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Results in Journal South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology: 254

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T. M. Ilesanmi, O. O. Oladipo, A. C. Olaleye, O. D. Osasona
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 61-68; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i330276

Abstract:
Introduction: Persea americana is regarded as a unique plant in many African countries. Its numerous parts are employed in the treatment of several diseases. The possible function mechanism of P. americana functions is under study. Aims: This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical analysis and antibacterial effect of oil extracted from seed and pulp of P. americana using agar diffusion technique. Methodology: The seed oil of P. americana was exhaustively extracted with a Soxhlet extractor from 500 g seeds and 200 g seeds of P. americana using di-ethyl ether as solvent. The extraction solvent was removed to obtain the oil which was then subjected to antimicrobial activity test to determine its activity against the following clinical isolates namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia and Candida albicans using conventional antibiotics as control. Phytochemical screening was carried out following standard methods. Results: The result of phytochemicals screening was presented with alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, polyphenol, tannins, steroids as present. The result revealed P. aeruginosa to have the highest diameter of zones of inhibition of 12.00 – 30.00 mm at the concentrations of 0.1 – 0.4 g/mL respectively. S. aureus had diameter of zones of inhibition of 10.00 – 20.00 mm at the concentrations of 0.1 – 0.4 g/mL. E. coli had diameter of zones of inhibition of 10.00 – 15.00 mm at the concentrations of 0.1 – 0.4 g/mL respectively. C. albicans had diameter of zones of inhibition of 8.00 – 13.00 mm at the concentrations of 0.1 – 0.4 g/mL respectively; and S. pneumonia had diameter of zones of inhibition of 8.00 – 12.00 mm at the concentrations of 0.1 – 0.4 g/mL respectively. The results of the antimicrobial test on the seed oil showed appreciable antibacterial activities against the test organisms. The result of the test organisms was susceptible to conventional antibiotics. Conclusion: Oil extract of avocado pear (P. americana) will be helpful to many researchers in the field of finding antibacterial activities in plant; and the oil is recommended for treatment of skin infections inherent with these organisms.
Temitope Deborah Agboola, Eucharia Ezenwanyi Nmema, Busayo Tolulope Samuel, Babatunde Wumi Odetoyin
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i4254

Abstract:
Vibrio is a genus of bacteria belonging to the family Vibrionaceae and is of epidemiological importance. This organism is commonly found in aquatic environments and is associated with water and food-related infectious disease outbreaks of public health concern globally. About 85% of presumptive isolates recovered from fish and fish storage water collected from major markets in Okitipupa and Igbokoda areas of Ondo State, Nigeria were confirmed as Vibrio species via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques with the Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA gene as a target. Primers for 0mpW and toxR genes were used to identify V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus respectively. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing against 12 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. The prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus was 3.9% and 12.5% respectively. Vibrio spp. obtained in this study showed resistance to Meropenem (88.3%), Cefotaxime (81.3%), Ceftazidime (79.7%), Cefuroxime (78.1%), Tetracycline (54.7), Vancomycin (38.3%), Ceftriaxone (26.6%), Cotrimoxazole (21.9), Chloramphenicol (18%), Ciprofloxacin (12.5%), Amikacin (10.9%) and Gentamicin (6.2%). Vibrio species obtained from both sampled sites showed the highest susceptibility to Gentamicin (93.8%). Multiple antibiotic resistant Index (MARI) observed among the Vibrio species ranged from 0.25 and 0.83. This study revealed high incidence of multi-drug resistant Vibrio spp in the fish sold in these major markets, which suggests antimicrobial abuse in the study area. We concluded that the consumption of this aquaculture produce without proper processing and the discharge of the storage water into the environment without treatment pose a public and environmental health threat respectively.
, Talal Sabhan Salih
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i4253

Abstract:
Aims: The study included the isolation, purification, cultural characteristics, antimicrobial activities and molecular identification of local actinobacterial strains isolated from different locations north of Iraq. Methodology: Oligotrophic medium supplemented with the antifungals cycloheximide (50 mg/l) and nystatin (30 mg/l) was used for preliminary isolation. ISP-3 medium was chosen as a potential medium for subsequent purification of actinobacterial strains. The cultural characteristics of all isolated actinobacterial strains were elucidated on International Streptomyces Project media (ISP2-ISP-7). 16S rRNA marker gene was used for molecular identification using 27F and 1492R universal primers. Results: Ten isolates were biologically active against tested ESKAPE, Bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas paetica pathogens when cultured on different ISPs media under the OSMAC approach. Six representative isolates that exhibited antimicrobial activity against all or almost tested bacteria were sequenced using 16S rRNA gene. The sequences were compared with those of other actinobacterial strains that are found in Genebank database to find the best similarity and the close reference strains to our isolates. Five of the sequenced strains have been identified as Streptomyces species; MT5, MT8, MT12, MT23 and MT26 and one was identified as a rare actinobacterial strain Lentzea sp.; MT4. Nucleotide sequences have been provided and deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information NCBI under the accession numbers ON514131, ON514133, ON514134, ON514135, ON514136 and ON514130 respectively.
C. B. Ehis-Eriakha, S. E. Akemu
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 38-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330302

Abstract:
The environment comprises of biotic and abiotic components interacting as a system. The environment also contains organic and inorganic minerals in optimal concentration required by living organisms for growth, development, and metabolic activities. Due to anthropogenic activities and some natural occurrences, the availability of these elements has drastically increased in the ecosystem beyond the required threshold and permissible limits causing pollution. Heavy metal (HM) is one of the naturally occurring elements that threaten plant, animal, and human health. These HMs have been defined as elements with more than 5gcm-3 relative density that are not readily biodegradable but can be transformed from one state to another and are usually associated with toxicity or ecotoxicity. However, some heavy metals are biologically essential elements required in the body/plant or as constituents of important enzymes although in trace amounts while others are non-essential and are ranked as priority metals due to their high level of toxicity with no biological importance even at low concentrations. The non-degradability property of heavy metals contributes to its persistence and subsequent accumulation in the biota and the food chain which is of public health significance to humans and animals. The soil environment is highly prone to HM contamination due to physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and biogeochemical processes that occur within the environment mostly mediated by microbes. These microbes are inarguably the drivers of ecosystem functioning, although they are significantly the most affected by HM pollution. This review, therefore, describes the ecotoxicological effect of heavy metals with special reference to the soil environment. Other sections discussed are the toxicity and general properties of some selected heavy metal, their role as environmental pollutants and essential elements. In addition, the effect of HM on soil microbes has also been analyzed in two folds: i) reduction in microbial population and diversity and ii) increased diversity and abundance of HM-resistant microbial strains which are significant in bioremediation studies
, Ruhuoma Precious-Ogbueri, Felix Eedee Konne, Clement Ugochukwu Nyenke
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330301

Abstract:
Monkeypox (MPXV) is a viral infectious disease, capable of transmitting from animals to humans. It is a zoonotic virus responsible for causing the disease, and belongs to the same family (orthopoxvirus) as the smallpox virus. The first case of human monkeypox infection was recorded in 1970 in a town called Basankusu, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There have also been reports of the disease outbreak across West Africa. The first recorded monkeypox case outside Africa was in 2003 in the United States of America, which later developed to 70 cases without any mortality recorded. In Nigeria, the spread of monkeypox has been reported across the South-East and South-South regions of the country and disease has since been recorded in states such as Akwa Ibom, Abia, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The monkeypox virus has been identified as a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, of the family, Poxviridae with accompanying symptoms such as fever, severe headache, chills, swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), back and muscle aches (myalgia), and exhaustions (asthenia) and eventually the appearance of rashes which develops through various stages before eventually falling off as the patients recovers and wounds heals. Animal-human Zoonotic transmission occurs through direct contact with the biological materials from infected host animal such as blood, mucosal lesions, bodily fluids, or cutaneous, through broken skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory airways of the nose, eyes, or the mouth, while human-to-human infection occurs through direct contact with the infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids, of an infected person. It also spreads through secretion from the respiratory tract through prolonged face to face or intimate contact with an infected person, contact with contaminated surfaces from infected host, or to a fetus via the placenta, or close contact with infected mother (congenital monkeypox). It can be diagnosed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) laboratory testing in combination with gene sequencing, and the infected patient treated using tecovirimat specific for smallpox virus, while studies are ongoing to develop its particular medication. This study is aimed at discussing the current issues on monkeypox virus with respect to the Nigerian society.
, Faisal Aziz Sandeel, Saleem Rana
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330300

Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Malaria is potentially a severe disease caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is an important cause of death, illness in children and pregnant women, especially in Africa The present study aimed to develop an alternative treatment that at may be effective and safe against falciparum & vivax malaria and easily available locally and culturally acceptable. To confirms the claims of traditional herbal medicinal plants Picrorhiza kurroa was analyzed by using water and alcoholic extracts. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 subjects, 24 with aqueous extract and 21 with alcohol extract to assess the clinical efficacy of the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in Dera Ismail Khan. The roots of P. kurroa were extracted by a Soxhlet extractor using triple distilled water and ethanol as a solvent to obtain both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. kurroa. Both extracts are formulated in a capsule of 500 mg. Results: The efficacy was determined clinically and pathologically in patients from 14 to 50 years of both sexes, two capsules of 500 mg stat followed by one capsule twice daily for three days consecutively were given. After the treatment 44.44% of patients recovered, among them 85% (17/45) were male and 15% (3/45) were female. 44.44% efficacy of the drug is considered for further research on the same plant. Conclusion: The study concluded that P. kurroa qualified as an active compound to undergo further investigation for its antimalarial activity and its active constituents should be investigated for better outcomes in the field of traditional medicines.
, Muhsin Ayoub Essa
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 12-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330299

Abstract:
Food-borne diseases are the most serious international health issue, causing economic losses and health. The enteric bacteria are the most difficult bacterial contamination of raw and processed beef products worldwide. It is also the most prevalent type of food poisoning. Aim: The current study sought to determine the presence and distribution of enteric bacteria associated with various types of meat (red and white) and their fresh and frozen products. Methods: 36 meat samples were collected from local markets in Nineveh Governorate. The contamination of various meat samples with enteric bacteria was assessed. The bacteria were subsequently isolated and identified using culture, microscopy, and biochemical techniques. Vitek-2 device was used to verify the diagnosis. Results: All of the meats tested were contaminated with enteric bacteria to varied degrees. Fresh chicken meat had the highest rate of enteric bacterial infection, with a logarithm of 1.12*10 CFU/g. The frozen beef samples had the least contamination, with a logarithm of 7.4*104 CFU/g. The results revealed that 57 isolates from the intestine family bacteria included 13 species: C. freundii, C. koseri, E. coli, Enterobacter spp., K. oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. stuartii, S. paratyphi A, S. typhi, Shigella spp., and Y. enterocolitica.E. coli was found in the most meat varieties analyzed, accounting for 19% of the total. Conclusions: Because it is evident that meat can be contaminated with a wide variety of hazardous bacteria, basic hygiene procedures help to decrease the amount of contaminated microbes.
Enass Waad Al-Hadidi, Mahmoud Abduljabbar Al-Tobji
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i330298

Abstract:
Aims: The purpose of this study was to detect some biological and serological factors in COVID-19 recovery patients, as well as their relationships with antibody levels 8 months after infection. Materials and Methods: 92 blood samples were obtained; 67 of them had COVID-19 infections 4 months prior, and 25 blood samples served as control samples. The participants' ages ranged from 17-75 year. Determination levels of immunoglobulin IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out on (188) samples of infection over for ages ranging from 15-75 years by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: The people under research have 94.03% IgG and 55.22% IgM. Furthermore, the maximum concentration of IgG was seen after 6 months of infection. Aberrant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were found in 20 people at 41.6% after 4 months, in 25 people at 52.08% after 6 months, and in 8 people at 8.33% after 8 months. In contrast, aberrant C- reactive protein (CRP) levels were found in 10.4% of the participants after 4 to 8 months of infection and 12.5% after 6 months, with no significant association between them. Conclusion: The maximum IgG level was reported 6 months after infection, and the LDH and CRP tests were abnormal 6 months later. On the other hand, 4 months after the infection, both urea and creatinine levels were abnormal, as was the IgG concentration.
, Muhsin Ayoub Essa
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230296

Abstract:
The goal of this study was to isolate and identify Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and environmental sources. This study also looked at the prevalence and distribution of different virulence enzymes among its isolates. For this objective, 65 samples were collected and dispersed among 50 distinct clinical samples and 15 environmental (soil, water, and air) samples. The results revealed that 20 bacterial isolates were S. aureus. The isolation rate was 30.76% from all samples, with 13 isolates 20% from a clinical source and 7 isolates 10.76% from an environmental source. The phenotypic detection of virulence enzymes revealed that all isolates, including environmental isolates, produced virulence enzymes (between two and six enzymes), indicating the clinical importance. The isolates produced virulence enzymes at different rates. The results revealed a clear rise in the rate of production of the enzymes: lecithinase and lipase producing at a rate of 95%, protease at 90%, urease at 80%, hemolysin at 60%, and beta-lactamase at 55%.
Shango Patience Emmanuel Jakheng, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, I. O. Abdullahi, Emmanuel William Jakheng, Chidimma Maureen Chukwueze, Gloria Chizoba Eze, Unyime Cosmas Essien, Chika Chizitelu Madekwe, Chinelo Chioma Madekwe, S. Vidya, et al.
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230295

Abstract:
Chlamydia trachomatis also known as the “Silent Epidemic” is a major threat to the reproductive health of women. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis based one demographic factors among women attending clinics in Zaria metropolis, Kaduna State. Each participant completed a researcher-devised questionnaire and quasi design was used in the selection of hospitals. Subsequently about 5mls of peripheral blood for serological analysis was obtained after informed consent. Presence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect IgG and screening for HIV was also done using Determine® HIV 1/2 as well as Uni-GoldTM HIV Test Kits. Out of the two hundred and seventy (270) samples collected, 32(11.9%) were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis IgG, 7(2.6%). Chlamydial infection was found to be significantly associated with level of education. There was no significant association between chlamydial infection and occupation, subjects’ husbands’ occupation.
E. C. Chinakwe, N. U. Nwogwugwu, G. C. Ajugwo, M. C. Madumere, J. C. Ngumah, E. E. Mike-Anosike, R. I. Nnadozie, J. C. Iwuji
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 19-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230293

Abstract:
The consumption of fresh vegetables has great health benefits. However, this has been linked to several food borne infections and disease outbreaks in the past because some of these vegetables have been identified as agents in the transmission of human food pathogens. This study examined the coliform bacteria profile of raw salad vegetables sold in open markets in Owerri metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria. The samples of different raw salad vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, carrot and tomatoes) bought from different vendors in open markets were examined for the presence of coliform bacteria. Surface wash water of samples were used for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms. The results from the study showed that all the samples harboured coliform bacteria with the cabbage recording the highest coliform count (CA3= 2.8 x 107cfu/g on MacConkey agar) while the highest E. coli count occurred in tomato (TO3=2.7 x 106cfu/g on EMB agar); carrot (CB3= 2.6 x 104cfu/g on MacConkey agar)and cucumber (CU2= 3.9 x 102cfu/g on EMB agar) recorded the lowest coliform and E. coli counts respectively. The percentage prevalence of the isolates on the samples were Enterobacter species (83.3%), Escherichia coli (66.6%) and Klebsiella species (33.3%).The counts were obviously above the coliform acceptable limit (<100cfu/g) for salad vegetables. This suggests that salad vegetables used in this study are of public health concern because, they harbour microorganisms that could be hazardous to human health. Positive detection of coliforms (especially, E. coli) is an effective confirmation of fecal contamination, hence good hygiene measures should be observed throughout the processing chain and consumers should also practice appropriate hygiene during the preparation of salad vegetables for consumption. This will eventually help in reducing the microbial contents of the vegetables before consumption.
A. A. Odeleye, J. O. Obameso
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 12-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230292

Abstract:
Aim: The antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of D. Stramonium pulp, seed and leaf against some medically important pathogenic microorganisms were studied. Methodology: The antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of D. Stramonium pulp, seed and leaf were assessed on Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria). Results: The highest percentage recovery at 50% ethanolic extract of leaf was 5.6±0.1 and lowest in Pulp with 3.9±0.1. The 50% ethanolic extracts showed significant activities against tested pathogens more than the 75% ethanolic extracts which, may be due to the effect of heat generated by water bath during extraction process. The plant extracts exerted highest zones of inhibition in pulp and seed extracts against P. aeruginosa with 21±1.0 and 17±2.0 respectively and least in K. pneumoniae with 10±0.5 from seed extract. The antimicrobial activities observed in this study were due to the presence of certain phytochemials that have bactericidal or inhibitory effects on test organisms. These phytochemicals include alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, phenol and glycosides. Conclusion:D. stramonium extracts revealed very promising results with health-promoting potentials that could be applied in the treatment of ailments caused by these pathogens.
, J. O. Williams, C. J. Ugboma
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i230291

Abstract:
Bacterial contamination of money acts as vehicle for the transmission of pathogenic and drug resistant organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the bacteriological quality and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of money bank cash-points and markets in Port Harcourt metropolis. Two hundred and eighty-eight (288) naira notes belonging to the following denominations, N5, N10, N20, N50, N100, N200, N500 and N1000 were collected for three months from banks and markets and subjected to standard microbiological procedures such as standard plate counts, identification, sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total heterotrophic bacterial count (THB) ranged from 0.6±0.00x106 to 12.80±9.19x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.21x106 to 13.05±9.55x106cfu/g; 0.65±0.20x106 to 8.05±2.48x106Cfu/g in N5 and N100 from Access Bank (AB), United Bank of Africa (UBA) and Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB), respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes. Total coliform count (TCC) ranged from 0.00 x104 to 56.90±28.43x104Cfu/g; 0.00 x104 to 61.90±35.49x104Cfu/g; 0.00x104 to 17.75±12.79x104Cfu/g in N5, and N100 for AB, UBA and GTB respectively. THB ranged from 2.69±1.55x106 to 9.95±3.22x106cfu/g; 3.00±1.69x106 to 12.30±9.89x106cfu/g; 3.30±1.82x106 to 17.30±6.97x106cfu/g in N1000, N10 and N100 naira for Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road markets respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the THB between the different naira notes sampled in both Banks and markets. TCC ranged from 0.77±0.28x104 to 45.59±10.18x104Cfu/g; 0.78±0.88x104 to 40.59±3.11x104Cfu/g; 1.45±0.07x104 to 55.60±10.18x104Cfu/g in N1000 and N100 Mile 1, Mile 3 and Creek road market respectively. Faecal coliform count ranged from 0.00x103 to 1.53±0.15x103Cfu/g for only mile 1 market. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total and faecal coliform counts between the different naira notes sampled in Banks and markets. The bacterial isolates identified were; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus and Serratia marcesens. Twenty-one (21) bacteria were isolated from Banks and Markets. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leteus, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcesens were significantly high in N100 (41.67%) (66.67%), (100%), (100%) respectively. Staphylococcus spp was susceptible to Gentamicin (33.3%), Bacillus spp to Ofloxacin (100%), Micrococcus spp to Ofloxacin and Gentamicin (100%), Serratia spp and Escherichia coli were susceptible to Ofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin (100%) and they were all resistant to Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Cloxacillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime and Ceftriaxone (100%)> Erythromycin and Gentamicin (75%). Hundred-percent (100%) of the bacterial isolates had multidrug resistance index greater than 0.2. Public awareness on personal hygiene should be encouraged while drug abuse should be discouraged.
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i130290

Abstract:
Aims: To reveal the interaction between intestinal microflora and the protozoan parasite organisms and how it affect their host’s performance. Discussion: The vertebrate gastro-intestinal system contain wide array of diverse but dynamic bacterial microbiota population that has ubiquitous consequences on its host’s well-being including physiology, nutrition, metabolism, and immunity, locally and systematically. Naturally, these bacteria share their milleu with a more or less similar population of parasitic eukaryotes (e.g., protozoan, helminths, and fungi). Both eukaryotes parasites in combination with the prokaryotic microorganisms as inhabitant normal microflora can dynamically shift the bio-physics and immune milleu of the intestine (locally) or even can affect its host as a whole (systematically), creating abundant chances for them to interact to each other; where ideally, both side is in equilibrium state. Beside their function, intestinal normal (commensal) microflora mainly contribute in several activities that control parasite survival and determines the outcome of several, if not many, parasite-base disease. Normal microflora actively limiting the pathogenicity of many parasites. The steadiness among the number and composition of normal microflora and its host seems vital to the host’s well-being perpetuation. But unfortunately, this interaction can further shifted into competition that can leads to the dominance of one party in number and probably also strength. Those spectrum of interactions may critically modify infection outcomes (active or dormant/carrier) and in turn affect the overall host condition. Active protozoan invasion may modify interaction between hosts and their normal resident microflora, either supporting or preventing against the condition of dysbiosis and inflammatory disease. Conversely, the microbiota controls parasite's settlement, multiplication, and even virulency; the properties that can modulate the interaction along the parasitism-mutualism sphere. Conclusion: Intestinal microflora composition control the pathogenesis of the protozoan infections.
C. Chilaka, N. P. Akani, T. Sampson
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 24-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i130289

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance has become a subject of global concern to health systems all over the world and the shedding of antibiotic resistant bacteria from humans and animals into the soil is a threat to public health. This research was carried out to molecularly characterize and assess antibiotic resistant bacteria from soil in Rivers State University. Bacteria from soil in four locations; waste dump site, fish farm, poultry farm and home soil were enumerated and identified using standard microbiological techniques such as serial dilution, plating and incubation, isolation, biochemical testing and molecular identification. Sensitivity testing on the bacterial isolates was done using Kirby-Bauer Disk diffusion method. These resistant isolates were also subjected to molecular testing to ascertain the presence of resistant genes. The results revealed mean total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts (THBC) for 32 samples ranged from 1.05±0.72 x 107 to 3.63±2.58x 107 CFU/g in fish farm and waste dump samples respectively. Total Coliform Counts (TCC) ranged from 3.65±2.91 x105 to 6.92±4.41 x105 CFU/g in Fish farm and Waste dump samples while Total Staphylococcal count ranged from 3.80±1.71 x104 to 11.46±9.21 x104 CFU/g in Fish farm and Waste dump samples respectively. Total Pseudomonad Count (TPC) ranged from 0.09±0.09 x 103 to 2.47±1.67x 103 CFU/g in Home soil and Fish farm samples. There was a difference (p≤0.05) in total heterotrophic bacterial, Staphylococcal and Pseudomonad counts, but no difference (p≥0.05) in total coliform. Seventy-nine (79) bacterial isolates were identified in this study belonging to the following genera; Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Serratia spp, Proteus spp, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Escherichia spp with Staphylococcus (58.83%) having the highest occurrence and Pseudomonas (11.11%) had the least occurrence from the samples. Antibiotic sensitivity revealed that most isolates were resistant to many antibiotics tested with the highest resistance observed for Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime and Cefixime (100%) for the gram negative organisms and also Cefuroxime, Ceftazidime and Cloxacillin for gram positive bacteria. However, all bacteria showed sensitivity to gentamicin. Multiple Antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for all bacteria were above 0.2. Resistant bacterial isolates were identified molecularly as S. aureus, S. sciuri, M. luteus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. mercescens, P. vulgaris, E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium.Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia mercescens, Proteus vulgaris and E. coli had CTX-M gene present in their genome while Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis had the mecA gene present in their genome. This study has highlighted the rise in antibiotic resistance in bacteria from soil, hence, there is need to checkmate indiscriminate use of antibiotics in agriculture.
, Rusky I. Pratama, Ratu Safitri
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i130288

Abstract:
Probiotics have been utilized as an option to treat problems brought on by safe and ecologically friendly pathogenic microorganisms in shrimp and fish farming operations. Probiotics are currently available in powder form (dry form). Using spray drying technology, dry probiotics are produced, with the finished result being a stable powder. In order to regulate the proliferation of harmful bacteria in the digestive tract, these bacteria use a competitive mechanism. Bacillus sp., Saccharomyces cereviceae, and Lactobacillus sp. are among the commonly researched probiotic microorganisms. Microorganisms are blended with a number of carriers, including maltodextrin, wheat flour, and rice flour. The carrier material's main goal is to increase storage process survival. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the viability and development of the probiotic microorganisms included in each carrier material varied. The enclosed substance exhibits highly varied microbial growth. The maximum number was found in the maltodextrin carrier material for the bacteria B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, the rice flour carrier for the bacteria L. brevis and L. curvatus, and the talc carrier for the bacterium L. bulgaricus. These findings suggest that, following encapsulation, probiotic populations and numbers can be maintained in all types of carrier materials. Specific carriers, like tapioca, skim milk, and activated carbon, revealed a greater microbial population than the typical medium. The microbial cells were compressed in the dry carrier material, which is why there was an increase of bacteria following the encapsulation procedure. Probiotic microbe counts increased by 40.7-90.1% for carriers made of activated carbon, 79-94.5% for those made of skim milk, and 31.7-95.7% for those made of tapioca flour. Bacterial cell death during the spray drying process of encapsulation could be the reason for the decline in the population of probiotic bacteria.
C. C. Ezemba, P. E. Oli, S. O. Kehinde, A. S. Ezemba, C. C. Ezejiofor, E. C. Amadi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i130287

Abstract:
Microorganisms are ubiquitous, they are found everywhere. Mobile phones are not an exception. Mobile phones, also referred to as palmtops act as fomites, a source of infection because the palms used to handle mobile phones are often times in contact with surfaces which may have been pre-infected; nevertheless, their potential role in transmission of infections is of great concern. A cross-sectional study (male and female) was done from June to August 2018 at Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Enugu State, in order to investigate the prevalence of bacterial contamination of mobile phones of students. Swab samples were collected from 50 mobile phones of Caritas University students. These were tested for bacterial contamination in the Microbiology laboratory. Quantification of bacteria was performed using standard streak plate technique. Isolated bacteria were identified using standard microbiological methods which include: cultural and morphological characterization and biochemical test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was also done. The microorganism isolated from students’ mobile phones and their percentage frequency of occurrence were: E. coli (31.9%), S. aureus (40.4%), P. aeruginosa (8.5%), K. pneumonia (4.3%) and Streptococcus sp. (14.9%). The result showed that Staphylococcus sp. has the highest percentage of occurrence. The antibiotic sensitivity test indicated the varied resistance of isolated bacteria to antibiotics used in this study, although most isolated bacteria were sensitive to erythromycin and chloramphenicol except the isolates of E. coli which were the most resistant to the antibiotics used. The high prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from students’ mobile phones was attributed to poor hygiene and sanitary practices. It is recommended that students should wash their hands after using mobile phones, before eating or undertaking any venture requiring sepsis.
Goodluck Silas, Amba Ollor Ollor, Vivian Nkemkanma Agi, Easter Godwin Nwokah, G. N. Wokem, Amala Smart Enoch
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v13i130286

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study was to profile the anti-microbial resistant of Mycobacterial strains causing cluster pulmonary infections in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Study Design: Cross sectional facility based. Place and Duration: This study was carried out in all the in tuberculosis centers in all the eight local government area in Bayelsa State, Nigeria between January 2019 to February 2021. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 tuberculosis patients who had been previously diagnosed of Tuberculosis (both new and old cases) participated in the study. Two sputum samples were collected from each subject in a wide mouth screw cape container and falcon tube container respectively. The first was used for GenXpert technique while the second was used for culture on Lowenstein Jensen solid Media. The visible and confirmed Mycobacterium growth was subjected to Line Probe Assay (MTBDRplus assay) and genetic sequencing. The DNA of the isolates where extracted using Genolyse method. The extracted DNA was used to perform a gene mutation profiling using MTBRplus Assay. The 16Sr RNA sequencing was done on the amplified genes using the BigDye terminator kit on a 3510 AB1 sequencer. Results: Out of the 102 sputum samples analyzed a total of 91(89.2%) were GeneXpert positive. Drug resistant profiling by GeneXpert shows 8(7.8) strain mutation at the rpoB gene only while the resistant profiling of the isolated on Lowenstein Jensen solid media had 14(13.7) strain with mutation on genes responsible for first and second line drug resistant. Two non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species which are Mycobacteriode abscessus subsp. abscessus st and Mycobacterium Kansasii strain FDAARGOS_1534 where isolated among Tuberculosis patients, both are multidrug-resistant strains. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in circulation causing cluster TB infection in Yenagoa especially and other parts of Bayelsa State, Nigeria are MG003 and R2092 strains, but the most predominant strain that is traced to cluster TB infection is MG003. The extraction of MTB gene from a pure culture of a Lowenstein Jensen selected media reduced the possibility of contamination and enhanced the reliability of gene sequencing and Bioinformatics analysis which includes comparing strains of MTB with the once in the National center for Biotechnology information (BLAST) data base. Conclusion: The resistance profiling of MTB reveals that most strains were resistant to rifampicin. This means that there were more mutation on the rifampicin activation gene (rpoB) than any other gene. Most cases of multi drug resistance is associated with rifampicin resistance while cases of extensive drug resistance is not common.
, A. F. Umar, E. Agbo, Omammegbe Abdulrahman
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430284

Abstract:
Background: Salmonella non-typhoidal is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases with a significant increase in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics, causes severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality in the study area. To screen and isolate multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella from diarrhoeagenic children aged 0-60 months. Methodology: A total of 222 stool samples were collected from symptomatic diarrhoeagenic children between August-December, 2019 in selected hospitals in Bauchi state metropolis. Samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and antibiotic resistance was determined by the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index.β-lactamase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 50 isolates of Salmonella obtained and 9 positive isolates of non-typhoidal was obtained respectively. Non-typhoidal Salmonella were discovered to be more prevalence among age between 48-60 months (37.50%), male children (62.50%), outpatients (62.50%) and more prevalence among patient attending Bauchi State Specialist Hospital (33.33%). Results: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility of the commonly used and prescribed antibiotics showed that, 87.5% of the non-typhoidal Salmonella were resistant to cloxacillin, followed by 75% to tetracycline and 75% to chloramphenicol. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of the non-typhoidal Salmonella in this study shows that 62.5% have MAR index of ≥ 0.5, this indicate a significant level of misuse of these antibiotics. The result revealed a positive correlation and the relationship was statistically significant (0.005) at 1% level of significant. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected tetA gene and tetB gene. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a relatively high level of gene mediated antibiotic resistance to tetracycline and other antibiotics. The high prevalence and increased resistance especially among non-typhoidal Salmonella is a cause of concern and reiterates the need for extensive routine checks along with stool samples for better management of gastroenteritis.
, Catalina Vali Matei, Delia Bodea, Anca Dumitrescu, Loredana Sabina Cornelia Manolescu
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 34-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430285

Abstract:
Background: The coronavirus pandemic has caused a general crisis, affecting several sectors of the society, sectors that were not exactly ready to deal with critical situations. This is also the case with education, which was faced a huge challenge: digital, online teaching teaching. Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of online microbiology course with a traditional course, taught by the same professors, the students involved are in the first three years of study at the Faculty of Midwifery and Nursing, in the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila" from Bucharest. Methods: The period of our study was of two years, 2019-2021. The first year had digital classes and the second had face to face classes The study conducted a prospective study. It was used a 10-question questionnaire as a tool for assessing students' perceptions regarding the difficulty of online teaching with every aspect, such as homework’s, projects, presentations and online browsing. It was also compared the method of online and traditional education. Results: Almost half of our participants, 46.9% found the teaching files for the online lectures satisfactory and understandable while 51% of students considered easier to study online than face to face. Regarding face-to-face studying, 67.3% of the responders voted for the face-to-face teaching. Technical issues were reported by 47.2% when connecting or during online classes. Findings: This study will contribute to future research that investigates students' perceptions of microbiology courses and laboratories to ensure the development of a quality microbiology curriculum.
, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury, Monjur Ahmed Laskar
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 15-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430282

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Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused primarily by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are indeed an extremely contagious disease that affects people all over the world. FimH is a major virulence component in UTI pathogenesis, and inhibiting FimH function can be an efficient means to disarm UPEC bacteria, as well as a crucial target in the development of non-antibiotic mediated UTI treatment options. The goal of this study was to identify anthocyanins in plant parts and assess their pharmacological characteristics. A computational methodology was used to predict the pharmacological characteristics of such substances. Compounds with pharmacophores comparable to those of known fimH inhibitors were chosen. Following that, additional research was carried out to assess their drug similarity, inhibitory potential, and IC50 values. Thus, the present study reports few novel fimH inhibitors derived from the selected plant’s phytochemicals, and is significant owing to their therapeutic implication as a non-antibiotic mediated therapy for UTI.
, Mahmood Abduljabbar Altobje
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 6-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430281

Abstract:
Background: One of the most frequent autoimmune illnesses affecting the thyroid gland is immunological thyroid disease. Antibodies against the enzyme thyroglobulin and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors are produced by the immune system. Hashimoto's disease and Graves' disease are the two primary forms of autoimmune diseases. Methods: 91 blood samples were taken, including 71 for thyroid disease patients and 20 for healthy persons as control samples, from both sexes and of various ages. The tests were performed using a variety of methodologies. Results: Some of autoantibodies were found in varying quantities in 44 individuals. While TPO antibodies were found in 75% of 33 individuals, Anti-TG Ab was found in 72.72% of the patients, 15.90% in seven patients, and anti-TSHR Ab and antinuclear antibodies were found in 22.72% of the patients compared to the control samples. Any type of autoantibody, as well as the results of hormonal testing, revealed disease in a variety of individuals at varying rates. Because the patients were on therapy, the highest rate was 59.09% for thyroid-stimulating hormones. Chemical analyses revealed a sugar and fat imbalance with no discernible link. Interleukin 4 was detected in 4 individuals (9.09%), including one patient with autoimmune hypothyroidism (2.27%) and three patients in C3 18 with immunological hyperthyroidism (6.82%). The findings revealed an increase in complement molecule concentration in 40.90% of patients, including 15 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (34.09%) and 3 patients with immune thyroid gland C3 hyperactivity (6.71%). The statistical study revealed a P < 0.01 level of significance correlation between the presence of sugar and triglycerides and the complement molecule. Interleukin 4 and antibodies to receptors have a substantial correlation at the P < 0.01TSHR Ab level TSH. Conclusions: The C3 gland patients for thyroid peroxidase had the largest amount of antibodies, lipids, and sugar, according to the study. Interleukin-4 occurred in certain individuals who had antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors, according to the research.
, T. M. Ilesanmi, A. A. Odeleye
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i430279

Abstract:
Introduction: There has been various report of the potential of manufacturing of bioethanol from the use of different microbial inoculants for the fermentation of different feedstocks has been previously described and carried out by various researchers. And bioethanol is considered as cheap and efficient biofuel, and environmentally friendly Aims: The aim of this study is to manufacture bio-ethanol from waste material; such as cassava peel, which would serve as an alternate source of fuel. Methodology: Cassava peels obtained from garri processing plant in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, were washed, sun-dried, grounded into powdery form and then sieved with 1.5 μ nylon sieve. The powdery cassava peels obtained was cultured using the following inoculant combinations: A = 20 g + Bacillus; B = 20 g + Pseudomonas; C = 20 g + Bacillus + Pseudomonas; D = 40 g + Bacillus; E = 40 g + Pseudomonas; F = 40 g + Bacillus + Pseudomonas; G = 20 g + Aspergillus niger; H = 20 g + Fusarium; I = 40 g + Aspergillus niger; J = 40 g + Fusarium. The control was free of inoculated organism. The cultures were subjected to distillation process for on the 21st day; and the quantity of bio-ethanol manufactured in each group was recorded. Results: The waste material (cassava peels) produced the highest bio-ethanol yield of 147 mL with A. niger, followed by the combination of Bacillus + Pseudomonas which yielded 108 mL of bio-ethanol. Low ethanol yields of 45, 83 and 94 ml/L were obtained from the cassava peels of in combination with Fusarium, Pseudomonas and Bacillus alone. Conclusion: Microbes of choice in this study displayed great potential for manufacturing of bio-ethanol from cassava peels.
, Pranab Karmaker, Mala Khan, Rasheda Yasmin Shilpi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 49-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i330275

Abstract:
Background: Aerobic bacteria were found as contaminants in mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiate L). They are also well-known for their excellent nutritional value as well as their ease of digestion. They are rich in calories, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, macronutrients, and vitamins. Aim: To evaluate bacterial isolates and parameters of nutritional content of native mung bean sprouts and finally to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates to decide which antimicrobial agent should be utilized against certain bacterial strains. Methodology: Total viable bacterial isolates were enumerated by the spread plate method, and bacterial species were determined from the selected culture media with biochemical analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were performed by the Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method and minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured using the VITEK®-2 Compact system. The nutritional composition of the sprouts was assessed using procedures suggested by the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Results: The contaminated bacterial levels were relatively lower and the higher level of total aerobic plate counts was 7.60 log10 CFU/g and 8.46 log10 CFU/g, respectively. In this study, 20 (40.8%) of mung bean sprout bacteria were lactose fermenters, such as E. cloacae complex 9 (18.4%), E. coli 8 (16.3%), and K. pneumonie 3 (6.1%), which fermented lactose to produce acidic environments that appeared as pink colonies, and 15 (30.6%) of non-lactose fermenters, namely A. baumannii 7 (14.43%) and P. aeruginosa 8 (16.3%), produced normally colorless colonies, but the rest of 14 (28.6%) were late lactose fomenters of S. marcescens grown in red-pigmented colonies in culture media. Thirteen commercially available antibiotics were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. Eighteen nutritional parameters were evaluated for both raw and dry sprouts. Conclusion: Mung bean sprouts have numerous health benefits. Because of the high number of outbreaks associated with the presence of hazardous organisms, strict safety standards must be followed.
Goodluck Silas
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 44-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i330274

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the second-line drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out in this research. Place and Duration of Study: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) Centers across Bayelsa State, between March 2020 and November 2021. Methodology: Ethical approval was obtained from Bayelsa State Ministry of Health, Yenagoa, Nigeria. Informations such as age, sex and residential address was obtained with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 100 sputum sample was collected from 100 patients across all the Local Government Areas. Sputum sample decontamination and homogenization was done using the Sodium Hydroxide/N- Acetyl -L- Cysteine Citrate Solution. Sputum samples were cultured on solid Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Media. All growths on LJ media were confirmed with Ziehl Neelsen staining and Standard Bioline antigen test. Drug susceptibility test was carried out after bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using Line Probe Assay (MTBDRplus assay ver 2). Results: Out of 100 patients, 15 had confirmed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All isolate had no form of mutation on gyr gene, meaning 100% of isolates were susceptibility to flouroquinolones. There were also no mutation detected on rrs gene therefore all strains are also susceptible to Kanamycin, Amikasin and capreomycin. Out of the 15 isolates 14 had no mutation on the eis gene while 1% had mutation of WT2 and MUT1. Conclusion: A good percentage of the isolates are susceptible to second line drugs, therefore cases of extensive drug resistance is not common in Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
, Aishatu Salihu, Bristone James Pola, Awwal Shitu
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i330272

Abstract:
Bacterial infection of wound plays an important role in the development of chronicity and delayed healing. In this study, a total of 50 wound swabs were aseptically collected from patients attending specialist hospital Jimeta Yola, Adamawa State and were screened for bacteria. The isolates were identified using Gram-staining and biochemical tests. Eight different bacterial species were identified with Staphylococcus aureus having the highest occurrence with 11(26.19%), followed by Escherichia coli 8(19.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 6(14.29%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis 5(11.9%), Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes 3(7.14%) and lastly, Bacillus subtilis with 1(2.38%). Antibiotic susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method revealed that most of the Gram-positive isolates significantly resisted oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. Most Gram negatives significantly resisted septrin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, augmentin and pefloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was 100% effective against both Gram positive and Gram-negative isolates. Plasmid curing of resistant isolates using 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) revealed that resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, amoxicillin, augmentin and pefloxacin were plasmid borne whereas chloramphenicol and septrin (trimethoprim) were not. Bacteria associated with wound infections encompass both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in nearly equal proportions with high rate of resistance among the isolates.
, B. O. Adu, O. A. Thonda, O. M. Aladejana
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 13-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i330273

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the potency of newly emerging detergents, laundry bleach, and toilet soap on bacteria isolates from fairly used clothes and Female Underwear. The current study included sample collection from used clothing and female underwear and compared the efficacy of detergents, toilet soap and laundry bleach (Jik),to reduce the microbial load in the used cloth. Organisms were isolated from the used cloth and female underwear, identified, and microbiologically characterized using the conventional method of microbiology assay. i.e, biochemical test,a compilation of cultural colonial and characteristics. Test Samples were washed using four (4) types of detergents and five (5) types of toilet soap and laundry bleach. The results of the colony-forming unit (CFU) before and after washing with detergent and toilet soap and laundry bleach were recorded, washing with detergents and toilet soap. The results showed that detergents were more effective in reducing bacterial load than toilet soap in all test samples. the addition of laundry bleach (Jik) also shows the effectiveness in reducing bacterial load in fairly used clothes and Female Underwear The antibiotics susceptibility test were determined using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. Eight (8) bacteria were identified include Aerobacter aerogenes (3), Bacillus polymyxa (5), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Veillonella parvula (5), Escherichia freundii (1), Escherichia coli (3), Enterobacter aerogenes (2) and Aerobacter cloacae (1). Bacillus polymyxa, and Veillonella parvula were the most common organism isolated and followed by Escherichia coli from fairly used clothes and Female Underwear. In this study, some of the Gram-positive(+ve) bacteria isolates were sensitive to commonly used antibiotics like Streptomycin, Tarivid, Reflacine Ciprofloxacin, Augmentin, Gentamycin, Ceporex, Nalidixic acid, Septrin, and Amplicin. Gram-negative bacteria isolated were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and all the isolated organisms were resistant to Ceporex. Gram-positive (-ve) bacteria were sensitive to Streptomycin and were resistant to Rifampicin. To determine the growth dynamics and killing kinetics of the isolated organisms, from fairly used clothes and Female Underwear, an Ultraviolet spectrophotometer were used to determine the wavelength and killing kinetics of isolated organisms from fairly used clothes and Female Underwear. The addition of antibiotics to the isolated organisms at the 48th-hour speed up the death rate of the isolates from fairly used clothe washed with different detergent Laundry Bleach and toilet soaps. It can be deduced that this study validates the efficacy of newly emerging detergents, Laundry bleach, and toilet soap against bacteria isolated from fairly used clothes. It is also recommended to wash fairly used clothes using different methods of soaking the fairly used clothes and female underwear in the Laundry Bleach for some days before finally washing in detergents and ironing before use. This method will drastically reduce and remove bacterial load in the fairly used clothes and female underwear.
W. R. U. A. Bandara,
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i230270

Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global public health emergency responsible for approximately 1.3 million deaths annually. Enduring the existing TB challenges, the emergence of “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2), a similar respiratory infection threatened the success of TB control over the past few years. Contemplating the irreversible damage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), one of the leading immune-suppressive conditions, a similar or worst expected with this synergism: TB-HIV-SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, an integrated approach is much demanded before the impending revolution, "Next Global Pandemic". The advancement of molecular diagnostic techniques, blood transcriptomics uncovered the importance of studying the cross-talk between host and pathogens. RNA-sequencing is a high-throughput sequencing technique allowing detailed characterization of gene expression profiles. With the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host immunity, pathogen-derived biomarker identification is more disease-specific and constrains individual variations faced during host biomarker identification. However, several technical hurdles are encountered during the study of intracellular pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The development of advanced RNA-sequencing techniques to tackle the issues targeting the host and pathogen interactions is in their infancy and restricted to in-vitro studies. Few studies on serum exosomal RNA-sequencing of active and latent TB patients enlightened the path of TB biomarker discovery urging the necessity of more studies. Thus, this review will explicitly discuss the existing TB diagnostic tools to understand where we stand in TB diagnosis and the recent advancements in blood transcriptomics emphasizing the importance of targeting the pathogen-derived biomarkers as a potential source for future diagnostics.
, Obire Omokaro
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i230269

Abstract:
Oilfield wastewater from discharge pond and soil around the discharge pond of an oil producing vicinity were collected using standard procedures. The heavy metals and physicochemical constituents of the soil and wastewater from the receiving pond were examined according to normal procedures in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency. The presence of negative numbers in the results indicates that there was an influence on the physicochemical parameters. It was discovered that the salinity of the soil surrounding a discharge pond was-73.80±53.20 mg/kg during the rainy season. Soil moisture content recorded a negative value of -43.77±9.477 during the rainy season. Potassium, nitrate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, total nitrogen, organic carbon, zinc, and copper recorded negative values in both dry and raining seasons. However higher values of -2309±486.4 mg/kg for potassium, -450.3±65.30 mg/kg for phosphate, -2779±274.2 mg/kg for calcium, -717.4±80.53 mg/l for zinc were obtained during the dry season. High values of -133.4±8.937 mg/kg for nitrate, -262.6±23.27 mg/kg for magnesium, -923.7±101.1 mg/kg for sulphate, -133.3±15.09 mg/kg for total nitrogen, -2788±276.9% organic carbon, -275.7±39.28% for TOM, -3.567±9257 mg/kg for alkalinity and -114.0±77.45 mg/l for copper were obtained during the raining season. For the wastewater from the receiving pond during the dry season, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon recorded negative values of -4083±4.122 mg/l, -18.33±9.208 mg/l, -18.33±9.208mg/l, -70.35±39.50 mg/l, -312.9±170.7 mg/l and 617007±3.93 mg/l, respectively. High negative values during the raining season were obtained in turbidity (-17.57±94.87 NTU), TSS (-303.7±54.37 mg/l), TOC (-6276±6.294%), and total petroleum hydrocarbon (-105.1±162.1 mg/l). The heavy metals recorded high negative values of -6767±809.0 mg/l for lead, -14433±238 mg/l for chromium, -3317±2347 mg/l for copper, and -1967 ±66.67 mg/l for cadmium during the rainy season. High values obtained in the dry season were -59668±34243 mg/l for zinc and -2213±1472 mg/l for a nickel. The results suggest that oilfield wastewater impacts the receiving environment negatively.
Chizurum P. Christian, , Chibuzo V. Alisigwe, David U. Iloanusi, Emmanuel K. Amanze, Prisca C. Aririguzo, Isabel C. Nwagu
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i230267

Abstract:
Infection in wound delays healing and may cause wound breakdown, herniation, and complete wound dehiscence. This study investigated the isolation and identification of bacteria associated with wound sepsis. A total number of ten (10) swab samples were collected at random from the wound surface of patients with infected wounds. The swabs with the samples were analyzed using standard microbiological procedures. Bacterial isolates were characterized using their colonial, microscopic, and biochemical properties. Identification was with reference to Bergey's Manual. It was observed that Escherichia coli is the most frequently occurring isolates with a percentage occurrence of (25%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus with a percentage of (20%), then Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%), Klebsiella pneumonia (20%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (15%). The overall distribution of bacterial isolates from the wound samples indicated that the wound samples from the male patients have a higher percentage distribution of (80%) than the samples obtained from the female patients with (20%). This study revealed that various bacteria, including opportunistic bacteria, are found in different wounds. Some of the wounds were infected with more than one bacteria species at a time. Although complete eradication of wound infections is not possible, however, by adopting prompt, clean surgical procedures, proper care of wounds, and antibiotics, the incidence of wound infection may be limited to a minimum.
T. Sampson, P. U. Tennyson, L. K. Giami
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i230268

Abstract:
Floods are high volumes of water over areas that are normally dry land, and are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of flooding on the bacteriological quality of a water body in a rural Niger Delta Community in Delta State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from three different points such as the Right Bank, Left Bank and Mid-Point of the river at a monthly interval, from October (the peak of the flood) to December 2019, when the flood has finally receded. The samples were analyzed for the diverse bacterial groups using standard bacteriological methods. The highest total heterotrophic bacterial counts of 5.6±0.1 x 106 CFU/ml and the highest total coliform counts of 1.6±0.3 x 104 CFU/ml were recorded in the month of October, while the least total heterotrophic bacterial counts of 1.2±0.1 x 105 CFU/ml and the total coliform counts of 1.0±0.2 x 103 CFU/ml were recorded in the month of December. Six (6) bacterial species, belonging to four (4) genera were purified and identified as Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli. Bacillus species (B. cereus; B. lentus; B. subtilis) were the most predominant bacterial species, with a percentage occurrence of 37.5%. Staphylococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were at par in their occurrence of 25% each, while Escherichia coli was on the other hand the least occurring bacterial species (12.5%). The results hence, showed that the bacterial population differed with regards to the sample period, as the highest counts were obtained in the month of October when the flood was at its peak and decreased as the flood receded. Therefore, flooding increases the risk of bacterial mediated waterborne infections in impacted localities. It is therefore recommended that those living within vicinities affected by the flood should vacate the environment to avoid unnecessary associated risk.
, S. A. Wemedo, T. Sampson
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i230266

Abstract:
The contamination of vended food with microorganisms especially pathogenic microbes is a public health hazard that could result to gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to identify by molecular techniques bacteria associated with vended suya meat in part of Port Harcourt. Forty (40) ready-to-eat suya meat were randomly bought from 10 vendors across four locations: Rumuokoro, Rukpokwu, Nkpolu, and Choba. Sampling was carried out for a period of 3 months (September to November, 2019). The total heterotrophic bacterial counts of the vended suya meat for Rumuokoro, Rukpokwu, Nkpolu, and Choba were 1.04×106, 3.4×106, 1.49×106 and 2.04×106 CFU/g, respectively. While the total coliform counts of the vended suya meat for Rumuokoro, Rukpokwu, Nkpolu and Choba were 0.36×105, 3.21×105, 2.45×105 and 6.39×105 CFU/g, respectively. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts of vended suya meat bought from vendors in Choba were significantly higher (P≤ .05) than those bought from the Rumuokoro and Rukpokwu vendors. Similarly, the coliform counts of the suya meat bought from Choba vendors were significantly higher (P≤ .05) higher than the coliform counts of vended suya meat bought from vendors in Rumuokoro and Nkpolu. Twenty-eight bacterial isolates: Staphylococcus delphini, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Paenibacillus pectinolytic, Lysinibacillus fusiforms, Bacillus aerius, Serratia nematodephila, Providencia alcalifaciens, Klebsiella singaporensis, Pseudomona aeruginosa, E. coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Proteus myxofaciens were identified from the vended suya meat. The molecular characterization of 16S rRNA of the isolates showed 99-100% similarity to other species in the NCBI data base. The evolutionary distances computed were in agreement with the phylogenetic placement of the 16S rRNA of the isolates Providencia and the Bacillus spp respectively and revealed a close relatedness to Providencia stuartii and Bacillus flexus respectively. The 16S rRNA of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Lysinibacillus spp revealed a close relatedness to Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Lysinibacillus fusiformis. The frequency of occurrence of bacterial isolates across the locations was: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.14), Bacillus flexus (7.14), Bacillus spp (14.29), Staphylococcus sp (14.29), Staphylococcus lugdunensis (10.71), Proteus sp (10.71), Lynsibacillus macroides (3.57), E. coli (10.71), Serratia spp (10.71), Klebsiella spp (7.14) and Providencia alcalifaciens (3.57). These bacterial genera could pose serious health challenges especially if they are consumed in quantities required to cause infections as many have been linked to causing gastroenteritis and other forms of infections. Proper hygiene compliance during preparation and packaging is recommended to eliminate or reduce microbial populations and types.
, Akanksha Dubey, Chinmoy Sahu, Sangram Singh Patel
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 50-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i130265

Abstract:
Background: Pseudomonas mosselli is a Gram negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-sporing and motile bacterium co-existing in the soil with plants, protecting them from fungal and bacterial infections by producing diverse molecules and causing rare opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Most common presentations of respiratory infection caused by this isolate include fever, respiratory distress and purulent cough. Satisfactory antibiotic coverage and early diagnosis mostly leads to complete recovery of the patient. Cases: Three cases have been included in our case series of which case 1 had type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and hypertension and was also diagnosed SARS- CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR (Real time polymerase chain reaction), case 2 had Takosubo cardiomyopathy, an immunological disorder with impending heart failure and case 3 suffered from advanced renal failure due to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis on weekly dialysis and steroid therapy. Pseudomonas mosselii from the respiratory samples of the patients admitted to a tertiary care centre were identified by the culture characteristics, biochemical reactions and species identification, performed by Matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization- time of flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Conclusion: Pseudomonas mosselii causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Respiratory infections caused by it are highly drug susceptible and can be easily overcome by administration of appropriate antibiotic treatment followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing.
Ogolo Ibinabo, , T. K. S. Abam
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 32-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i130264

Abstract:
Water is the most important resource on earth and safe drinking water is essential to sustain life. Most rural communities do not treat their water before consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water, sediment and soil characteristic in Okrika LGA, Nigeria. Samples were collected using sterile bottles from boreholes, hand-dug wells, surface water, sediments and soils using standard methods and analysed accordingly. Results show that Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Count (THBC) ranged from in Kalio-Ama to at Okari-Ama. Total Fecal count (TFC) ranged from 0 to at Isaka Town. Total Coliform Count (TCC) ranged from 0 to at Ogan-Ama. Total Salmonella Shigella Count (TSSC) ranged from 0 to in Ogan-Ama. Total Vibio Count (TVC) ranged from 0 to at Kalio-Ama. The most prominent bacterial isolates from all the stations are of the genera such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia Coli, Micrococcus, Kiebsiella,Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Serratia and Alcaligenes which were isolated across the samples with Bacillus as more frequent with 50%. In the dry season, bacterial isolates were 100% susceptible to Gentamycin and Ofloxacin and 100% resistance to Augumentin, Cefuroxime and Cefixime. In the wet season, isolates had 100% susceptibility to Ciprooflozacin and 100% resistance to Cloxacin, Augmentin and Gentamicine. The result of this study poses a public health risk to consumers who use these sources of water for domestic purposes, recreation and treatments. Diseases like typhoid, cholera, polio, skin and lung infections are eminent.
, Afe O. Ekundayo, Michael C. Ugwu, Ozoemena C. Ike, Azuka R. Akpe
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i130262

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the resistance Enterococcal isolates to common chemical agents used for disinfection in homes and hospitals. Place and Duration of the Study: Enugu State University of Technology (ESUT) Teaching Hospital, Parklane and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria, between July 2012 and June 2014. Methods: The study analysed antimicrobial products such as Dettol, Hibitane and Jik. Identification of the organism was based on standard procedure and biochemical test. Results: All the three representative isolates, E. facium,E. faecalis and E. avium showed luxuriant growth with optical density (OD) range of 0.31 to 0.35 at Sodium Chloride concentration of 0.5%. The growth (OD) reduced as the salt concentration increased. E. faecium,E. faecalis and E. avium showed no growth at the concentration of 10%. Dettol had MIC of 0.385 mg/ml and MBC of 0.75 mg/ml on E. faecium; MIC of 0.75 mg/ml and MBC of 1.5 mg/ml on E. faecalis; MIC of 0.193 mg/ml and MBC of 0.385 mg/ml on E. avium. Hibitane had MIC of 0.781 mg/ml and MBC of 1.568 mg/ml on E. faecium; MIC of 1.563 mg/ml and MBC of 3.125 mg/ml on E. faecalis; MIC of 0.781 mg/ml and MBC of 1.563 mg/ml on E. avium. Jik had an MIC of 0.547 mg/ml and MBC of 1.094 mg/ml on E. faecium; MIC of 1.094 mg/ml and MBC of 2.188 mg/ml on E. faecalis; MIC of 0.547 mg/ml and MBC of 1.094 mg/ml on E. avium. Conclusion: The growth of the isolates reduced as the salt concentration increased. The MICs and MBCs values from this study showed that these disinfectants are effective against Enterococci sp. in the following order; Dettol (Chloroxylenol), Jik (sodium hypochlorite) and Habitane (Chlorhexidine gluconate). The study therefore showed that concentration of various disinfectants/antiseptics used in hospital settings, medical laboratory section and at home should be of paramount interest for safe elimination of Enterococci.
, Ghaed Khalaf Salman, Malaa M. Taki
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 22-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i130263

Abstract:
In this study, we used green synthesis method in prepared Nano particles. (AgNps) were prepared by the use of plant extract under standard laboratory conditions in clean room in Nano technology and advance materials research centre (NAMRC) /university of technology /Iraq as initial precursor’s silver nitrate with Orange and banana fruit waste (peel). The experimental laboratory used for characterization of Ag Nano particles were XRD, UV-visible and FTIR. Silver Nano particles were tested against several types of bacteria and gave best results versus gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial.
, Omokaro Obire
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2022/v12i130261

Abstract:
The microbial quality of soil around the oilfield wastewater discharge pond was investigated to determine the microbial dynamics in the soil. Soil samples were randomly collected at four different parts around the pond and 80 meters away from the pond (control) at a depth of 0-15cm with a clean auger into sterile polythene bags from Ogbogu flow Station. The total heterotrophic bacteria, total heterotrophic fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, and fungi were determined using standard microbiological methods. The bacterial isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests while fungal isolates were identified based on appearance on plates and microscopy. The mean counts for the total heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi in the rainy season for the soil within the pond was 2.10×107, 4.63×104, 1.38×104, and 2.93×104 CFU/g, respectively. The mean counts for the total heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi in the dry season for the soil within the pond was 5.72×106, 1.87×104, 2.80×103, and 1.37×103 CFU/g, respectively. The mean counts for the total heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi in the rainy season for soil 80 m away from the pond was 2.50×107, 1.07×105, 2.4×103, and 1.9×103 CFU/g, respectively. The mean counts for the total heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi in the dry season for soil 80 m away from the pond was 6.17×106, 2.0×104, 1.83×103, and 1.23×103 CFU/g, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) in the total heterotrophic bacterial count from the pond and that of soil around 80 m away from the pond. The heterotrophic counts during the dry season were significantly lower (P≤0.05) from that of the rainy season in all the samples analyzed. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) between the fungi count of soil 80 m away in the dry season from that of soil around the pond. There was no significant difference (P≥0.05) in the total fungal counts recorded for the dry and rainy season in the various samples except that of the soil 80 m away. Hydrocarbon utilizing fungi was higher in the soil around the pond and was significantly different (P≤0.05) from that of soil 80 m away from the pond during the dry season. Bacillus spp., Aeromonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Chryseomonas spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Actinomyces spp., Enterobacter spp., Rhodococcus spp., and E. coli were identified from the soil. While Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Proteus spp, and Pseudomonas spp were the hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. Eight fungal genera isolated from the samples include Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Geotricum, Trichoderma, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. Hydrocarbon utilizing fungi isolated includes Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This investigation revealed high microbial population in the soil 80m away from the pond than those within the soil around the wastewater pond. The microbial population was affected by the season with the rainy season having a higher microbial population than the dry season.
, Somkene Okechukwu Chiejina, Nyenke Clement Ugochukwu, Amala Smart Enoch
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i430260

Abstract:
Background: The use of combinational approach in chemotherapeutic management has proven more effective against infectious disease and lower resistance development but the untoward effect of this is yet to be explored for alternative medicine. Aims: This study aimed to study the effect of a combinational approach of herbal drugs on Escherichia coli response. Methods:E. coli was treated in different concentrations of combined herbal drugs (Beta herbal drugs and Deep root herbal mixture – BD) and (Beta herbal drug and Goko cleanser – BG). The different concentrations of the mixtures employed were: 33.3%, 11.1%, 3.7%, 1.2% and 0.4%. The bacteria concentration of 103 CFU/ml was treated in the different concentrations of the herbal drugs. The growth response of the cultures were analyzed at 24 and 48 hrs. The antibiotic sensitivity of the bacteria exposed to the herbal drugs were measured against perfloxacin (PEF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), streptomycin (S), and septrin (SEP). Results: The growth response curve showed growth of E. coli peaked in the lower concentrations but levelled down in the higher concentrations. 24 hr growth conditions showed much higher growth level than 48 hr. Higher concentrations of BG drug combination showed higher zones of clearance and only one concentration showed resistance: 0.4% (CIP). There was no unique pattern seen in the sensitivity of E. coli treated with BD however, there was five (5) cases of complete resistance: 0.4% (PEF), 1.2% (PEF) and 11.1% (CIP and SEP). Conclusion: In vitro, the combined herbal drugs do not completely eliminate E. coli. However, some concentrations of the combinations demonstrated complete resistance to the antibiotics which shows that these locally made antimicrobial could confer antibiotic resistance to E. coli.
, Rusky I. Pratama, Ratu Safitri
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i430259

Abstract:
Research has been carried out on the encapsulation of probiotics of the genus Bacillus and Lactobacillus using rice flour, maltodextrin, and talc as carriers. The purpose of this study was to obtain a type of carrier material that can maintain the character of probiotics for fishfeed in aquaculture activity. The research method used is the experimental method, and the data were analyzed descriptively and experi-mentally. The experimental method used a completely randomized design with a factorial pattern. The results showed that talc can main-tain antimicrobial activity against E. coli (16.3 mm), S. typhimurium (17.3 and 13.8 mm) and coaggregation (12.9% and 15.01%). Rice flour can maintain antimicrobial activity against E. coli (20 mm), S. typhimurium (11.7 mm), and coaggregation (14.5%). Maltodextrin can maintain antimicrobial activity against E. coli (20.7 and 17.2 mm), S. typhimurium (19.8 and 20.8 mm) and coaggregation (8.8 % and 17.35%).
Ghaida El-Makki Ali El-Makki, Abdelhakam H. Ali, Babbiker Mohammed Taher Gorish, Lemya Abdelgadier Kaddam
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i430258

Abstract:
Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen with intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to detect MDR Acinetobacter baumannii and its resistant genes (blaNDM, blaOXA48) from clinical isolates in Khartoum state. Methodology: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted during the period fromApril to July 2019. A total of 50 clinical isolates were obtained from samples of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) for the purpose of molecular confirming of A. baumannii and detecting NDM and OXA-48 resistance genes by using conventional PCR. Results: Of the 50 isolates examined, 47 (94%) were confirmed to be A. baumannii, and 3 (6%) were other species. Moreover, the 47 A. baumannii isolates were furtherly examined for the presences of resistant genes and the result showed that NDM gene was detected in 2 isolates (4.3%) and OXA-48 gene was detected in only one isolate (2.1%). Conclusion: There is low prevalence of NDM and OXA-48 Resistant Genes among A. baumannii ICUs isolates. However, continuous regional monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and improvement of infection control measures are required in the intensive care units of Khartoum hospitals to prevent further spread.
Ogunte Ucheawaji Christopher, , Prince N. Barika, Solomon Ikechi Ogbonna
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i430256

Abstract:
Spent engine oil wastes in soils are currently considered one of the most serious environmental problems. This type of pollution decreases or fully destroys soil fertility, changes the elemental composition of soil. After their introduction into soil, hydrocarbons affect soil microorganisms directly or indirectly. In this study the population of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi was investigated in soils from different mechanic workshop in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Soil physicochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium, total hydrocarbon content and heavy metals like Pb and Cd were also determined. Standard procedures were followed in the mycological and physicochemical parameters determination. In the soil samples, counts of the total heterotrophic fungi ranged from 0.87±3.62 to 6.9±3.37 ×104 cfu/g soil while counts of the hydrocarbon utilizing fungi ranged from 0.85 ±1.91 to 2.75±1.26 ×103 cfu/g soil. The control soil sample recorded more total heterotrophic fungal counts with significant difference while the soil from the mechanic workshops recorded more hydrocarbon utilizing fungal counts than the control soil sample and was significantly different. Eight fungal genera were isolated and they include Mucor, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Blastomyces, Scedosporium, Microsporium, Candida and Scopulariopsis. Fungal genera such as Microsporium, Candida and Scopulariopsis were not isolated from soils from the mechanic workshops but only isolated from the control soil sample. The pH values ranged between 5.81 to 7.91, temperature ranged from 27.7 to 30 oC, nitrate value ranged from 0.04 to 0.21 mg/kg, PO4 ranged from 1.10 to 3.42 mg/kg, total hydrocarbon content (THC) value ranged from 0 to 170.01 mg/kg, potassium (K) value ranged from 5.063 to 17.013 mg/kg. The heavy metals analyzed were Pb (Lead) and Cd (Cadmium). The Pb ranged from 0.10 to 5.12463 mg/kg, cadmium ranged from 0.13 to 1.65072 mg/kg. The soil samples from mechanic workshops were contaminated with hydrocarbons, and the fungal isolates were primarily hydrocarbon utilizers that may be exploited for contaminated soil bioremediation.
, Alina Thapa, Sharmila Pokharel, Ranju Dhakal, Sadikshya Subedi, Anil Shrestha, Lakh Kumar Rai, Anup Muni Bajracharya
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i430255

Abstract:
For increasing productivity in poultry, antibiotics are overused. This increased use in antibiotics has raise the prevalence of Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in poultry. Treatment of chicken infected with MDR bacteria is difficult to achieve, thereby increasing treatment cost and productivity cost. MDR bacteria of poultry can also infect humans if they are not handled properly. Thus, the purpose of this study was to find bacteria responsible for infecting chicken and prevalence of MDR bacteria in diseased chicken. Out of total 516 diseased chicken, 212(41.09%) chicken were infected by bacteria. The prevalence of E. coli (63.2%) was high in diseased chicken followed by Salmonella spp. (12.26%), Pseudomonas spp. (5.2%) and, Pasteurella spp. (4.7%). Out of total number of isolates, the prevalence of MDR was 42.5 %. This study also showed that Pasteurella spp. isolates had high MDR with prevalence of 50%. It is thus concluded that there was high prevalence of MDR bacteria among diseased chicken in Chitwan district.
S. P. N. N. Senadeera, K. S. K. Fernando, W. L. L. N. Wickramasekara, M. Y. S. Fernando, , Weranga Rajapaksha, A. R. N. Silva
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i330254

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate antibacterial activity of aqueous, methanol, dichloromethane, and hexane extracts of Artocarpus nobilis Thw. leaves and stem bark against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method. Methodology: Matured fully expanded leaves and stem bark parts of Artocarpus nobilis were collected, air-dried, and grounded. The extraction was obtained using a decoction extraction method. Antibacterial activity was performed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 25923TM) and Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922TM) using agar well diffusion method and gentamicin was used as a positive control. The whole experiment was done in triplicates and the diameter of the inhibition zone (in mm) was measured and recorded. Results: Results showed that aqueous bark extract (EC50 4.286 mg/mL) showed the highest efficacy and potency against E. coli while methanol bark extract (EC50 4.427 mg/mL) showed the highest efficacy and potency against S. aureus. R² and P values for aqueous, methanol, dichloromethane, and hexane extracts indicated that there was a strong, statistically significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between concentration and zone of inhibition for all extracts of A. nobilis against E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusion: This study showed that aqueous and methanol bark extracts of Artocarpus nobilis have marked in vitro dose-dependent antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Further studies are necessary to ascertain the mechanism and the active constituents responsible for the antibacterial activity of the of plant parts of Artocarpus nobilis.
, E. G. Nwokah, C. K. Wachukwu, S. D. Abbey
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i330253

Abstract:
Aim: To determine extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes (ESBLS) and slime production of some Gram-negative Bacilli isolated from human, animal and environmental sources in Port Harcourt, Nigeria Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Trans-Amadi and Rumuodomaya Slaughters and Bob-D Ventures Poultry Farms, all in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between July and December, 2019. Methodology: This study was conducted at Port Harcourt and Obio/Akpor local government areas of Rivers State, Nigeria from 2019-2020. Hospital wastewater was taken from different sections at the two University Teaching Hospitals- University of Port Harcourt and Rivers State University Teaching Hospitals. Abattoir effluent water samples were taken at different sites from Trans-Amadi and Rumuodumaya Abattoirs. Chicken cloaca samples as well as Hand swab samples of Butchers were collected at the two Abattoirs. All samples were processed following standard procedures and identified organisms were assessed for susceptibilities to different antibiotics following Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and Microbroth dilution methods. Isolates from the susceptibility testing with zone diameters found to be resistant to the Cephalosporins were suspected to be ESBL Positive (β-lactamase positive isolates). All isolates were also subjected to detection of slime production by Congo red agar plate method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Percentages and Chi square were used to summarize the data and p values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The results showed that out of the 224 isolates, 38 (17.0%) were ESBL-producing. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from Hospital Wastewaters (26.3%), followed by isolates from Poultry dung samples 12(24.0%) and Abattoir Effluent waters (15.0%). No ESBL-producing bacteria was recovered from the Butchers’ Hand swabs. Again, of the 38 ESBL-producing organisms, E. coli accounted for 24 (63.2%), followed by Klebsiella spp. 8 (21.1%), while Pseudomonas sp. recorded 6 (15.8%). Of the 224 isolates, 98 (43.8) were slime-producing, while 23 (60.5%) of the 38 ESBL-producing isolates produced slime. Conclusion: ESBL and slime producing organisms (mostly E. coli) were more frequently isolated from Hospital Wastewaters compared to other sample areas.
, Ahmed M. Aljohani, Sultan S. Al-Ahmadi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i330252

Abstract:
Background: Thousands of people die each year as a result of bloodstream infections. The fast and exact identification of the causative bacteria that cause these illnesses allows for precise treatment care, which improves the patient's prognosis. In an attempt to shortening the time for microbial identification devices have been developed, including the automated or manual antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Vitek 2 system in the identification and their susceptibility against six classes of antibiotics. Methods: Based on conventional identification of the isolated was carried out by Gram staining and parallel culture on blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar, as well as on one drop blood test of Vitek 2 identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The isolates included Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and selected species of non-fermenters. Results: A total of 36 isolates were recovered from 36 blood cultures, 80% of the isolates were multiple resistant to three antimicrobial agents and more. Resistance to imipenem and meropenem, yet resistance to amikacin was observed in 60% of isolates. The mean time for detection of Gram-negative direct samples less than Statistical analysis, showed significant difference with Klebsiella pneumoniae (P=0.014). The finding of this study highlights the emerging trends of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae as potential drug resistant pathogen in hospital setting in Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that the indirect method is high accuracy with short times, and especially when Gram-negative bacteria and determine bacterial identification from positive blood culture without cost expenditure and additional time.
D. B. Mato, A. A. Orukotan, A. J. Dadah, F. Y. Peter, A. A. Alfa
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 12-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i330251

Abstract:
This study was carried out to isolate and identify Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were isolated and identified from food samples sold from local food vendors within Kaduna town, Nigeria. This was done using conventional standard method. The molecular characteristics were confirmed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. The results of the microscopic characteristics of the isolates revealed that B. cereus is a Gram positive, rod shaped bacterium. The colony of the bacteria appeared rough with dried pink background surrounded by egg yolk precipitate on MYP medium while E. coli appeared Gram negative rod shaped under the microscope. And its colony on plate appeared flat with green metallic sheen on Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar. The biochemical identification showed that B. cereus is positive to haemolysis, catalase, citrate, Vouges Proskauer, motility and spore tests. While E. coli is positive to catalase, indole, methyl red and motility tests and showed a green sheen characteristics on Eosin Methylene blue agar. The PCR showed band at 204bp amplicons of 16S rDNA primer targeting bacterial DNA templates V3 hyper-variable region for B. cereus and E. coli respectively. The amplified DNA was sequenced and BLAST and accession number of KY962911.1 and KY009556.1 were obtained for B. cereus and E. coli respectively
, David. N. Ogbonna, J. O. Williams
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v11i330250

Abstract:
Crude oil exploration has been beneficial to our economy but detrimental to our environment with the artisanal refineries further compounding the challenge. This research was aimed at investigating the microbiology and heavy metal pollution of three crude oil polluted rivers in Rivers State, Nigeria and effects on living organisms inhabiting that environment. This study was carried out in three locations in South-South Nigeria (Eagle Island, Iwofe and Chokocho rivers). A total of 64 water samples (upstream and downstream points) were collected using appropriate containers and sterile polyethene bags for 6 crab samples for a period of three months. Water and crab samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method while microbiological analysis involved isolation and enumeration of microbial populations of the water and crab samples as well as characterization and identification of the isolates using standard methods Results showed Total Heterotrophic bacteria (THB) ranged from 6.0 × 106 cfu/ml to 9.0 × 108cfu/ml for the downstream locations and 1.7 × 106cfu/ml to 3.5 × 107cfu/ml for the upstream locations. Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF) ranged from 2.0 × 104cfu/ml to 1.1 × 105cfu/ml for downstream locations and 0.1 × 104cfu/ml to 4.0 × 104cfu/ml for upstream locations, Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) ranged from 0.8 × 103cfu/ml to 4.0 × 103cfu/ml in downstream locations and 2.0 × 103cfu/ml to 7.4 × 103cfu/ml in upstream locations, Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF) ranged from 1.0 × 103cfu/ml to 6.0 × 103cfu/ml for downstream locations and 5.0 × 102cfu/ml to 8.0 × 103cfu/ml for upstream locations. The bacteria identified biochemically included Serratia sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella sp. for the crab samples and Bacillus sp. was dominant in the water samples (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacilluscarboniphilus). The heavy metals (Fe, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb) were below the DPR permissible limit but are likely to increase since the activities leading to pollution are still ongoing. The crab as a filter feeder, had higher concentration of heavy metals and microbial population and the location with the highest crude oil pollution (14.5mg/l) had the lowest THB (6.0 × 106cfu/ml) as physicochemical parameters like the amount of Dissolved Oxygen had been altered.
J. C. Ndubuisi, Aisha Mohammed, Rizwan A. Ansari, Uche Ifeoma Ude
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 51-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2021/v10i130222

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite infection (MPI) among patients attending Primary Health Care clinic (PHC) at Garaku, Kokona Local Government Area of Nasarawa State North Central Nigeria. A formal consent was issued by the Nasarawa State Hospital management Board to conduct the study. A studypopulation size of150 consenting, apparently healthy, males and females who had attended the Primary Health Care clinic situated at Garaku, Kokona Local, Government of Nasarawa State, for medical treatment, were recruited for the study. The study took place between the month of May 2019 and September 2019. The socio-demographic features of each participant were verbally obtained, and included sex, age, occupational and educational statuses. The gold standard tool (microscopy) was relied upon to determine the prevalence of malaria infection among the subjects. Blood samples collected from patients were Giemsa stained and microscopically examined for malaria parasites. Analysis of the samples revealed malaria prevalence of 53.3 %among the sampled population. Further analysis onmalaria prevalence with respect to factors such as age, educational and occupational status revealed that malaria infection was more prevalent among the civil servants (75%), followed by the elderly (71.4%), and followed by the educated (73.3%) in the population. In conclusion, the study established that women, civil servants, the elderly, and the least educated were more vulnerable to malaria infection within the study location
, Balthazar Nyombi
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 33-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v6i330153

Abstract:
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) development among Gram negative bacteria has become a significant public health threat worldwide. Currently there are fewer antimicrobials available for treatment and prevention of some of bacterial infections. Antimicrobial resistance development in some of bacterial strains undermines empirical treatment regimens, thereby limiting choice of appropriate antibiotic. As this problem continues to grow, epidemiological surveillance is warranted to generate data that is reliable to understand the distribution of AMR among healthcare settings and geographical regions. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from children admitted at selected health care facilities in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. This was descriptive cross sectional facility based study conducted from October 2017 to April 2018. The study aimed at answering the following questions; What are the carriage rates of Escherichia coli among children admitted at selected health facilities in Moshi municipality, What is the resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolated from children against the commonly used antibiotics in Moshi Municipality and What is the prevalence of the Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates from children admitted at health facilities in Moshi municipality? Results: Escherichia coli were isolated from all 282 cultured archived rectal swabs and all isolates were susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producers were 13.1% and 86.9% were nonextended spectrum beta lactamase producers. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 282 isolates on the commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin (83%), trimethoprim (75.9%), cefuroxime (32.6%), ceftriaxone (30.1%), ceftazidime (29.4%), ciprofloxacin (27.7%), amoxicillin/clavunic (24%), gentamicin (21%), chloramphenicol (16.3%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (8.1%). All Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing isolates were resistant to Ampicillin. Conclusion: Amikacin and meropenem is still the antibiotic of choice as a second line for treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli. Majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and Trimethoprim. Both ESBL and non ESBL producing Escherichia coli showed resistance to commonly used antibiotics, hence, further studies are warranted to understand mechanisms used by non ESBL producing Escherichia coli to develop resistance.
Umetiti Chukwuemeka Nnamdi, , Orji Nkeiru Mary Ann, Umedum Chinelo U., Ugwu Kenneth Chukwudi, Ikeanumba Michael Okwudiri
South Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/sajrm/2020/v7i130162

Abstract:
Aims: This research is essentially on the Molluscicidal assessment of Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam seed on Bulinus Snail for the control of Schistosomiasis. Study Design: This is a controlled study where a total of 810 Bulinus snails were collected from three different streams with each stream representing a community from each of the three senatorial zones of Anambra state where schistosomiasis was endemic. Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera (Lam) seed at different concentrations were used on the Bulinus snails to determine their molluscidal properties. Place and Duration of Study: Two hundred and Seventy (270) Bulinus snails were collected from streams representing each of the three senatorial zones of Anambra state viz; Obutu Lake, Omogho town, Orumba North Local Government Area (Anambra South), Agulu Lake, Agulu town, Aniocha Local Government Area (Anambra Central) and Omambra River, Omor town, Ayamelum Local Government Area (Anambra North) This research was carried out between November 2018 to April 2019. Methodology: Aqueous dilutions of the grinded Moringa oleifera (Lam) seed were exposed to the Bulinus snails from the various streams for 24 hours, after which the snails were removed from the experimental test solution and washed thoroughly with dechlorinated tap water and transferred to containers with fresh dechlorinated tap water for another 24 hours of recovery. The snails were incubated at 28 ± 5°C and fed with lettuce leaves. Results: Aqueous Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract was toxic to Bulinus adult snails in a dose dependent manner and the total Lethal Concentration (LC50 and LC90) values determined after 24 hours exposure from the whole streams were 468 ppm and 813 ppm respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam was toxic to Bulinus snail even at low concentrations.
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