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Shaw Sanyal Rupa, Bala Sanjay, Mazumdar Asis, Rupa Shaw Sanyal, Sanjay Bala, Asis Mazumdar
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 556-561; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6432

Abstract:
Plants have been used from ancient times in India for various systems of medicine like ayurveda, unani, homoeopathy, allopathy, siddha, ethnic, etc., to attempt cares for diseases and to relieve physical and mental sufferings. The aim of the study was to ascertain multiple usages of Uraria lagopoides in the outskirts of Mayurjharna and presence of phytochemicals in leaves and roots through standard tests for metabolites by extracting methanolic and aqueous solutions. Flavonoid and phenolic content in the extract were also determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. U. lagopoides, a trailing perennial herb, was found to be the most important plant by the Santhal, Munda and Lodha ethnic community with a ‘use value’ of 1.85. Intensive exploration of U. lagopoides affirms that the plant has multipurpose use against various diseases viz. wound healing, anti-inflamatory, anti-diarrhoea, abortifacient, laxative, aphrodisiac and others. The methanolic extract reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins whereas aqueous extract shows positivity of tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and saponins. The flavonoid contents in U. lagopoides leaves and roots were 145.68 (±5.80) and 178.93 (±0.05) μg of quercetin per mg of dry extract, respectively. The phenolic content in leaves and roots were 43.073 (±1.36) and 40.195 (±2.13) μg of pyrrocatechol equivalent per mg of dry extract. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative screening confirms the presence of multiple metabolites which also commensurate the multiple usage of the roots and leaves of U. lagopoides. Key words: Ailments, indigenous, medicinal plants, metabolites, Uraria lagopoides.
Gonçalves Carneiro Spera De Andrade Telma, Emilia Arlindo Da Silva Yara, Gazoni Espinoza Diego, Mateus De Lima Leonardo, Karla De Oliveira Cezar Alessandra, De Oliva Neto Pedro, Lainer Palacios Julia, Dos Santos Lucinéia, Telma Gonçalves Carneiro Spera De Andrade, Yara Emilia Arlindo Da Silva, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 538-548; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6382

Abstract:
Agave sisalana is a plant belonging to the Agavaceae family. Sisal juice is constituted of steroidic saponins which are precursor molecules of many pharmacologically active steroids. These precursor molecules can act in brain structures that are related to the modulation of emotional disorders. They can act on energy metabolism or directly on the absorptive process of fats. The objective of this research was to identify the biocompounds present in A. sisalana juice, and to evaluate the effect of different extracts on the expression of defensive behaviours of rats in elevated plus maze and open field tests, and body weight, in a condition that corresponds to an induced menopause. Wistar rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy or to a sham surgical procedure under anaesthesia. Following surgery, they were treated gavage with sisal juice - concentrated crude juice (CCJ): 500 or 1000 mg/kg; dried extract (DE): 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg; dry mucilage extract (DME): 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; and intermediate product (IP): 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; or distilled water. The results showed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, condensed tannins, free anthraquinones, alkaloids and saponins in the sisal juice. Both CCJ and DE (100 mg/kg) caused weight loss without alteration of defensive behaviours related to the manifestation of anxiety. As saponins were identified in DE in significant amounts. The observed effects were attributed to this component. Such findings point to A. sisalana as a plant that could potentially be used to treat weight gain during menopause. Key words: Agave sisalana, steroidic saponins, body weight, anxiety, plus-maze, females, ovariectomy.
, Vanessa Costa Franciely, Rocha Antunes Altamir, Kautz Jacqueline, Citadini-Zanette Vanilde, Lohezic-Le Devehat Francoise, , DalBo Silvia
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 518-537; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6412

Abstract:
The approximately 125 species of the genus Calea L. (Asteraceae) are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. Some species have medicinal properties. Based on popular knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been the focus of research. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of medicinal uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of Calea species. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been performed on 37 species to date. Aerial parts, leaves and stems of these plants have been tested for several biological effects including antinociceptive, vasodilator, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Extracts obtained from plants of the genus Calea have also been assayed for potential antiparasitic effects, especially for antiplasmodial, leishmanicidal, acaricidal and trypanocidal activities. Phytochemical investigations have confirmed that Calea species are rich in sesquiterpenes, chromenes, chromanones, flavonoids and other chemical compounds less attractive from the point of view of molecular diversity. This review confirms that certain Calea spp. enjoy widespread popular use in the treatment of infections, and the observed antiparasitic activities can provide new insights for further investigations on isolated compounds. Key words: Medicinal plants, Sesquiterpene lactones, Calea.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 549-555; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6438

Abstract:
Saudi Arabia has a unique floral diversity due to its remarkable diversity in the ecological habitats. Many plant species are widely applied in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. In the present study, ethnobotanical survey of plant species in Tabuk Region (Saudi Arabia) was carried out describing their uses in treating skin diseases. The results showed that a total of 51 plants species belonging to 40 genera and 28 families were reported. The richest families terms of number of species were Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Chenopodiaceae (4 species, 7.84% for each) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Zygophlyllaceae (3 species, 5.88% for each). Most of the plant species collected in this study are in the life form of herbs and shrubs and comprise 74% of the plant species. On the other hand, the most frequent plant parts used to treat skin diseases are whole plant (51%) and leaf (24%). The flora diversity in Tabuk Region is obviously threatened by anthropogenic activities and the public authorities should start thinking seriously about the conservation of these important natural resources. Key words: Flora, medicinal plants, Skin diseases, Tayma, Tabuk region, Saudi Arabia.
Liu Lian, Wei Su Song, Su Song, Li Bo, Ling Yang Xiao, Ying Tang Yu, Yan Sun Hong, Lian Liu, Song Wei Su, Xiao Ling Yang, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 455-471; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6339

Abstract:
For many years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat patients with intestinal adhesion. However, no meta-analysis has been previously conducted to investigate the benefits of TCM therapy in patients with such disorder. This paper aims to summarize the beneficial effects of applying TCM as an adjuvant in patients with intestinal adhesion through conducting a meta-analysis. Until October 2016, seven databases have been retrieved to conduct randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and investigate the effects of applying TCM as an adjuvant treatment in patients with the mentioned disorder. The risk of bias has been assessed according to Cochrane Handbook guidelines. 24 of the 169 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. However, their methodological qualities were low. The application of TCM as an adjuvant was associated with a significantly lower incidence of intestinal adhesion, as well as higher total effective rate. Compared with the controls as adjuvant treatment, TCM therapy promoted incision healing and reduced the recovery time of borborygmus, anal exhaust time and first defecation time as well as gastrointestinal decompression duration. However, the pooled data for the studies showed there was no difference in blood plasma fibrinogen (FIB). This meta-analysis suggests that TCM therapy appears to cause additional beneficial effects in patients with intestinal adhesion. However, available studies are not adequate to draw a conclusion on the efficacy of TCM due to the methodological flaws of the included trials. Hopefully this work will provide useful experience for further studies; better designed trials are needed to confirm the findings in this study. Key words: Traditional Chinese medicine, intestinal adhesion, meta-analysis
R. B. De Oliveira Gustavo, A. Simao Anderson, L. S. Pereira Luciana, D. Rocha Fabiola, R. B. Raposo Nadia, R. De Oliveira Vinícius, V. Pereira Thamiris, P. Do Carmo Helena, C. Oliveira Tamires, V. De Sousa Orlando, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 472-479; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6271

Abstract:
Pancreatic lipase is considered an important target for the control of hyperlipidemia. Several plants, especially those rich in phenolic metabolites, have been shown to have anti-hyperlipidemic activity and are considered a good alternative for obesity prevention. Extracts of the stem bark of Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec (Humiriaceae) were evaluated for the inhibitory activity on the pancreatic lipase enzyme, as well as their antioxidant potential were verified in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In addition, the total phenolics (TPC) and flavonoids contents (TFC) were estimated. In general way, the acetonic and ethanolic extracts showed better results than aqueous extract. At the concentration of 1 mg/mL, both acetonic and ethanolic extracts inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase by 49.33 and 36.88%, representing 135.26 and 102.75 of inhibited lipase activity per gram of extract (ILA/g). On the other hand, the aqueous extract inhibited lipase by 47.54% at the concentration of 2 mg/mL, which means 213.84 ILA/g. The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the acetonic extract with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 7.9 µg/mL, followed by the ethanolic extract with EC50 of 9.7 µg/mL and the aqueous extract with EC50 of 12.4 µg/mL. TPC in gallic acid equivalent per gram of sample (GAE/g) were 0.52, 0.51 and 0.35 respectively for the ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts. In turn, TFC in quercetin equivalent per gram of sample (QE/g) were 2.13, 1.89 and 1.35 for the acetonic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Positive and strong correlations (r Pearson > 9.0) between TPC and antioxidant activity were found for all 3 extracts. These results suggest that both pancreatic lipase inhibition and antioxidant activity were distinguished by organic solvents and water extraction. Furthermore, organic extracts (acetone and ethanol) showed to be richer in phenolic metabolites. These metabolites may be related to the biological activities that were found, indicating the stem bark extracts of E. uchi as possible candidates for the development of strategies in the prevention of obesity and hyperlipidemia. Key words: Antioxidant activity, pancreatic lipase activity, Endopleura uchi extracts.
Chandra Deepak, Kohli Gunjan, Prasad Kundan, Bisht G., Deep Punetha Vinay, K. Pandey H., Deepak Chandra, Gunjan Kohli, Kundan Prasad, G. Bisht, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 513-517; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2015.5874

Abstract:
The families Violaceae (alternatively known as Alsodeiace or Leoniaceae or Retrosepalaceae) comprise twenty genera and about 800 species. Viola serpens belongs to family Violaceae and commonly known as “Banafsa”. It is a small glabrous, perennial herb, which is found throughout India in moist woods and hilly districts. The essential oil of aerial parts of V. serpens, were extracted by steam distillation. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of volatile essential oil constituents of the plant was done by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC-Mass Spectrometry. A total of 50 components of the essential oil of V. serpens were identified, accounting for 81.38% of the total oil. The main compounds found were Bis (2- ethylhexyl) maleate (15.62%), 2, 4, 4, 6-Tetramethyl-2-heptene (11.52%), Hexen-3-ol (6.56%), and Cis Verbeno (l 4.77%). The chemical constituents in the essential oil from V. serpens were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds, such as monoterpens, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential constituents could be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agent in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases. Key words: Viola serpens, essential oil, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry.
Antwi Apenteng John, Ntinagyei Mintah David, Worlako Klu Michael, Kwarley Quartey Anna, Bemah Oppong Akosua, Harrison Elizabeth, Awurama Antwi Millicent, , David Ntinagyei Mintah, Michael Worlako Klu, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 507-512; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6413

Abstract:
Garcinia cola also known as “bitter cola” (Guttiferae) is a plant with a wide usage of its parts for various medicinal purposes. The seeds are chewed as aphrodisiac and for the treatment of coughs, dysentery and liver inflammation. Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) commonly called “great morinda” has been shown to have antimalarial and anti-pyretic activities. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-infective and antioxidant properties of G. cola and M. lucida and to justify their folkloric uses. Ethanol extracts of the stem barks of G. cola (GCB) and M. lucida (MLB) were evaluated for their antimicrobial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) using the micro broth dilution method against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated by determining the effects of the extracts on the paralytic and death times of Pheretima posthuma at concentrations of 50, 20 and 10 mg/mL using piperazine citrate (PZN) (15 mg/mL) and albendazole (ABZ) (20 mg/mL) as references. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity using ascorbic acid (ASA) as reference standard. The results reveal that the extracts from both plants demonstrated antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 50 to 80 mg/mL and 10 to 30 mg/mL for GCB and MLB, respectively. Both extracts also demonstrated a concentration dependent anthelmintic activity with decrease in paralytic and death times upon an increase in extract concentrations. GCB and MLB extract showed antioxidant activities with IC50 values, 6.830 and 342.1 µg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening of both extracts revealed the presence of tannins, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids. These findings may justify the folkloric uses of these plants. Key words: Garcinia cola, antioxidant, Morinda lucida, antimicrobial, anthelmintic.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 480-500; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6274

Abstract:
An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was conducted in Abay Chomen District, Western Ethiopia from September 2014 to August 2015. This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; informant consensus factor and fidelity level using MS-Excel 2010. The ethno-medicinal use of 93 plant species belonging to 85 genera and 52 families were documented in the study area. The highest family in terms of species number is Fabaceae. Herbs were dominant (31.3%) flora followed by shrubs (30.1%). Most of the medicinal species (52.7%) were collected from the wild. Most of the plants (60.2%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (34.68%), followed by roots (23.39%). Fresh plant parts were used mostly (53.3%) followed by dried (29.3%) and the remaining (17.4%) either in fresh or dried. Among the preparations, pounding was the dominant (34.1%) form followed by powdering (13.29%). The remedial administration was mostly oral (54.91%) followed by dermal (30.64%). The highest (88.89%) informant consensus factor was associated with Ocimum urticfoluim followed by Allium sativum (86.67%). The fidelity level of Allium sativum was calculated irrespective of malaria treatment. Direct matrix analysis showed that Carissa spinarum was the most important species followed by Syzygium guineense indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation followed by agricultural expansion. Key words: Ethno-medicine, ethnobotany, Abay Chomen District, medicinal plants, traditional healers.
Baynesagne Solomon, Berhane Nega, Sendeku Wagaw, Ai Lianzhong, Solomon Baynesagne, Nega Berhane, Wagaw Sendeku, Lianzhong Ai
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 501-506; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6381

Abstract:
Datura stramonium more commonly known as Jimson weed or thorn apple is a wide growing flowering plant which has been employed by the local community to treat several ailments in Ethiopia. The purpose of the present work was to assess the antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, acetone, chloroform and water extracts of Datura stramonium leaf extracts using broth dilution and agar well diffusion methods against human pathogenic bacteria. Chloroform extracts showed the highest zone of inhibition against most of the tested bacterial strains at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. Water extracts are not able to show any zone of inhibition against all tested bacterial strains as compared to other four solvents used for extraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by standard methods. The MIC and MBC results range from 6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml. The present work shows that D. stramonium has maximum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923; 18.2±2.1 mm) in the chloroform extract, while the minimum antibacterial activity was recorded against Escherichia coli clinical isolate (8.2±1.8 mm) (acetone extract). Chloroform extracts showed the highest zone of inhibition against most of the pathogenic bacterial strains tested as compared to the other solvents used for the extraction. In this study, D. stramonium leaf extracts showed considerable antibacterial activity that sustains the local residential area which uses this plant to treat bacterial and fungal infections, hence leading to the conclusion that, this plant would serve as sources of antimicrobial agents to obtain the best treatment alternatives for the infective disease. Further investigation of this potential antibacterial agent is required, especially using chloroform as an extraction solvent to precisely demonstrate the antimicrobial effects of the plant. Key words: Antibacterial activity, Datura stramonium, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), zone of inhibition.
De S. Araujo Camila, P. De Oliveira Ana, G. De Oliveira-Junior Raimundo, A. De Siqueira-Filho Jose, Braz-Filho Raimundo, F. Tavares Josean, C. De O. Costa Vicente, C. Da C. Araujo Edigenia, V. Costa Emmanoel, R. G. Da S. Almeida Jackson, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 439-444; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6385

Abstract:
Annona vepretorum Mart. is a medicinal plant endemic to Brazil, popularly known as "araticum", “bruteira” and “pinha da Caatinga”. In this study, the chemical composition of different leaf extracts obtained from this species was evaluated. Chemical compounds were isolated by silica gel column chromatography, resulting in a mixture of steroids (β-sitosterol and stigmasterol) and a triterpene (lupeol acetate). Ethanol extract presented a precipitate insoluble in chloroform, which after washing was identified as the flavonoid rutin quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'''→6'')-β-glucopyranoside). These compounds are being reported for the first time in A. vepretorum. Key words: Annona vepretorum, leaf extracts, phytochemical investigation, 1H and 13C NMR.
Behailu Bizuayehu,
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 445-454; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6356

Abstract:
This study aimed to document information on the use, conservation and threats to medicinal plants in Cheha district, Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thirty informants were randomly selected from four kebeles. Of which, 10 key informants were selected purposively by criteria of age, gender and indigenous knowledge. Ethnobotanical data was collected through semi-structured interview, guided field observation and group discussion. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics and expressed with frequency distribution, percentage and flow charts. A total of 58 medicinal plant species (17 wild, 38 home garden and 3 species from both) were recorded and a total of 37, 3 and 18 species were reported as being used to treat human, livestock and both ailments, respectively. The major habit of the medicinal plants were herbs (58.62%) followed by trees (24.13%), shrubs (10.34%), and climbers (6.89%). The most frequently harvested plant parts were leaves (36.20%) followed by seed (13.79%), fruit (12.06%) and others. Most of the remedies are prepared from single plant with various preparation methods and administered via oral, dermal, topical and nasal method. The major threats to medicinal plants in the study area are agricultural expansion, deforestation, firewood and charcoal production and over utilization, respectively. The data analysis result reveals that the community is better experiencing ex-situ conservation indigenously, but to ensure sustainability of medicinal plants; more emphasis should be given to the traditional medicine and indigenous knowledge and skill of herbalists must be encouraged, documented and supported with scientific approaches. Key words: Ethnobotany, indigenous knowledge, medicinal plant, traditional medicine.
Peshin Tania, S. Azad Chandra, K. Kar H., Tania Peshin, Chandra S. Azad, H. K. Kar
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 433-438; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6421

Abstract:
Tobacco use is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Out of several possible components of tobacco, the free radical present in tobacco induces oxidative stress which ultimately leads to the damage of DNA. In the present study, an attempt was made to find the natural potential tobacco free radical scavenger, by using different standard assays. Viola odorata has been known for diverse therapeutic applications since the ancient time, so in the present study, the tobacco free radical scavenging activity of V. odorata was explored. A significant increase in inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of V. odorata ethanolic extract was observed, when mixed with ethanolic extract of tobacco, which signify that most of the anti-oxidant activity of V. odorata has been utilized in the inhibition of tobacco free radicals, leading to increment of IC50 values in different assays. This positive finding was validated by four different types of assays. The various standard assays like DPPH, nitric oxide, Fe2+ chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging were explored to support the study. Key words: Viola odorata, Nicotiana tabacum, antioxidant property, mixture of extract, tobacco related cancer.
Pereira Almeida Sirley, Maruja Sangama Mozombite Diana, Alves De Melo Filho Antonio, G. De Andrade Laranjeira Andreina, M. G. Martins Regildo, A. Takahashi Jacqueline, P. Ferraz Vany, Ribeiro Duarte Otoniel, Pedro Tadei Wanderli, Sirley Pereira Almeida, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 275-283; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6343

Abstract:
The content and chemical composition of the essential oil may vary in certain species according to the climatic period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the chemical composition of the essential oil from Hyptis dilatata flowers, to perform biological activities such as antimicrobial, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme and to evaluate the toxicity of the essential oil using for the test as indicator Artemia salina. H. dilatata flowers were collected in rainy and dry periods and extracted by hydro distillation using extractor of Clevenger condenser double Spell model. Analysis of essential oil resulted in 22 chemical components. The major constituents for dry and rainy periods were α-pinene (26.2 and 10.9%), 3-Carene (12.2 and 3.7%), fenchone (17% and 14.8%) and β-cariophyllene (16.36 and 30.9%), respectively. The essential oil inhibited the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in 93.4% (rainy period) and 92.4% (dry period). Between the dry and rainy periods, the best LC50 in microbial activity in vitro was obtained in the rainy period tested in Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (LC50 49.8 mg ml-1). The cytotoxic activity of A. salina in H. dilatata essential oil proved LC50 results below of 100 μg ml-1. Therefore, the chemical characterization and testing of biological activities of essential oils showed promising results in the search for new active substances and development of bioproducts of vegetable origin. Key words: Hyptis dilatata, α-pinene, fenchone, β-cariofilene, 3-carene.
Pereira De Souza Ferreira Talita, Rodrigues Dos Santos Gil, Mendes Soares Ilsamar, Donizeti Ascencio Sergio, Da Costa Alvim Tarso, De Assis Siqueira Chrystian, Wagner De Souza Aguiar Raimundo, Talita Pereira De Souza Ferreira, , Ilsamar Mendes Soares, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 296-306; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6371

Abstract:
Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) is a species native to the Brazilian northeast, widely used in popular medicine. Its leaves were used for the isolation of endophytic fungi and extraction of metabolites. Among them, three were selected according to fungitoxicity tests against the maize phytopathogenic fungus, Curvularia lunata (Wakker). However, the objective of this study was to identify the role of L. sidoides extracts associated with their endophytic fungi, necessary to reduce excess of fungicides applied on the maize crop. Metabolites were evaluated for antioxidant activity by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), phenols, total flavonoids and one of it endophytic fungus were evaluated for synergism (Verticilium sp. and plant extracts). The endophytic fungi and plant extracts evaluated for phenolic content ranged from 0.29 ± 0.05 to 96.94 ± 11.86 mgEAG/g, the content of flavonoids from 14.31 ± 1.56 to 192.33 ± 4.58 mgER/g, and antioxidant activity could only be observed for the plant extract with EC50 81 ± 0.3%. The secondary metabolites identified by HPLC in the plant extract were catechin, quercetin, gallic acid and naringin. Naringenin, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin were identified in the extract of the fungi viz. Verticillium sp. and Fusarium sp. Synergistic analysis between a 1:1 proportion of plant and fungal extracts has shown more efficient (79.0%) inhibition of C. lunata. Thus, alternative control of phytopathogenic fungi can be accomplished using plant extracts associated with their endophytic fungi, reducing the excess of fungicides applied on the maize crop. Key words: Curvularia lunata, endophytic fungal, HPLC, extract, Verticillium sp., Fusarium sp., Colletrotrichum sp.
Lima De Lemos Kleydejany, Nonata Santos De Lemos Raimunda, Rodrigues Medeiros Fabíola, Azevedo Da Silva Ester, Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita Mário, Ribamar Gusmão Araujo José, Kleydejany Lima De Lemos, , Ester Azevedo Da Silva, , et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 260-263; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6279

Abstract:
The use of natural products with insecticidal action is a control method compatible with integrated pest management, since it reduces the impacts caused to human health and the environment. This study aimed to assess the effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) leaf and seed aqueous extracts, on citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby). Citrus x latifolia Tanaka ex Q. Jiménez leaves infested with blackfly nymphs were immersed for five seconds in different A. indica leaf and seed extract concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 w/v). Distillate water was used as control. The assessments were performed at 3, 6 and 9 days after leaf immersion, by counting dead insect number. The A. indica leaf and seed aqueous extracts were efficient in the mortality of A. woglumi nymphs, representing an alternative method to control this pest. Key words: Insecticidal activity, Azadirachta indica extracts, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby
B. Iloki Assanga Simon, M. Lewis Luján Lidianys, A. Gil-Salido Armida, L. Lara Espinoza Claudia, Fernandez Angulo Daniela, L. Rubio-Pino Jose, Betancourt Riera Rene, Simon B. Iloki Assanga, Lidianys M. Lewis Luján, Armida A. Gil-Salido, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 239-252; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6334

Abstract:
Since oxidative stress is an important mediator that lead or maintain inflammatory processes, the aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of Bucida buceras on inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and anti-inflammatory effect and redox biomarkers in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. B. buceras also known as “black-olive“ belongs to the Combretaceae family and it is used as an ornamental evergreen tree in many city streets. This plant is widely distributed in tropical regions of Caribbean, Central America and northern South America. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic natural product inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to analyzed the influence of aqueous extract on nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in LPS-induced murine macrophages and paw thickness, NO, C-reactive protein (CPR), organoperoxide, oxidation protein and reducing power antioxidant in paw edema in rats. Results revealed that treatment with B. buceras aqueous extract inhibited not only the protein (albumin) denaturation but also, in LPS-induced inflammatory response, including increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β) and NO were inhibited by aqueous extract in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, B. buceras suppressed significantly edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws; decrease the C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation levels (OT) and oxidation protein product and exerted strong reducing antioxidant power. Thus, these results suggest that antioxidative properties of B. buceras attenuate inflammatory changes and support the application in complementary and alternative medicine. Key words: Anti-inflammatory, macrophages, paw edema, nitric oxide, cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, C-reactive protein, anti-denaturation, Bucida buceras.
Fufa Feyissa Tolera, Melaku Shigut Moa, Bekele Hailemariam Tilahun, Regassa Tena, Kassa Kergano Nebiyu
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 307-317; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6200

Abstract:
Questionnaire based cross sectional study design was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 in Dale Sadi district area, Kellem Wollega Zone of Oromia regional state of Ethiopia, to identify potential medicinal plants used for treatment of the livestock ailments. In this study 50 species of medicinal plant species were identified which were categorized under 32 different families. Among the medicinal plants 45(90%) were used for curative purpose, 2(4%) for only prophylactic purpose and 3(6%) for both curative and prophylactic activities. Shrubs 29(58%), herbs 10(20%) and tree 8(16%) were the main habitat of the herbal plants. The main routes of administration were oral and topical, 30(60%) and 9(18%) respectively. Leaves 18(36%) and roots 7(14%) were the main parts of the plant used as medicinal values. The results of this study play a significant role in encouraging further investigations by extracting and identifying bioactive constituents of those herbal medicines for the antimicrobial effect. It is recommended that further detailed examination should be conducted to investigate the medical principles and pharmaceutical activity found in these plants. Key words: Livestock, traditional healers, medicinal plants.
Miranda-Arámbula Mariana, Olvera-Alvarado Maricruz, Lobo-Sánchez Marta, Pérez-Xochipa Ivonne, María Ríos-Cortés Ada, Luz Cabrera-Hilerio Sandra, Mariana Miranda-Arámbula, Maricruz Olvera-Alvarado, Marta Lobo-Sánchez, Ivonne Pérez-Xochipa, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 414-418; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6373

Abstract:
Plants have been an important source of secondary metabolites known for their diverse biological activities; some have been shown to inhibit the development of certain pathogenic microorganisms. Herein, the antimicrobial activity of the carbon tetrachloride, hexane, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni against Staphylococcus aureus (strain 921), Staphylococcus epidermidis (strains 965, 982, and 735), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strains RO3 and RO4) was presented. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The results show that, even at the lowest evaluated concentration (1.06 mg/mL), the hexane extract had an inhibitory effect for all the studied microorganisms. The aqueous extract exhibited high inhibition values (84.4%), on S. epidermidis (strain 965). These results indicate that compounds contained in non-polar extracts of S. rebaudiana could be potential candidates as conventional pharmaceutical drugs against bacteria, resistant to conventional antibiotics. Key words: Stevia rebaudiana, antimicrobial properties, plant extracts.
Narayan Dharm, Kumar Singh Pramod, Dharm Narayan, Pramod Kumar Singh
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 403-413; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6351

Abstract:
Vindhya region is one of the less studied areas and characterized for rich vegetations of India. The plants species observed in the area have immense potential for the management and treatment of various ailments. The present paper reports to the documentation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of Sonebhadra district and their socio- economic relationship with the forest and its resources. The ethnobotanical data were collected using interviews, with local medicine man and field observations. Correct identity of the plants were done with the help of botanical survey of India (B.S.I). Important medicinal plants belonging to different families are documented in the present ethnobotanical study. During survey it was found that many plants were very rare viz Gymnema sylvestre, Withania somnifera, Curiculigo orchioides, Chlorophytum tuberosum, Plumbago zeylanica, Acorus calamus, Celastrus paniculatus etc. The main causes of raring of plants are deforestation, over grazing and increasing population. Due to scarcity of government health facilities in the district the peoples were largely dependent on traditional health care system. Key words: Ethnomedicinal plants, extinction ranking, Sonebhadra forest, Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Sunti Dalcin Mateus, Corrêa Café-Filho Adalberto, De Almeida Sarmento Renato, Rodrigues Do Nascimento Ildon, Pereira De Souza Ferreira Talita, Wagner De Sousa Aguiar Raimundo, Rodrigues Dos Santos Gil, , Adalberto Corrêa Café-Filho, , et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 426-432; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6405

Abstract:
Melon cultivation is frequently heavily reliant on synthetic fungicides, including products used to control gummy stem blight caused by Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum. The essential oils used in controlling plant pathogens may offer an alternative to chemical pesticides. This study evaluated the effectiveness of essential oils to control the gummy stem blight in melon plants. In vitro tests were carried out using essential oils obtained from ripe noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and dehydrated leaves of the following plants: lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides) at different concentrations. A synthetic fungicide was used as control treatment. Results showed that the essential oils from noni and lemongrass had the highest effect on mycelial growth inhibition in S. cucurbitacearum. When applied on melon plants as a preventive measure, the essential oils from noni and lemongrass controlled gummy stem blight at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3%. These results highlight the potential of essential oils to manage melon fungal diseases, which may result in reduction of pesticide application. Key words: Cucumis melo, Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum. Didymella bryoniae, alternative control, plant disease.
C. O. Faeji, M. K. Oladunmoye, I. A. Adebayo, T. T. Adebolu, Faeji C. O., Oladunmoye M. K., Adebayo I. A., Adebolu T. T.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 419-425; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6379

Abstract:
Newcastle disease virus is a paramyxovirus which causes Newcastle disease in birds. Investigation was done on the effect of leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using an in-ovo assay. Nine to eleven day-old viable embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) were used for the assay, these were divided into six groups of six eggs each. Methanol, aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the plant leaves were administered to the various groups at concentrations varying from 50 to 5 mg/ml. Embryonated eggs were incubated and embryo survival was monitored daily. Negative control and diluents control groups received phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dimethly suphoxide (DMSO), respectively. The other group was uninoculated while a virus control group received 100 EID50/0.1 ml NDV alone. Bacteria free allantoic fluid from the embryonated eggs in different treatment groups were harvested and collected for spot hemagglutination (HA) test and HA assay to detect the presence of NDV viral particles and the viral titre, respectively. Leaf extracts were assayed for presence of phytochemicals and antioxidant potentials. It was observed from the results that the extract was toxic to the embryo at a concentration above 50 mg/ml and further results showed that the HA viral titre reduction was directly proportional to increasing extract concentration. The phytochemical assays of leaf extract revealed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, glycosides. The current findings have demonstrated that leaf extract from P. amarus has potentials of medicinal value as well as antiviral activity against NDV in-ovo. Further experimental assays using live animal models are recommended to validate the use of P. amarus plant extract in therapeutic measure in chickens. Key words: Antiviral, Phyllanthus amarus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), embryonated chicken eggs (ECE).
Sylvester Effiong Grace, Emmanuel Essien Grace, Grace Sylvester Effiong, Grace Emmanuel Essien
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 387-392; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6355

Abstract:
The antidiabetic effects of methanol, N-hexane and ethyl acetate leaf fractions of Nauclea latifolia were investigated in diabetic model rats. 150 and 300mg/kg fractions of N. latifolia were administered orally to the experimental animals at two weeks interval, while their blood glucose levels were taken daily. At the end of the experiment, their lipid profiles were assayed using standard methods. The research data indicated significant decreases (P=0.05) of the blood glucose in all the fractions at a dose-dependent manner (ethyl acetate (150 mg/kg = 47.83%; 300 mg/kg = 64.17%), N-hexane (150 mg/kg = 58.45%; 300 mg/kg = 64.18%), methanol (150 mg/kg = 44.5%), except for the 300 mg/kg dose methanol fraction (0.82%) as compared to the increased level in the negative control (33.33%). In the lipid profile assay, there were also a dose dependent significant decrease (P=0.05) of serum Total Cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in all the fraction groups (ethylacetate (150 mg/kg- TC = 69.88 ± 8.52 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 8.23±7.76 mg/dl; 300 mg/kg-TC = 51.08±9.93 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 6.44±7.66 mg/dl), N-hexane (150 mg/kg-TC = 73.16 ± 18.62mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 33.24±16.19 mg/dl; 300 mg/kg-TC = 69.78±8.41 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 9.29±5.62 mg/dl and methanol (150 mg/kg; TC = 116.86 ± 13.34 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 50.68±14.13 mg; 300 mg/kg-TC = 108.66 ± 12.77 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 42.09±9.93mg/dl) as compared to the high concentration of the negative control group (TC = 383.76 ± 79.68 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 299.46 ± 79.23 mg/dl). Ethylacetate and N-hexane fractions showed significant reductions (P=0.05) of TC and LDL-cholesterol as compared to the positive control (TC=116.36±14.69 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol = 32.06±13.23mg/dl) also at a dose-dependent manner; thus, portraying a more efficient hypolipidaemic activity than the standard drug. This antidiabetic research on N. latifolia suggest that ethylacetate fraction produces the best effect, followed by N-hexane and lastly by methanol fraction. Key words: Nauclea latifolia, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, leaf fractions, glibenclamide, antidiabetic, blood glucose, lipid profile.
Keryrouz Elias, Abou Raji El Feghali Patrick, Jaafar Mohammad, Nawas Tarek, Elias Keryrouz, Patrick Abou Raji El Feghali, Mohammad Jaafar,
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 380-386; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6422

Abstract:
Malva neglecta, a wild plant that grows in different parts of Lebanon, was noted by residents to have soothing effects if taken during episodes of respiratory tract infections. This study was designed to test for the ability of this plant to inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm formation of clinical bacterial isolates. The results showed that while the aqueous extract of the leaves of the plant did not show any antibacterial effect on the tested bacterial isolates, the methanol extract clearly demonstrated an ability to inhibit the growth of the isolates tested. The agar dilution method revealed that the lower concentrations of the methanol extract of M. neglecta inhibited some isolates, but the inhibition was noted to increase with an increase in the concentration of the extract until at a ratio of 0.3 (volume of extract to volume of the agar medium), the growth of all the tested organisms was completely inhibited. The methanol extract of the plant was also capable of inhibiting the formation of biofilms by many of the clinical isolates tested. The active component in the M. neglecta if identified, purified and proved safe for human consumption, may prove to be a new effective antibacterial agent. Key words: Antibacterial agents, ethnobotany, biofilms, Malva neglecta, medicinal plants, plant extracts.
Daniel Agudelo Carlos, Arango Sandra, Cortés-Mancera Fabián, Rojano Benjamín, Elena Maldonado Maria, Carlos Daniel Agudelo, Sandra Arango, Fabián Cortés-Mancera, Benjamín Rojano, Maria Elena Maldonado
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 393-402; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6401

Abstract:
Vaccium meridionale Swartz, commonly Andean Berry, has a high content of several phytochemicals, such as anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and other flavonoids. However, in spite of its antioxidant capacity, there is little information about its anticarcinogenic properties. This study evaluated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of Andean Berry Juice (ABJ) on human colon adenocarcinoma SW480 cells. The antiproliferative activity of ABJ was evaluated on SW480 cells using the Sulphorodamine B assay.The effect on cell viability, cytotoxicity and activation of caspase-3 was analyzed using The ApoTox-Glo™ Triplex Assay. Specific apoptotic biomarkers cleaved PARP, total Bcl-2-associated death promote (BAD), phosphorylated BAD, total p53, and phosphorylated p53 were also analyzed. To determine the intracellular redox-state, the Glutathione Assay Kit and 2′-7′-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) were used, respectively. The antiproliferative assay showed a IC50 value of 8% v/v ABJ, the caspase 3 activity was increased in time-dependent manner in SW480 treated cells, the proapoptotic proteins (cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, P53 and total BAD) were increased by 1.6 to 2.0 fold. In addition, the ABJ-treated SW480 cells increased significantly the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), parallel with reduction in the intracellular content of glutathione (GSH) and consequently a decrease of GSH/ oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio. In conclusion, the ABJ was able to inhibit SW480 cells proliferation involving apoptotic mechanisms through the perturbation of intracellular oxidative state. Key words: Vaccinum, colon cancer, anthocyanins, apoptosis, oxidative stress.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 338-344; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6353

Abstract:
Members of the genus Arisaema (Araceae) are perennial understory herbs that were traditionally used in medieval Japan in the treatment of flesh wounds resulting from warfare to prevent tetanus. This study aimed to elucidate the distribution of Arisaema in the ruins of fortresses dating from the medieval period in Japan. Two hypotheses were tested: that Arisaema are commonly found in the ruins of fortresses in central Japan and that Arisaema grows more intensively at military sites than in surrounding areas. A. serratum var. serratum, A. thunbergii subsp. urashima, A. yamatense subsp. yamatense, A. kishidae, and A. tosaense were observed at 19 of the 27 fortresses examined. A census conducted along the major traditional routes in northwestern Nara Prefecture revealed that Arisaema was clumped more intensely at military sites, and fewer plants were observed in the surrounding areas. These findings indicate a strong association between Arisaema and military sites. Climatic conditions and modification of soil microclimate resulting from fortress construction could not adequately explain this association. However, this association, combined with the historical importance of Arisaema in the treatment of wounds, implies that Arisaema plants found in the fortresses are historical remnants of plants used to treat warriors and commanders in medieval Japan. Key words: Arisaema, commander, ethnobotany, medieval Japan, military, tetanus.
Stanley C. Okereke, Uche O Arunsi, Chidi I Nosiri, Constance Nwadike, Okereke Stanley C., Arunsi Uche O, Nosiri Chidi I, Nwadike Constance
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 345-350; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6391

Abstract:
Medicinal plants and its products remain the best therapeutic agents for the management of diseases and infections that affect the health of man. Owing to the recorded ethnomedicinal potentials of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, this study was aimed at investigating the gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral analyses of methanolic extract of leaves of T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray using standard analytical methods. Results of the GC-MS spectral analysis of methanolic leaf extract of T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray showed the existence of the following twenty nine (29) bioactive compounds: Ethylene oxide (2.04%), 1-Butanamine, 3-methyl- (0.71%), N-(3-Methylbutyl) acetamide (3.11%), Cyclopentane, 2-n-octyl- (3.33%), Cyclobutanol (0.73%), dl-Phenylephrine (1.53%), Phenylephrine (1.69%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.31%), 1,3-Cyclohexanediol (2.08%), Amphetamine (1.69%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (17.53%), 8-[N-Aziridylethylamino]-2,6-dimethyloctene-2 (0.85%), Benzenemethanol, .alpha.-[(methylamino)methyl]- (0.58%), folic acid (1.32%), acetic acid, hydroxy[(1-oxo-2-propenyl)amino]- (1.11%), cis-Vaccenic acid (19.20%), Octadecanoic acid (7.67%), acetic acid, [(aminocarbonyl)amino]oxo- (0.85%), cis-11-Eicosenoic acid (4.50%), 4-Fluorohistamine (2.20%), 2,3-Dimethoxyamphetamine (0.74%), Benzeneethanamine, 2-fluoro-.beta. ,5-dihydroxy-N-methyl- (2.62%), 2-Propenamide, N-(1-cyclohexylethyl)- (1.73%), Erucic acid (5.82%), Acetamide, 2,2,2-trichloro- (0.85%), 2-Methoxy-N-methylethylamine (2.45%), acetic acid, chloro-, pentyl ester (4.97%), p-Hydroxynorephedrine (1.61%) and Metaraminol (1.28%); with Cis-vaccenic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Octadecanoic acid as the most predominant bioactive compounds residents in the plant whereas that of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) showed the existence of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes and primary amines. Based on these findings, it is opined that the methanolic extract of leaves of T. diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray could be relied upon in traditional medicine for the management of certain infections and diseases that plague man especially those that dwell in rural areas. Key words: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), bioactive compounds, methanol extract, functional group, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray.
Lu Ye, Ju Baoling, Gao Liang, Wang Jin, Ye Lu, Baoling Ju, Liang Gao, Jin Wang
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 373-379; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6408

Abstract:
Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is known as a good sequence of DNA molecular barcoding. In this study, the authors authenticated Campsis Flos and its common adulterants based on ITS2 sequence. Campsis Flos has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many years as a blood activator to promote menstruation. Among its adulterants in the market, the most common are the flowers of Paulownia tomentosa, Hibiscus syriacus and Rhododendron molle. To discriminate Campsis Flos from these adulterants and control its quality, safety and efficacy, the total genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves of Campsis grandiflora, Campsis radicans, and their common adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA was sequenced after PCR amplifying. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0. The ITS2 secondary structure was predicted by an ITS2 web server. The results showed that the ITS2 sequence lengths of C. grandiflora, C. radicans, and P. tomentosa were 246–248, 246, and 229–233 bp, respectively. The ITS2 sequence lengths of H. syriacus, H. syriacus L. f. var. syriacus f. amplissimus, and R. molle were all 230 bp. The ITS2 secondary structure of Campsis Flos was then effectively distinguished from its adulterants. In conclusion, barcode ITS2 sequence could be used to rapidly and accurately identify Campsis Flos from its adulterants to promote quality control and standardization. Key words: DNA molecular barcoding, ITS2 sequence, Campsis Flos, identification.
P. E. Joshua, C. Y. Ukegbu, C. S. Eze, B. O. Umeh, L. U. Oparandu, J. O. Okafor, C. Nkwocha, A. Ogara, Joshua P. E., Ukegbu C. Y., et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 12, pp 367-372; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6387

Abstract:
Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. This research was done to investigate comparatively the possible enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant properties of ethanol extracts of Cola nitida and Garcinia kola in H2O2-challenged rats. Thirty (30) Wistar albino rats were used for this study and were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats per group. Group 1 rats were normal control; group 2 rats were induced with H2O2 only (positive control). Group 3 and 4 were challenged with H2O2 and treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of ethanol extract of C. nitida, respectively. In the same vein, groups 5 and 6 rats represented H2O2-induced rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of ethanol extract of G. kola seed respectively. Group 2 (positive control group) rats showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to rats in group 1 and the treatment groups. Conversely there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in glutathione concentration of the group when compared to rats in group 2. Group 2 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in vitamin C concentration compared to rats in group 1 and the treatment groups. The effects of extracts were accompanied by a significant increase (p<0.05) in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) when compared to the group 2 (positive control group). The two extracts exhibited a significant ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding indicated that the extracts could contain antioxidant and thus have potential for scavenging free radicals, hence arresting oxidative stress. This may justify their local use in management of some hepatic dysfunction and stress related conditions. However, extracts of G. kola was seen to be more potent than that of C. nitida. Key words: Oxidative stress, antioxidant, G. kola, C. nitida.
Idris Nda-Umar Usman, Gbate Mohammed, Nda Umar Abdulkadir, Masaga Alfa Yahaya, Mann Abdullahi, Usman Idris Nda-Umar, Mohammed Gbate, Abdulkadir Nda Umar, Yahaya Masaga Alfa, Abdullahi Mann
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 351-356; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6384

Abstract:
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent diseases throughout tropics and subtropical areas and its effective chemotherapy remains a problem. Hence the need to continue to explore plants for their therapeutic potentials. In Nupeland, Lannea barteri (monkey’s faru), Piliostigma thonningii (camel’s foot tree or monkey’s bread), Clerodendrum aculeatum (haggar bush or garden quinine) and Crateva adansonii (Three leaved-caper) are some of the plants commonly used in the treatment of malaria. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and the acute toxicity of the methanolic extracts of these plants using standard procedures. Results of the qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the methanolic extracts of the plants tested positive to alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and glycosides. While only P. thonningii shows the presence of anthroquinones. The analysis also shows the presence of flavonoids in all the plants extracts except C. adansonii root. Acute toxicity study of the extracts of L. barteri and P. thonningii leaves revealed an oral LD50 > 2500 mg/kg body weight, C. aculeatum leaf has LD50 >1500 mg/kg body weight and C. adansonii root has LD50 >2000 mg/kg body weight in mice. The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the plants’ extracts and the values of the LD50 recorded could explain their use traditionally for the treatment of wide array of illness including malaria. Key words: Malaria, Lannea barteri, Piliostigma thonningii, Clerodendrum aculeatum, Crateva adansonii, phytochemical, acute toxicity.
A. Khaskheli Ashfaque, G. Khaskheli Shahzor, Liu Ying, A. Sheikh Saghir, Wang Yan-Feng, H. Soomro Aijaz, Tian Xiaojiu, A. Homaida Mamoun, Huang Wen, Ashfaque A. Khaskheli, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 331-337; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6366

Abstract:
Water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Poria cocus by enzyme-assisted method using orthogonal methodology. By single factor test and orthogonal group, the extraction conditions of water-soluble polysaccharide were investigated, such as liquid-solid ratio, temperature, time and pH. The optimum conditions for single factor were as follows Enzyme concentration (%), Extraction temperature oC, Extraction time/h, Extraction pH. The result revealed that 2% complex enzyme, remained most important factor of polysaccharide extraction, followed by temperature and pH. The liquid-solid ratio was 1:50, temperature was 40°C, time was 3.0 h, and pH was 5. The highest extraction rate of crude polysaccharide remained 4.14%. Results indicated that the complex-enzyme assisted remained best technique for extracting polysaccharide from P. cocus. It proved to be as highly effective as well as energy and time saving extraction techniques. Key words: Poria cocus enzyme assisted extraction, polysaccharides, alpha amylase, cellulase, Taka-diastase.
Zamorano Pedro, Rojano Benjamín, Morales Marcela, Magariños Haroldo, Godoy Patricio, Muñoz Ociel, Pedro Zamorano, , , Haroldo Magariños, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 318-330; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6376

Abstract:
The endemic Chilean edible plant Gunnera tinctoria (Nalca) is highly appreciated in the south of Chile by the small farmers. Nevertheless, no background exists about his secondary metabolites. In the present study, in the leaf from G. tinctoria was investigated the content of bioactive compounds like coumaric acid, ascorbic acid and total phenols; the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-suslfonic acid (ABTS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods reducing sugars were measured. Finally, the biological activity was evaluated against Cladophialophora and Cryptococcus laurentii. The results suggest that the most abundant constituent in the extract were catechin (1344.97 mg/100 g dry weight) and epicatechin (1429.28 mg/100g dry weight), and was confirmed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatografy (HPLC-PDA); while the ORAC methodology showed a high antioxidant capacity (192000.0±5.91 umol Trolox Eq/100 g dry weight). On the other hand, the extract had a fungicide effect against both microorganism assayed, inhibiting the growth of Cladophialophora´s mold- and the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii. This is the first report of antioxidant capacity, bioactive compounds and biological activity of G. tinctoria, and these findings suggest that an extract prepared from the Nalca leaf may be a promising source of antioxidant and bioactive compounds and as a research object by being an antifungal and therapeutic alternative in development. Key words: Gunnera tinctoria, Nalca, antioxidant capacity, biological activity, nutraceutical.
Lebbie Aiah, Kouame Francois, Kouassi Edouard, , Francois Kouame, Edouard Kouassi
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 264-274; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6329

Abstract:
The ethnomedicinal uses of plants reported by 22 herbalists in the Rivercess County of Liberia show a rich knowledge of medicinal plant usage for both common and less common health problems. We set out with the objectives of documenting the ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and assessing gender differences in the use of the plants by male and female herbalists. Through semi-structured interviews conducted with herbalists, a total of 112 species belonging to 52 families in 93 genera were recorded to be in use. Seven plant families were known to account for 43.9% of the total number of species utilized including Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Costaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Verbenaceae. Traditional herbalists comprising male (64%) and female (36%) possessed extensive knowledge of the use of these plants, with male and female herbalists showing specializations in several categories of health problems based on their knowledge of medicinal plants. Female herbalists possessed a slightly higher knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants than male herbalists. Many ailments were reported with a large number of the plants utilized for malaria, snakebites, ulcer, spiritual/witchcraft, infection and diarrhoea. New and unrecorded ethnomedicinal uses for several plants were documented, including Tetraberlinia tubmaniana J. Léonard, Delpydora gracilis A.Chev., Campylospermum subcordatum (Stapf) Farron, Cyathula prostrata Blume, Heisteria parvifolia Sm., Keetia rufivillosa (Robyns ex Hutch. & Dalz.) Bridson, Pavetta sonjae W.D.Hawth., Chrysophyllum pentagonocarpum Engl. & K.Krause, Placodiscus pseudostipularis Radlk, and the naturalized plant, Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. Further documentation of this knowledge is recommended, with the goal of assessing gender differences in the use of medicinal plants in Liberia. Key words: Ethnomedicine, medicinal plants, herbalists, remedies, Liberia.
De Mendonça Cavalcante Amaro, Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior Karlos, CameloPessoa de Azevedo Ximenes Eulália, Porfirio Silva Zenaldo, Ivo Limeira Dos Reis José, Euzebio Goulart De Santana Antonio, Amaro De Mendonça Cavalcante, Karlos Antonio Lisboa Ribeiro Junior, Eulália CameloPessoa de Azevedo Ximenes, Zenaldo Porfirio Silva, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 253-259; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2017.6333

Abstract:
This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of Annona crassiflora Mart., against the fungus, Candida albicans present in the oral microbiota. The tests showed that the fractions of ethanol extract of the root bark and wood root of A. crassiflora showed a positive result. Of the strains studied, three showed sensitivity to 12 fractions and sub-fractions of A. crassiflora (66%). In the strains studied, strain 05 was the one that proved the most sensitive statistically (p <0.05). Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (NMR 1H and 13C) and based on literature data. Key words: Annona classiflora, Candida albicans, antimicrobial activity.
Matias De Sousa Gilmara, Pimentel Fernandes George, Regina Kerntopf Marta, Barbosa Roseli, Cristina Santiago Lemos Izabel, De Araújo Alves Dailon, Rakelly De Oliveira Dayanne, Gilmara Matias De Sousa, George Pimentel Fernandes, Marta Regina Kerntopf, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 232-238; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2017.6357

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the use and storage of medicinal plants in the Arruda quilombo community in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for the determination of traditional knowledge. The qualitative-quantitative collective subject discourse method was used for the data analysis, focusing the discussion on six categories. The Chi-square test with a 5% level of significance was used to analyze the relationship between the age of the interviewee and the postharvest care of medicinal plants. The majority of the quilombo community (76.19%) cultivates the medicinal plants used. Among this total, 57.14% of the interviewees store the plants in plastic bags and do not establish an expiration date. On health risks, 97.62% of the community members reported medicinal plants are natural and therefore cause no harm. Thus, the population is unaware of the care required for storing medicinal plants or the administration of a safe dose. The statistical analysis revealed that the storage of medicinal plants and ingestion of home-remedy phytotherapeutic medications by pregnant women is not associated with age group. Key words: Safe use, storage, toxicity, medicinal plants.
Biswas Majee Sutapa, Khattry Vansh, Agarwal Vaibhav, Roy Biswas Gopa, , Vansh Khattry, Vaibhav Agarwal, Gopa Roy Biswas
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 838-847; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6288

Abstract:
Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide, including developing and underdeveloped nations. Mortality and morbidity data suggest that incidences are higher than those of the cardiovascular diseases. High cost and occurrence of numerous side and adverse effects associated with conventional anticancer regimes has necessitated shifting the focus towards the practice of traditional alternative and complementary medicine. Emerging evidence on the beneficial link of dietary components with lower cancer occurrence has been instrumental in determining the course of cancer-related studies. Consumption of fruits rich in polyphenols has proven to inhibit the process of carcinogenesis and tumor growth, with positive outcomes in terms of survival and quality of life of the patient and thus should be encouraged to combat cancer. The objective of the present review is to highlight the underlying mechanisms of apoptosis induced by the different polyphenolic constituents in four Indian fruits, namely litchi, Indian gooseberry, Indian blackberry and Ziziphus jujube. However, it must be kept in mind that benefits of consuming fruits rich in polyphenols should not be over-judged through food fortification or supplementation with these active principles. Conclusive evidence of the beneficial effects is yet to come through future studies in humans since most of the data have been obtained from in vitro studies. Key words: Polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, antioxidant, apoptosis, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic.
A. Ogbamikael Simon, M. Tolo Festus, O. Makokha Anselimo, Simon A. Ogbamikael, Festus M. Tolo, Anselimo O. Makokha
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 811-817; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6078

Abstract:
Due to the opportunistic nature of Herpes simplex viral infections, it is of great public concern in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, there is no vaccine or cure for this viral infection. In this study, anti-viral activity of the Kenyan Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Pyrethrum) against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) was evaluated in vivo (using Swiss mice). Phytochemical screening for presence of secondary metabolites of both methanol and aqueous extract of the plant material (flowers) indicated positive, for presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The extracts were given orally after acute oral toxicity results (LD50 ˃2000 mg/kg of body weight) indicated both extracts are safe to be given orally. Upon induction of topical infection with HSV-1 virus, 2 dose levels (10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg of methanol extract and 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract) of both extracts were administered, 2 times per day for 7 successive days. Results showed Acyclovir (ACV) at 5 mg/kg and organic extract at 10 mg/kg delayed onset of lesion in local regions significantly (Ƿ ≤ 0.05 test vs. control by student t test). Also, both the organic extract (at a concentration of 10 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (at a concentration of 50 mg/kg) delayed progression of infection significant (Ƿ ≤ 0.05 test vs. control by repeated measures ANOVA). The results indicate extracts from C. cinerariaefolium are active against Hsv-1. So, further investigation is recommended in the Kenya grown C. cinerariaefolium, on its bio-active compounds, safety, and activity on other members of the family Herpesviridae. Key words: Anti-Hsv, phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium.
G. Pereira Flaviane, Marquete Ronaldo, O. Cruz Letícia, Caldeira-De-Arujo Adriano, Mansur Elisabeth, De Lima Moreira Davyson, , Ronaldo Marquete, Letícia O. Cruz, Adriano Caldeira-De-Arujo, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 818-822; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6235

Abstract:
The Casearia species (Salicaceae) occur in the tropics and subtropics and their extracts are rich in clerodane-type diterpenes, known as casearins. According to the literature, extracts from Casearia sylvestris exhibit cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in different tumor cell lines, possibly related to the casearins. On the other hand, there are few studies related to the DNA damages of the essential oils from this species. This study is aimed at evaluating DNA damages promoted by the essential oil from leaves of C. sylvestris collected in Rio de Janeiro. The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves (1.5 kg) by hydrodistillation for 2 h in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed both by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). These analyses revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%), and the major component was identified as α-humulene (17.8%). Genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet assay, showing DNA damages, mainly of classes 3 and 4 at 4.0 µg/ml (p < 0.05) according to the damage index (DI). This is the first demonstration of DNA damages in response to the essential oil of C. sylvestris. Key words: A549, α-humulene, comet assay, sesquiterpenes.
Subba Bimala, Sharma Anjana, Budhathoki Anupa, Bimala Subba, Anjana Sharma, Anupa Budhathoki
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 829-837; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6269

Abstract:
Three indigenous medicinal plants, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis Mabb. and Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw., have been investigated for their phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. All the three plants tested were positive for polyphenols, terpenoids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugar. The ethanol extract of these medicinal plants were subjected to evaluate their antibacterial properties against four gram negative (that is, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis) and two gram positive bacteria (that is, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) by agar well-diffusion method. The ethanol extracts of the three plants prevented the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The zones of inhibitions obtained ranges from 7±0.17 to 18.3±0.26 mm. Among these three plants extracts, H. rosa-sinensis was the most efficient against bacterial activity. Antioxidant activity of the extract was tested using scavenging activity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method. Based on the result obtained, L. japonicum was found to have the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 80±1.3 µg/ml) followed by P. thyrsiformis (IC50 = 127±1 µg/ml) and H. rosa-sinensis (IC50 = 225±1 µg/ml). The results were compared with antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 54±0.5 µg/ml). This study thus suggests that these three plants have great pharmacological importance since they have potent biological activities. Key words: Natural products, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis polyphenols, biological activity, agar well diffusion method.
S.T. Kariuki, J. M. Kariuki, B. M Mailu, D.R. Muchiri, Kariuki S.T., Kariuki J. M., Mailu B. M, Muchiri D.R.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 823-828; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6237

Abstract:
Schistosomiasis is a widespread parasitic infection whose intermediate host is aquatic snails and affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Although control of the snails with synthetic molluscicides is possible, it is not greatly preferred due to concerns of environmental toxicity and the relatively high cost of the chemicals. Conversely, organic plant-derived molluscicides are a better alternative that can be used to reduce the incidence of the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of the plants Phytolacca octandra, P. dodecandra and Balanites aegypiaca. The major parts of the whole plant (berries, leaves, stems and roots) were collected, air dried to constant weight, macerated to a fine powder and extracted separately using methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for activity using brine shrimp lethality test and thereafter tested for molluscicidal activity. There was no significant difference observed in the activity of the plant parts studied and of the three plant species in the brine shrimp lethality test. Similarly, no significant difference in molluscicidal activity of the plant parts studied and in the three plants against bulinus snails was detected. It was concluded that that the three plants can be used in the control of schistosomiasis transmitting snails. Key words: Schistosomiasis, molluscicidal, Bulinus snails, brine shrimp, Phytolacca octandra, Phytolacca dodecandra, Balanites aegypiaca
Marcos Teixeira De Alencar Filho José, Alves Sampaio Pedrita, Chiara Valença Pereira Emanuella, Gonçalves De Oliveira Júnior Raimundo, Souza Silva Fabrício, Roberto Guedes Da Silva Almeida Jackson, Araújo Rolim Larissa, Pereira Nunes Xirley, Cavalcante Da Cruz Araújo Edigênia, , et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 848-864; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6273

Abstract:
There is a growing need for research of photoprotective molecules from natural sources. Flavonoids have shown significant absorption in ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB) region, due to their chemical structure with conjugated double bonds, and may be used as ingredients in cosmetics formulations for skin protection. This systematic review reports what has been researched over the past decade on flavonoid and photoprotective activity, as well as some mechanisms of action by which these metabolites act. The search was conducted in three databases (Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus) using the descriptors “flavonoid”, “photoprotection” and “sunscreen” combined, published between January 2006 and January 2016. Twenty-two articles were selected and 17 flavonoids were cited. The data reviewed here indicate that flavonoids are potential in the fight against UVA and UVB radiation and which may be used as adjuvants in photoprotective formulations. Key words: Ultraviolet (UV), induced damage, natural products, flavonoids photoprotective activity, ultraviolet radiation.
M. M. Fernandez-Andrade Carla, F. Da Rosa Maurício, Boufleuer Édela, Borges Fabiana, Cristina Iwanaga Camila, E. Gonçalves José, A. G. Cortez Diógenes, Viviane Buzanello Martins Cleide, Andrea Linde Giani, R. Simões Márcia, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 10, pp 865-871; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6291

Abstract:
Laurus nobilis L., popularly known as laurel, is a tree belonging to the Lauraceae family, native to Asia. It has long been used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatic disorders, and as a gastric stimulant. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils (EO) and fractions from laurel by column chromatography, and to evaluate their antifungal activity. The EO of L. nobilis leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation, and separated by column chromatography. Thirty-two EO constituents were identified, with 1,8-cineole and linalool comprising 40.14 and 15.69% of the total yield, respectively. The major constituents of the fractions (FR) were: α-terpinyl acetate (FR1: 52.65%), 1,8-cineole (FR2: 76.88%), 1,8-cineole (FR3: 84.24%), linalool (FR4: 67.26%), and linalool (FR5: 90.64%). Antifungal activity of EO and fractions were tested by a broth microdilution method, whereby minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against several fungal organisms (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). EO showed moderate inhibition of C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL), and strongly inhibited of C. gattii (MIC 0.31 mg/mL). FR3 moderately inhibited C. neoformans (0.62 mg/mL), and strongly inhibited C. gattii (MIC 0.31 mg/mL). FR5 moderately inhibited strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans (MIC 0.62 mg/mL). Laurel´s EO and the fractions analyzed in this study were confirmed to have antifungal properties. However, further studies on toxicity of these substances and in vivo experiments are necessary to confirm the results presented herein. Key words: Laurus nobilis, antifungal, linalool, 1,8-cineole.
M. S. Nadro, G. Elkanah, Nadro M. S., Elkanah G.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 58-65; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6300

Abstract:
Treatments of diabetes with available agents come with one or more side effects, hence, the need for continual search of alternative treatment agents from medicinal plants. This study was designed to analyse qualitatively and quantitatively some phytochemicals in methanolic extract in Phyllanthus fraternus and evaluate their hypoglycaemic activity in both diabetic and normal rats. Sixty-six rats were used of which forty-two were diabetic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ). Thirty male rats of which twenty-four were diabetic were divided into five (5) groups of six rats each were used for prolonged treatment: Normal, diabetic control, standard control, and two treatments that were orally administered at a dose of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of crude methanolic leaf extracts of P. fraternus for 28 days. Thirty six (36) rats were used for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) which was divided into six groups of three rats each for both normal and diabetic rat. A single dose of 200 mg/kg body weight of crude and fractions (I, II and III) of methanolic leaf extracts of P. fraternus were orally administered to diabetic and normal rats before they were loaded with 2 g/kg body weight glucose. The results of phytochemical screening of the crude extract showed the presence of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols and saponins. Fraction I contained only flavonoid, fraction II and III contained more than three phytochemicals. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extracts to diabetic rats significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum glucose levels in all the treatment groups. The results of OGGT showed that fraction I and metformin groups significantly (p<0.05) lowered blood glucose level 30 min after glucose load in both diabetic and normal rats when compared with their controls and other treatments groups. These results suggest P. fraternus methanolic leaf extract have phytochemicals with glucose lowering ability especially fraction I that competes favorably with metformin. Key words: Streptozotocin, diabetes, Phyllanthus fraternus, phytochemicals, oral glucose tolerance test, (OGTT).
Carlos Nogueira Sobrinho Antonio, Maia De Morais Selene, Bezerra De Souza Elnatan, Oliveira Dos Santos Fontenelle Raquel
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 43-57; https://doi.org/10.5897/jmpr2016.6313

Abstract:
In recent years, the number of infectious diseases linked to the occurrence of bacterial and fungal resistance has increased, leading to extensive search for new drugs to treat these infections. Species of the Asteraceae family and the genus Eupatorium, have high biological potential and are used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. This review article presents the main phytochemical and biological characteristics of the Asteraceae family and the genus Eupatorium s.l., whose antimicrobial activity is promising, especially antibacterial and antifungal activity. The current review was achieved using an organized search of the scientific data published on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical of the species of the genus Eupatorium using various databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Scielo, SciFinder and Google Scholar. The species of Eupatorium are rich in terpenes, phytosterols and sesquiterpene lactones, the latter being chemotaxonomic markers of the group, with broad anticancer, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activity, making them promising for the development of new drugs. Various species of Eupatorium seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for antimicrobial activities. Many species have broad folk use, with scientific confirmation of its antimicrobial properties making these plants potential sources of safer and more effective treatments. Key words: Compositae, Eupatorium s.l., antimicrobial potential, ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany.
R. H. Mdegela, G. G. Bakari, S. Simon, T. E. C. Mosha, Mdegela R. H., Bakari G. G., Simon S., Mosha T. E. C.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 226-231; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2014.5378

Abstract:
Experimental studies that aimed to determine the effects of crude aqueous resin extracts of the Commiphora swynnertonii on plasma cholesterol levels and weight changes were carried out in rats (Rattus rattus). A total of 24 experimental rats divided into four groups with equal sample size (n=6) were used. Group one (G1) served as negative control that received 0.5ml of distilled water (0 mg/kg) orally. Groups 2 (G2), 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) received 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight orally on daily basis for 21 days respectively. Results revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the body weight and on cholestrol levels between the treated and the control groups in a dose dependent manner (R2 = 0.89). Commiphora swynnertonii resin lowered cholesterol level by 54, 76 and 79% and weight changes by 18, 31 and 23% for the exposed rats at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW respectively. The rats were able to tolerate resin at concentrations lower than 100 mg/kg BW. At higher (>100 mg/kg) doses, few rats showed signs of illness including diarrhoea and finally death. Based on these results, C. swynnertonii has a potential to serve as an anti-cholesterol agent with body weight lowering properties. Key words: Oltemwai, Cardiovascular diseases, rats, Tanzania, blood chemistry.
Zapata Karol, P. Arias Juan, B. Cortés Farid, L. Alarcon Camilo, L. Durango Restrepo Diego, A. Rojano Benjamín, , , , Camilo L. Alarcon, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 218-225; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6270

Abstract:
Antioxidants are used to retard oxidative processes and improve the sensory and nutraceutical quality of cooking oils. Isoespintanol, a monophenol isolated from Oxandra cf. xylopioides, has shown a greater free radical scavenger ability than thymol (biosynthetic analog). Isoespintanol antioxidant capacity was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Cytotoxicity, thermal stability and effect on olein stability studies were performed. The results revealed that Olein oxidation time was reduced 17.2 and 4.2% in the presence of Isoespintanol and BHT, respectively. Thermogravimetric curves indicated higher thermal resistance for Isoespintanol than for BHT. Finally, cytotoxicity tests for Isoespintanol against murine macrophages revealed no effect on cell viability, indicating their possible use as a safe food additive. Key words: Oxidative stabilization, isoespintanol, bht, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, safe food additive.
Aparecida Moraes Muiara, Celeida Silva Santos Bruna, Luiz Fabri Rodrigo, Scio Elita, Silvana Alves Maria, Hitomi Yamamoto Célia, Pereira Rodarte Mírian, Del-Vechio-Vieira Glauciemar, Lúcia Dos Santos De Matos Araújo Ana, Da Luz André De Araújo Aílson, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 194-206; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6320

Abstract:
Palicourea rigida Kunth (Rubiaceae), also called “bate-caixa” or “douradão”, has been used as antihypertensive, antiulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic by traditional communities. Pharmacological potential of the ethanol extract from P. rigida (EEPR) and two quercetin derivatives were investigated. Using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay, EEPR was analyzed. Phenolic contents (total phenolic and flavonoids) were quantified by spectrophotometric methods. 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazil (DPPH), iron reducing power and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching tests were applied to estimate the antoxidant capacity of EEPR. Nociception (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate) and inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy) assays were performed. Molecular docking was used to measure the interactions’ profiles of ligands (rutin and quercetin) and cyclooxigenases (COX-1 and COX-2). HPLC analysis identified rutin and quercetin derivatives. Expressive levels of total phenolic and flavonoids and a promising antioxidant effect were measured. EEPR, rutin and quercetin reduced the abdominal contortions. EEPR was effective against both phases of formalin, while rutin and quercetin inhibited the second phase. The latency time on hot plate significantly increased after treatment with EEPR. Inflammatory parameters (paw edema, exudate volume and leukocyte infiltrate) were diminished by EEPR, rutin and quercetin. The molecular docking showed that rutin and quercetin are capable of complexing with COX-1 and COX-2 favorably through physical-chemical interactions. The results suggest that EEPR showed a relevant pharmacological potential, which may be related to action of rutin and quercetin derivatives. Key words: Palicourea rigida, rutin, quercetin, antioxidant, antinociception, inflammation.
P. Mendoza Rachelle, S. Vidar Warren, G. Oyong Glenn, Rachelle P. Mendoza, Warren S. Vidar,
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 207-217; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6205

Abstract:
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tubers and leaves have been used widely as foodstuff and as remedy for urinary ailments, muscle pain, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have investigated on isolating active components for their anti-cancer potential against melanoma, cervical cancer and colon cancer. In this study, the cytotoxicity potential of hexane, methanol and DCM extracts of yacon leaves was assessed against MCF-7 (breast cancer), HT-29 (colon cancer) and HDFn (normal human dermal fibroblast) cell lines by using AlamarBlue® assay. Results showed significant reduction in cellular viability of MCF-7 cell lines caused by hexane, methanol and DCM extracts in a dose dependent manner, with DCM being the most potent. The DCM extract also produced significant cytotoxic activity against HT-29 cells, with IC50 lower than 5-fluorouracil. Effect on HDFn showed that three yacon extracts produced significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to drug controls with the DCM extract showing the least toxicity. Key words: Yacon, alamar, breast, colon, cancer, MCF-7, HT-29..
Véspoli Campos Leandro, De Oliveira Guerra Martha, Maria Peters Vera, De Cássia Da Silveira E Sá Rita, Leandro Véspoli Campos, Martha De Oliveira Guerra, ,
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 107-117; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2016.6305

Abstract:
Hypericum perforatum (HP) is well-known by the population of the world as herb with antidepressant effect. Its various components, such as hypericin and hyperforin, provide many other effects for this plant, for example, antinociceptive and anticonvulsant. The aim of this work was to determine whether HP administration during pregnancy can cause changes in neurodevelopment related to pain control and seizures in rats (F1). For this, Wistar rats received oral doses of HP at 36, 72 and 144 mg/kg throughout pregnancy. Tests to evaluate the antinociceptive and anticonvulsant activity of HP were performed in adult F1 rats, which showed a decrease of both responses, suggesting therefore that HP exposition during pregnancy causes changes in neurodevelopment of brain regions related to pain control and seizures in rats. Key words: Hypericum perforatum, antinociceptive effect, convulsion, neurodevelopment, reprogramming, ontogeny, epigenetic.
Wanzhong Li, Sun Jianbo, Li Wanzhong, Lv Yanna, Shi Weiwei, Wang Gang, Zhao Chunzhen, Lin Wang, Jianbo Sun, Yanna Lv, et al.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 11, pp 129-136; https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2015.5910

Abstract:
Eucalyptus oil (EO), an essential oil isolated from Eucalyptus leaves, was examined for its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced COPD in rats. The COPD model was induced by instilling intratracheally with LPS and K. pneumoniae. The test compound, EO (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg), prednisone acetate (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was instilled intragastrically after three weeks exposure to LPS and K. pneumoniae, lasting for 4 weeks. EO significantly reduced amounts of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood, and decreased bronchiolitis, emphysematous changes and thickness of bronchioles. It also significantly reduced the increased AB-PAS-positive goblet cells in bronchioles. Prednisone acetate attenuated pulmonary inflammation and airway mucus hypersecretion, but no significant difference was found on emphysema. Pretreatment with EO markly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-β in lung homogenate, significantly decreased the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) level and and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings indicate that EO could exert an protective effect against LPS plus K. pneumoniae-induced lung indury via inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines production and improvement of anti-oxidant status. The results provide evidence that EO might have its potential to be a proper candidate drug in the treatment of COPD. Key words: Eucalyptus globulus, lipopolysaccharide, cytokine, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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