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Kiran Devi, Amit Kumar
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2759

Abstract:
In this digital era, usage of electric and electronic devices has become the need of people. Evolution of technology triggers the adoption of new devices over old and discarded appliances turned into the electronic wastes also termed as e-waste/s. E-waste from any source has become a major concern to the society. The disposal of these wastes into the landfills causes many hazardous impacts to the ecosystem. As a promising solution construction industry can utilize the e-wastes effectively. The wastes may be used either as fine filler or aggregates in concrete and bituminous based constructions efficiently. Usage of waste/s conserves the natural resources also. Present study magnifies the scenario of application of electronic wastes in different forms i.e., plastic, metal etc. in bituminous and concrete based mixtures. A critical review has been carried the effects of electronic wastes in concrete and bituminous mixes and findings confirm the praxis of electronic wastes is possible within certain limits.
Nazrul Islam, M A Gafur, Amir Hossain Khan
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2768

Abstract:
With regard to the environmental aspect it would be very interesting if natural fibers like banana, jute, and coir could be used instead of artificial fibers and synthetic products as reinforcement in some applications. Banana .Natural fibers have many advantages compared to other man made fibers. The natural fiber composites may be used in everyday applications such as lampshades, suitcases, paperweight, helmets, shower and bath units. Polypropylene composites were fabricated with untreated and alkali treated jute fiber with 10-25% loading of fiber by weight and were designated at Polypropylene Banana Composite (PPBC). The composites of biodegradable Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with short jute natural fiber was prepared by melt mixing followed by hot press molding. The micro structural analysis and morphologies of the composites were studied via infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques respectively. The extensive application of infrared spectroscopy is mainly due to the concept of group vibration. Any structural change like substitution or addition of groups or atoms in a molecule affects the relative mode of vibration of the group. This causes change in IR spectral band position, change in relative intensities and appearance of new bands and disappearance of any band and splitting of a single band into two or more bands. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to increase the utility of fiber. It deals with the interaction of infrared light with matter. The former can indicate the presence of functional groups qualitatively and the latter can provide a semi quantitative measure of their concentrations. Electron Microscopy is most widely used to obtain information regarding the morphology of fiber surfaces, especially SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). Using SEM, it is easy to determine the differences of fiber surface topography after and before treatment, and hence the formation of fiber polymer composites. Fiber deboning was also observed for untreated and treated fiber pp matrix composite. It reveals that bonding between the fiber and the matrix at the interface may be improved. These indicate that there are some kinds of interfacial contact between fiber and pp matrix due to fiber treatment. The SEM can have a magnification range from a few times to several hundred thousand times.
Saad Issa Sarsam
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2792

Abstract:
The fatigue life of asphalt concrete is often related to environmental condition, loading condition, ageing, material composition and properties. This work investigates the influence of short and long term ageing of laboratory beam specimens, asphalt content, and testing temperature on fatigue life of asphalt concrete wearing course. Slab samples of (30 x 40x 6) cm have been prepared, beam specimens of (40x 5x 6) cm were cut from the asphalt concrete slab samples. Beam specimens were tested for fatigue life under the influence of three levels of micro strain (250, 400, and [3]750) at (5, 20, and 30) °C before and after practicing long-term aging. It was observed that the fatigue life decreases by (85 and 97) %, (87.5 and 97.4) %, (71.4 and 95.2) % after increasing the applied microstrain from (250 to 400 and 750) μƐ for control mixture and for mixtures subjected to short-and long-term ageing processes respectively. The fatigue life increases by (142.8 and 257.1) %, (34.4 and 57.8) % and (10 and 30) % when the asphalt content increases from (4.4 to 4.9 and 5.4) % for specimens practicing the applied microstrain of (250, 400 and 750) μƐ respectively. It was concluded that the fatigue life increases by a range of (two to fifteen) folds when the testing temperature increases from (5 to 20 and 30)°C respectively.
Nazrul Islam, M.A Gafur, Amir Hossain Khan
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2870

Abstract:
Fibers reinforced composite materials offer a combination of strength and modulus that are either comparable to or better than many traditional metallic materials. The research on natural fiber based composite materials fit well into this ecological image. This paper reports the conduction mechanism and ac conductivity, activation energy behavior of Polypropylene and banana fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites. Polypropylene [-CH2-CH2-CH2-]n and different fiber content (wt. %) of polypropylene-banana fibers (natural fiber) composites were fabricated using a hot-press molding system. The optimum fabrication parameters were established (initial pressure, temp. etc.). These composite test samples were fabricated so the short fibers were randomly oriented in the matrix. The detail investigation of the a. c. conductivity and conduction mechanism of polymer composites would provide information about the relaxation processes, activation energy etc. which are dependent on frequency, temperature and time. The activation energy involved in the above processes can also be estimated from this study. The measurements were performed over a wide range of frequency of 60 Hz to 3 MHz and temperature range from 30°C (303°K) to 110°C (383°K). Experimental results of the ac properties of pure polypropylene and polypropylene-natural banana fiber composites were compared. It has been established that the fabricated composition changes its insulating property after adding the natural fibers and gives the better conductivity properties.
Osama Bedair
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2906

Abstract:
This paper describes economical strategy for design of industrial electrical substations and control buildings. Limited literature addressed design aspects for this class of buildings. Furthermore, little guidelines are available in practice to regulate this type of steel construction. The first part of the paper overviews the architectural and structural layouts of various industrial buildings. The economical aspects and cost savings resulting in using mobile buildings are discussed. The paper also highlights the engineering challenges that are encountered in the design of mobile facilities. The transportation procedure and design requirements are briefly described. Recommendations are provided to compute the combined center of mass of the building and interior equipments. Effective analysis procedure is also described. The proposed design concept for mobile industrial buildings is cost effective and can be implemented in industry to reduce projects cost.
Mushtaque Amed Pathan, Maryam Maira, Arif Khaskheli, Agha Jamshed
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.3119

Abstract:
The Building construction throughout world faces the defects from normal to heay and destructive like cracks and fractures which cause damages and finally collaps to heavy life losses along with economical and financial. The crack like strictures are found in wall and columns also. For the purpose of study the international experts have classified the minimum allowable standards of these defects which may not be harmful to buildings and people living there. This research study has been carried out to investigate the main reasons to investigate the causes of cracks in a newly completed and used buildings in where some distinct cracks appeared immediately and after some years. Oftenly these cracks seem in almost in walls and other structural elements such as columns and beams, with different patterns. The general methods consisting of reconnaissance survey; building inspection and laboratory testing were used to investigate the causes of these detrimental cracks. By the use of reconnaissance survey, factors that may lead to formation of cracks were considered and analyzed. The width, pattern and conditions of the cracks were identified during the building inspection stage and the soil properties related to the creation of cracks were determined during the laboratory test. Based on the outcome of the study; there is no evidence of factors such as a matured system that may lead to the creation of cracks in the building; all the cracks are active cracks with their width increasing with time and the soils in the entire block of the building possessed high percentage of fine materials with high moisture content and plasticity indices. The pore water pressure in this type of soil takes longer time to vanish, which can be expressed by very low value of the coefficient of permeability (1.90x 10-7 to 2.15 x 10-7 m/s) acquired from different soil samples collected from the study area. Hence the cracks in this type of building were found to be caused by the settlement of the building due to the nature of the predominant soil type that was found in the study area.
Eluozo S.N., Dimkpa K
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.2949

Abstract:
Tensile strength of concrete were examined on its partial replacement of cement and sand using ground granulated blast furnace and quarry dust, the study examines its behaviour at different dimensions, this is to monitor the variation effect of these parameters on the growth rates of tensile to the optimum curing age, these includes non linear conditions of tensile state, non-elastic and its brittle behaviour at all times as it express zero conditions in tension, this means that it has the ability to with stand pull force, it also reflect its weak ability to handle shear stress thus tends to cause deformation in material as it has poor elasticity. The reflection of its brittle influence the rate of tensile behaviour from concrete ductility, these are known to be a material on modern mechanics of concrete. These also considered as quasi brittle material, this behaviour were reflected as the system considered evaluating the growth rate of tensile strength that replaced cement and sand with these locally sourced addictives. the developed model monitor other reflected influential parameters such as variation of concrete porosity due it compaction in placements, tensile behaviour reflects these effect that subject it to mechanical properties of concrete, the study expressed the reaction of these parameters in the simulation, the evaluation of these affected the details variation of tensile growth rate at different water cement ratios and curing age, the tensile behaviour that were monitored are based on these factors in the study, these derived model were validated with Jaharatul et al 2018, and both parameters developed best fits correlation, the study is imperative because the system expressed the behaviour of tensile strength from concrete at different dimensions, experts can applied these concept to monitor tensile behaviour considering these parameters in its growth rates.
Beneyam Neguse Furgasa, Fadilu Shafi Jote, Natnael Bekele Tilahun
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.3156

Abstract:
Due to a high construction material cost in Ethiopia, it is difficult to afford a shelter by most our peoples. The Hydra form block (HFB) has been identified as low-cost building material with its potential and possibility to reverse the housing problem. Laboratory tests were conducted on Mettu, Nopa, Gore, and Hurumu areas soil. Using hydra form machine with average mold size of 29*14*10cm, hydra form blocks were casted with the three percentages increment of cement. Compressive strength and water absorption tests were conducted at 28 days. The investigation has revealed that all the soil sample except Gore soil have significant characteristics that make it suitable for stabilization with recommended soil properties. From the experimental study, all the blocks except blocks produced with Gore soil have 28th day compressive strength values well above most of the recommended minimum values. Water absorption was less than the maximum limit of 15%. But, for control block and for stabilized with 3% cement, water absorption result is out of the recommended values (0-15) %. The cost comparison of Hydra form blocks with hollow concrete block and fired clay brick shows that the Hydra form block is cheapest walling material in terms of production cost and a typical hydra form block production center can create a job for more than 50 peoples.
Shiferaw Garoma Wayessa, Ayana Abera Beyene
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.3149

Abstract:
Road constructing in Ethiopia is increasingly in demand to meet its medium and long term development programs. Most internal road of Oromia cities/town are cobblestone and gravel. Some portions along the alignment proposed and existing roads traversed low resistance of the subgrade that affect the stability of upper layers of cobblestones. Structural failures are observed on cobblestones roads, would it be constructed by good quality or low quality of materials. Nekemte Cobblestones Projects have been started in 2014 widely which were failed in most area today as we observed that needs to be addressed and a corresponding remedial measures must be drawn. A possible remedial measures had been organized for every observed failure or destroyed to obtain normal road condition of the study area. An assessment was made by using observation, interviews, laboratory and field test to determine the adequacy of the cobblestones, underlain material to serve as a subgrade for road construction based on project specifications and Ethiopian Road Authority (ERA) low volume road Specification. From the field tests and laboratory tests carried out, it is observed that the causes of cobblestone road failures of this road section are mainly due to the construction steps/sequence, quality of materials, road construction time, lack of proper design and quality control, absences of drainage structures, lack of highly compaction, lack of accurately fill fine aggregate and suddenly high loads vehicle applied on cobblestone road.
Shiferaw Garoma Wayessa, Jiregna Nugusa Duresa, Ayana Abera Beyene, Motuma Shiferaw Regasa
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.3142

Abstract:
The problem of environmental pollution and health hazards due to inappropriate solid waste disposal is critical in developing countries like Ethiopia, Nekemte town is one of the town in Ethiopia facing from environmental pollution due to lack of appropriate dumping site which leads pollution of surface and ground water and environment in and around dumping area. Therefore, the main objective of this study is selection of suitable site for disposal of solid waste using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Selection of the most suitable landfill site was determined through the integration of geographic information system (GIS) tools, multi criteria decision analysis and remote sensing techniques. To select suitable landfill site several parameters were considered such as slope, built up area, , road, surface water, land use/land cover, geology and soil. After analysis of suitability of solid waste disposal site using GIS tools and weighted analysis methods selected 36 areas for medium solid waste Bins. Suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses on GIS based Weighted Linear Combination analysis to select the suitable solid waste disposal sites and assigned as the value given 1; unsuitable, 2; less suitable, 3; moderately suitable ; 4; Suitable and 4; highly suitable were determined. Using this method selected 2 highly suitable areas for land fill and inclination area
Xipeng Gao, Xiwei He
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.3141

Abstract:
When the installation of cables and pipelines needs to go across rivers, bridges are usually adopted to support the cables and pipelines for crossing the rivers. The measure can make full use of the space resources and have no effect on the flow pattern of rivers. For this reason, analysis on the structural-type design of a large-span steel truss bridge specially used for cables has been performed. The numerical results indicate that the stayed-cable bridge with steel truss beam and concrete main tower has better performance and improved structural type caparisoned with that of the beam and arch bridges, and the construction of the major beam can be without the temporary support.
Mithen Lullulangi Unm, Onesimus Sampebua
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v3i1.2929

Abstract:
This research aims to know the function of Traditional House of Toraja and Typology, as a unique traditional architectural tourist attraction in Ke'te 'Kesu'. The research is qualitative research. Data collection is done by observation, interview, and documentation. The research variables consist of: Function of Traditional House (Tongkonan), and it’s Typology. The data analysis technique used is descriptive qualitative analysis, that is analyzing each variable descriptively, consisting of four activity flow, that is data selection, data presentation, analyzing, , and conclusions. The results show that: In general, the main function of traditional Toraja house (Tongkonan) and its built environment is as a container of human activities supporting Toraja culture, consisting of Rambu Solo’ that is the customary ceremony associated with death, and Rambu Tuka’ or all things good lifestyle as well ceremonies related to daily life. Then typology can be viewed from aspects of Layout, Spatial, Shape, Structure and Construction, and Ornaments.
Yibo Wang, Hao Yue, Huibo Wang
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i1.2718

Abstract:
Sintering process plays an important role in iron and steel smelting process. The subsequent production of blast furnace ironmaking is directly affected by the quality of sinter. Among them, the proportion of raw materials and the advanced degree of sintering process are the two main factors affecting the quality of sinter. Because the control parameters of sintering process are too many and the physical and chemical process is too complex, it is difficult to establish and control the model accurately. Therefore, workers have long relied on experience to set temperature and other factors to engage in production, resulting in the quality of sinter is unstable, the cost is not easy to be controlled. Moreover, the flue gas produced in the sintering process will have different effects on the environment. Through the data analysis of the ore distribution scheme and the results of the physicochemical analysis of sinter in a steel plant, two aspects of the work are completed: one is to establish the optimal model of the cost of the sintering process, and the most suitable temperature for the sintering process. The second is the analysis of harmful components produced in sintering process.
Kiran Devi, Ashish Chhachhia, Amit Kumar
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i1.2641

Abstract:
With the industrialization, industrial by-products are produced in large quantities and creates nuisance to natural habitats. The disposal of these wastes like fly ash, marble powder, construction and demolition (C&D) waste, brick powder, agricultural wastes etc. has become the potential threat to the ecosystem and need some real solutions. The direct disposal of such wastes into open land or water bodies causes circumambient pollution. One of the potential solutions is to utilize these wastes in the construction industry on large scale as subgrade rehab or additive to cement based materials. In the present study, the compaction and strength characteristics of stabilized soil was studied by using various waste materials i.e. lime, cement, plastic waste, industrial waste, fibre, mushroom waste, wet olive pomace etc. and reviewed. The addition of additives improved the engineering properties of soil significantly.
, Serkan Yildiz
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i1.2591

Abstract:
Nowadays, sustainability is one of the most important goals of also the construction sector, as it is in most of the other sectors. However, sustainability in the construction sector is dealt mostly with its environmental and economic dimensions and its social dimension remains in the background. This situation causes the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), which is perhaps the most important issue within the scope of social sustainability, to be addressed on its own, and its relationship with sustainability to be not introduced clearly. In this study, firstly, the relationship between social sustainability and OHS in the construction sector was discussed. Based on the fact that in construction projects the sustainability goal should be revealed forward to a great extent at the design stage, how to contribute to OHS by budgeting OHS activities together with project activities was explained. The study is expected to help construction sector stakeholders to understand the relationship between social sustainability and OHS, and to provide a clear picture of the role of budgeting in this respect.
Anthony Torres, Federico Aguayo, Srinivas Allena, Michael Ellis
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i1.2731

Abstract:
A superplasticizer is a type of chemical admixture used to alter the workability (viscosity) of fresh concrete. The workability of fresh concrete is often of particular importance when the water-to-cement (w/c) ratio is low and a particular workability is desired. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is a high-strength concrete formulated to provide compressive strengths exceeding 130MPa and made of primarily powders. RPC materials typically have a very low w/c, which requires the use of a chemical admixture in order to make the material workable for placing, handling and consolidating. Superplasticizer are commonly used for this purpose. Superplasticizers are developed from different formulations, the most common being Polynaphthalene Sulfonate (PNS), Polymelamine Sulfonate (PMS) and Polycarboxylate Ether (PCE). This study investigates the impact of various PNS based superplasticizers on the compressive strength and rheological performance of a RPC mixture. Six different types of PNS based superplasticizers were used; three of various compositional strengths (high, medium, low range) from a local provider, and three of the same compositional strengths (high, medium, low) from a leading manufacturer. Specific properties assessed were the superplasticizers viscosity, concrete workability through the mortar-spread test, concrete rheology, and 7, 14, and 28 day RPC compressive strengths. Two mixtures were produced with two w/cm (0.20 and 0.15), which would subsequently increase the amount of superplasticizer needed, from 34.7L/m3 to 44.5L/m3. The results show that the name brand high range composition produced the overall highest spread, lowest viscosity, and a highest compressive strength at all ages tested. However, the local provider outperformed the name brand in the mid and low range compositions. Additionally, the rheology test also demonstrated that the name brand high range, and RPC produced with the name brand high range, had a lower viscosity at all angular speeds than the others tested.
Eluozo S.N., Dimkpa K
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i2.2948

Abstract:
Flexural strength was monitor and predicted on the application improving concrete strength with wood and fly as partial replacement for cement. The study observed the pressure from the constituent of these locally sourced material that has been observed from the study to influence the flexural strength through the effect from this locally sourced addictives, the study monitors concrete porosity on heterogeneity as it reflect on the flexural strength of self compacting concrete, other condition considered was the compaction and placement of concrete, these effects were monitored at constant water cement ratio from design mix, the behaviour from this effects on the concrete observed the rate of flexural growth under the influences of these stated conditions, the simulation expressed the reactions of these effects through these parameters monitored to influence the system, numerical simulations were also applied to the optimum curing age of twenty eight days, while analytical simulation was also applied, this concept are the conventional seven days interval that concrete curing were observed, these are improvement done on the study carried out by SachinPrabhu et al 2018, these locally sourced material were experimentally applied, the simulation predictive values is at the interval of seven days of curing, which was also simulated. the predictive values were compared with the experimental values of SachinPrabhu et al 2018, and both values developed best fits correlations, the study is imperative because the system considered the parameters used on experimental and observed other influential variables that were not examined, these were not observed in the experimental procedure, experts in concrete engineering will definitely find these concept a better option in monitoring flexural strength of self compacting concrete in general.
Tulio Hallak Panzera, Vinícius Borges De Moura Aquino, Edson Fernando Castanheira Rodrigues, Isabela Matias Pietrobon, André Luis Christoforo, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i2.2551

Abstract:
This work contributes to the use of alternative adhesives in the wood-based industry, where pine wood is commonly used. The investigation identifies the influence and the optimal content (8, 12 and 15wt%) of a bio-based polyurethane adhesive in the production of medium density particleboards (MDP). A compaction pressure of 4 MPa at 100oC for 10 minutes is considered in the manufacture of panels based on pine wood residues and bio-based resin. The bulk density, flexural modulus (MOE) and strength (MOR) properties under static three-point bending are obtained according to the Brazilian standard NBR 14810. The results are compared with NBR 14810 and other standards to verify its performance based on the minimum requirements. Bulk density is not significantly affected by the investigated adhesive levels. MOE and MOR reach average values equivalent to 12wt% and 15wt% of the adhesive, and both meet the minimum requirements established in international normative documents. The adhesive level range responsible for maximizing ρ, MOE and MOR is between 12.42wt% and 15.79wt%.
Viviane Guilarduci, Patrícia Martelli, Honória Gorgulho, Pablo Oliveira, Tulio Hallak Panzera
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i2.1216

Abstract:
This work investigates the reuse of natural (SCB) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane-modified (MSCB) sugarcane bagasse fibres in cementitious composites. Sugarcane bagasse fibres are pre-used in the treatment of motor oil contaminated effluents. A full factorial design is used to identify the effects of fibre type (SCB and MSCB), fibre length (0.6 and 1.2 mm), fibre amount (1 and 2 wt%) and fibre condition (before and after oil filtration) on apparent density, water absorption, apparent porosity, ultra-pulse velocity, dynamic modulus, flexural strength and modulus. SCB fibres lead to increased apparent density compared to MSCB fibre reinforced composites. MSCB fibres contribute to reduce composite porosity, leading to higher mechanical properties. The smaller area of MSCB fibres promotes a larger amount of cementitious phase per unit volume, thus increasing the strength of the sample. Longer sugarcane fibres (1.2 mm) have a larger surface area, leading to a higher fibre concentration per unit volume, which increases water absorption. The amount of fibre has no significant effect on mechanical and physical responses. Composites made with 2 wt% 0.6 mm long MSCB fibres achieve promising results for non-structural civil engineering applications.
Arash Karimipour, Mansour Ghalehnovi, Mahmoud Edalati, Mehdi Barani
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i2.2580

Abstract:
Due to the shortage of land in cities and population growth, the significance of high rise buildings has risen. Controlling lateral displacement of structures under different loading such as an earthquake is an important issue for designers. One of the best systems is the diagrid method which is built with diagonal elements with no columns for manufacturing tall buildings. In this study, the effect of the distribution of the tuned mass damper (TMD) on the structural responses of diagrid tall buildings was investigated using a new dynamic method. So, a diagrid structural systems with variable height with TMDs was solved as an example of structure. The reason for the selection of the diagrid system was the formation of a stiffness matrix for the diagonal and angular elements. Therefore, the effect of TMDs distribution on the story drift, base shear and structural behaviour were studied. The obtained outcomes showed that the TMDs distribution does not significantly affect on improving the behaviour of the diagrid structural system during an earthquake. Furthermore, the new dynamic scheme represented in this study has good performance for analyzing different systems.
Chang Liu
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i2.2543

Abstract:
At present, earthquakes are a serious problem for building. Severe damages and collapses of buildings were caused by earthquakes in different degrees. It is reported that there are more than 68,858 deaths and hundreds of billions RMB losses in the May 12, 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake [16]. So, more attention should be paid to seismic technology. In order to face the challenges of earthquake on building, the seismic retrofitting was put forward, which “is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes”
Javad Delfian, Akbar Hassanipour
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i2.1257

Abstract:
Progressive collapse is a relatively rare event which happens due to unusual loading on a structure that lacks adequate continuity, ductility and indeterminacy which causes local collapse in that structure and then extends it to other structural parts. In 2003, US defense department to published regulations UFC 4-023- 03 on the building design against progressive collapse and in 2009 submitted a revised version of the regulations. This regulation, based on the ASCE 7-05 standard, introduces two general approaches to building design against progressive collapse, including direct design and indirect design approaches. In this study, a variety of structural design methods for progressive collapse have been investigated. Moreover, their strengths and weaknesses have been mentioned. In general, the results of this study show that design based on AP is more economical than other methods. Also, using this method is much more commonly accepted by researchers and designers.
Ashish Chhachhia
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 2; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v2i1.2636

Abstract:
Concrete is one of the most consumable construction materials on the earth. The concrete constitutes cement, sand, gravel, water and/or additives in definite proportions. The proportions of raw materials of concrete are decided by the concrete mix design. The mix design depends on the various factors. For mix design, most of the countries have their own specifications. In the present study, standard guidelines of India, Britain and America for the concrete mix design have been discussed. The concrete grades of M25, M35 and M45 were designed and compared. Indian Standards were also compared. It was concluded that new revised version of Indian Standard code has the lowest value of water/cement ratio and highest quantity of cement as compared to other standards.
Amit Kumar, Kiran Devi, Maninder Singh, Dharmender Kumar Soni
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1, pp 32-36; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i1.1238

Abstract:
The evolution of industries is essential for the economic growth of any country; however, this growth often comes with exploitation of natural resources and generation of wastes. The safe disposal and utilisation of industrial wastes has become essential for sustainable development. A possible approach would be to utilize these wastes in construction industries. The stone industry is one such flawed industries that generates waste in dust or slurry form; this leads harmful impacts on human beings, animals, and surrounding areas which, in turn, can lead to soil infertility. In the present study, stone waste was examined for its influence on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum water content (OMC) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of soil experimentally. Stone waste was used at 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% by weight of soil and UCS tests were conducted at maturing periods of 7, 14 and 21 days. Test results reported that the incorporation of stone waste improved the compressive strength value significantly. Maximum dry density was enhanced; however, optimum water content was reduced with the use of stone waste in soil due to its fine particles. Linear regression equations were also derived for various properties.
Mohammad Naghavi
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i1.786

Abstract:
In this paper, the behavior of retrofitted steel moment frames with bracing has been investigated. Braces include double-channel cross brace, cross braces with cable and brace with two cables passed through a cylindrical steel sheath at the location of the cables. Nonlinear analysis of frames has been carried out under cyclic loading with increasing amplitudes. Comparison of numerical analysis results with laboratory data shows the accuracy of finite element models. By determining the hysteresis and plasticity behavior of the frames, advantages and disadvantages of each of the retrofitting methods have been examined. The results have shown the use of double channels and cables to retrofit the frame increases the initial hardness and final load of the frame considerably compared to the moment frames and reduces its ductility. In frame with sheathed cable brace, the initial hardness was the same with the moment frames and the frame has been shown to have ductile behavior.
Mohammad Naghavi, Mohsen Malekinejad
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1, pp 18-25; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i1.992

Abstract:
In this paper, a method is proposed to provide a simple model of buckling restrained braces. After introducing the elements, taking into account all parts of buckling restrained braces, a sample of this type of braces is modeled in finite element Abaqus software. After confirming the numerical model using the available laboratory results, which is carried out by static nonlinear analysis, moment frame model with chevron bracing is compared with moment frame with chevron buckling-restrained bracing. In this study, the behavior of buckling restrained braces as a hysteretic damper was investigated and a good performance was observed in energy absorption compared to conventional bracing.
Sudarshan Dattatraya Kore
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1, pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i1.1204

Abstract:
Plastic is used in many forms in day-to-day life. Since Plastic is non-biodegradable, landfills do not provide an environment friendly solution. Hence, there is strong need to utilize waste plastic. This creates a large quantity of garbage every day which is unhealthy and pollutes the environment. In present scenario solid waste management is a challenge in our country. The production of solid waste is increasing day to day and causes serious concerns to the environment. In this study, the recycled plastics are used in the concrete as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete such as workability, compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths of concrete mixes with partial replacement of conventional fine aggregate with aggregate produced from plastic waste. The use of plastic aggregate as replacement for fine aggregate enhances workability and fresh bulk density of concrete mixes. The mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths of concrete reduced marginally up to 10% replacement levels.
Robinson Antonio Aparecido Alves, Julio Cesar Dos Santos, Kurt Strecker, Tulio Hallak Panzera, Robson Bruno Dutra Pereira
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbms.v1i1.546

Abstract:
Currently many works of art made of soapstone and recognized as cultural patrimony of humanity are in an advanced stage of degradation. Hence, it is necessary to interrupt this process and recover the deteriorated parts. Composite materials consisted of steatite particles and epoxy polymer are designed and characterised for their application in the repair of sculptures made of soapstone. The material applied in restorations should provide coloration and texture similar to soapstone besides structural requirements. The degree of similarity of the artificial material to the rock is enhanced by the proper selection of the particle size range and the increase of steatite incorporation in the composites. A statistical methodology based on the mixture design is used to optimize the relative amount of three particle size fractions of steatite particles in order to maximise the proportion of the dispersed phase in the composites. The maximum particle packing density (1.50 g/cm³) is obtained for a ternary mixture, composed of 62% of coarse particles (1.18 mm - 0.60 mm), 6% of medium sized particles (0.60 mm - 0.30 mm) and 32% of fine particles (0.30 mm - 0.15 mm). In this manner, the fabrication of composites based on an epoxy polymer matrix with 70wt% of incorporated steatite particles has been possible, increasing the maximum amount by 10% as used in previous works.
Mohammad Naghavi, Mohsen Malekinejad
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbmr.v1i1.992

Abstract:
In this paper, a method is proposed to provide a simple model of buckling restrained braces. After introducing the elements, taking into account all parts of buckling restrained braces, a sample of this type of braces is modeled in finite element Abaqus software. After confirming the numerical model using the available laboratory results, which is carried out by static nonlinear analysis, moment frame model with chevron bracing is compared with moment frame with chevron buckling-restrained bracing. In this study, the behavior of buckling restrained braces as a hysteretic damper was investigated and a good performance was observed in energy absorption compared to conventional bracing.
Sudarshan Dattatraya Kore
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbmr.v1i1.1204

Abstract:
Plastic is used in many forms in day-to-day life. Since Plastic is non-biodegradable, landfills do not provide an environment friendly solution. Hence, there is strong need to utilize waste plastic. This creates a large quantity of garbage every day which is unhealthy and pollutes the environment. In present scenario solid waste management is a challenge in our country. The production of solid waste is increasing day to day and causes serious concerns to the environment. In this study, the recycled plastics are used in the concrete as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete such as workability, compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths of concrete mixes with partial replacement of conventional fine aggregate with aggregate produced from plastic waste. The use of plastic aggregate as replacement for fine aggregate enhances workability and fresh bulk density of concrete mixes. The mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths of concrete reduced marginally up to 10% replacement levels.Plastic is used in many forms in day-to-day life. Since Plastic is non-biodegradable, landfills do not provide an environment friendly solution. Hence, there is strong need to utilize waste plastic. This creates a large quantity of garbage every day which is unhealthy and pollutes the environment. In present scenario solid waste management is a challenge in our country. The production of solid waste is increasing day to day and causes serious concerns to the environment. In this study, the recycled plastics are used in the concrete as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete such as workability, compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths of concrete mixes with partial replacement of conventional fine aggregate with aggregate produced from plastic waste. The use of plastic aggregate as replacement for fine aggregate enhances workability and fresh bulk density of concrete mixes. The mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive, flexural, and tensile strengths of concrete reduced marginally up to 10% replacement levels.
Amit Kumar, Kiran Devi, Maninder Singh, Dharmender Kumar Soni
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbmr.v1i1.1238

Abstract:
The evolution of industries is essential for the economic growth of any country; however, this growth often comes with exploitation of natural resources and generation of wastes. The safe disposal and utilisation of industrial wastes has become essential for sustainable development. A possible approach would be to utilize these wastes in construction industries. The stone industry is one such flawed industries that generates waste in dust or slurry form; this leads harmful impacts on human beings, animals, and surrounding areas which, in turn, can lead to soil infertility. In the present study, stone waste was examined for its influence on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum water content (OMC) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of soil experimentally. Stone waste was used at 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% by weight of soil and UCS tests were conducted at maturing periods of 7, 14 and 21 days. Test results reported that the incorporation of stone waste improved the compressive strength value significantly. Maximum dry density was enhanced; however, optimum water content was reduced with the use of stone waste in soil due to its fine particles. Linear regression equations were also derived for various properties.
Tulio Hallak Panzera
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbmr.v1i1.546

Abstract:
Currently many works of art made of soapstone and recognized as cultural patrimony of humanity are in an advanced stage of degradation. Hence, it is necessary to interrupt this process and recover the deteriorated parts. Composite materials consisted of steatite particles and epoxy polymer are designed and characterised for their application in the repair of sculptures made of soapstone. The material applied in restorations should provide coloration and texture similar to soapstone besides structural requirements. The degree of similarity of the artificial material to the rock is enhanced by the proper selection of the particle size range and the increase of steatite incorporation in the composites. A statistical methodology based on the mixture design is used to optimize the relative amount of three particle size fractions of steatite particles in order to maximise the proportion of the dispersed phase in the composites. The maximum particle packing density (1.50 g/cm³) is obtained for a ternary mixture, composed of 62% of coarse particles (1.18 mm - 0.60 mm), 6% of medium sized particles (0.60 mm - 0.30 mm) and 32% of fine particles (0.30 mm - 0.15 mm). In this manner, the fabrication of composites based on an epoxy polymer matrix with 70wt% of incorporated steatite particles has been possible, increasing the maximum amount by 10% as used in previous works.
Mohammad Naghavi
Journal of Building Material Science, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.30564/jbmr.v1i1.786

Abstract:
In this paper, the behavior of retrofitted steel moment frames with bracing has been investigated. Braces include double-channel cross brace, cross braces with cable and brace with two cables passed through a cylindrical steel sheath at the location of the cables. Nonlinear analysis of frames has been carried out under cyclic loading with increasing amplitudes. Comparison of numerical analysis results with laboratory data shows the accuracy of finite element models. By determining the hysteresis and plasticity behavior of the frames, advantages and disadvantages of each of the retrofitting methods have been examined. The results have shown the use of double channels and cables to retrofit the frame increases the initial hardness and final load of the frame considerably compared to the moment frames and reduces its ductility. In frame with sheathed cable brace, the initial hardness was the same with the moment frames and the frame has been shown to have ductile behavior.
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