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, M.S. Al- Ghamdi
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.19

Abstract:
Photorhabdus is lives in a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Bacteria of the Photorhabdus can survive independently and cause toxicity in a larger variety of insects. In the present study, insecticidal activity of non-portentous heat-stable metabolites of Photorhabdus luminescens was evaluated against Galleria mellonella. For this purpose, the culture extract of P. luminescens was injected into the G. mellonella larvae, which killed almost 90% of larvae within 48 h. The extract showed 100% insecticidal activity after heat treatment of 70 C for 30 min and even 60% and 40% activity lasted at 80 C and 90 C respectively. The extract also showed a high degree of thermal stability and was 100% actives after 60 min at 70 C. In addition, insecticidal activity was preserved up to 100% after all proteinase-K treatments (0 ?g/mL to 50 ?g/mL). The results revealed that the extracts were non-portentous and showed high thermal resistance and stability. Keywords: Photorhabdus, insecticidal activity, toxins, heat stable non-proteinaceous
Naila Gandahi, , Mir Yar Muhammad Khan Talpur, Nasreen Fatima, Tanweer Fatah Abro, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Asadullah Mari, Liaquat Ali Bhutto, Rong Shu Zhang
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 119-126; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.14

Abstract:
The present study was designed to assess genetic divergence between commercial bread wheat genotypes based on yield and its related traits and to carry out phenotypic correlation. Twenty bread hexaploid wheat varieties were assessed for mean performance, correlation analysis and genetic distance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications during growing season, 2018-2019 at Wheat and Barley Research Institute, Tandojam. The mean squares depicted significant differences (P<0.01) for all the investigated traits among the tested genotypes, proving that used genetic resources possess a great potential for further breeding experiments. Regarding mean performance, the genotypes Sassui and TD-1 displayed desirable performance for a variety of traits, unveiling their importance in wheat breeding programs. The results also showed that tillers plant-1, grains spike-1 and seed index developed significantly positive (P<0.05) interrelationship with grain yield plant-1. This demonstrates that genotypes possessing higher extent of these traits may be chosen in selection for developing high yielding bread wheat genotypes. The larger genetic distance was witnessed between Johar-78 and TD-1, followed by SKD-1 and TJ-83, SKD-1 and Mehran-89, SKD-1 and Johar-78, TD-1 and Khirman, TJ-83 and Imdad-05, Mehran-89 and TD-1 and Johar-78 and TJ-83. These paired showed wide genetic distances, which may also be preferred in wheat hybridization program. Keywords: Genetic distance, hexaploid wheat, morphological traits, trait
Amrah Inam, Zia Alam, Obaid Ullah Shah, Misbah, Fanxiong Shi
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 95-111; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.12

Abstract:
Stem cell technology is demonstrating promising advancements in cure of diseases due its differentiation ability. Type 1 diabetes is mainly caused by autoimmune ? cells destruction. In this review, we focus on treatment procedures of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) with numerous stem cells (SCs) i.e hPSCs, MSCs, hESCs, BMSCs, AFSCs, HSCs and islet cells (that are not stem cells but they are approved worldwide and are being successfully used to permanently reverse T1D). A brief overview of this disease along with the advancements in treatment of T1D with stem cells is discussed. Biomaterial encapsulation to avoid immune rejection and improved immunomodulation and immune tolerance via drugs /bioengineering techniques makes the outcomes of SC therapies more efficient and productive, hence, proving to be another future milestone of completely reversing type 1 diabetes especially in those patients who got clinically diagnosed at an early stage and then received prompt treatment of either restoration of already available ? cells functionality or transplantation of purified and functional SCs differentiated insulin producing cells to normalize the glycemic control and homeostasis. Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes, ?-cells, Stem cells, Biomaterial
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 61-64; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.7

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the effects of COVID-19 on macro-plastic pollution and to consider short-term and long-term scenarios for its possible environmental and human health consequences and to discuss possible strategies to address and overcome key challenges. It was emphasized that, whether or not they are involved in a healthy health crisis, future actions should reflect the balance between public health and environmental protection, as there is no doubt that they are interrelated with bioremediation and microbial metabolism in the presence of optimal environmental conditions. Bioremediation uses natural and psychological microorganisms to break down toxic and harmful substances aerobically and anaerobically. It can be handled by a mixed microbial consortium or pure microbial strains on site (in situ) or off site (in the case of case) Phyto therapy or even natural care. Nutrients suitable for impurities, especially petroleum hydrocarbons are researched technologies for us, for this a biotechnological approach designed for bioremediation and observation. COVID 19 Pandemic pushed the world into a new challenge of waste management. In general, physicochemical technologies are used, which allow for proper ecological biomedical processes. Some bacteria are mobile, feel the contamination, and move towards it to neutralize it. This review emphasizes on current pollution, which is result of COVID 19 pandemic, as people follow use and discard strategies for different things which is a threat to our environment. Keywords: Environment, waste management, COVID 19.
, Haseeb Ullah, Farooq Hussain, Muhsin Jamal, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Shah, Ayaz Ahmad, Jawad Khan, Faheem Anwar, Nabila
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.8

Abstract:
The disease tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) is most common infectious disease in developing countries. The disease is fatal if not treated during the early stages of infection, thereby early and precise detection is a decisive step in curing the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of tuberculosis in patients reporting to Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), located in the district Mardan, KPK, Pakistan. The sputum of patients was analysed by Ziehl-Nilsen (ZN) staining technique followed by light microscopy called Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining. The sputum samples were collected from the patients and analysed by special PCR method called GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, for genomic detection and resistance assay for rifampicin antibiotic were used, are the commonly used medicine for the treatment of MTB infection. Total 121 patients reported to MMC, represented 74 % patients from Mardan, 12% from Nowshera and 14% from Swabi. These patients were screened for the aim to evaluate the techniques for the detection of MTB. The light microscopy method confirmed 66 (55%) of the patients positive for MTB, whereas the same samples reported 78 (68%) patients positive for MTB through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay, The Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) found for light microscopy were 99% and 78.1% respectively. The most used drug rifampicin was found ineffective in 9 patients (7%). Additionally, 83% of the patients when interviewed had a folk history of tuberculosis. Keywords: Microscopy, PCR, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rifampicin.
Fiza Mohsin, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Waqas Ashraf, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Rizwan Mahmood, Muhammad Muntazir, Mehdi Khan
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 86-94; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.11

Abstract:
Helminthosporium oryzae, the causal organism of bacterial leaf spot (BLS) has brought a tremendous loss of rice crop in the field. Rice seedlings of four commercial varieties (Nayab basmati, Kiran 434, Super basmati, and Pak 386) were screened against BLS in the field by using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The present experiment was encompassed the evaluation of fermented farmyard manure, leaf manure, Boron, and NPK solution against BLS. The effect of different fungicides (Score, Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram) was also checked on the mycelial growth of Helminthosporium oryzae in-vitro and in-vivo. The results showed that Pak 386 was highly resistant with 17.22% disease severity and Super Basmati was found moderately resistant with 22.31% disease severity; variety Kisan 434 was found moderately susceptible (24.15%) and Nayab Basmati (24.82%) was susceptible. Among all NPK solutions showed the best results in growth enhancement, plant vigor as well as reduction in disease severity followed by FFYM, boron and leaf manure. Under in-vitro conditions, all the fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes. The fungicides performed best at 150 ppm in terms of colony growth reduction. The maximum growth inhibition was recorded in Score followed by Flumax, Melodyduo, and Polyram. Score gave a significant reduction in BLS disease severity and maximized the agronomic attributes. Keywords: HBV, HCV, ICT, PCR, Risk factors, Mansehra
, Rabea Ejaz, Asma Ul Husna, Asima Azam, Syeda Laila Rubab, Ghulam Nabi, , Shamim Akhter
Abasyn Journal Life Sciences pp 80-85; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.4.10

Abstract:
The current study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidative effect of L-Carnitine at post thawing following cryopreservation of Nili-Ravi buffalo sperm. For this purpose, semen from three buffalo bulls were collected for 3 weeks using an artificial vagina (N=18; replicates). The qualified ejaculates were diluted employing tris-citric acid extender i.e., control did not receive any L-Carnitine and experimental groups having 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ng/mL of L-carnitine at 37 C with approximately 50 x 106 sperm/mL. The semen was cooled at 4 C and then equilibrated (4 hours), filled in straws (0.5 mL) at4 C, placed on LN2 vapours for 10 min, and kept into an LN2 container. The thawed semen was evaluated for post-thaw quality. The integrity of the sperm plasma membrane and motility (P?0.05) was highest in the extenders having 1.0 ng/mL of L-carnitine as compared to the control(received no L-Carnitine). However, sperm chromatin integrity and viability(live sperm with intact acrosome) remained similar. It was concluded that supplementing 1.0 ng/mL L-Carnitine of extender can improve the post-thaw quality of cryopreserved sperm. Based on the results of the current experiments it is recommended to include L-carnitine extender to improve post-thaw quality of buffalo sperm in terms of its motility and integrity ofits plasma membrane. Keywords: Buffalo, Sperm, Cryopreservation, Extender, L-Carnitine, Artificial insemination.
Muhammad Ashraf, Sajjad-Ur- Rahman, , Rizwan Aslam, Sultan Ali, Abdul Jabbar
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 145-151; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.17

Abstract:
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide issue and becoming more problematic due to extensive misuse of antibiotics. The present study was aimed to analyze role of Lactobacillus in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (tetM, ermB, sul2) to Salmonella and verification of these genes by real time polymerase chain reaction. A total of thirty fecal samples (15 were indigenous and 15 were broilers) were collected and analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that there was high expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Lactobacillus in case of broiler chicken than indigenous ones indicating Lactobacillus as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes but found to be non-significant in transferring these genes to Salmonella. In conclusion, the excessive use of animal growth promoters in poultry assists in acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes by normal micro-biota. Keywords: Broiler, Non-significant, Antibiotic resistance, Real time polymerase chain
Hafiz Umair Hassan, , Hafiz Muhammad Usman Siddiq, Fahad Ahmed, Hafiz Hanan Taj, Muhammad Farhan Rashid, Sami Ullah
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 28-39; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.4

Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial illness triggered by a complicated interplay of various genetic variants with various environmental variables. The quantity of replicated common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly with the recent genome-wide association (GWA) research. Major health issue in the public are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common throughout the world. Diabetes mellitus incidence is growing and is anticipated to affect 300 million individuals by 2025. Diabetes has been suggested to alter patterns of cytokine expression as an immune-dependent illness. Insulin resistance (IR) is a disease that results in less than anticipated biological impact of a specified insulin concentration. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion decreased are both defined pathophysiology of T2DM. One of the most alarming health issues of the 21st century is the spread of diabetes around the globe. Our goal in this study was to identify the role of IL-10 polymorphism in T2DM patients. The average age of 60 median patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (31 males and 29 females) +-SD (45.91667 +-16.08799), fasting blood sugar (FBS) is +-SD (184.25 +-57.76387), hypertension (35 positive/25 negative) and 60 non-diabetic controls (32 males and 28 females) is +- SD (47.31667 +-15.13722). The group (T2DM patients and their control) had not a substantial distinction (P=0.33) and in each group (CC, TT, CT) there was a comparison between IL-10 gene polymorphism. T2DM patients and healthy individuals are not associated with the polymorphism of the gene IL-10 (SNP rs 3021097 (C/T). Keywords: Insulin, Diabetes Mellitis Type 2, Polymorphism, Interleukin-10, Genotype frequencies.
, Hayat Ullah, Khaliq Noor, Maliha Sarfraz, Misbah Ullah Khan, Uzma Bibi, Ghulam Nabi, Maheen Kanwal, Kainat Ramzan, Ahmed M. Metwaly
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 40-50; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.5

Abstract:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of disease and death particularly in cystic fibrosis patients and also considered resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, it is very difficult to remove the Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the hospital environment by using simple techniques. In the contemporary study, biofilm mediated mechanism of various antimicrobial responses were analyzed. For this purpose, different Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected from Pakistan medical institute Islamabad (PIMS) hospital and were investigated for pellicle formation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were studied for different groups of antibiotics including imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, tobramycin, gentamicin, piperacillin, cefoperazone, and cefotaxime. The goal was to check antimicrobial susceptibility of pseudomonas aeruginosa which shows resistant to tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefoperazone. Additionally, in this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were also investigated for pellicle formation. In conclusion, this research work wills highlights the useful mechanism of antibiotics resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in clinical practice. Keywords: Antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotics, Biofilm, Peliclle.
Naushaba Nazli, Rukhsar Masood, Muhmmad Salman, Bilal Nasir, Farah Shireen, Asif Mehmood, Farrukh Hussain, , Sudhair Abbas Bangash
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.2

Abstract:
L-Asparaginase is a well know enzyme for its antineoplastic potential and is widely used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of novel L-asparaginase producing Bacillus strains from soil. Soil samples were collected from three different locations such as fruit garden, dairy farm and agricultural land in Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The isolates were screened to produce L-asparaginase in growth medium supplemented with 1% L-asparagine using a phenol red indicator. Among 30 bacterial isolates, only two strains initially coded as A5 and FG7 showed L-asparaginase activity. Based on biochemical and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, the isolate A5 and FG7 were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus proteolyticus respectively. Different factors like pH and time were optimized for maximum L-asparaginase activity. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens showed maximum asparaginase activity at pH 7 after 24 hours incubation at 30oC, while Bacillus proteolyticus showed optimum activity at pH 7 after 48 hours of incubation at 30oC. The present study first time reported the production of L-asparginase enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus proteolyticus. Keywords: L-asparaginase, Bacillusamyloliquefaciens, Bacillus proteolyticus, 16sRNA.
, Aurang Zeb, Farooq Hussain, Muhsin Jamal, Azmat Ali, Muhammad Shah, Ayaz Ahmad, Jawad Khan, Faheem Anwar, Nabila
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.9

Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus is known to be major public health issue around the globe. The aim was to investigate the treatment and detection of HCV infection in general population of District Mardan. Presently no standard treatment is available for the cure of Hepatitis C viral infection, attributed possibly to the hyper variations in HCV genome, expressing several distinct HCV genotypes. For a period of 5 months (June 2016 - November 2016), 270 suspected individuals visited the main hospital of Mardan Medical complex (MMC), were interviewed. Among them 100 individuals were diagnosed by ELISA and PCR for HCV detection at the diagnostic laboratory of MMC. A total of 170 HCV patients were treated at the MMC, with oral medicine or interferon vaccines and the response were monitored by PCR after treatments. Our result showed that high sensitivity for genome-based PCR detection of HCV in comparison to viral coat protein detection by ELISA. The assessment of treatment strategies for HCV showed high response for presently available medicines i.e., Sovaldi, Sofiget, Sofohil, Ocvir and sofosbuvir in comparison to interferon and pig interferon. The accurate and early diagnosis of the HCV infection is crucial for effective treatment strategies. Thereby PCR detection should be the proffered method for specific and accurate detection of HCV infection. The standard medicine available presently proved better treatment method for HCV infection in comparison to interferon vaccination. Keywords: Vaccine, Medication, Sovaldi, Mardan, Interferon, Sofohil, HCV.
Sana Noreen, Abdul Rehman, Rabia Kanwal, Saba Saleem, Ayesha Sadiqa,
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.3

Abstract:
One of the most frequent antecedents of mortality in world is coronavirus that proceeds multitude metabolic disorders and is consequence of damaged lungs that is ultimately caused by contagious infection and virus called coronavirus. It effects people of every age mostly dominating in child, aged, people who have already poor immune system and lungs related disorders. It has tremendous effects on body affecting physical, emotional, cognitive and intellectual abilities as well. It leads to various clinical moderate to severe complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pneumonia, coughing up blood, persistent chest pain, fever, SOB (shortness of breath), coughing up sputum, chills, sore throat, respiratory sputum production (phlegm), loss of sense and smell, headache, muscle aches, rashes and diarrhea etc. One of the most imprudent factors examined in these patients is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well which refers to respiratory failure, a mechanism in which body is unable to respond normally sequentially results by high level of widespread inflammation in lungs. Penurious immune system which contributes to higher rate of mortality worldwide present strong association with COVID-19. Metabolic disturbances contribute to the development and progression of respiratory distress, as well as they have serious consequences in next stages of life that can have harmful effects on health. In this review we will discuss the pathophysiology as well as the signs and symptoms of COVID-19, the morbidities related to this disease and the treatment required controlling this disorder. Keywords: Covid-19, Diet, Health Benefits.
Sana Fatima, Naila Malkani, , Asghar Ali Khan, Muhammad Usama
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.1

Abstract:
The current study aims to produce stable liposomes from total lipid extracts from bacteria. Liposomes are the small vesicles that are made up of lipids. On their structural basis, they can be considered as simplified cell structure of cell membrane. Structure of liposomes depends on the pH of preparation buffer, method of preparation and the environmental condition in which they are prepared. Liposomes have importance in the field of medicines for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. They mainly work as a vehicle for drug delivery. The objective of the current study was to make stable liposomes from two types of bacterial samples i.e., a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative strain. E. coli and Bacillus sp. were selected as representative of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Lipid extraction was performed by various methods, out of which the modified Bligh and Dyer method gave most effective results. Liposomes were prepared by extrusion and their stability and efficiency was tested by fluorescence spectrophotometer using OxanolVI. Our results showed that liposomes formed by lipids extracted from E. coli were more stable than the liposomes formed by lipids extracted from Bacillus sp. Keywords: liposomes, Lipids, diagnostic, therapeutic, purposes, fluorescence, Bacillus sp.
Bakhtawer, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sumera Afsheen
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 127-135; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.15

Abstract:
The Cardiovascular disease due to thrombus (clot) formation is the major factor of death throughout the world. Earthworms being the eco engineers has thrombolytic enzyme that can be used for thrombolysis. The thrombolytic enzyme was isolated and purified from supernatant of earthworm Apporectodea longa by column chromatography. Six Strain BKT 11, BKT 15, BKT 17, BKT 26, BKT 27 and BKT 28 shows the thrombolytic activity 791.64 U/mg, 1362.39 U/mg, 1205.4 U/mg, 710.63 U/mg, 529.66 U/mg and 625.00 U/mg respectively. Thrombolytic activity was confirmed by blood clot lysis method. Different concentrations 50 ?l,100 ?l, 150 ?l, 200 ?l and 250 ?l of extracted enzyme were applied on 25mg of wet blood clot along with control where distill water used. These fractions of extracted enzymes represent the dissolution of clot (thrombolysis). The molecular weight 32 KDa was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results show that extracted elute have potential of fibrinolytic activity in this specie of earthworm and it can serve as a suitable therapeutic agent. Keywords: Thrombolytic activity, Casein plate assay, Blood clot lysis, spectrophotometry, Gel electrophoresis.
Muhammad Yousif Rahimoon, Abdul Ghani Lanja, Aslam Bukero, , Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Mark Richard McNeill, Ammara Rajput, Zainab Lanjar
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 51-60; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.6

Abstract:
Rice an important staple food crop of the world, which is attacked by the various insect pests, among them the stem borers are the most destructive pests, distributed in all rice growing areas of the world and cause the severe losses. This research investigated the efficacy of the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) to control the white stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata) in rice. In this respect the field studies were conducted in lower Sindh, Pakistan for the year, Kharif - 2017 and 2018. Trichogramma egg parasitoid over 230 species are reported to have been remained in biological control of insect pests of over 200 insect species belonging to 70 different families, mainly the order Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthroptera and Thysnoptera, in order to manage the white stem borer of rice the Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) was used as a bio-control agent. The Studies revealed that T. chilonis proved an effective biocontrol strategy against white stem borer of rice. The result of this study could be useful in an integrated pest management program for the management of white stem borer of rice the Trichogramma chilonis. Keywords: Stem borer, Biocontrol, Parasitoid, Population suppression.
Sidra Rehmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza,
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 112-118; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.13

Abstract:
Vancomycin resistant Enterococci have emerged rapidly in the recent years leading to treatment failure. The aim of this work was to identify vancomycin resistance determinants; vanA and vanB genes in Enterococci. The blood, urine and throat samples were collected from 150 patients from local hospitals of twin cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad. Forty-nine phenotypically confirmed isolates were further confirmed by PCR amplification for vancomycin determinants (genes for vanA and vanB) for vancomycin resistant Enterococci. Dependence and frequency distribution of VRE and VSE bacteraemia with respect to age, gender and source was also studied. Phenotypically resistant strains were positive for vanA while negative for vanB. vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) could be isolated more from urine samples as compared to blood whereas vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) was found more prevalent in the blood samples (p value= 0.000). VRE was more frequently isolated from patients aged 50 or above whereas VSE prevalence was same in both age groups (p value=0.002). Gender was not found to have any significant impact on VRE or VSE bacteraemia. This study reports vanA gene cluster responsible for resistance in Pakistani population and frequently isolation of VRE from blood samples. Keywords: Enterococcus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococci, Pakistan
, Afsheen Rafiq
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 152-160; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.18

Abstract:
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is gram positive, catalase positive cocci which belongs to the family of Staphylococcaceae and is long known as clinical and foodborne pathogen. The emergence of multidrug resistance strain of S. aureus which is methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) challenges the health care system because it can cause wide variety of hospital and community acquired skin and soft tissue infections which are difficult to treat. The virulence of S. aureus is because of different factors which includes toxins, enzymes and superantigens. S. aureus produce variety of exotoxins, enterotoxins and exfoliative toxins which contributes to the virulence of S. aureus. Hemolysin toxins produce by S. aureus strains are associated with different skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and can cause the lysis of RBCs. Hemolysins are regulated by accessory gene regulator (agr) and is required for the enhanced expression of virulence factors secreted by S. aureus. Hemolysins have leucolytic activity and can help in iron scavenging from host. The most important toxin is alpha hemolysin which can induce the apoptosis and cause the lysis of epithelial cells, erythrocytes and keratinocytes. Human immune cells are affected by beta hemolysin and gamma hemolysin is a biocomponent toxin. Delta hemolysin is low molecular weight exotoxin which belongs to the class of phenol soluble modulins. Keywords: MRSA, Exotoxins, Hemolysins, SSTIs
Muhammad Waseem Kalroo, , Muhammad Siddique Depar, , Behari Lal Meghwar, Arsalan Memon, Sarfaraz Ahmed, Abdul Mubeen Lodhi, Arif Ali, Muhammad Bello Ibrahim5
Published: 11 September 2021
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 136-144; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.4.1.16

Abstract:
Six villages were registered for the experimental purpose/plantation where more than 25,000 plants were planted to develop range forest. These plants were developed at Marvi nursery PARC-Arid Zone Research Institute, Umerkot and some were purchased from private nursery situated at Mirpurkhas. Results revealed that maximum plants mortality rate was found at village Ratnore and lowest mortality of plants was observed at Mithrio Charan. Plants damaged due to unknown reason (natural), termite attack and diseases. In various locations most of plants were affected by termites than others biotic and abiotic factors. The most influenced plant was Prosopis cinerera. Maximum plants survived numbers of grafted ber was found at village Ratnore, the biomass production of green and dry grasses was taken after harvesting. A highest green grass weight 21812.58 kg and dry 3439.83 kg were observed from elephant grass stock and lowest green weight 5001.92 kg from Gatten grass and dry weight 477.57 kg per acre were recorded from Rhode grass 1 (Sabri). Gatten grass and Rhode grass 1 (Sabri) were found lower weight. All these seven grasses showed excellent performance except Elephant grass and Gatten grass. These two grasses needed more water as compared to remaining five species. These grasses when fed by goats their milk production was increased and goats like to feed these grasses. The pictures of these grasses showed their appearance and health irrigated by underground brackish water with more than 2200 ppm. Keywords: grown, plants, performance, Tharparkar.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 10-24; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.2

Abstract:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEBPA gene have been found to be associated with cancer especially Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Therefore, the identification of functional and structural polymorphisms in CEBPA is important to study and discover therapeutics targets and potential malfunctioning. For this purpose, several bioinformatics tools were used for the identification of disease-associated nsSNPs, which might be vital for the structure and function of CEBPA, making them extremely important. In silico tools used in this study included SIFT, PROVEAN, PolyPhen2, SNP&GO and PhD-SNP, followed by ConSurf and I-Mutant. Protein 3D modelling was carried out using I-TASSER and MODELLER v9.22, while GeneMANIA and string were used for the prediction of gene-gene interaction in this regard. From our study, we found that the L345P, R333C, R339Q, V328G, R327W, L317Q, N292S, E284A, R156W, Y108N and F82L mutations were the most crucial SNPs. Additionally, the gene-gene interaction showed the genes having correlation with CEBPA’s co-expressions and importance in several pathways. In future, these 11 mutations should be investigated while studying diseases related to CEBPA, especially for AML. Being the first of its kind, future perspectives are proposed in this study, which will help in precision medicine. Animal models are of great significance in finding out CEBPA effects in disease.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.6

Abstract:
Catalase activity in response to binary metal mixture of Zn + Ni was studied in gills, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of Catla catla. A total of 30 fish fingerlings were kept in two glass aquaria (15 in controlled condition and 15 in metal mixture containing aquarium) for the period of two weeks. After the completion of the trial period, fish were dissected for different organ collection. The extracted organs were homogenized in phosphate buffer (50 mM; pH 7.0). The activity of catalase was determined by absorption at 240 nm by using the standard methods. The inferences showed higher catalase activity in liver (223.33 ±1 UmL-1), kidney (163.33 ± 0.7 UmL-1), gills (123.33 ±0.9 UmL-1) and cardiac (120 ±3 UmL-1) tissues of Zn + Ni treated fish in comparison to controlled fish liver (116.66 ±2 UmL-1), kidney (101.66 ±1 UmL-1), gills (96.66 ±0.66 UmL-1) and cardiac tissues (70 ±0.33 UmL-1) in this study. Statistically, significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 was observed for catalase activity between Zn + Ni stressed and control fish groups. While, in different organs of both group of fishes the catalase activity order was observed as hepatic > renal > gills > heart. Findings of this study would be helpful in monitoring aquatic ecosystems using fish antioxidant system which acts as a bio-indicator of metal contamination.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 93-99; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.9

Abstract:
In Pakistan, wheat flour is mostly utilized for making flat breads locally called chapattis. Other uses of wheat flour are in bakery products manufacturing. It is an important constituent of daily diet of people. Shelf life of wheat flour is one of the most important factors for its quality determination. Wheat flour is often tainted with pathogenic fungal species and their toxic secondary metabolites called Mycotoxins. The present study was designed to make a comparative analysis of Microbiological quality (fungal load and total coliform count) and detection of aflatoxins in raw and branded whole wheat flour samples of Lahore Metropolitan city. Total 100 samples were collected for determination of fungal load, coliform and aflatoxins. The Standardized methods were applied to count the colony forming units of fungal species and total coliform bacteria respectively. The results indicated both branded and raw whole wheat flour groups were of good quality for human consumption. However, the microbiological quality of branded whole flour was better than raw whole wheat flour. There was a significant difference (P
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 100-110; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.10

Abstract:
This research was aimed to assess the physicochemical properties of seven edible oils, i.e., almond oil, castor oil, cooking oil, mustard oil, pumpkin oil, black seed oil and egg oil collected from local market, Mansehra. Their chemical and physical properties were also compared to the recommended levels set as a standard by WHO/FAO to find out whether they are suitable and safe to be used by human beings. Among the chemical characteristics, acid values, saponification values and peroxide values were determined while the physical properties that were studied included density, specific gravity, refractive index, moisture content and viscosity. All these assays were performed using standardized assays/protocols. From the results, it can be illustrated that most of the physicochemical parameters are in line with the standard values as evident from the results. However, some value shows deviation, for instance, the acid values of all studied oil samples except almond oil, cooking oil and pumpkin oil exceed the recommended value of 0.6. In addition, the saponification value of almond oil and black seed oil, while peroxide value of pumpkin oil are above the recommended range. So, it can be concluded that most of these oils whose studied parameters are according to permissible limits are safe for human consumption.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 145-155; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.14

Abstract:
Brooder pneumonia is a common respiratory problem during brooding period of poultry. It is most frequently caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Use of azole drugs for treatment and prophylaxis results in resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether the phytochemicals of Eucalyptus globulus are modulating resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Lung samples n = 50 of dead broiler chicks were collected from different farms of Lahore. Out of 50 lung samples 28 % (14) were considered positive for Aspergillus fumigatus after observing their macroscopic, microscopic characteristics and by performing PCR by amplifying ITS1-ITS4 gene (597 base pairs) and RodA gene (313 base pairs). Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test was performed 14 isolates (100 %) were resistant towards both Fluconazole and Ketoconazole whereas 11 (78.57 %) were resistant towards Itraconazole. Eucalyptus globulus leaves were collected, and these were identified. Three solvent extracts were prepared. Maximum yield was of ethanolic extract. Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Highest antifungal activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus Ethanol followed by chloroform and hexane extract showed no activity against any isolate then minimum inhibitory concentration of plant extracts that previously showed antifungal activity against isolates were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Modulation effect was checked by combining antifungal drug one by one with subinhibitory concentration of plant extract evaluated previously by broth microdilution method. 5 isolates were subjected into this experiment which are all sensitive towards Eucalyptus globulus ethanol and chloroform extracts tested previously in agar well diffusion test and MIC values were also evaluated. It was concluded that when Itraconazole was combined with E. globulus Ethanol extract then resistance was modified. Data of modulation was analyzed by One-way ANOVA and it reported P value of
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 25-40; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.3

Abstract:
Synthetic biology (SynBio) is a very vast field of research that produces new biological parts, appliances, and systems. It is the application of engineering principles to design and construct new bio-based biologicals, devices and systems that exhibit functions not present in nature or to redesign the existing systems to perform specific tasks. Synthetic biology varies from other disciplines including system biology, biotechnology and genetic engineering. For instance, while system biology focuses on obtaining a quantitative understanding of the naturally existing biology systems, the synthetic biology focuses on engineering, designing, and synthesis of new novel biological functions utilizing the biological information drawn from systems biology analysis. SB utilizes computer algorithms to alter genetic sequence before synthesizing them in the laboratory. Moreover, SB employed gene shuffling and refactoring tools that may alter thousands of genetic elements of an organism at once. In the present article, we aim to discuss the basic approaches of synthetic biology. Furthermore, the application of synthetic biology on biomedical science, drug discovery development, bioenergy and agriculture will also be discussed. Finally the challenges facing the researchers in the field of synthetic biology such as those technical, ethical and safety will be also highlighted.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 184-192; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.18

Abstract:
This study aimed to estimate genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance for morphological characters in Brassica carinata L. A total of 22 genotypes comprised of six parental lines and their 16 bulk F2 populations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2013-14. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, primary branches plant-1, main raceme length, pods on main raceme, pod length, number of seeds pod-1, 100-seed weight, and seed yield plant-1. Significant genetic differences were observed for all the traits studied. Among parental lines, C-93 performed better for primary branches plant-1 (11 branches), main raceme length (59.57 cm), pods on main raceme-1 (33 pods), and seeds pod-1 (15 seeds), C-95 for pod length (4.04 cm) and seed yield plant-1 (12.26 g). Among F2 populations, C-97 x C-88 performed better for main raceme length (73.20 cm), pods on main raceme (41 pods), C-88 x C-93 for pod length (4.95 cm), seeds pod-1 (18 seeds), and seed yield plant-1 (14.71 g). Moderate (30 < h2 ≤ 60) to high (h2 > 60) broad-sense heritability was observed for all morphological traits with maximum genetic advance, hence indicated that selection could be effective in the early generation for the improvements of these studied traits. Generally, cross combinations C-88 x C-93, C-97 x C-95, C-90 x C-93, and C-97 x C-88 performed better than their parental lines for morphological (primary branches plant-1, seeds pod-1, and seed yield plant-1) traits and could be exploited for varietal development in future brassica breeding programs.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 193-199; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.19

Abstract:
Pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. responsible for destroying qualitative and quantitative losses to most stored grains. Once the damage done by the beetle, the grains lose their nutritional and germination capacity and become unfit for either consumption. Seed treatment still mainly relies on heavy synthetic chemicals which cause residual effect and threaten public health. However, the natural plant products containing insecticidal activity have recently displayed a great scope as they tend to come up with low mammalian toxicity, less effect on environmental and broad public adoption. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with variable doses of Eruca sativa L. seed oil (0.5 ml, 1 ml, and 1.5 ml) against C. chinensis. The data were recorded for corrected mortality, repellent effects, and seed protectant at different intervals (24, 48, 72 hrs and 1 week). We found the higher corrected mortality (32.65%) at 1.5ml after 24 hrs. Later, the mortality percentage decreased at different intervals but remained higher at maximum dose of E. sativa. However, the overall highest mortality of C. chinensis was 50.00% at 1.5 ml and the lowest 41.00% at 0.5 ml. Meanwhile, the index showed repellent effect with R.I value
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.7

Abstract:
Bacterial microbiota is predominantly present in all living organisms. Most of the bacteria present in the gut of the fish are contaminating the food chain. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and characterize the bacteria in the gut of Epinephelus sp. in the red sea of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Bacteria were isolated from the guts of 10 fish samples and were grown on Luria Bertani (LB) and nutrient agar media. Total thirteen bacterial colonies were screen out by morphological identification i.e., color, shape, structure, etc. which were further reduced to 7 colonies e.g., IF001, IF002, F003, IF004, F005, IF006, and IF007. The bacterial isolates were also identified through molecular identification using 16S-rDNA sequencing. The genomic DNA was isolated and was sequenced using the Sanger® sequencing method. BLAST alignment results that IF001 and IF002 were members Bacillus sp. IF003 was a strain of photobacterium damselae, IF004 and IF006 were strains of Rothia endophytica, IF005 was a strain of Acinetobacter bouvetiiand IF007 was belonged to Shewanella oneidensis. The molecular identification confirmed the identification of bacterial isolates in the Epinephelus sp. obtained from the red sea.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 129-137; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.12

Abstract:
Hepatitis A is an infectious disorder of the liver prompted by Hepatovirus A virus (HAV). It is a kind of viral hepatitis. It has naked nucleocapsid virus with a single stranded, positive polarity RNA. It is devoid of virion polymerase and has a single serotype. Transmission is via fecal–oral route. In contrast to Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus, blood borne transmission of HAV is infrequent because viremia is short-term and of low titer. Mostly instances, have few or no signs, specifically in younger ones. The virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract and then spreads to the liver during a short-term viremic period. HAV is not cytopathic for the hepatocyte. Hepatocellular injury is triggered by immune attack by the cytotoxic T cells. The time among the infection and signs, in patients that progress them, is among two and six weeks. When the signs occur, they commonly last 8 weeks and might encompass nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, pain in abdomen and fever. Around 10 to 15 percent of patients undergo a recurrence of signs at some stage in the six months after the preliminary infection. Acute liver failure may also seldom occur, with this being extra regular in elderly. No antiviral medication is available. The most suitable test to diagnose acute infection is IgM antibody. Isolation of the virus from clinical samples is not done. Vaccine consists of killed virus. Administration of immune globulin in the course of the incubation can alleviate the disease.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 156-163; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.15

Abstract:
Enteric fever is the massive bacterial disease in global and caused by Salmonella typhi. It is known that humans are the only natural host and reservoir for S. typhi. That transmits enteric fever through the fecal-oral route through the ingestion of infected water and food. The prevalence rate is high in South Central and South-East Asian countries recorded as (>100/100,000) cases per year. The aim of designing of the present study, there is no specific epidemiology report present at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Total of 500 blood samples were collected from patients showing sign and symptoms of enteric fever. Sample collected from different government and private hospitals, medical laboratories, and health organizations from November 2013 to April 2014. Immuno chromatographic technique (ICT) was used for the detection of enteric fever via typhoid test kit. Out of 500 samples, 368 (73.6 %) patients were found serologically negative while 132 (26.4%) were positive. Among the positive samples, 42 (31.8%) were adult samples that included 25 IgM, 12 IgG and 5 both IgM and IgG. Infected children of age 13-15 years were 30 (22.72%) with IgM 19, IgG 8 and both IgM and IgG 3. Thirty-one (31) samples were positive among children of age group 5-12 years with 15 IgM positive, 10 IgG positive and 3 both IgM and IgG positive. Furthermore, 29 (21.96 %) were positive among children of age group 1-4 years. This high incidence of enteric fever among susceptible outdoor patients and laboratories patient show that enteric fever is a serious health problem in Rawalpindi, Islamabad. Preventive measures such as vaccination, maintaining food hygiene and awareness campaign are required in the twin cities of Rawalpindi-Islamabad for the eradication of enteric fever.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.1

Abstract:
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous, most common type of acute leukaemia that involves mutation in haematopoietic and progenitors stem cells (HPSCs) leading to uncontrolled division, self-renewal and differentiation. Though it was untreatable about a half century ago, AML is now considered to be treatable in up to 40% of adults and those who are at or under 60 years of age. For the post-induction treatment, the mutation testing and cytogenetics are still an important prognostic tool. The AML treatment remains unchanged for almost three decades, although the field is advanced with the discovery of new drugs and deep understanding of the disease biology. Still, many people are relapsing and are dying eventually from the disease. This review discusses the broader aspects of AML, reflecting some of the most important and productive areas of research on the subject and was conducted using thoroughly searching databases, including Health Research and Development Information network Plus (HERDIN Plus), google scholar and PubMed to critically analyses the recent advances, available treatments and future prospectives of AML.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 41-47; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.4

Abstract:
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is observed at -308 position of the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α) gene due to which TNF is categorized into TNF1 and TNF2 allele. TNF2 allele is associated with higher concentration of TNF- α which in turn is associated with HIV infection. In order to know the association between TNF2 and HIV infection n =75 HIV positive samples and n=15 HIV negative samples were observed for TNF polymorphism. It was found that among the infected patients 53 patients had TNF2.The total percentage of the patients and controls having TNF2 allele was found to be 63.34.%. Chi square value was significant showing that there is a strong correlation between HIV susceptibility and TNF SNPs (-308) of the promoter region.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 48-65; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.5

Abstract:
Gloriosa superba is a flowering plant belongs to Colchicaceae. It refers to full of glory', and the superba refers ‘superb’ referring to the outstanding red and yellow flowers. G. superba is a highly toxic plant, due to the presence of an alkaloid, ‘Colchicine’. Adequate ingestion of this alkaloid could cause fatalities to humans and animals. Despite its toxicity, G. superba considered as a medicinal plant because of its medicinal constituents and properties such as colchicine, gloriosine, pungent, bitter, acrid, heating, anthelmintic, laxative, alexiteric, and abortifacient. G. superba utilized for the treatment of snakebite, scorpion stings, parasitic skin disease, urological pains, colic, chronic ulcers, piles, gonorrhoea, gout, infertility, wounds, arthritis, cholera, kidney problems, itching, leprosy, cancer, sexually transmitted disease, and countless other diseases. This plant listed under the threatened category due to its indiscreet reaping from the wild as medicinal industries widely use it for its colchicine content. Field study and secondary sources were used to abridge the information on the recent advancement study of G. superba. In the present review, the information regarding the occurrence, botanical description, propagation, medicinal application pharmacological, ethnomedicinal, biological, and toxicological studies of G. superba and its recent advancement has been summarized. The detailed study of G. superba with current trends helps the researcher to focus on the future development needed for its conservation.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 82-92; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.8

Abstract:
Mango is one of the choicest fruits in the world because of its good flavour, attractive colour and fruity fragrance. It belongs to family Anacardiaceae having wide range of varieties and health benefits. It grows in tropical region and has good nutritional profile. Innumerable researches have been done around the world that demonstrated diversified nutritional and pharmacological benefits of Mangifera indica Linn. It has particular composition of nutrients and phytochemicals. Different parts of mango trees have different wide ranges of benefits. The flower, seeds, leaves, bark, raw as well as ripe fruits provide extensive variety of pharmacological, medicinal and many health benefits. In addition to the higher values of macronutrients as well as micronutrients, mangoes have a wide range of bioactive compounds present in different portions of plant for example, the primary active constituent present in mango is mangiferin. In this review article we reviewed a number of beneficial characteristics of mango including its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, gastric health, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 111-128; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.11

Abstract:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease characterized by hematopoietic and progenitor stem cells disorder, resulting in their proliferation and accumulation in bone marrow which leads to hematopoietic failure. It is an aggressive form of cancer that typically demands quick decision-making. In case of AML, the addition of drug efflux inhibitors to the chemotherapeutic regimen may improve outcomes in patients. With the advancement in treatment strategies, patients can now receive chemotherapy, radiation therapy or additional stem cell transplants. Specific genetic mutations in leukemic cells provide the direction for treatment and determine the overall survival rate of patients. Older patients have adverse treatment consequences as age is an important factor in AML prognosis. We critically reviewed multiple existing therapies for AML. Optimization of traditional therapies remain major concern of scientists. However, little bit advancement has been made in current years. There is immense need of novel and targeted therapies to treat AML and reduce its relapse chances.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 138-144; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.13

Abstract:
This cross sectional study was designed to investigate the frequency and potential risk factors of anti-HCV among blood donors as well as to elucidate the most sensitive screening method for routine practice in Bacha Khan Medical Complex (BKMC) Shahmansoor and District Head Quarter (DHQ) Hospital Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 3390 male volunteer blood donors with age range 18-55 years were screened for HCV-Ab through an immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and 3rd generation-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of ICT and ELISA was also evaluated by comparing their results. Among 3390 donors, 59 (1.74 %) were found positive for HCV-Ab through ICT and 62 (1.82 %) were HCV-Ab positive by ELISA assay. The highest frequency rate (40.3 %) was observed among donors within the age group of 18-30 years followed by (27.4 %) among 31-40 years, (17.7 %) among 41-50 years and the lowest frequency (14.5 %) was found among 51-55 years. Dental treatment (37.0 %) was significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity followed by blood transfusion (20.9 %), major surgery (14.5 %), travel abroad and unknown reason (11.2 %) for each and the lowest anti-HCV association was observed among donors who shaved by the barbers (4.8 %). The results from ICT and ELISA indicated that ELISA is a more sensitive, and reliable technique for routine screening of blood donors to control infectious diseases particularly HCV infection.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 164-174; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.16

Abstract:
Heavy metals normally accumulate in the environment and as a result they create various problems to life, especially to plants. In this study two selenium resistant bacteria, Bacillus pumils strain CrK08 and Bacillus licheniformis strain AsK03 were checked for their effect in enhancing growth of Zea mays in the clay pots experiment, under selenium stress. Both strains significantly promoted root length in control and in autoclaved soil. Number of roots from plant base was reduced in control and autoclave soil respectively. Moreover, the fresh weight and dry weight were reduced in control and autoclave soil plants. In selenium treated plants, fresh weight was high than in the non-treated plants. However, Strains also produced an increase in soluble protein content. Indole acetic acid (IAA) content was enhanced to and, while acid phosphatase activity was significantly lower in inoculated plants than the controls and peroxidase content reduced. Selenium content in control plants was high as compared to treated plants. So, these strains promote plant growth under Se stress (17 mg kg-1) in soil.
Published: 31 December 2020
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 175-183; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.2.17

Abstract:
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide, mostly the elderly population. The gradual decline in cognitive functions, loss of memory, and sleep disorder are the most frequently reported in AD patients. Multiple studies have been carried out to find a potential therapeutic approach to prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and increase the performance of cognitive abilities. Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to oxidative stress and other environmental factors, diet and lifestyle are the major risk factors. Mitochondria play an essential role and are a potential therapeutic target for treating and preventing AD progression. Various biochemical molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways are tested as directly acting on mitochondria. Numerous antioxidants are considered as a potential treatment for AD. Here, we highlighted the emerging mitochondrial base therapies and potent antioxidants that can be used in Alzheimer’s disease treatments.
Abstract:
Hepatitis B and C infections are known to be the major public health issue around the world. Our focus is to investigate the predominance of HBV and HCV infections in the general population of district Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Blood samples were taken from 652 individuals and were shifted to Alkhedmat laboratory Mansehra and Department of Microbiology Hazara University Mansehra. Serum were isolated from blood samples and screen it by ICT device Kit (Accurate Diagnostics, Houston, Texas, USA). The ICT positive samples were then refined by PCR method. Total 652 individuals [males (368), females (284)] were screened for HBV and HCV infections in which total 37 (5.67%) [males (6.52%) and females (4.57%)] were found positive for HBsAg and 42 (6.44%) [males (7.33%) and females (5.28%)] were found positive for Anti HCV respectively. The ratio of these viral infections is more predominant as compare to other viral infections in Mansehra, Pakistan. The rate of HBV and HCV prevalence is increasing day by day in these areas. Communities with more than 5% HBV and HCV disease, mass vaccination and awareness programs should be undertaken as a matter of urgency.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.3

Abstract:
Azadirachta indica is a very common plant used very frequently due to its medicinal significance. The antibacterial activities of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/mL of the plant extract were determined against different pathogenic bacteria. Concentration of 0.01 mg/mL killed the E. coli, E. aerogenes, P. stuartii and 10, 1.0 and 0.1 mg/mL were very effective against the E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis and killed them 100% in culture plates. The plant extracts were analyzed for the characterization of the different antimicrobial compounds through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An array of antibacterial compounds such as azulene, tetrasiloxane, phthalic acid, cyclopentasiloxane, hexadecanoic acid, spiropentane, dioctyl phthalate were detected in the plant extract through GC-MS. The antibacterial activities of the plant extracts were might be because of their compound which had been reported previously as well as antimicrobial compounds.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 24-30; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.4

Abstract:
Calotropis procera is shrub of Asclepiadaceae family and is a source of antimicrobial metabolites against a greater range of bacteria including Streptococcus Group B (SGB). In the present study, different metabolic compounds were extracted from C. procera using 75% methanol. The extract of C. procera was assessed against different bacteria of the SGB family by estimating the zone of inhibition. Moreover, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different concentrations e.g., 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/mL were determined through zone of inhibition. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of plant extract revealed 24 compounds. The most important compounds of the GC-MS array were including undecane, terephthalic acid, Cyclohexane, dimethyl-propane-thiosulfinate, Fluorobenzoic acid Octadecenoic acid and others. The antibacterial activities of the plant extracts were might be because of their compound which had been reported previously as well as an antimicrobial compound. The molecular characterization of different bacteria of SGB used in the study revealed the bacteria were consisted of antibiotic resistant genes against.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 46-55; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.7

Abstract:
A new major epidemic foci of corona virus disease 2019 known as COVID-19, previously known as 2019-nCoV have been identified and rapidly expanding throughout the world without traceable origin since early 2020. The disease has drastically increased and the affected number of countries, states or territories reporting infection to WHO was more than 2001. The 2019 novel corona virus disease outbreak was instigated from Wuhan, Hubei province, China at late December 2019 and affirmed as a public health threat emerging of International anxiety on 30th January 2020 by WHO2. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) declared “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (SARS-CoV2)” as the name of novel corona virus, because their genetically similarities with SARS outbreak in 2003. The present review focuses on morphological, genetical characterization of SARS – CoV – 2 as well as the clinical traits and clinical therapies for COVID – 19 endemic up to date. The novel coronavirus emergence awaken the echoes of SARS-CoV pandemic in past decades. Yet, with having best technological advance, the exact medication is still a question. It might be a great lesson to the world to equip to deal with most recent emergent viruses in future. The current work will give a deep understanding of CoV -2 to researcher for the further studies.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.6

Abstract:
The appearance of a novel coronavirus (nCoV-2019) is a pandemic threat which has been declared an international public health emergency. The number of infected people went out from China to other countries has increased since the discovery of the virus in late December 2019, and the epidemiological picture has changed daily. The nCoV-2019 belongs to Genera Beta coronavirus which also contains SARS and MERS i.e. (Middle East respiratory syndrome). According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), the first case reported in Pakistan was on 26 February 2020 and till 22 May 2020, the total number of confirmed cases in Pakistan are 52,013 with 16,012 recoveries and 1087 deaths. No medicine or vaccine for human coronaviruses has, sadly, yet been approved. However, it can take months to years to create new approaches. Other strategies for managing or preventing emerging nCoV-2019 infections can be envisaged including vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, oligonucleotide- treatment, peptides, interferon treatment and medication with low molecular weight molecules. In the face of the severity of the nCoV-2019 outbreak, we concentrate on the potential for recycling existing licensed or evolving antiviral agents for control of infections that are caused by different viruses especially influenza viruses i.e. SARS and MERS. Therefore, it is urgently important to identify appropriate antiviral agents to combat the outbreak of nCoV-19.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.2

Abstract:
It is reported from various studies that Drivers and Conductors of heavy vehicles are highly exposed to HCV and HBV. The present study is conducted to investigate the frequency and percentage of HCV and HBsAg in drivers and conductor’s community of heavy vehicles in Pakistan. Data of about 200 subjects from District Bannu, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa was collected for this study, in which 63% were drivers and 37% were conductors. They were screened for both HCV antibodies and HBsAg. The screening method used during the study was immunochromatographic technique (ICT), which showed that about 19.8% of the drivers were found to be HBsAg positive, while 5.5% were HCV positive. Also, 5.4% of the conductors were found to be HBsAg positive and 4.05% were HCV positive. This study revealed that chances of HCV and Hepatitis B is high in unmarried drivers and conductor as compared to married one. Also, the present study concluded the maximum prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in persons of age 35-45.
Volume 4 Issue 1 pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.34091/ajls.3.1.5

Abstract:
The Corvus splendens (Indian house crow) normally fed on the garbage therefore, they have many pathogenic bacteria, which can infect the human and cause severe infection in human irrespective to the gender, age and region. The bacteria samples were isolated from the faeces, blood lever, and intestines of the crows in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates. The culture plates were incubated at 37°C until the colonies were appeared. The colonies were identified morphologically and through molecular marker using 16S-rDNA. The Commiphora myrrha plant extract was used to determine the antibacterial activities against the pathogenic bacteria isolated from crows. The plant was crushed with 70% methanol and filtered. The filtrates were dried and dissolved in 100% methanol. Antibacterial activities of plant extracts were determined against the pathogenic bacteria isolated from crows. The results showed that the plant extracts were very effective against the pathogenic bacteria and showed 100% antibacterial activities. The plants extracts were analyzed for the characterization of different antimicrobial compound through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The undecane, tetrasiloxane, hexadecanoic acid, heptasiloxane, benzocyclohepten and many other compounds. The antibacterial activities of the plant extracts were might be because of their compound which had been reported previously as well as an antimicrobial compound.
Muhammad Nazir Uddin, Nasrullah, Muddasir Khan
Abstract:
Onion is an important vegetable and a source of income for formers in District Swat, Pakistan. However, the crop is attacked by several pathogens i.e. fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes. Therefore, a study was carried out for the estimation of fungal diseases of onion crop in district Swat. Within this study, about 50 samples of diseased onion crop were collected from 17 different regions of District Swat. The most prevalent fungal borne onion diseases were black mold (38%), onion rust (32%), Blue Mold Rot (10%) and seedling. Fungal species were consistently isolated from all infected samples. In which Aspergillus was isolated from 82% samples, Puccinia Alli was from 70%, Alternaria porri from 52%, Fusarium spp from 42% Penicillium spp from 40%, Peronospora destructor from 35%, Pyhtaium from 23% and Rhizoctonia solani from 18% of samples. These fungal species consistently isolated and cultured from diseased onion plants of different fields in Swat. Keywords: Onion crop, Fungal diseases, Aspergillus.
Shoaib Ali, , Sardar Azhar Mehmood, Shabir Ahmed, Nek Muhammad Mangi
Abstract:
Grasshoppers are generally phytophagous insects and regarded as major pests of agricultural crops in the world including Pakistan. At the present extensive survey was carried out to collect the grasshoppers from Hazara Division. A total of 421 samples were collected and identified into Family Acrididae, Subfamily Calliptaminae, genus Calliptamus and species Calliptamus barbarus barbarus (Costa, 1836). Moreover, the distribution and incidence data will be used for a Red List assessment. Optimistically, finding of present study will be helpful for the future researchers in near future. Besides this, the ecological account of species has been given to determine the pest status of the species. Keywords: Calliptamus, Phytophagous, Ecology, Distribution, Pakistan
Zia Alam, Mubassir Shah, Mudassir Khan, Kainat Hazrat, Waqar Ali, Farzana Khan, Aziz Ahmad,
Abstract:
Hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) is a genuine worldwide general medical issue. The aim of this study was to find the epidemiology of HBV infection with common risk factors among the people of Nowshera Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A camp was conducted for HBV screening in Nowshera City (September 2018) in which 1180 volunteers participated. Blood (5ml) was taken from volunteers in medical camp and was transported to Aziz Biotech Medical Lab and Research Center Mardan, Pakistan. All the samples were initially screened for HBV surface antigen using ICT device kit (Accurate Diagnostics Canada). Positive samples were then subjected to Real time PCR to check active hepatitis B infection amongst positive ICT samples. Out of 1180 volunteers 58 (4.91%) were found positive including 22 (4.82%) females and 36 (4.97%) males. The ICT positive samples were than refined by real-time PCR for active hepatitis B virus out of that 26 (44.82%) were found active by PCR which comprises 8 (36.36%) females and 18 (50%) males. The HBsAg ratio was greater in the Age-limit 21-30 years (5.67%) and 41-50 years (5.20%). The Sero-prevalence of HBV infection is higher in Nowshera region. The prevalence ratio among males is greater than females and mostly infected females were married which shows that sexual interaction is the probable risk factor for HBV infection. The rural communities are illiterate and unaware of the causative agents, spreading and the consequences of HBV infection. Thus, to overcome the incidence of HBV infection, we must educate the ordinary citizens about Hepatitis B virus. Keywords: HBV Infections, Nowshera, Pakistan, Risk Factors
Sahar Munir, , Syeda Ayesha Ali
Abstract:
Foodborne diseases are increasing at an alarming rate, thereby eliciting constant threat to public health worldwide. Approximately, 200 foodborne cases are caused due to ingestion of contaminated food each year. In developing countries, unhygienic practices are main reasons for foodborne diseases. Precise estimate of population-based data on food borne illnessesare scarce in Pakistan. This review focuses to elucidate etiological cause of foodborne diseases dominant in Pakistan from 1990 to 2018. Various databases were searched, and 88 articles related to foodborne diseases were identified. Around 59 articles were included on quality assessment criteria. We determined dominant pathogens associated with foodborne diseases among all provinces of Pakistan. High numbers of foodborne diseases were reported in Sindh. Whereas, Salmonella was determined asprimary cause of foodborne ailments. Most of the reported data on antibiotic resistance was unavailable. Shagella spp were first reported for antibiotic resistance in 1990, and E. coli was reported for multi-drug resistance in 1998. Nevertheless, S. aureus was reported for Methicillinresistant in 2015-16. This study summarize various sources responsible forfood-borne illness, of which unhygienic conditions, poor sanitation systems, lack of proper infrastructure and continuous influx of refugees plays key role in escalation of morbidity rate in the region. We emphasize need of active surveillance system in reducing foodborne outbreaks in future and enable policy makers to set appropriate goals in food safety area. Keywords AFood control, drug resistance, food safety, Pakistan
Rathod Balaji Ulhas,
Abstract:
Root exudates composition and pattern of biochemical expression is genotype specific and highly influenced by both by abiotic and biotic factors. During this investigation, various attempts made to standardize the techniques to construct LC-MS maps using cotton as a plant system. Construction of root exudates maps by LC-MS analysis found as very unique and having high utility in genotype identification through genotypic maps, detecting the presence/absence of specific chemicals of interest, and for rhizosphere engineering. As expected each sample (root exudates of a particular genotype) produced very distinct peaks-spectra. Each peak in the peak-spectral map (Y-axis) provides very useful information, the peak intensity (peak height), which represents the percent of each chemical/analyte present in the sample. The total number of peaks in each spectrum indicates the number of biochemicals present in that sample. The root exudates samples were probed in both positive and negative LC-MS mode, since some acidic compounds could not be detected in positive mode. The peaks displayed in the negative mode spectra maps indicates most of them are belong to the compounds in acidic groups. This distinction also provides additional chemical diversity and chemical specificity to include in the genotypic maps. By this way, the diversity present in all these parameters for each cotton genotype was included and the information presented was used to establish a very high-resolution maps. These peak spectral maps directly depend on the biochemicals produced by a specific genotype and genetically controlled; therefore, they can be called as genotypic maps or root exudates maps. Keywords: Root Exudates, Silica sand, Liquid Chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS)
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