Out of 106 patients screened, 35% and 24% tested positive for Plasmodiumfalciparum using Carestart and SD-Bioline RDTs respectively, while 45% were positive to malaria by microscopic examination. There was high prevalence of malaria parasite among age group 18-23 which is 42.2%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that using microscopy is more time consuming compared to RDTs due to the fact that the time taken to read the results for RDTs is within five minutes and that of microscopy is higher compared to RDTs. Over all prevalence of malaria by microscopy was 42.5% while the prevalence of malaria by Carestart and SD-bioline was 33% and 22.6% respectively. Conventional microscopy remains the gold standard compared to RDTs according to this study with the level of its sensitivity and specificity which is higher than RDTs.
, Ojokoh Anthony, Akinyosoye Felix Akinsola
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 33-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130221

Abstract:
This study was aimed at assessing the physicochemical and microbiological quality of Palm oil produced in Ondo State, Nigeria. Three palm oil extraction methods were used for the study. The oil samples were stored for six months, while the microbiological and physicochemical quality assessment were investigated monthly. Results show that the Free Fatty Acids (FFA), Acid Value, Peroxide Value, Iodine Value and Microbial counts of all the oil samples examined varied from one extraction method to the other over the storage period. The samples obtained through the traditional extraction methods had the least quality over the storage period. The total bacteria counts ranged from 0.66 – 3.45 x 104 cfu/ml for the mechanized, 1.25 – 4.50 x 104 cfu/ml for the semi-mechanized and 1.20 – 6.50 x 104 cfu/ml for the traditional method while the fungi count ranged from 0.30 - 5.33 x 104 sfu/ml for mechanized, 1.22 – 7.56 x 104 sfu/ml for the semi-mechanized and 2.30 – 8.56 x 104 sfu/ml for the traditional method. A range of microbes including some pathogenic, were isolated from Palm oil samples. Aspergillus flavus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus saprophyticus, Varicosporum elodeae, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant species. However, Bacillus subtilis, Trichodema viridae and Bacillus cereus are the least isolated microorganisms. The oil extracted through the mechanized method had the lowest Free Fatty Acid (5.60 – 9.77%), Acid Value (11.20 – 20.18 MgKOH/g), Iodine Value (40.00 - 55.43 Wijs), and Peroxide Value (3.02 – 10.33 Meq/Kg) before and after storage than those extracted by the other methods. The sensory evaluation also showed preference for the palm oil extracted using the mechanized process compared to the other methods, as it retained its qualities significantly over the storage period.
V. Amadi, S. A. Wemedo, L. O. Amadi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 25-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130220

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Biofertilizers are ecofriendly fertilizers that are produced via degradation of wastes by microorganisms. The efficiency of Lynsibacillus macroides and Alcaligens faecalis in the production of fertilizer from organic wastes was evaluated. The bacterial isolates were isolated from soil samples collected from fallow patch of land in the Rivers State University farm using standard microbiological methods. The test bacteria were identified by conventional and molecular techniques. Organic wastes including cassava peels, elephant grass and poultry droppings used in this study were collected from the Rivers State University Farm. Three experimental treatments were used in this study; treatment 1 contains 300g of the composite substrate without any organisms and served as control, treatment 2 contains 300g of the composite substrate and 200ml of Lynsibacillus macroides while treatment 3 contains 300g of the composite substrate and 200ml of Alcaligenes faecalis. The treatments were allowed to degrade for 10 days. The pH, temperature, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon were determined using standard analytical method. Means of physicochemical parameters in treatment 1, 2 and 3, respectively were: pH 8.3±0.7, 8.6±0.4 and 9.0±0.3; Nitrogen: 2.63±0.08, 1.97±0.03 and 1.51±0.01; phosphorus: 4.71±0.01, 4.43±0.01 and 3.52±0.02; potassium: 604.10±2.12, 591.00±1.41421 and 504.20±2.83; total organic carbon: 31.75±0.78, 23.04±0.04 and 17.56±0.01 mg/kg. The treatment which was supplemented with Lysinbacillus macroides produced more nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon than treatment which was supplemented with A. faecalis. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between the quantity of nitrogen produced by L. macroides and A. faecalis. Although the amount of nitrogen produced by both organisms were significantly different from the control. More so, statistical analysis showed that the quantity of phosphorus, potassium and total organic carbon produced by L. macroides was significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than those produced by A. faecalis and the control. Thus, Lynsibacillus macroides is a better biofertilizer producer than A. faecalis.
, Philip C. Odoemena, Emmanuel K. Amanze, Jane K. Peter, Eberechukwu O. Azubuike, Chibuzo V. Nwokafor, Justina O. Omaba
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i230223

Abstract:
Aim: This study is carried out to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus among Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) students and determine the antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Methods: Nasal swab specimens collected from the anterior nares were cultured on mannitol salt agar. S.aureus isolates were identified by mannitol fermentation, coagulase positivity and catalase positivity. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed on Meuller-Hinton Agar (MHA) by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Result: Out of the 100 swabs collected, S.aureus was isolated from 60% of the samples. Among colonized students, 63.3% (n=38) were from male students whereas 36.7% (n=22) were from female. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates indicates that Staphylococcus aureus isolates showed high rate of sensitivity towards antibiotics as follows; Gentamycin (81.67%), followed by Ciprofloxacin (80%), Levofloxacin (76.67%), Ceftriaxone (58.33%), and resistance towards antibiotics Imipenem (100%) followed by Cefotaxime (90%), Cefexime (83.33%), Cefoxitin (65%), azithromycin (55%) and cefuroxime (50%). Conclusion: This study showed a high rate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among MOUAU students and a high incidence of antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage.
K. Mohammed, E. Emeagubor, M. U. Iduh, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala, O. F. Aschroft
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 13-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130219

Abstract:
Background: Hookworm is an intestinal parasite of human and is one of the major public health burdens in developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that about 3.5 billion people globally and 450 million people are thought to be ill as a result of such infections, the majority being children. Aims: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection among primary school children Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in among patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Sokoto state, between March to November, 2017. Methodology: A total of 224 participants were enrolled for the study. Standard parasitological examination was carried out on stool samples using microscopy followed by formal ether concentration methods Results: Finding revealed, an overall prevalence of 4.5% out of 224 samples examined recorded for both Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection. There was high prevalence rate of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection among males (5.3%) than females (3.6%).29 (12%) were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Males recorded higher prevalence than the females with 19 (11.9%) and 10 (11.8%) respectively Conclusion: The total low prevalence rate of Hookworm and other intestinal parasitic infection may be as a result of improved standard of living and awareness of the Hookworm and other intestinal parasites in the study area. The government, non-governmental agencies and private individuals should help in the provision of social amenities to ensure total eradication of these diseases. The teaching of health education in both private schools should be encouraged by the government which will go a long way in reducing prevalence and intensity of Hookworm infections among the study community.
, Ayaba Alabo Alambo, Omokaro Obire
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 44-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430217

Abstract:
Aim: This study was carried out to compare the bacteriological and physicochemical qualities of boreholes and mono-pumps water samples used as sources of domestic water supply, in Abonnema Community, Akuku-Toru Local Government Area, Rivers State. Methodology: A total of forty-eight water samples were collected twice monthly for four months and evaluated. The bacteriological parameters such as total heterotrophic bacterial, total coliform, faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella - Shigella and Pseudomonas were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. The coliform was determined using the Most Probable number technique while, the physicochemical parameters were determined using Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results: The total heterotrophic bacterial, coliform, faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella-Shigella and Pseudomonas counts of the borehole samples ranged from 7.2×102 - 2.4×103, 2.3×102–4.0×102, 3.6×102-4.8×102, 7.3×102-1.4×103, 2.1×102-2.8×102 and 0.0×100Cfu/ml, respectively. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts, coliform counts, faecal coliform counts, Vibrio counts, Salmonella-Shigella counts and Pseudomonas counts for the mono-pump samples ranged from: 1.1×103- 1.8×103, 2.0×102– 9.1×102, 2.4×102- 3.8×102, 4.5×102-8.6×102, 1.4×102 - 4.2×102 and 0.0×100Cfu/ml, respectively. The bacterial genera identified were: Bacillus, Lynsinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Shigella, Salmonella, Paenibacillus, Aeromonas and Geobacillus. The means of physicochemical parameters for borehole and mono-pump, respectively were: alkalinity: 41.72±0.01-60.85±0.20 and 29.14±0.01-214.87±1.36mg/l; BOD: 8.26±0.01-10.44±0.0 and 5.12±0.01-5.79±0.01; COD: 126.52±0.01-172.41±0.04 and 83.20±0.44-218.00±0.57; DO: 6.31±0.01 and 3.05±0.07-8.29±0.01; calcium: 5.10±0.28-; 4.83±0.00-10.15±0.00 and 2.71±0.00-14.04±0.00; iron: 2.01±0.00-3.37±0.00 and 1.90±0.00-4.73±0.00; lead: 0.38±0.00-1.07±0.00 and 1.24±0.00-1.63±0.00; nitrate: 0.42±0.00-1.08±0.00 and 1.14±0.00-1.75±0.00; zinc:1.10±0.00-3.18±0.00 and 0.39±0.00-1.82±0.00; phosphate: 0.03±0.00-0.13±0.00 and 0.15±0.00-0.87±0.00; pH: 6.54±0.00-7.05±0.07 and 6.29±0.00-6.93±0.01; salinity: 4.02±0.00-5.14±0.00 and 2.83±0.00-5.88±0.00; total organic carbon: 1.39±0.01-2.81±0.010 and 1.64±0.00-3.42±0.01; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon: 32.69±0.00-55.73±0.00 and 45.10±0.00-61.49±0.00mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbon:58.90±0.00-66.15±0.00 and 60.31±0.00-92.11±0.00 mg/l. Conclusion: The high counts of bacterial groups of public health importance identified from this study, including the presence of: COD, DO, Fe, Pb, Phosphate, Zinc, TPH and PAH in high concentrations reveals contamination of the water sources. Thus, treatment before drinking is recommended.
, Nkiru N. Nwokoye, Funmilola A. Babalola, Adetunji M. Kilani, William W. Effiok, Olushoga O. Olubi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130218

Abstract:
The propensity to develop resistance to antibiotics has accounted for the predominance of Bacteroides and Prevotella in infections due to anaerobic bacteria. The observed differences in resistance pattern across geographical boundaries underscored the timeliness for this study to review data on antibiotic susceptibility and resistance markers amongst Bacteroides and Prevotella to β-lactams, lincosamide and nitroimidazole from selected hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria from 1992-2011. Bacteroides, mostly B. fragilis were the sole anaerobic gram negative bacilli in peritonitis following lower abdominal surgery and bloodstream infections, while Prevotella bivia and P. melaninogenica were more frequent in periodontal abscess, pelvic inflammatory disease and chronic suppurative otitis media. The MIC range and MIC90 of the anaerobes for the antibiotics does not indicate changes in group resistance to antibiotics though isolated cases were recorded. While clear cut patterns were not established for other species, B. fragilis resistance increased for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid from 18.2% in 1992-1996 to 31.4% in 2006-2011 and from 27.3% in 1992-1996 to 34.3% in 2006-2011 for cefoxitin. In contrast, decrease susceptibility was obtained against clindamycin (54.5% in 1992-1996 to 22.9% in 2006-2011). Similarly, 22.7% of B. fragilis strains have the cepA and/or cfxA gene in 1992-1996 compared to 32.1% in 2006-2011. While not all isolates with cepA and/or cfxA genes were resistant to the β-lactams, all isolates carrying the ermF or nim genes were resistant to the lincosamide (clindamycin) or nitroimidazole (metronidazole) respectively. The presence of antibiotics resistance genes can be used in tracking resistance amongst species of Bacteroides and Prevotella. With emerging new technologies, gene screening may prove more effective and reliable for therapeutic decisions for anaerobic bacterial infections especially since the genes can be screened from the infective exudates. This will eliminate the need for culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing for this group of fastidious microorganisms.
, Kelechi C. Edward, Chinedu N. Nwoba, Moses O. Ike
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430216

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus pnenumoniae in pnenumonia patients attending Madonna Catholic Hospital, Umuahia; Abia State. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of Streptococcus pnenumoniae among patients in Madonna Catholic Hospital, Umuahia. It lasted for a period of three months (September 2019 to January 2020). Standard microbiological techniques were used to evaluate 60 sputum samples collected from pneumonia patients and the modified Kirby-Buar disk diffusion technique was used to test the sensitive pattern of the isolates to some antibiotics. Results: A total of thirty-three (33) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from sixty (60) sputum samples from pneumonia patients. 17(51%) were gotten from male and 16 (49%) of isolates were gotten from female. The highest frequency of occurrence among the age groups was observed with adults (19-59 years) (34.4%) followed by adolescence (13-18 years) (33.3%), while the least frequency was from those of senior adults (>60) (9.1%). However, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the sputum samples shows varying degrees of sensitivity and resistance to the antibiotics. From the study, Streptomycin and Cotrimoxazole showed a high percentage of sensitivity against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates at 78.8% and 72.7% respectively. The highest percentage of resistance was observed with Gentamicin and Tetracycline at 42.4% each. Conclusion: This study highlights that there was no distinct variation in occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in relation to gender and age. As most patients were hospitalized in separated wards, this suggests a role for local dissemination of this bacterium in the respective wards rather than age or gender specific predilection. This study also suggests that streptomycin and Cotrimoxazole could be a drug of choice in the treatment of pneumonia.
, O. A. Inuope
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 17-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430215

Abstract:
This study aimed to assess air pollution and health hazards around selected sawmills within Port Harcourt metropolis. The physicochemical parameters of the air at the sawmilling sites were determined using onsite air quality analysers. The microbiological parameters were determined using the settling plate technique and the isolates identified based on their cultural and biochemical characteristics. Results showed that estimates of the monitored physicochemical parameters varied with prevalent human activity, time of exposure and atmospheric conditions. At Rumosi, SO2, VOCs and TSP with a concentration 1.250 ppm, 550.500 ppm, 323.200 µg/m3 respectively exceeded the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEv) & World Health Organization (WHO) limit irrespective of the atmospheric condition, time and day of sampling, while the temperature, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 with a concentration of 39.450oC, 209 µg/m3, 348.350 µg/m3, 0.181ppm respectively varied and was within the FMEv acceptable standard. At SARS Road Sawmill 1, VOCs, PM10 and TSP exceeded the FMEv limit while at SARS Road Sawmill 2, SO2, NO2, VOCs, PM10 and TSP exceeded the FMEv limits. Microbiological analysis revealed that the bioaerosols contained 12 bacterial genera (Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Providencia, Shigella, Enterobacter and Bacillus) and 7 fungal genera (Penicillium, Fusarium, Geotrichium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Trichophyton and Aspergillus) with total heterotrophic bacterial count (THBC) and total fungal count (TFC) ranging from 2711-26980 CFU/m3 and 373-12851 CFU/m3 respectively. The study also showed that sawmills within Port Harcourt do not pay much attention to the provision and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), as they were generally not provided. The sawmill workers commonly reported cough and chest pain which they admitted could be associated with their jobs. This study has shown that air around sawmill sites contains inhalable chemical and biological agents which could cause respiratory problems to workers with prolonged exposure and dose response. Sawmill operators should provide and enforce the use of PPE within their facility. It is recommended that sawmill workers and other visitors wear personal protective gadgets in the processing area of the sawmill factories. Further study to relate workers symptoms with emission is recommended.
, Kelechi C. Edward, Chinedu N. Nwoba, Chinyere V. Okwudiri
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430214

Abstract:
Introduction: The skin is a barrier that limits invasion and growth of pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial species in patients with skin infection and their antibiogram were evaluated for the presence of inhabiting bacteria. Method: The sample obtained with swab sticks were streaked on their respective culture plates containing nutrient agar, MacConkey agar and blood agar, incubated 370 for 24h. The recovered bacteria after incubation were characterized and identified according to standard microbiological criteria. Results: Five bacteria species were isolated which includes Staphylococus aureus; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella specie, Proteus sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococus aureus (33.03%) had the highest percentage occurrence while Proteus Sp (9.17%) had the lowest percentage occurrence. The highest number of isolates were recovered from male patients (61.47%). Age wise the least percentage of isolates were gotten from age group 31-40 (1.83%) while the highest was obtained from those within the age range of 11-20 (40.37%) followed by 1-10 years of age (25.69%). More isolates were recovered from in-patients (68.81%) than from Out-patients (31.19%). The antibiotic sensitivity test showed that Klebsiella sp, Proteus spp and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitivity to all the antibiotics tested while pseudomonas aeruginosa had 30% activity (sensitivity to only 3 drugs) for the antibiotics used in this study. Conclusion: From this study, it can be said that Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are implicated in the skin infections in humans and their presence if not treated will lead to long term disease in human affected.
, Michael Tosin Bayode, Jeremiah Abiola Adesanya, Ikeoluwa Feyisayo Aina
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i430213

Abstract:
Aim: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enumerated from wound swabs and urine samples from the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Nigeria. Place of Study: University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between January and May, 2019. Methodology: Wound swabs and urine samples were collected from patients of University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Akure. Enumeration and identification of P. aeruginosa isolates was employed. Antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted on the enumerated P. aeruginosa strains from both clinical specimens via standard disc diffusion protocol. The susceptibility and resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolates was established utilizing clinical laboratory standard institute (CLSI) standard. Results: Ciprofloxacin was observed to display the highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 17.00±1.00 mm for P. aeruginosa isolate 1 and likewise the highest ZOI of 24.50±1.50 mm for P. aeruginosa strain 3. Fourteen strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited highest resistance to septrin and augmentin for wound swabs as all 19 of the bacterial strains also exhibited the highest resistance to septrin, chloramphenicol, augmentin and streptomycin for urine specimens. Ten (10) of P. aeruginosa strains from wound swabs exhibited the highest intermediate susceptibility to perfloxacin. Eleven (11) strains of P. aeruginosa from urine specimens exhibited the highest intermediate susceptibility on sparfloxacin. All 19 strains of P. aeruginosa from urine specimens were susceptible to amoxicillin and gentamicin as completely minimal susceptibility was recorded for P. aeruginosa associated with wound swabs. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the high resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa associated with wound swabs and urine samples and emphasizes the need for the regimentation of over-the-counter remedy and antibiotic susceptibility appraisal of anti-pseudomonal drugs.
, Karina Milagros C. Lim, Manuela Cecille G. Vicencio, Jonsel Juris C. Ballicud, Moises Ronn B. Burac, Justine Jane B. Vibar, Vincenette Brea E. Villadolid
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 41-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330212

Abstract:
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) is the key in quality food services. This is to ensure that the food our body take in is safe from harmful bacteria that may cause disorder in its normal function. In this research, detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was done in the sauces of the street foods vendor at the University of Eastern Philippines. The result of this study will be of use to the local units that need to regulate the franchise of these street foods; to ensure that safety in the delivery of food products. Samples were collected from the stalls of the street vendors and were subjected to microbial analysis. Results showed that E. coli is present in the street sauces but in minimal count. Though the count is far from the threshold, vendors must consider increasing their knowledge and practices with GMP to ensure safe and quality food delivery.
, Christian C. Nwankwo
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330211

Abstract:
This study attempts to evaluate culture-dependent microbial and proximate composition of African salad (Abacha) sold at Nkpolu Oroworukwo (mile 3) market, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were bought from stationary vendors at market within the months of March, 2019 to March, 2021. Garnished African salad (GAS) and ungarnished African salad (UAS) samples were determined by standard microbiological techniques whereas proximate composition (PC) was analysed by the methods of Association of Official of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Total aerobic plate counts (TAPCs), total coliform counts (TCCs) and fungal counts (FCs) of GAS were higher 4.5x104CFU/g, 5.3x104CFU/g and 1.1x104CFU/g respectively as against 3.4x104CFU/g, 3.8x104 CFU/g and 0.8x104CFU/g for UAG. Microfloral diversity were more in GAS with species such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella sp., Micrococcus sp.. Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Saccharomyces and Candida species than in UAS. Nutrient composition, energy (116.00Kcal/100g) and pH (6.4) values were higher in GAS. In contrast, only the moisture (62.52±0.53%) and carbohydrate (23.21±0.21%) contents were slightly higher in UAS than those in GAS. The study revealed that African salad’ bioburden was slightly above the microbiological standard limits of International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF) and (Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) for RTE foods for mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB)/TAPC but exceeded that for total coliforms. However, the microbes detected are likely aetiologic agents of several food borne diseases (FBDs) in human and animal pathologies. Therefore, adequate surveillance, monitoring and compliance with hygienic practices and environmental sanitary measures during processing, fortification and distribution should be enforced by regulatory agencies and stakeholders for wholesome and palatable RTE foods.
, V. O. Oluwasusi, M. F. Ibiyemi, F. B. Oluwatobi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330210

Abstract:
The root and leaf of were screened for its antimicrobial and phytochemical activities. The solvents used for the roots and leaves extraction were ethanol and water. The extracts were tested against infectious disease causing bacterial such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiellaaerogenesand α-haemolysin using the well diffusion method. The aqueous extracts of root of Calotropis gigantea against all the test bacteria ranged from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm diameter zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extract of root of Calotropis gigantea inhibition against some the test microbe ranges from 6 mm to 14.0 mm diameter inhibitory zone. The ethanolic leaf extract of C. gigantea also showed an inhibition of 8mm to 20.0 mm. In present study, bacterial extract showed a varying zone of inhibition of the growth of tested organism than ethanol. Phytochemical properties of root and leaves of Calotropis gigantea obtain from ethanol and aqueous extracts were investigated. The results confirmed that presence of antibacterial activity and phytochemical in the shade dried extract of Calotropis gigantea against the human pathogenic organisms.
, L. K. Giami, J. A. Okedike
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330209

Abstract:
Recreational water bodies are water bodies used for recreational activities such as swimming, surfing, water skiing, water diving and sailing. They include rivers, lakes, beaches, spas and swimming pools. This work was therefore aimed at determining the bacteriological profile of recreational water bodies in Orashi region of Rivers State, Nigeria. Surface water samples were collected from two different sites (Orashi River, Mbiama and Sombreiro River, Ahoada) using standard microbiological methods. Upstream, midstream and downstream samples were collected for a period of three months at monthly interval. Standard plate counts were used for total heterotrophic and coliform bacterial counts using standard microbiological media. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 4.1X104 to 9.5X104 for Orashi River and 3.0X103 to 4.0X103 for Sombreiro River. A significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) however, existed between total heterotrophic bacterial counts of the samples collected from Orashi River, while no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the total heterotrophic bacterial counts of samples from Sombreiro River. In the comparative analysis of the samples from the two water bodies, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was recorded in the total coliform count in Orashi and Sombreiro Rivers. The phenotypic characterization identified the isolates to include Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp., with Klebsiella pneumoniae as the most occurring (26.1%). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are known for their pathogenic potentials, hence their presence in these recreational sites are of public health importance. Provision of standard recreational facilities in localities will however reduce the dependency on river sites for recreational activities, and as well prevent recreational associated illnesses.
, K. V. Sri Alamelu, Sornambiga Ravi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i330208

Abstract:
Introduction: Mastitis is a complex disease, defined as an inflammation of parenchymal cells of mammary glands. It is a most common disease in dairy cattle. More than 250 microbes are found to cause mastitis. Recent report shows that total loss of about $2295/month in worldwide due to mastitis. Researchgap/Challenges: Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) provides an inexpensive and effective source of antibodies for the passive immunization of animals. It is a promising alternative for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, and has shown to be effective against a number of pathogens. Aim: To develop an inexpensive and effective source of antibodies by using chicken egg yolk against mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine. Methodology: Bovine mastitis infected milk sample was collected in and around Coimbatore, India. Initial step was to isolate and identify the microbes like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from milk samples of cattle infected with mastitis. Then to prepare and standardize the whole cell antigen of Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by generation of antibodies against the prepared antigens in 21-weeks old white Leghorn chickens. Next step includes purification and characterization of anti-Klebsiella pneumoniae IgY and anti - Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies from the egg yolk of immunized chickens. Finally, to evaluate the specificity of the purified IgY by Indirect ELISA and to measure the inhibitory activity of the IgY against the pathogens by growth inhibition assay. Results: Cell antigen was prepared. Anti- Klebsiella pneumoniae IgY and anti - Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY were recovered from chicken egg yolk that was detected by protein estimation (Lowry et al technique) and ELISA. In Lowry et al method (1951) total anti P. aeruginosa IgY was found to be 0.511 mg ml-1 and total anti K. pneumoniae IgY was found to be 0.522 mg ml-1. Conclusion: Generated antibodies were identified as very specific to the immunization antigen. Based on invitro studies generated antibodies were specific to immunized antigen. It concluded that it will be useful or therapeutic after further conformation.
, Blessing Chika Nlem
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 31-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230207

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate Enhanced-Biodegradation and Release Pattern of Heavy Metal from Spent Laptop Batteries using Pseudomonas and Bacillus species in Freshwater Study Design: The study employs experimental design, statistical analysis of the data and interpretation. Place and Duration of Study: Freshwater was collected from Isiokpo River, Isiokpo town in Ikwerre L.G.A, Rivers state, Nigeria within co-ordinates 50 02’14’’N and 60 54’50’’E, These samples were transported with ice pack to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Rivers State University, for analyses within 6 hours. Spent laptop batteries were obtained from Ogbunabali Laptops Shoping Complex Garrison area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Three sets of the brand of battery (HP, Dell and Acer). Methodology: A total of twelve (12) experimental set-up with three controls (each of the three laptop batteries in freshwater without augmenting organisms) while the other nine were enhanced with augmenting microbes. In step 1, Stock toxicant solution was prepared by soaking the spent Laptop batteries ( of average weight of 300-400g, in two (2) liters of sterilized freshwater in a sterile trough with vented top for aeration, of dimension 12 x 7.5 x 6cm separately for each set-up, The soaking (Toxicant preparation) lasted for 3 months (about 92 days). In step 2, Five hundred milliliters (500ml) of each set-up was transferred into sterile Conical flask plugged with cotton wool perforated for aeration; each was inoculated with five milliliter (5 ml) of the test organisms (Pseudomonas and Bacillus species broth, singly and consortium) separately and monitored for duration 0, 30, 60 and 90 days respectively using the spread plate techniques. The bacterial cultures were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours while fungal cultures were incubated for three (3) days at 35°C. Parameters monitored were Heavy metal (Lithium, Cadmium, Chromium, iron and Lead) concentration, Total Heterotrophic Bacteria, Total Heterotrophic Fungi, Lithium Utilizing Bacteria, Cadmium Utilizing Bacteria, Chromium Utilizing Bacteria, Iron Utilizing Bacteria, Lead Utilizing Bacteria, Lithium Utilizing Fungi, Cadmium Utilizing Fungi, Chromium Utilizing Fungi, Iron Utilizing Fungi, Lead Utilizing Fungi. Results: Enhanced biodegradation and release pattern of heavy metal from spent laptop batteries using Pseudomonas and Bacillus species in freshwater was evaluated and the concentration of heavy metals (Lithium, Cadmium, Chromium, iron and Lead) found associated with the spent laptop batteries (HP, Dell and Acer) were increasing simultaneously with time in all set-ups from day 1 to day 90. The control (without augmenting microbes) has the highest concentration of heavy metals from day 1 to 90 followed by set-ups augmented with Bacillus specie followed by set-ups augmented with Pseudomonas specie, least in set-ups augmented with the consortium of the 2 isolates. The changes in concentration of heavy metals during biodegradation of which Cd < Cr < Li < Fe < Pb respectively, for all spent laptop batteries used in this study. Percentage (%) degradation potential of the consortium of Bacillus species and Pseudomonas species for Li-HP, Li-Dell, and Li-Acer shows a higher percentage (%) release of 22.68%, 37.63% and 24.22% respectively as compared to the individual strains of for Bacillus species and Pseudomonas species. With Pseudomonas species having 10.03%, 18.65%, and 11.24%, followed by Bacillus species having 8.46%, 12.49%, and 7.20% for Li-HP, Li-Dell, and Li-Acer respectively. Conclusion: The study identifies the degradability potential of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species to degrade spent laptop battery in freshwater. it shows that the consortium was able to degrade the batteries better than the individual strains. It is recommended that spent laptop batteries discharged into aquatic environment should be enhanced with broth culture of eco-friendly species of Pseudomonas and Bacillus for quick degradation.
, Nosayame Thomas Osahon
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230204

Abstract:
The potential of fungi as bio degraders of micro plastic particles was assessed using standard microbiological and Fourier transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis methods. The highest mean Total Heterotrophic fungal (THF) count of 4.24x104 cfu/ml was obtained with the least THF (2.72x104 cfu/ml) recorded during the dry season. Mean hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungal (HUF) count was highest (1.78x104 cfu/ml) during the wet period while the least HUF count (1.46x104 cfu/ml) was recorded during the dry period. Spectra of FTIR showed that the water contained microplastic particles in these proportions; polyethylene of low density (LDPE) 0.01%, 0.11% protein, 0.15% polystyrene, 0.37% polyamide, 1.14% cellulose, 1.21% polyurethane, 1.90% polyvinyl chloride, 3.11% polyester and 92% polypropylene, respectively. Species of fungi identified were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Mucor spp., Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium spp., Microsporum canis, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the fungal isolates, A. niger and A. fumigatus were most active in degrading the micro plastic (polypropylene) with mean % weight loss of 71.09% and 53.09%, respectively while the least active was Penicillium spp. with a mean % weight loss of 28.64% during the study period. The order of degradation was Aspergillus niger > A. fumigatus > A. nidulans > Fusarium spp. > Rhizopus spp. > Microsporum canis > Mucor spp. > Penicillium spp. The potential to degrade micro plastic particles by these fungi can be harnessed. The foremost active fungi degrading potentials are as follows: A. niger (71.1%) and A. fumigatus (53.1%). The study has shown that isolates of fungi from Ohiakwu River in Nigeria possess the ability to degrade micro plastic (polypropylene) particles. Therefore, this research is of tremendous importance for industrial development and additionally for future research purposes.
, J. O. Aribisala, A. T. Oseni, M. K. Oladunmoye
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230205

Abstract:
Microorganisms most especially bacteria, continue to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents; hence novel sources of antibiotics are urgently needed to reduce this problem. This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activities of ethanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of Apis mellifera (honey bee) on isolates of wound infections. The isolates used in this study were procured from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) and confirmed using morphological and biochemical tests. The isolates used include; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. Honey bees were collected from an apitherapist at Sunshine honey and agro foods, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria. The whole insect was used for in vitro antibacterial evaluation of the isolates using agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic extract of A. mellifera had the highest inhibitory activity with mean zones of inhibition ranging from 7.40 mm to 21.67 mm, chloroform extracts had moderate inhibitory activity ranging from 4.63 mm to 10.03 mm while the aqueous extract had the least activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 3.00 mm to 6.30 mm. However, no antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa for all the extracts. It is concluded that extracts of honey bees most especially the ethanolic extract have antibacterial activity and thus could be a potential antibacterial agent against isolates of wound infections.
, A. O. Ajayi, O. R. Osuntokun
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 26-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230206

Abstract:
Aim: The husk of coconut is part of drupe which have enormous benefit to humanity. However, what constitute the antimicrobial activity has not been fully investigated, and this is the basis for the study. Materials and Methods: The husk of coconut collected from local growers subjected to extraction process. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against bacterial strains; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella aerogene, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae by agar well diffusion method using n-hexane, ethanol and distilled water as solvents. Results: Aqueous extracts of coconut showed inhibitory effect against the different tested bacteria organisms with variable zone of inhibition range 7 to 22 mm. Conclusion: The aqueous extracts of coconut exhibited the presence of highly effective bioactive ingredients in these extracts. This can be identified, assay and characterize to be used as synthetic drug which would be available for treatment of bacterial infection.
G. Emoghene, B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i230203

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the hazards associated with oyster from two communities in Rivers State and provides an insight at improving the safety of oyster through the application of the hazards analysis critical control points (HACCP) concept in processing freshly harvested mangrove oysters. Study Design: This work is based on completely randomized design with two replications and the average values calculated for mean comparison. Place and Duration of Study: Food and Industrial Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, between October 2018 and March, 2019. Methodology: The proximate composition, pH and bacterial profile of oysters prepared conventionally and that prepared employing critical control points concept determined using standard methods. Results: The proximate composition of oyster meat revealed the following: moisture (83.73%), protein (8.36%), lipid (1.28%), fiber (1.04%), carbohydrate (2.12%) and ash content (3.47%). The average aerobic plate count for Abuloma and Okrika were 5.69 and 6.98 log10CFU/g respectively while coliform count was 5.37 and 5.02log10CFU/g respectively. Two bacterial genera (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) were isolated from oyster processed with HACCP approach at the last critical control point 7, whereas, nine bacterial genera (Bacillus, Streptococcus, Vibrio, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) were isolated from the conventionally processed oysters. Conclusion: The HACCP concept gave an improved microbiological quality of oyster meat and the safety of oyster and potential economic value.
, Kabiru Mohammed, Garba Ibrahim
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130202

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential for early disease management. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that gradually attacks the immune system and the immune system is our body’s natural defence against illness. Co-infection of TB and HIV is when someone has both HIV and TB infections. This study determined the TB/HIV Co-infection among IDP’s. Methodology: A total of 130 sputum samples from suspected tuberculosis patients were examined from August 2020 to September 2020. Result: Fifty-nine patients 59(45.4%) were males and seventy-one 71 patients (54.6%) were females. Seventeen patients (13.07%) had tuberculosis. Ten (10) cases of the TB patients were found to be co-infected with HIV. The CD4+ cell count of the TB/HIV co-infected patients falls below 250 cells/mm3 compared to the mono-infected patients who had CD4+ above 250 cells/mm3. Conclusion: This study showed that TB/HIV coinfection was associated with age group 21-40 years was high.
, Chukwuma G. Udensi, Blessing C. Uwakwe, Emmanuel K. Amanze, Ifunaya M. Okoh
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130201

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nasal cavity of MOUAU students. Methods: The nasal specimens were evaluated using standard microbiological techniques and methicillin resistance test was checked for all isolates of Staphylococcus species by the disc diffusion method. Results: A total of Eleven (11) Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from forty (40) nasal samples of MOUAU students i.e. four (4) from female and seven (7) from male. This study also showed that the highest number and percentage of Staphylococcus aureus isolates was observed in the male nasal samples 7(30.4%), while the lowest isolate was recorded in female nasal samples 4(23.5%). About 21(52.5%) of the 40 samples showed no traces of Staphylococcus specie. However, the drug susceptibility profile of bacterial isolate from nasal samples reveals varying percentage of sensitivity and resistance to the antibiotics. From this study, Ofloxacin (5 mcg) and Gentamicin (10 mcg) exhibited high percentage of sensitivity against the Staphylococus isolates at 10(90.9%) each. Cefuroxime (30 mcg) and Ceftazidime (30 mcg) showed high level of resistance against the Staphylococcus aureus isolates at 11(100%). No resistance to Ofloxacin (5 mcg) was noted. This study also revealed that 72.7% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the nasal cavity of healthy male and female students of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), showed multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Conclusion: This study highlights the need to discourage the misuse of antibiotics and to implement strategies that could help eliminate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. This will help to prevent severe Staphylococcus aureus infections in our environments. Also, it was report that Ofloxacin (5 mcg) and Gentamicin (10 mcg) antibiotics could be an alternative choice to use and to control MRSA infection as an effective antibacterial agent.
, Daniel Offiong Etim, Alfred Young Itah, Akan A. Brooks
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 13-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130200

Abstract:
Evaluation of microbial loads and physico-chemicals of cassava mill effluent simulated soil was carried out using standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. This was to determine the effect of cassava mill effluent (CME) on rhizosphere microbial loads, physicochemical properties, nitrogenous salt and heavy metals. The results showed that CME effect on the physicochemical determinants (pH, Ca, Mg, K) and heavy metal determinant (Fe, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and Mn) was concentration dependents. The nitrogenous salts (NO3, NH4+ and NO2) levels progressively increased with no significant differences (p>0.05 ANOVA). The microbial isolates were: Saccharomyces sp, Mucorindicus, Fusarium sp and Gliocladium sp for the fungal group. The bacterial group were Chromobacterium sp, Corynebacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Acinetobacter sp and Escherichia coli while the nitrogen-fixing bacterial group were Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp., Frankia sp., Bradyrhizobium sp., Hebaspirillum sp., Cyanobacteria (or blue green algae), Anabaena sp, Nostoc sp., Clostridium sp. and Rhizobium sp. There was no significant differences (p>0.05) in the rhizosphere microbial load across the concentration gradient at the CME-simulated plot phyto-remediated by Centrosema pubesscens and Calopogonium mucunoides. Agricultural wastes such as cassava mill effluent should be properly treated before discharging to the environment in other to prevent the loss of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total heterotrophic bacterial genera that could be of immense importance to man.
, Queen Ododife, Attah D. Daniel, U. D. Nuhu, E. J. Doro, R. J. Jibo, G. K. Tanko
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 58-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v8i330197

Abstract:
Kilishi is a version of jerky that originated in Hausa land Nigeria. It is made from deboned cow, sheep or goat meat. The dried sliced beef (kilishi) is often left open in a basin thereby exposing it to flies, dust and other effects of the environment by so doing the product can be contaminated. This study was carried out to investigate the bacteria and parasite contaminants of dried slice beef (kilishi) sold in different locations within Birnin Kebbi metropolis. The samples were analyzed using pour plate method. The bacterial species were characterized and identified on the basis of their colonial morphology; gram’s staining reaction and biochemical characteristics. The protozoans and helminthes cyst/eggs morphology were identified using microscopy techniques. The total bacteria plate count for each sample ranges from the highest (8x109) to the lowest (3.5x103) CFU/g from Birnin Kebbi Kalgo, Jega and Aliero samples respectively. The organisms isolated include; Staphylococcus aureus (35.2%), Escherichia coli showed 30(21.1%) percentage of occurrence, Bacillus species occurred 17(12%) Klebsiella spp 16(11.3%), Pseudomonas spp 13(9.2%), Shigella spp 10(7.04%) and the least was P. vulgaris 6(4.2%). The kilishi meat product was also contaminated with some Protozoans and helminthes contaminants which include; Acaris lumbricoides (14.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (35%), Girdia lambila (42.8%), and Taenia spp. (7.1%). It was concluded that the high bacteria count and frequency of isolates from the kilishi samples tested is an indication of high contamination of the meat by potential pathogens due to poor handling and sanitary conditions which may pose a potential source of food borne diseases.
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130199

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum), a famous natural product in Sudan. Methods: Agar-well diffusion test and minimum inhibition diffusion test (MIC). Results: The investigation revealed that the extract showed no antifungal effect against Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. While it exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1026 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145. Whereas, weak antibacterial activity was recorded with Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Escherichia coli ATCC 1637. Conclusion: The fruit pulp of Hyphaene thebaica (Doum) has good antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Accordingly, the consumption of this fruit would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antibacterial activity, and further studies using different bacterial strains and clinical pathogens are recommended.
, C. O. Anidiobu, V. O. Oluwasusi, T. M. Ilesanmi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v9i130198

Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major devastating infectious diseases African countries and other regions of the world. TB is a potentially serious infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs. While HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system; which if left untreated, can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, this study was carried out to monitor the prevalence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) situation in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 191 participants were enrolled in this study. Blood and sputum samples were used in screening of HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis respectively. 102(53.4%) participants were confirmed HIV positive cases and 89(46.6%) participants were confirmed as M. tuberculosis-positive cases. The rate of tuberculosis was higher among women than among men and prevalence of HIV was slightly higher among men than among female. The study shows that age group 26 – 30 years have the highest rate of tuberculosis and age group 36 – 40 years have the highest rate of HIV cases while the highest number of TB with HIV co-infection 34 (17.8%) were gotten from the age group 36 – 40years. The rate at which the prevalence of tuberculosis, HIV and their co-infection are rising is due to various challenges facing its eradication. Adequate resource mobilization and effective spending is needed to achieve success. In addition, efforts should be made to improve the surveillance system.
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