Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences: 109

(searched for: journal_id:(4297778))
Page of 3
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Harry Gunawan, Prayogi Miura Susanto, Flora Anisah Rakhmawati
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 33-38; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.111

Abstract:
Syphilis is a systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, which has a major and various manifestations on the skin (the great imitator). Its prevalence is frequently associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence. Atypical and aggressive presentation of syphilis is more commonly found in persons with syphilis and co-infection of HIV. We report a case of a 30-year-old male with erythematous plaques and desquamation on his palms and soles with neither pain nor pruritus, and also Beau’s line on the hand and toe nails. HIV infection was detected. The diagnosis of the patient was relapse late latent syphilis with HIV co-infection. The diagnosis of syphilis was established based on clinical and serological testing. The clinical manifestations of syphilis in immunosuppressed patients are often atypical. In order to treat, the patient was prescribed with doxycycline 100 mg two times a day for a month and showed clinical improvement after three weeks course of medication. Serologic testing interpretation and treatment do not differ between syphilis patients with and without HIV co-infection.
Anil B Bhokare
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 11-13; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.106

Abstract:
Buffalo pox is a rare disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are only few published case reports. With the presence of few sporadic cases among milkers even today, the case presentation of buffalo pox infections since 2013-2014 is highly pertinent. A case series of individuals presenting with buffalo pox like lesions at different parts of the body with or without added symptoms of body ache, fever, myalgia, lymphadenopathy is presented. Here interesting is dermatologist {author} contracted the infection from patient. Due to the limitation of accessibility to differential diagnosis labs in rural India and due to the rare incidence of the disease, early recognition of signs and symptoms can prevent the spread of the disease. Sharing of specific experience of medical practitioner and timely interventions are crucial in preventing the spread of harmful zoonosis.
Nitin Chaudhari, Palak Deshmukh, Umesh Thombe, Abhishek Patokar, Sanchita Singhal, Pallavi More, Prajna Satpathy
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 26-32; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.110

Abstract:
Context: The oral lesions may be the earliest manifestation of the dermatological diseases or the most significant clinical appearance of some dermatological diseases and occasionally lesions occur simultaneously in the skin as well as mucous membrane.Aims: To study the clinical patterns and frequency of oral lesions.Settings and Design: A descriptive observational study.Methods and Material: It was a hospital based observational study, that was conducted in thedepartment of dermatology of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 24 months. A total number of 100 individuals with oral lesions were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and complete clinical examination was done. Histological and other investigations were done only if essential to establish the diagnosis.Results: In this study, we studied oral lesions in 100 patients, showing female preponderance 53%cases. Most of the patients belonged to 3rd and 4th decade of life 20% and 26% respectively. Among 37 cases of recurrent oral ulcers seen in the study comprised 37.83% cases each of pemphigus group and herpetic stomatitis. The remaining 24.32% were of recurrent aphthae. The 30 cases of oral ulcers seen in the study comprised 33.3% cases, aphthous 30%, neoplastic 23.3%, local trauma 13.3%. The 9 cases of drug induced oral ulcers seen in this study comprised 22.2% each of drug induced cheilitis, SJS, TEN, perioral dermatitis and 11.1% cases of bullous FDE. The 37 cases of oral lesions seen in the study comprised vesiculobullous disorders in 35.13%, reaction pattern in 24.3%, lichen planus in 24.3%, 5.4% each of TEN, SJS, EM and 2.7% of bullous FDE. The 19 cases of infectious etiology leading to oral ulcers comprised of viral infection in 78.9% and fungal infection in 21.1%. The 12 cases of neoplasms comprised of benign in 41.6% cases, premalignant in 33.3% cases, and malignant in 25% of cases. In this study, genodermatosis cases were six in our study cases, four of which were of ectodermal dysplasia, one case of Papillon Lefevre syndrome, one case of neurofibromatosis-1. In this study, most common 58% involved sites were the periodontium, gingivae and buccal mucosa combined. Involvement of the lips 22.2% was the next significant site. Tongue, teeth, salivary glands, palate were 8%, 5%, 4%, 3% respectively.Conclusions: This study brings into focus prevalence of various oral manifestations. Thorough knowledge about oral manifestations is essential to arrive at a specific diagnosis which is a mandate for counselling and management.
E Vargas-Chandomid, V Álvarez-Rivero, Mg Olguín-García, F Jurado-Santa, Ma Morales-Sánchez
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 16-19; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.108

Abstract:
Dermatofibroma (DF) is a very common benign skin tumor composed of fibroblasts, histiocytes, capillaries and collagen with multiple clinical presentations and histological variants [1]. DF usually affects female patients at any age between 10 and 75 years old [2-4]. Most of the time it presents as a single, firm papular lesion with a slightly keratotic surface, sometimes brown pigmented or skin tone, and frequently present in the inferior extremities. Almost 6% of all dermatofibromas are associated with trauma [2, 5]. Diagnosis is clinical and dermatoscopic patterns have been described as diagnostic tools. The most common presentation seen in 30-60% of all DF is a central scar-like patch with a peripheral reticular network [2, 3, 5, 6]. Nevertheless, atypical patterns simulating melanomas, vascular tumors or basal cell carcinomas have been described in another variants of DF such as hemosiderotic dermatofibroma [2, 3].
Kartik, Tarang Goel, Sakshi Kohli
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.109

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of fractional carbondioxide laser assisted topical antifungal therapy with topical antifungal therapy alone for treatment of onychomycosis in adult north Indian population.Methods: We investigated 50 clinically suspected patient’s nails of both gender and aged above 18 years for onychomycosis by KOH examination and Culture. The patients were then randomly divided in two groups, Group A and Group B with 25 patients in each group. Patients in group A received only topical antifungal drugs at 2 weeks of interval for 6 months. Patients in group B received fractional CO2 laser treatment combined with topical antifungal drugs for 6 months. Nails of patients in each study group were analysed by clinical findings and Scoring Clinical Index for onychomycosis.Results: Patients in group B who were treated with a combination of fractional CO2 and topical antifungal showed a statistically significant improvement in SCIO scoring as compared to group A. Conclusion: Fractional CO2 laser assisted topical antifungal therapy is more effective treatment for onychomycosis as compared to topical antifungal therapy alone in adult north Indian population.
BenAhmed Jihane, Ismaili, Meziane, Senouci
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 14-15; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.107

Abstract:
Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) occurs rarely in children, it is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of aseptic pustules overlying on erythematous plaques with systemic symptoms such as fever and fatigue. We report the case of a GPP treated with isotretinoin with success. Our case emphasizes that isotretinoin can be considered as a good option in the treatment of pediatric psoriasis because of its short half-life but its effectiveness has not been yet established.
Manoj Kumar Agarwala, Rohal Chandrakar, Riddhi Arora
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 2, pp 22-24; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2019.v2.i1a.112

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the effect of various topical agents in chronic plaque type psoriasis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on patients having chronic plaque type psoriasis vulgaris came to the Department of Dermatology, Chandulal Chandrakar Memorial Medical College, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India. Total 300 patients were enrolled and were divided into three groups comprising of 100 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply ammonium lactate twice a day, Group B patients were asked to apply ammonium lactate in morning and clobetasol propionate in evening, Group C patients were asked to apply topical ammonium lactate in morning and calcipotriol in evening.Results: Physician global assessment scale shows that in Group A, 39% patients had excellent response, 15% patients had good response, and 21% patients had fair response whereas 25% patients had poor response. In group B, 35% patients had excellent response, 29% patients had good response, and 17% patients had fair response whereas 19% patients had poor response. In group C, 31% patients had excellent response, 28% patients had good response, and 22% patients had fair response whereas 19% patients had poor response.Conclusion: Combination therapy is effective, well tolerated with minimal side effects and better compliance was seen with patients. Ammonium lactate 12% can also be considered as one of the topical option as a monotherapy and also as a maintenance therapy.
Manoj Kumar Agarwala, Riddhi Arora, Rohal Chandrakar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 2, pp 25-27; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2019.v2.i1a.113

Abstract:
Background: Infectious skin disorders (ISDs) are commonly seen in pediatric emergency departments (PED), however the exact frequency is unknown. Skin infections in pediatric age group have a different clinical course and treatment as compared to adult, so it is studied separately as Pediatric dermatology. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence and types of infectious skin disorders (ISDs) seen among children attending the Department of Dermatology, Chandulal Chandrakar Memorial Medical College, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India.Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age over a period of 1 year. All patients were divided into four different study groups: 1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years.Results: Among the 600 pediatric skin infection patients, bacterial infections (210, 35%) were highest in number followed by fungal (198, 33%) and viral infections (54, 9%). Of the bacterial infections, impetigo was the predominant one contributing to 134(22.33%) cases. Other bacterial infections were furunculosis (64, 10.67%) and pyogenic abscess (12, 2%).Dermatophytosis (102, 17%) attributed the major bulk of cases of fungal infections. Pityriasis versicolor (20, 3.33%) and candidiasis (76, 12.67%) were the other superficial fungal infections recorded in the study. Most prevalent viral infection was Molluscum contagiosum (33, 5.5%) followed by wart (12, 2%) and pityriasis rosea (9, 1.5%). Scabies (96, 16%) and pediculosis (42, 7%) were the two entities in the infestation group. Conclusion: Our data reveal the extremely high frequency of ISDs seen at the PED, underlying the need for closer cooperation between dermatologists and pediatricians.
Yash Dhamecha, Sakshi Aggrawal
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 01-05; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.103

Abstract:
Background: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are one of the most disastrous events of human health causing huge psychosocial and economic morbidity in young and sexually active adults. Population explosion, migration from rural to urban areas, commercial sex and lack of awareness has all led to enormous spread of STIs in the community. Their epidemiological profile varies from country to country and from one region to another within a country. This study highlights the pattern of STIs in patients as seen at our hospital for a period of 2 years. Aim: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of the patients with Sexually Transmitted Infections. Methods and Material: This study was conducted at Dept. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy at PDU Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat. This included 300 consecutive symptomatic STI patients presenting to the clinic between November-2013 to October-2015. Diseases were diagnosed on the basis of detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations. Results: Most common age group affected was 21-30 years (39%). Incidence of STI was high among Males (75.33%). Married persons were more commonly affected (55.33%) as compared to unmarried. Herpes Genitalis (42.33%) was the most common STI followed by Genital warts (27.33%), Genital Molluscum Contagiosum (16.67%). The overall sero-prevalence of HIV among the STI patients was-19% and Herpes Genitalis was most commonly associated with sero-positivity.Conclusion: Study concluded that bacterial STIs are having declining trend and viral STIs are having upward trend. The persistent and recurrent nature of viral infections is responsible for their increasing trend in the current STI scenario.
Yash Dhamecha, Rishi Patel, Kunal
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 5, pp 06-10; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2022.v5.i1a.104

Abstract:
Background: In Dermatology, corticosteroids (CSs) are widely prescribed in either topical or systemic formulations in various potencies to tailor therapy according to severity of the underlying condition, area of involvement, and patient’s age. CSs, however, are associated with a number of serious adverse effects, particularly with long-term usage. Aims: To study the relationship of adverse drug reactions (ADR) of long-term glucocorticoids (GC) with age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, underlying dermatologic conditions and co-existing medical disorders. To study CSs in relation to musculoskeletal system, metabolic & blood sugar levels and eye complications. To compare the ADR in cases on Oral mini pulse therapy (OMP) and Daily glucocorticoid (DGC) therapy groups. Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study done on 130 patients on OMP or Daily glucocorticoid therapy for more than 1 month duration, over a period of 2 years. Results: Cushingoid features and weight gain were observed in both groups. Bone changes, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were seen in patients on DGC therapy. Bone changes were seen in 17 (18.88%), Steroid induced Diabetes Mellitus (SDM) in 27(30%), Hypertension in 12(13.3%), Lipid abnormalities (in the form of raised cholesterol and triglyceride levels) in 7 (7.77%), Cataract in 12(13.33%) and glaucoma was seen in 1(1.11%) out of 90 patients on Daily glucocorticoid therapy.1 patient each out of 40 in the OMP group developed cataract and hypertension. Conclusion: In conditions like vitiligo, alopecia areata and lichen planus particularly in children, it is preferable to give OMP. In pemphigus group of disorders while using daily GC therapy, continuous monitoring and ADR prevention measures should be considered for patient's benefit.
Sundiep Kumar, Jaishree Noor
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 66-69; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.96

Abstract:
Introduction: This study has aimed hypothesizing the presence of an unbalance between the TLR1 and TLR2 expressions associated to high bacillary loading and IL-10 expression in leprosy reactions, which, consequently, are favorable to survival of bacillus and the occurrence of these events. Materials and Methods: All the case diagnosed as leprosy were evaluated by Fite Faraco special stain and reported for bacilloscopy index according to reference guideline as below. Result: Out of 62 cases suspicious for clinically diagnosed leprosy, maximum number of cases were observed in the age group of 31 to 40 years (40%). Among various anatomical site for cutaneous presentation of leprosy in maximum number of cases, the lesions were observed in upper extremity.Conclusion: Bacteriological examination and bacilloscopy index add onto the morphological diagnosis and helps to categorise multibacillary and pauci bacillary leprosy. We recommend it to avoid false over and under diagnosis of leprosy cases.
Pravin Vinil Raja I, Kaviarasan Pk, Poorana B, Kannambal K
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 89-92; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.101

Abstract:
Background: Psoriasis exclusively involving the palms and soles is known as palmoplantar psoriasis. Though it involves a small body surface area, poses significant morbidity in daily activities of patients. Systemic treatments are indicated for extensive and refractory cases. Systemic toxicity limits the usage of systemic drugs. Methotrexate a time proven drug for psoriasis has been used in oral, injectables and topical formulation. Iontophoresis is a transdermal drug delivery system which can enhance the penetration of methotrexate drug locally, minimizing the systemic side effects. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal delivery of methotrexate through iontophoresis in comparison to oral methotrexate in palmoplantar psoriasis. Methods: Forty patients attending the psoriasis clinic with psoriasis involving palms and/or soles are randomly allocated into two groups (20 in each). Methotrexate iontophoresis group was treated with iontophoresis weekly once for 16 weeks whereas oral methotrexate group was given 0.2-0.4mg/kg/week every weekly for 16 weeks. The severity of palmoplantar psoriasis was assessed by mPPPASI at baseline, 4,8,12 and 16 weeks. Results: Males are higher in both study groups. The most common age group of onset was at 40-60 years. Palms and soles was involved in 55%, soles only in 27.5% and palms alone in 17.5%. Mean mPPPASI reduction was gradual in both groups with comparable efficacy. mPPPASI reduction at 16 weeks was higher in Oral methotrexate with good compliance. Conclusion: Methotrexate delivered by Iontophoresis was equally effective as Oral methotrexate in treatment of palmoplantar psoriasis.
Ly F, Lelo S, Wone I, Faye A, Koundio A, Ndiaye Diop Mt, Deh A, Faye B, Toure Ao, Mahé A, et al.
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 49-54; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.93

Abstract:
The main clinical manifestation of scabies caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabei, is a pruritic skin eruption. Since 2017, WHO has recognised it as a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). In order to bring forward strategies relevant to the framework of NTDs in Senegal, we conducted a study. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among students attending Koranic schools in Dakar Method: We were provided with a list of Koranic schools by the heads of health districts and the academic inspectorate. The Koranic schools participating in the study were randomly selected. A cross sectional study was performed, in the departments of Pikine and Dakar, located in the capital, Dakar. Diagnosis was based of clinical criteria with or without confirmation by parasitological examination. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata software version 12. The significance level was 5%. Result: During the study period from January 9 to October 16, 2018, a total of fifteen koranic schools were included. Out of the 959 residents, 70 were diagnosed with scabies giving a prevalence of 7.29%. The prevalence according to school varies from 1.63-30.84% The main risk factors were the following: male gender, age group less than 10 years (p
Subadharshini B, Kaviarasan Pk, Kannambal K, Poorana B
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 93-96; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.102

Abstract:
Aim: To evaluate the role of BIOCHIP mosaic based immunofluorescence test in the screening and diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorsders. Results: Results of DIF and BIOCHIP were compared with clinical diagnosis. The sensitivity of DIF was 99% in all epidermal and subepidermal bullous diseases. The sensitivity of BIOCHIP in the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus foliaceus was almost 100% and comparable with that of DIF. Conclusion: Thus the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of BIOCHIP is comparable with DIF making it a more effective practical screening tool for patients with suspected AIBD. Thus, BIOCHIP can be used as first line tool in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorders.
Neha Saraswat, Rajwinder Singh, Vinay Shanker
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 55-60; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.94

Abstract:
Background: Diode lasers are the most popular for hair removal due to the deep penetration and targeting of the hair follicle. Our study aimed at improvement in visual analogue scale (VAS), in patients undergoing elective hair reduction with diode laser.Aim: Assessment of visual analogue scale at every sitting.Methodology: this prospective observational study was undertaken in the department of dermatology & venereology and leprosy (DVL), Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Solan during the Dec 2019 to Dec 2020. Total of 30 patients aged more than 16yrs fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in the present study. Lumenis Light Sheer Desire Laser System® of 805nm was used in treatment.Result: In present study, total of 30 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in the study after obtaining the informed consent. All the patients who participated in study were females. There was a significant higher mean of visual analogue score among the patients compared to the 1st sitting. (p
Srinath S, Kaviarasan Pk, Kannambal K, Poorana B
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 78-82; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.99

Abstract:
Alopecia areata is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of hair characterized by non-scarring type of hair loss involving scalp, face and other areas of the skin. It can be classified as localized alopecia areata with patchy areas of hair loss, alopecia total is involving the diffuse scalp and alopecia universal is involving the entire body. Extensive and recalcitrant type of AA can cause significant challenge to treating physician. Alopecia areata is a self-limiting disorder. It can be managed with topical corticosteroids, anthralin and minoxidil. Active and extensive cases of AA can be managed with oral corticosteroids, cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate and photochemotherapy. Topical immunotherapy is an effective modality yet underexplored treatment option available for managing resistant and recalcitrant cases of AA. In this study we have compared two topical immunotherapeutic agents; dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) in the treatment of alopecia areata. A total of 30 patients with alopecia areata who had given written consent to undergo therapy with DNCB and DPCP were included in the study. They were randomly categorized into two groups namely DNCB group received DNCB and the second group was called DPCP group received DPCP. Initial sensitization testing was done over on inner arm with 2% solution which induces inflammatory changes of allergic contact dermatitis. After positive inflammatory changes at the sensitization site, DNCB/DPCP was applied to patients in increasing serial concentrations on weekly basis starting from 0.001% upto 2%. Inflammatory changes usually occurred after 24 to 48 hours. The patients were followed every week for six months. Treatment outcome of both the groups were compared at the end of six months. The desirable regrowth of hair (patchy or complete regrowth of terminal hairs; grade III and IV) was found to be 86.7% in DPCP group when compared to 33.3% in DNCB group. DPCP is found to be more effective in managing chronic treatment failure and recalcitrant cases of alopecia areata than DNCB from our study. Thick pigmented anagen hairs which were more persistent were achieved in DPCP group than DNCB group. To conclude DPCP is more effective in the management of AA with lesser side effects when compared to DNCB. Overall both topical immunotherapeutic agents can produce hair growth but DPCP is more tolerated with more response rates.
Jaishree Noor, Sundiep Kumar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-65; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.95

Abstract:
Introduction: Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that belong to three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, of more than 40 different species, only a few are common causes of human infection. The natural reservoir of dermatophytes can be humans (anthropophilic), animals (zoophilic), or soil (geophilic). Common species causing human infection include E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans (anthropophilic) and M. canis (zoophilic). Infection by dermatophytes usually involves cutaneous nonliving tissue due to the inability of dermatophytes to penetrate the deeper tissues or organs of immunosupressed hosts. This distribution pattern of dermatophytes infection in different part of the world has been attributed to factors of climate, life-style, and prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases in the community and also the reluctance of patients to seek treatment because of embarrassment or minor nature of disease unless the condition becomes sufficiently serious to affect the quality of life. Material and Methods: Patient’s data including age, sex, clinical diagnosis, site of infection and referring clinic were processed, identified and analyzed. All specimens were examined by 10% KOH mount and Lectophenol Cotton Blue for screening of fungal element and inoculated on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) with 0.5% mg/ml Chloramphenicol (with or without 0.5 mg/ml Cycloheximide). Fungus isolates were identified according standard procedures. Result: In our present study we included 100 patients suffering from dermatological disorder of any ages from 2015 to 2016 in tertiary care hospital of Udaipur. Out of 100 patients 45 were males and 55 were females. Among them, 40 patients found to be suffering from dermatophytosis, in which 22 (55%) were male and female were 18 (45%). Organism were isolated from hair, skin and nail samples of patients were Trychophyton spp 16 (40%) were most prevalent followed by Microsporum spp 15 (37.5%), candida spp 6 (15%), Epidermophyton spp 2 (5%) and Aspergillus spp 1 (2.5%). Conclusion: The actual prevalence of fungal diseases and their most common causative agents among children and adults in Udaipur are unknown. The causative agents include the dermatophytes, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. So, we need a proper policy in tertiary care hospitals to provide effective treatment as well as prevent the misuse of Antifungal drugs. However further studies with large sample size is highly recommended to further support the findings from this study.
Tripti Upadhyay, Arvind Krishna, Robin Chugh, Abhinav David
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 83-88; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.100

Abstract:
Background: With this study we wanted to describe dermoscopic features in a variety of hyperpigmented lesions on face in Indian skin type with the help of Dino Capture 2.0 handheld dermoscope.Materials and Methods: An observational analytical study was conducted on 150 clinically diagnosed patients of macular facial hyper-pigmented skin lesions attending the out-patient department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy of Chhatrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital, Meerut, for 18 months after approval by the university. This study was a prospective comparative study done in both sexes, age group >18 years of clinically diagnosed macular facial hyper-pigmented skin lesions among 150 clinically diagnosed subjects.Results: In our study, mean age of the patients was 31.19±11.10 years with minimum age of 18 years and maximum 74 years. In our study, more than two third of the patients (72.0%) were females, while 28.0% were males. Males to females ratio was 7:18. The most common dermoscopic pattern in melasma were incomplete reticular pigmentation (46.5%) and telangiectasia (29.8%) followed by complete reticular pattern (18.4%), granular pattern (14.9%), and non-specific features (14.0%). Conclusion: Dermoscopy is useful in diagnosis, prognosis, and follow up of disorders of hyperpigmentation. With regular practice and attention to detail towards dermoscopic findings, it can be a useful tool in dermatology practice in general and for disorders of hyperpigmentation
Harsh Tahiliani, Bandhavi Muppalla, Pooja Patel, Reeya Patel, Nitin Nadkarni, Sharmila Patil
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 70-74; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.97

Abstract:
Hand and foot eczema is a common chronic, distressing skin condition with varying etiology. A patch test can be useful to confirm the presence of allergy and to identify the actual allergen. This study aimed to identify the common allergens causing hand and foot eczema with the help of patch testing. A total of 82 cases with hand and/or foot eczema underwent patch test using Indian Standard Series. Overall, the rate of positive patch test reactions reported in hand and foot eczema was 47.6%. Potassium bichromate was the common allergens in males and Nickel sulphate was the commonest allergen in females. The commonest presentation was chronic eczema in 51.22% and morphologically unspecified eczema (40.24%) followed by hyperkeratotic eczema was the most common. The rate of positive patch test reactions encountered was high. We suggest that patch test should be used to improve therapeutic outcome in hand and feet eczema.
Saurabh Chhabra, Vinay Shanker, Rajwinder Singh, Neelam Gupta, Satish Kumar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 75-77; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.98

Abstract:
Onychomycosis is Infection of the toenails and/or finger nails caused by fungi mainly dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds and yeast. Most commonly used diagnostic modalities include KOH mount direct microscopy, Fungal culture and histopathological examination using PAS stain. In our study PAS stain was compared with Fungal culture and PAS was the most sensitive (75%) diagnostic modality for onychomycosis and fungal culture was 31.25%.
Heleena Peter, M Anoop
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 46-48; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.92

Abstract:
Urticaria is commonly used to describe an eruption of wheals, as distinct from angioedema, although this does lead to confusion with classification of the physical Urticarias. The term ‘Urlicaria’ is increasingly being used to describe a disease that may present with wheals, angioedema or both. The details enquired from the patients include duration of disease, duration of individual wheals, frequency of attacks, distribution of wheals, associated systemic symptoms, provoking physical factors, food and drug intolerance, seasonal variation, associated angioedema. The frequency of attacks were classified into 3 groups-1-3episodes/week, 4-6 episodes/week and daily attacks. Out of total 60 patients, 8 patients gave history of daily attacks of which 7(87.5%) were ASST positive, and was found to be statistically significant. Increase in the frequency of attacks correlated well with the ASST positivity. Among 60 patients, 27 patients were having high Pruritus score, of which 20(74.1%) were ASST positive, which was statistically significant.
Heleena Peter, Bindurani S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 43-45; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.91

Abstract:
Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is the simplest and the best in vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine- releasing activity. In India, ASST positivity was found to be 26.67% in chronic Urticaria. The details enquired from the patients include duration of disease, duration of individual wheals, frequency of attacks, distribution of wheals, associated systemic symptoms, provoking physical factors, food and drug intolerance, seasonal variation, associated angioedema. Out of total 60 patients, 38 patients gave history of exacerbation of symptoms during evening time. But there was no statistical correlation with ASST positivity. Out of total 60 patients 25 patients were found to have increased serum IgE values, of which 17 (68%) were ASST positive, found to be statistically significant.
Bm Monisha, S Vinoth Kumar, Keerthana S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.85

Abstract:
Introduction: Melasma is main cause of facial hyperchromia and has a significant psychosocial impact. Wood’s lamp has been a useful device to estimate the depth of melanin determined by light-induced fluorescence. A dermoscope enables a clear visualization of pigments distribution, and the color variation of melanin will depend on its location within the skin. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the outpatient section of the Department of Dermatology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 120 patients were enrolled for a duration of 1 year. Patients diagnosed to have melasma on clinical grounds were enrolled after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: On clinical examination, 47 patients had centrofacial distribution and 73 had malar distribution of melisma. On Wood’s lamp 51 patients showed complete enhancement hence classified as epidermal, 63 patients had no enhancement hence classified as dermal and 6 patients showed few areas of enhancement and hence classified as mixed melasma. On dermoscopy, 48 patients showed regular pigment network with a brownish homogeneous pigmentation hence classified as epidermal, 61 patients showed Irregular network with bluish grey pigmentation hence classified as dermal and 11 patients showed features of both epidermal and dermal and hence classified as mixed melasma. Conclusion: In the analysis of correlation between Dermoscopy and Wood’s lamp in classification of Melasma, the results showed substantial discordance between the methods. Based on the principles of Dermoscopic examination, this method applicable, more appropriate and helpful for routine diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of patients with melasma.
Suni Christina Widjaya, Lysa Mariam
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 29-33; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.88

Abstract:
Introduction: Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS) is one of the major forms of rare genodermatosis EB characterized by non-scarring bulla on the skin or mucosa induced by minor trauma. The worldwide prevalence of EBS is estimated 1 in 50,000 births. The most common etiology of EBS is mutations gene KRT5 and KRT14 who were genetically inherited or de novo in sporadic case.Case: A newborn from the Sasak tribe without a family history of blistering disease was referred to emergency room with generalized multiple blisters with exfoliate skin at birth.Discussion: The accurate diagnosis of EB types and subtypes is important for the management and prognosis of the disease. Many developing countries have difficulty access for advanced laboratory facilities to support the diagnosis of EB while clinically diagnoses are often inaccurate. Clinical Diagnostic Matrix (CDM) is a simple clinical diagnostic tool that can used by the clinical practitioner in limited resource conditions to diagnose type and subtype EB.Conclusion: EBS is the most common type of EB with a generalized form in most sporadic cases. CDM can be used as a diagnostic tool for diagnosis EB more accurately in developing countries such as Indonesia.
Sweta S Parmar, Avani Modi
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 22-24; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.86

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Urticaria is one of the most common skin diseases. Depending on the length of symptoms, acute (lasting less than 6 weeks) and chronic urticaria (CU) (> 6 weeks) are distinguished. Present study was done with an aim to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological features of chronic urticaria. Material and Methods: The Present Descriptive study group included 150 consecutive patients with chronic urticaria attending the dermatology outpatient department of Tertiary care institute of Gujarat. A preformed questionnaire was used to collect detailed history of disease onset, duration, morphology and distribution of chronic urticaria. Severity of itching and number of wheals were noticed and urticaria activity score (UAS) was calculated by adding pruritus and wheal score. Duration of individual wheals, presence of angioedema, and systemic symptoms like malaise, headache, abdominal pain, arthralgia and wheezing were noted. Results: Angioedema was seen in 78 and dermographism in 66 patients. Duration of individual wheal was 30 minutes in 24 patients and one hour in 29 patients. One hundred and twenty patients had wheals which occurred daily per week. Diurnal variation of urticarial wheals was not seen in 51 patients. Out of the 98 patients who showed diurnal variation 65 had wheals at night. Whole body was involved in 25 patients and trunk and limbs were involved in 9 patients. Sparing of palms and soles were seen in 22 patients. Food was the aggravating factor in 51 patients, exposure to house dust in 42, sweat in 54, pressure in 56, sunlight in 25, drugs in 33, stress in 54, heat in 20, water in 30, cold in 7, infection in 46, dental caries in 54, and infestations in 30 patients. Conclusion: Exacerbation of chronic urticaria by food, drugs and pressure was more in our study. Thyroid disorder was more common and atopic diathesis was less common in our patients. Chronic urticarias among family members were also more common in our study.
Shwetha V Rajiv
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 06-08; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.79

Abstract:
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a relatively common self-limiting papulosquamous disorder, characterized by acute onset of a large scaly, erythematous plaque (herald plaque) followed by several smaller lesions distributed along the lines of cleavage on the trunk and extremities (secondary eruptions). The approximate incidence of PR is 0.5–2% and affects people of both sexes in 15–30 years age group although also seen commonly in elderly and children.2 Spontaneous resolution is seen within 6-8 weeks but may be earlier or delayed until 3-6 months Numerous hypotheses have been postulated about the exact cause of PR, incriminating both non infective agents such as viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, and no infective etiologies such as atopy and autoimmunity. The distinctly programmed clinical course, lack of recurrence for most of the patients, seasonal variation, and clustering of cases provide evidence in favour of an infective etiology, probably viral. However a conclusive infectious cause has not yet been identified. In this background, we set out to describe the various clinical pattern of the disease, epidemiologic factors among patients encountered in out-patients attending dermatology department in our locality and to compare the results with the present literature.
Suni Christina Widjaya, Lysa Mariam
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 25-28; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.87

Abstract:
Introduction:Lucio's phenomenon (LP) is a rare leprosy reaction characterized by severe necrosis of the skin. LP is a variant of type II leprosy reaction by the involvement of immune complexes. LP is usually found in Mexico and Central America. This reaction is especially found in diffuse non-nodular lepromatous leprosy who have not received or completed leprosy treatment. Case: A 36 years woman with newly diagnosed Lucio’s phenomenon after initially being misdiagnosed with fungal infection for several months. Discussion: In clinically, LP may mimic other diseases such as mycosis and allergic reaction.Until now there is no consensus regarding LP treatment and combination MDT-MB and systemic corticosteroids are the options in this case. Conclusion: A proper history, physical examination, and histopathology are important diagnostic approaches to avoid misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis in LP cases especially in leprosy endemic regions. The combination of MDT-MB and systemic corticosteroids in FL gives a good response.
Arpna Sharma, Rajwinder Singh, Saurabh Sharma, Rakesh Gupta, Vinay Shankar
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 39-42; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.90

Abstract:
Background: Nailfold capillaroscopy is a major diagnostic tool for connective tissue disorders like systemic sclerosis. Microvascular complications in diabetes is the major cause of morbidity and mortality which if detected early can improve the quality of life of these patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study enrolled 30 diabetic patients for one year. An ophthalmologist examined all participants to rule out retinopathy. All patients subsequently underwent detailed nail fold capillaroscopy (NFC) examination of all ten fingernails with digital Dermatoscope. Data was recorded and presented with proportions. Results: The mean age was 45.88±11.49 years (p-value: 0.009) with 17 (56.1%) males and 13 (43.9%) females. Mean HbA1c was 7.1 (1.6) % (p-value: 0.074). One (1.3%) participant had abnormal nail plate, nail fold, and lunula on examination. In addition, 2 (6.7%) participants had abnormal (ragged) cuticles. The mean capillary density was 6.72±0.38 capillaries per mm (range 5.83-7.24). Tortuosity was the most common observed qualitative change (n=28; 93.3%) followed by meandering capillaries (n=23; 76.7%), capillary dilatation (n=15; 50.0%) and avascular areas (n=14; 46.7%). Conclusion: In diabetic patients without retinopathy, nail fold changes appear before microangiopathic complications like retinopathy. Nailfold capillaroscopy is a potential early screening tool for patients at risk of microangiopathic complications.
Purnachandra Badabagni, Jahnavi Sambangi, Birudala Ramadevi
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 34-38; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.89

Abstract:
Background: Acne vulgaris remains one of the commonest diseases of skin with chronic inflammatory dermatosis that affects 85 p.c of the adolescents and young adults globally. Acne is associated with greater psychological burden that include depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. It is a multifactorial disease depending on genetic predisposition, follicular epidermal hyperproliferation, endocrine factors, the colonization and activity of Propionibacterium acnes, excess sebum production, inflammation, and environmental factors. Insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, visceral adiposity, elevated blood pressure and chronic stress are several factors which constitute the metabolic syndrome. Aim & Objectives: To analyse the relationship between Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidaemia, Hypertension, and Visceral Adiposity in Acne Vulgaris.Material and Methods: A hospital based, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among patients aged 14 years & above, irrespective of gender with acne vulgaris, irrespective of severity and attend the outpatient clinic of dermatology at a tertiary care hospital for a period of 12 months. Grading of acne was done according to Global Acne Grading System. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the criteria of the modified NCEP-ATP III. Results: The patients with severe GAGS had high metabolic syndrome (72.4%) when compared to those without metabolic syndrome (27.6%), there exists an extreme statistically significant association between metabolic syndrome and GAGS (acne severity) with p-value
Shikha Bansal, Prashant Verma
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 09-12; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.83

Abstract:
Background: Chronic liver Disease is associated with a plethora of cutaneous changes which occur early in the course of disease and are significant enough to be noticed by the patient and people around. Hyperpigmentation of skin is one of the most common and important change, which can be a subtle guide to a non-dermatologist towards making an early diagnosis of underlying liver disorder.Aim: To study the clinical and histopathological profile of hyperpigmentation in patients of chronic liver disease.Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was done on 110 patients with chronic liver disease of varied etiology of duration more than 6 months. A detailed interrogation of the subjects was done. Presenting complaints were recorded onset, progression and duration of complaints was noted. The chronology and pattern of hyperpigmentation with regard to liver disease was noted carefully. The severity of the liver disease was assessed using Child’s criteria. Skin biopsy was done in consenting patients.Results: Pigmentary disorders were present in 49.1% of patients. The common pigmentary disorder being hyperpigmentation present in 41.8% of patients, most of the patients belonged to the category of alcoholic liver disease (40.7%).Face was the most common site affected (39.1%).Histopathological examination of these hyper pigmented skin lesions revealed increased melanin pigment in all layers of the epidermis.Conclusions: Hyperpigmentation is associated with underlying chronic liver disease. It occurs early in the course of disease and can provide subtle clues regarding the presence of underlying liver disease.
Prashant Verma, Shikha Bansal, Sachin Kishore, Ashok Saxena, Aradhana Bhargava, Niti Khunger
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 13-17; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i2a.84

Abstract:
Background: Knowledge of the changing trends of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in different geographical regions in association with the epidemiological factors prevailing in the respective geographic areas of a country is necessary for proper planning and implementation of STIs control strategies. Aim: the aim of the study to determine the current trends of STI in a Tertiary Care Referral Center of Delhi (North India) in 2014-2018 and comparing this data with relevant published data from different parts of India.Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2018 at Apex Regional STD Center Safdar Jung hospital, Department of Skin and STD on patients attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Diagnosis was made clinically by expert doctors and, if required, appropriate specimen were taken and tested in STD laboratory. Results: A total of 37,549 patients, 24,995 (66.56%) male and 12,554 (33.43%) females, attended the STI OPD during study period. A trend of increasing total STI cases was observed from 2014 to 2018. Upon analyzing the trends of various STIs, the most common presenting symptoms was of vaginal discharge1847 (4.9%) which was most commonly due to candidal vulvo-vaginitis, 793 (42.9%), followed by bacterial vaginosis348 (18.8%) and trichomonal vaginitis 83 (4.4%).The second common presentation was genital ulcer, 1647(4.38%), which was predominantly caused by herpes genitalis 1212(73.6%). Number of lab confirmed Syphilis were 842 (2.2%). Genital warts were reported 1127(3%) in number and 305(0.81%) urethral discharge cases were diagnosed as the gonococcal urethritis 170(55.7%) and non-gonococcal urethritis 135(44.26%) respectively.Conclusion: In our study most common STI reported was vaginal discharge followed by genital ulcers. A rising trend of viral STI and syphilis was observed from 2014-2018. Gonococcal urethritis was ongoing with its declining trend, by and large similar as mentioned in studies in other regions of India.
P Vidyasagar, Ch Vijay Bhsker Reddy, Pisati Navaneetha Reddy
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 77-82; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.71

Abstract:
Background: No single treatment for warts has proven 100% efficacy and most therapeutic modalities remain unsatisfactory. Immunotherapy with Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine remains a key treatment of interest. The study done from August 2020 to March 2021 in the department of Dermatology, KIMS hospital, Narketpally. Telangana state.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional MMR vaccine in the treatment of cutaneous warts in adults. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients (34 men and 16 women) aged 18–61 (mean ± standard deviation = 34.58 ± 11.74) years with common warts received 0.25 ml of MMR vaccine injected intralesionally in the largest wart. The dose was repeated at 2-week interval until complete clearance or for a maximum of 5 doses. Thereafter, they were followed up once a month for 24-week study period. The response was evaluated as complete clearance (complete disappearance of the wart(s) including distant ones and appearance of normal skin), partial clearance (≤99% reduction in size and number including distant ones and few residual warts still visible), good response (some reduction in size only including that of distant ones but no decrease in number of warts), or poor response (no change in size and number). Results: 50 patients completed the study and 29 (58%) of them had complete clearance of warts, 14 (28%) showed partial clearance and 5 (10%) patients showed good response. Complete clearance of warts occurred after five doses in 19 (38%) patients and after 4 doses in 9 (18%) patients. Conclusion: MMR vaccine is a promising treatment modality for common warts, particularly the multiple and recalcitrant ones. It seems to be inexpensive, effective and safe option that has the potential advantages of widespread and sustained effects against HPV. Intralesional MMR also appears to be much less painful and safe than traditional destructive methods for wart treatment, and thus seems to be better tolerated.
Khushboo Khanna, Arvind Krishna, Anup Kumar Tiwary
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.65

Abstract:
Aim: To analyse the clinico-epidemiological profile of acne vulgaris and its relationship with insulin resistance among males and females. Material and Method: The present cross sectional observational study was conducted in the department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy at Chattrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital from November 2018 to April 2020 for 1 and a half among 500 clinically diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris attending the out-patient department. General physical examination including BMI, anthropometry which includes height, weight, triceps skin thickness and waist/hip ratio was done. Investigations comprised of fasting blood sugar and fasting insulin levels. These assess the insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR. Results: Out of 500 subjects, 262 (52.4%) were males and 238 (47.6%) were females. The mean age of the study group was 21.63 years. Males with BMI>25 kg/m2 reported more acne vulgaris as compared to females with statistically significant difference. Overall, males underwent more stress than females. 53.84% of the patients consuming High Glycemic diet were males and rest females. Mean HOMA-IR was found more in grade IV acne among males as well as females. A positive correlation was seen as the fasting insulin levels and the HOMA-IR values were more in subjects with more severe acne. Conclusion: Education about acne is necessary in schools and among the public, so that one knows where to seek appropriate advice and receive early effective treatment so as to prevent complications, both transient and permanent.
Tv Ramana Rao, Prathyusha Yakkala
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 36-40; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.67

Abstract:
Material and Methods: This is prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Dermatology. Dermatological examination specified the clinical form of psoriasis, nail alterations type, and number of fingernails involved, the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score assessing the severity of skin involvement, and based on PASI score, patients were classified into mild (PASI20). Nail Area Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) score assessing the severity of nail involvement (pitting, leukonychia, red spots in lunula, and nail plate crumbling) and for nail bed disease (oil drop [salmon patch] discoloration, onycholysis, nail bed hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhage).
Sridevi Patil C, T Suresh, Chidambara Murthy, Shankargouda Ireddy
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 103-106; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.76

Abstract:
Background: Pyoderma is defined as skin infection mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes or both.Aim: This study conducted from January 2017 to December 2017, aimed at analyzing the magnitude and clinical patterns of pyodermas.Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients who attended dermatology department at VIMS hospital with pyoderma were included in the study.Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by SPSS Version 20.0 software.Results: The incidence of pyoderma was 1.60%. The highest rate of pyodermas were seen in the age group of 16-25 years (95, 19%). Males outnumbered females. Lower limb was the most commonly affected site (217, 43.4%). Diabetes mellitus was the most common associated co-morbidity (67, 13.4%). Primary pyodermas outnumbered secondary. Furunculosis and infected eczema were the most common diagnosis among primary and secondary pyoderma respectively.Conclusion: Pyodermas have been a major cause of morbidity since time immemorial. Such studies help to assess the changing clinical trends in pyodermas.
Purnachandra Badabagni, Ramadevi Birudala
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 94-98; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.74

Abstract:
Introduction: Melasma is the most common cause of facial Melanesia classically presenting as hyper pigmented macules to patches on the face causing great psychological stress. The pathogenicity of it is not yet completely understood. Many treatment options are available but nothing is satisfactory, especially in black patients. The study aims to compare the serial 35% Glycolic Acid (GA) Peels versus a topical modified Kligman’s regimen in treating Melasma in patients with dark skin.Materials and methods: Prospective and comparative study was done on 100 cases of Melasma, dividing them into two groups with 50 patients each. One group received topical modified Kligman’s formula (MKF) daily and the other group received 35% glycolic acid peels once in 4weeks for 12 weeks. Response was assessed by MASI score.Results: At the end of 12 weeks good to very good response was seen i.e. 95% on MKF treated patients where as 85% on glycolic acid peel patients. Burning sensation and redness was observed in many patients in glycolic acid group whereas cuneiform eruptions in MKF group.Conclusion: Both glycolic acid peels and modified Kligman’s formula are effective in treating Melasma in dark skinned patients both used in combination gives an accelerated response.
Bm Monisha, Kannan Gopalan, Tv Ramana Rao
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 83-87; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.72

Abstract:
Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease caused due to blockage and/or inflammation of pilosebaceous units in which lesions present as non-inflammatory, inflammatory or mixture of both. The inflammatory type, often results in distressing scars for which dermaroller therapy and fractional CO2 laser have shown to be effective treatment modalities. Material and Methods: This is a prospective, descriptive and hospital based study. Total of 140 cases were enrolled in study carried out for 1 year in the Department of Dermatology at tertiary health centre and medical college with subsequent follow up of up to six months. Patients with acne scars under the groupings of a score > 3 points on Global Acne Scarring Classification Scale were enrolled.Results: Out of 140 patients, (70 - dermaroller group, 70 - CO2 laser group) completed treatment and follow-up. Dermaroller therap results indicated that the baseline was 23.43±6.32 and reduced to 13.23±3.65 after the treatment. This difference was found to be statistically highly significant with p value as
Shalini Eslavat, Naga Sahithi K, T Naresh Babu, Kuna Ramadas
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.77

Abstract:
Cutaneous ADRs are unavoidable and pose a major risk of drug therapy, modulated by several factors, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to analyse various clinical patterns of cutaneous ADRs, to find its causative drugs and assess its causality and severity of reactions. Method: A prospective observational study, was conducted at tertiary care hospital, in Hyderabad for a period of 12 months. Patients presenting with CADRS to the department were included in this study. Causality and severity assessment was done by using WHO UMC system and Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale respectively. Results: Total 58 patients were enrolled. Mean age group was 40.6 years (range 11 to 83 yrs). Out of them, 32 were males and 26 were females. The most commonly manifested CADRs was Maculopapular rash (24.13%) followed by FDE ( 22.4%) and Urticaria (10.34%). About 8 (13.79%) cases were found with severe CADRs. Few cases of Hand - Foot Syndrome, Lichenoid Drug Eruptions were also noted. The most common suspected drug group was Antimicrobials (29.13%) and NSAIDS (29.3%). Most common suspected drug was ciprofloxacin and diclofenac. Conclusion: The health care system can promote spontaneous reporting of cutaneous ADRs to Pharmacovigilance centre’s for ensuring safe drug use and patient care.
Yurike Indah Pratiwi, Cindy Christella Chandra, Sukmawati Tansil Tan
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 88-93; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.73

Abstract:
Polythene is the most common plastic. The annual global production is around 80 million tones. It’s Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is an uncommon skin infection caused most commonly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is characterized by a macule that rapidly changes into a gangrenous ulcer with a black eschar surrounded by erythema. We report a case of EG in a previously healthy woman treated with intracutaneous injection and topical gel of Wharton’s Jelly-derived MSCs (SWj-MSCs) secretome that showed a significant result in the wound healing process, and the patient was satisfied with the results.
Naseem Mohammed Farhan, Mustafa Suhail Najem, Khalid Ibrahim Jasim, Nael Murad Dawood, Wisam Suhail Najem
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 32-35; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.66

Abstract:
Background: Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of pilosebaceous follicle. Acne primarily is seen in adolescent. The clinical lesions are non-inflammatory comedonal open (blackhead) and closed (whitehead) and/ or inflammatory papules, pustules and nodules. After puberty, in male and female, hormone called androgens appears to be a part of the underlying mechanism, by increased sebum production. Aim of study: To identify the correlation between testosterone hormone and acne vulgaris in female compare it withhealthy control. Material and Methods: A case-control study was carried out from November 2019 to May 2020 in the consultation Department of Dermatology and Venerology at Salahaddin General Hospital. The researcher selected 60 female patients included 30 patients with acne vulgaris as a case and compared with 30 female without acne vulgaris then, testosterone test of cases was compared with that of equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls. Results: The sixty female patients who were included in this study, are of age range (14-35years) mean± stander deviation (21.59±4.28) for case group and (21.34± 3.31) for control group. The result of the study showed that the mean of free testosterone among cases was (3.44 ±0.64) three time more than control group (1.79±0.41) with significant difference (p= 0.001), and serum total testosterone the result found that the mean is also more in case group than the control group (0.77, 0.22, SD = 0.16, and 0.22 respectively) with statically significant association (p=0.001). Conclusions: Significant difference in hormonal level of Testosterone (free and total) and estradiol between acne group and control group.
Anvitha C, Srinivas S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 112-115; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.78

Abstract:
Introduction: Hair loss is a cause of emotional and mental distress, especially in the modern age of social media. Hair loss can be classified as Cicatricial and Non-Cicatricial, based on the permanence of the damage wrought to the hair follicles. The conditions selected for evaluation in this particular study are androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium, owing to their higher rate of incidence and their amenable response to timely intervention.Trichoscopy aids in diagnosis, determination of biopsy site and acts as a prognostic tool. In this study, we will enumerate trichoscopic features of the scalp in androgenic alopecia (AGA) and telogen effluvium (TE) on the basis of follicular patterns, interfollicular patterns and hair signsMaterial and Methods: It is a cross-sectional and observational study is suited for estimating the prevalence of each trichoscopic feature in AGA and TE. The study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka. The study was conducted between January 2020 to December 2020 with sample size of 100 patients.Results: In the 100 cases of AGA and TE, 69% had AGA and 31% TE. Hair pull test was positive in 90% patients of TE. Yellow dots (69%), empty hair follicles, (65%) peripilar sign (71%), vellus hair (95%) and variation in hair shaft diameter in frontotemporal areas (98%) are the characteristic findings in AGA patients. The follicular features present in TE are peripilar sign (10%), yellow dots (29%) and vellus hair (30%). The characteristic finding is that the variation in hair – shaft diameter is prevalent in fronto-temporal (15%) and occipital areas (65%).Conclusion: The characteristic follicular features on Trichoscopy observed in AGA were peripilar sign, yellow dots and empty hair follicles. The characteristic hair shaft pattern observed was vellus hair. Variation in hair shaft diameter was more prevalent in fronto-temporal areas. TE is said to be a disease of exclusion on Trichoscopy. It is important to differentiate this condition from AGA, where-in the variation in hair shaft thickness is present in fronto-temporal areas and absent in occipital area.
Sridevi Patil C, T Suresh, Chidambara Murthy, Shankargouda Ireddy
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 99-102; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.75

Abstract:
Background: Pyoderma is quite common skin infection and constitutes a major portion of patients in dermatological clinics. Many cases nowadays do not respond to the antibiotics that were previously sensitive. In order to successfully treat cases of pyodermas, sound knowledge is necessary regarding the etiology and their sensitivity patterns.Aims: To study the causative organisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the patients.Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients with pyoderma who attended dermatology outpatient Department at VIMS hospital during the study period January 2017 to December 2017. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by SPSS Version 20.0 software. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 260 (52%) samples followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci in 105 (21%) samples. MRSA was reported in 42 (16.2%) cases.Conclusion: This study gives an indication of the present pattern of bacteriological profile of Pyodermas in our tertiary care centre.
Bhuvaneshwari Dewangan, Saumita Ghosh, Sankalp Dwivedi
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.64

Abstract:
Background: Fusidic acid and mupirocin have been recommended for the treatment of acute staphylococcal skin lesions. Here we will analyze the sensitivity of topical antibiotics like fusidic acid and mupirocin in a series of 205 S. aureus isolates from community acquired pyodermas. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study conducted at the outpatient department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy at Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Medical Sciences Junwani, Bhilai, Distt. Durg, Chhattisgarh,- 490020 between Jan 2019 to Sept 2019. All patients presenting to the outpatient department with primary or secondary pyodermas were eligible for the study. Patients of all age and both sex attending the outpatient department (OPD) of Dermatology with pyoderma after obtaining informed consent to participate in the study. Antibiotic sensitivity for fusidic acid and mupirocin was done for 135 cases and 101 cases respectively. Excluded patients where those who have had a hospital stay in the past one year, those who have already received topical or systemic antibiotics and non- consenting patients. The study was approved by the Institute’s Review Board and Ethics Committee.
Shwetha V Rajiv
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 41-43; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.68

Abstract:
Teaching in Dermatology is not easy especially in COVID situations to MBBS students. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on all aspects of normal life. Teaching and learning, at all levels have also been affected, including clinical teaching in medical schools. Direct patient interaction, especially in groups, in out-patient departments or wards, is difficult. To add to this, patients have also reduced visits for nonemergency reasons. Institutes have adapted to the changed circumstances by increasing the use of online learning. Online education has its own limitations, especially in medical education, more so in the context of clinical rotations. Dermatology, being an inherently visual specialty, probably is more amenable to online learning as compared to other specialties. We describe our experience and the student and faculty feedback after an online Dermatology teaching module for undergraduate medical students, which was created in lieu of traditional teaching, due to the restrictions imposed by the pandemic. This study puts to find the student’s perceptions and the impact of the programme on the learning of students to be beneficial to the faculty in the future. The primary objective is to evaluate the perception of the students and teachers towards online teaching. The secondary objective is to evaluate the performance of students.
Manmohan Gavvala, Madhulika Gavvala, Shyamsundar Perumalla
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 68-72; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.69

Abstract:
Background: Dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic procedure which allows evaluation of the features of skin lesions and reveals distinct patterns in different diseases that are diagnostically relevant. Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory disorder which bears considerable clinical resemblance with other papulosquamous disorders like psoriasis. Histopathological examination of these skin lesions remains the standard diagnostic method, but it is an invasive procedure and might not always be feasible to perform. Objective: To analyze the clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological features in seborrheic dermatitis (SD) patients presenting to our outpatient clinic and to compare and correlate the resulting dermoscopic diagnosis with the clinico-histopathological diagnosis, so as to establish the significance of dermoscopy in diagnosing this condition. Methods: This is an observational, cross sectional study including 15 patients with classical seborrheic dermatitis lesions who attended outpatient clinic of Department of DVL over a course of 24 months and were willing to participate in the study. Patients were selected by the convenience sampling method. Results: The predominant dermoscopic findings noted were red dots (46.66%) and linear branching vessels (53.33%) in a patchy arrangement (100%), on a dull red (60%), light red (20%) or yellow (20%) background, associated with yellow (66.66%)/white + yellow (33.33%) scales in a patchy (80%) or diffuse (20%) distribution. A positive correlation between clinico-dermoscopic and histopathological diagnoses could be made in 12 of 15 patients (80%). Conclusion: Dermoscopy is a useful diagnostic option for identifying or conforming seborrheic dermatitis and is a good adjuvant to the clinical diagnosis.
Anvitha C, Srinivas S
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 73-76; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1b.70

Abstract:
Introduction: The term “Trichoscopy” was coined in 2006 by Lidia Rudnicka and Malgorzata Olszewska and it was coined for dermoscopy of hair and scalp. On the basis of permanent damage to the hair follicles, hair loss can be cicatricial or scarring and non-cicatricial or non-scarring. The primary conditions which constitute non-cicatricial alopecia are Androgenetic alopecia [AGA], Alopecia areata [AA], Telogen effluvium [TE]. Non-scarring alopecias, are more amenable to treatment and will be the objects of this study, particularly AA. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional and observational study is suited for estimating the prevalence of each trichoscopic feature in AA. The study was conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka. The study was conducted between January 2020 to December 2020 with sample size of 100 patients. Results: In the 100 cases of AA, 95% had Patchy Alopecia Areata (PaAA), 2% had Alopecia Universalis (AU), 1% had Alopecia Totalis (AT) and 2% had Ophiasis pattern of AA. Hair pull test was positive in 14 patients (14%) and 61 patients (61%) had positive hair pull test at the periphery of the patches. The common trichoscopic features were black dots (66%), yellow dots (62%) and empty hair follicles (19%). The characteristic hair patterns were broken hair (81%), exclamation mark hair (87%) and vellus hair (43%). Conclusion: This study showed that among 100 patients AA, the most prevalent subtype is PaAA. Maximum number of patients were in the age group of 21 – 30 years. The characteristic follicular features of AA on Trichoscopy were black dots, yellow dots and empty hair follicles. The characteristic hair patterns were broken hair, exclamation mark hair, vellus hair.
Deepika Agarwal, Kanchan Srivastava, Himali Tandon
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 14-16; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1a.56

Abstract:
Background: Primary cutaneous lymphomas represent the second most common group of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma after primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. The present study was conducted to assess cases of primary cutaneous lymphomas. Materials and methods: 82 cases of primary cutaneous lymphomas both genders were recruited. Duration of illness, presence of pruritus, family history, and occupational history was recorded. Results: Out of 82 patients, males were 48 and females were 34. Type of lesions were mycosis fungoides in 42, adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia in 30 and peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 10 patients. Type of lesions were macules in 16, papules in 20, plaques in 22, macules & papules in 10, papules & plaques in 4, pustules and nodules in 6, plaques and nodules in 4 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Type of lesions were mycosis fungoides, adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia and peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 10 patients. Type of lesions were macules, papules, plaques, macules & papules.
Suyomi Shah, Krupa Ajmera, Aswathy Radhakrishnan, Aishwarya Rai, Nitin Nadkarni, Sharmila Patil
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 4, pp 01-07; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2021.v4.i1.53

Abstract:
Hair loss is a matter of concern in any individual irrespective of age and gender, more so in females. This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical patterns of hair loss in women in various disorders based on trichoscopic evaluation. In each patient, hair pull test and trichoscopy was done. Majority of the patients (67%) were in the age group of 21-40 years. The most common presentation was hair fall. Hair pull test was positive in 69.2% cases. The most common diagnosis observed was female pattern hair loss (36.2%); followed by telogen effluvium, pityriasis sicca, alopecia areata, canities, pediculosis capitis, scalp psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Trichoscopy showed empty hair follicles, focal atrichia, anisotrichosis, increased vellus hair, pilosebaceous units with 1-2 hair, white dots of eccrine ducts, honeycomb pattern. Trichoscopy is an important diagnostic tool especially in patients when diagnosis was unclear. It is an important technique and allowed us to avoid scalp biopsy for difficult cases.
Srinivas S, Prithvi Raj Ka
International Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy Sciences, Volume 3, pp 103-106; https://doi.org/10.33545/26649411.2020.v3.i2b.54

Abstract:
Background: Chronic folliculitis (CF) is a superficial bacterial infection of hair follicles, is caused by gram positive and gram-negative organisms and consistently shown to be due to Staphylococcus aureus. Chronic folliculitis of legs (CFL) is a chronic and recurrent clinical problem. Overcrowding, malnutrition, unhygienic conditions and occupation like farming are predisposing factors, thus explaining that they are more prone for minor injuries and abrasions of the skin, paving the way to the entry of the microorganisms. Material and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study on clinically diagnosed cases of Chronic folliculitis affecting lower limbs was conducted by the outpatient Department of Dermatology at Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga between June 2020 to September 2020. Prevalence of chronic bacterial folliculitis, various clinical types and their seasonal variation, identification of the causative organism by culture and sensitivity pattern were study. Result: In our study, the most of the chronic folliculitis cases were between the age group of 21-40 years and maximum number of patients were male. Majority of the cases were observed during summer season. The main presenting complaints were pustules (47.6%) and pruritis (29.2%), complained of pain (21.5%) and hyperpigmentation were 1.5%. Staphylococcus aureus organism were common and least organism was proteus. Conclusion: Diagnosis of Chronic Folliculitis of leg can be done easily in most of the cases on clinical examination. Culture and sensitivity of pus samples from such cases helps to treat patients appropriately and also aids in reduction of complications. Making a policy by dermatologists to follow antibiotic therapy according to sensitivity report helps in decreasing the incidence of antibiotic resistance.
Page of 3
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top