Results in Journal Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE: 43
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Published: 3 January 2020
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 5, pp 89-94; doi:10.20956/jiks.v5i2.8937
Plastics become debris in the ocean that can be broken down into tiny particles of micro size (
Published: 3 January 2020
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 5, pp 51-56; doi:10.20956/jiks.v5i2.8930
This study aims to determine the level of land suitability and the area of Eucheuma cottonii in Pasiea waters, to know the dynamics and correlation of oceanographic parameters towards the growth of E. cottonii seaweed. This research was conducted in August-October 2018 in the area of seaweed cultivation in Pasiea waters. The observation station consisted of six stations located in the area of seaweed cultivation. Oceanographic parameters dynamics were measured by oceanographic parameters measured which significantly affected the growth of seaweed species E. cottonii in the form of temperature, salinity, brightness, depth of flow, current velocity, nitrate, and phosphate has been mentioned before which wasthen overlaid on the map maker application to produce a map of the suitability level of E. cottonii seaweed cultivation in Pasiea waters. The results of the spatial analysis showed that the level of Pasiea waters suitability based on oceanographic parameters was in the less suitable category covering 1410 ha and did not match 1 Ha, whereas based on the daily growth rate of E. cottonii the overall research locations were in the excellent category of 1411 ha. The dynamics of oceanographic parameters were still within the range that can be tolerated for the growth of E. cottonii with parameters that correlate to the daily growth rate of salinity, brightness, phosphate, and nitrate.
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 6, pp 7-10; doi:10.20956/jiks.v6i1.9922
Seagrass has many functions and values, including as carbon sink. However, to estimate carbon in seagrass, it involves seagrass biomass harvesting which is laborious, costly, and destructive. This study aimed to find out the relationship between seagrass Thalassia hemprichii percent cover with their biomass which will provide alternative method for biomass estimation leading to an efficient, less cost and less destructive method for seagrass carbon stock estimation. Seagrass were sampled in Bonebatang island, South Sulawesi, and estimated their percent cover following SeagrassWatch Method from different seagrass condition and sediment type, as well as harvested for their biomass. In the lab, seagrass biomass was dried. Data was analyzed by using simple regression analysis. Results showed that there is a relatively strong relationship between percent cover and the belowground, aboveground and total biomass (R2 = 0.70; 0,81 and 8,3, respectively). Seagrass percent cover (seagrass health status, i.e. healthy, moderate and poor) also resulted a relatively strong influence on total seagrass biomass (R2>50%). However, apart from segarss percent cover, some other parameters are needed to be taken into consideration, such as seagrass densities and seagrass morphologies
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 4; doi:10.20956/jiks.v4i2.7067
Clams have a planktonic period which is sensitive to metal pollutants in the waters. The natural concentration of cadmium (Cd) is relatively low in marine waters but may increase with increasing anthropogenic activity on land that may be lethal to organisms, especially in the sensitive larval stages. The purpose of this study was to analyze the values of 24h-LC50, NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration), LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration) and MATC (Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration) along with the impact of acute Cd toxicity on mortality and morphological changes of Tridacna squamosa veliger. The toxicity test used was an acute toxicity test with a static method (4 replications). Acute toxicity tests were performed on veliger phase larvae with short-term exposure (24 hours) on various Cd concentrations ie., 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L . The 24h-LC50 value was calculated using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber application version 4.1, and the LOEC and NOEC values were analyzed using the Dunnet test. Results showed that the 24h-LC50 value of Cd applied to Tridacna squamosa veliger was 2.12 mg/L, whereas the NOEC, LOEC, and MATC values were 1 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 1.581 mg/L respectively. Mortalities were observed with increasing Cd concentrations. It was also shown a decreasing number of zooxanthellae, damaged in mantle tissue and shells, changes in shell color, released of mantle tissue from the shell with increasing Cd concentrations.
Published: 10 December 2017
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 3; doi:10.20956/jiks.v3i2.3002
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Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 4; doi:10.20956/jiks.v4i2.7074
In environmental impact assessment of coal plant, it is essential to determine the radius impact. This information can be used to determine the impacted area, which will significantly receive the pollution emitted from the stack for years. In this study, we use the American Meteorological Society - Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) model, which is a regulated model in the USA and other countries. Five years hourly meteorological data for feeding AERMET model was obtained from MM5 re-analysis data. Terrain data was extracted from the SRTM30 satellite image and converted into DEM. The parameter to be considered in this study is Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Total Suspended Particle (TSP). The calculation shows that the pollutions tend to disperse in the south direction by the wind direction. NO2 is more disperse than SO2 and TSP. Calculation of impact radius indicates that concentration of all pollutants in annual average is below the national standard. For the case of the highest one hour average gives the radius impact of 18 km for NO2 and 9 km for SO2. For the case of the highest 24 hours, only NO2 gives value beyond the standard with an impact radius of 4.5 km. Calculation of TSP indicates that concentration is below the standard in all cases. The maximum concentration of all pollutants is detected 3 km south of the stack.
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 4; doi:10.20956/jiks.v4i2.7061
Marine debris is defined as material that is solid, persistent, manufactured or processed, and deliberately or not-deliberately left in the marine environment. Marine debris comes in many shapes and forms, ranging in size from microscopic microplastics to large vessels. Marine debris is a big and growing global problem, pose threats to marine life sustainability. Plastic is a major component of marine debris, and single-use packaging accounts for an increasing part of the global marine debris load. Research on marine debris was conducted on coastal areas and Small Island of South Sulawesi destined for local tourism, i.e., Karama beach, Bodia beach and Mandi beach (Galesong, Takalar District), Tanjung Bayang beach, Akkarena beach and Lae-lae island/also known as Bob beach (Makassar City). This research was aimed at identifying marine debris according to its types, size, and mass. Debris was collected in a 25 x 60 m transect with direction 30 m towards land and waters, respectively, with 3 replication transects at every location, whilst collections of debris were conducted during low and high tides. Current (direction and speed) and waves (incoming direction and height) were also measured as supporting parameters. Surrounding sampling location characteristics were also recorded. The result showed that Karama beach is found with highest total marine debris mass in Takalar (36.44 kg), whilst in Makassar, the Lae-lae island was found to be the highest with debris mass (43.22 kg). Plastic was predominant debris at all sampling locations with percentages of 62.7 – 86.6%. Lastly, the predominant size was macro-debris (25-100 cm).
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 4; doi:10.20956/jiks.v4i1.3920
The study aims to know the biodiversity and community structure of marine tunicate in Samalona waters. The present study is part of biodiversity assessment for marine resources of Sangkarang Archipelago SW Makassar Indonesia. Field campaign was conducted from October to November 2016. Sample collection was done at 3 and 7 m depth by using Line Intersection Transect (LIT) method combined with a quadrat (plot). Two 50 m transects were placed parallel to a shore line at three stations (sta.) at Samalona waters. A quadrat (plot) (2.5 m x 2.5 m) was placed side by side of the line transect and all tunicates in the transect was recorded, identified, counted and photographed. Samples were collected by using SCUBA and under water camera. Environmental parameters including water temperatue, salinity, dissolved oxygen, clarity, current and wind speed, were measured in situ. Data were analysed using ecological indices including species composition and density, Shanon Wienner species diversity, Evenness, and Morisita Indices. The result indicates that there are 18 species of tunicates present at 3 m as well as 7 m depth of Samalona waters.. Result of the ecological analysis shows that species diversity can be categorized as moderate and there were no dominant species. Environmental parameters indicates that water quality at Samalona waters was in good condition to support tunicates.
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 5; doi:10.20956/jiks.v5i1.7031
Ekosistem padang lamun merupakan ekosistem yang umum ditemukan di Kepulauan Spermonde, salah satunya adalah Gusung Bonebatang. Lamun mempunyai kemampuan menyerap karbon untuk proses fotosintesis sehingga berpotensi dalam mitigasi perubahan iklim. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus 2017 untuk membandingkan penyerapan karbon oleh jenis Thalassia hemprichii pada beberapa kedalaman perairan. Sampel lamun diambil pada daerah subtidal, kemudian daun lamun dibersihkan dari sedimen dan epifit. Metode perubahan oksigen digunakan untuk mengestimasi serapan karbon. Sebanyak 1 tunas T. hemprichii diinkubasi menggunakan botol kaca bening 70 ml. Inkubasi dilakukan pada jam 09.00-12.00 WITA pada kedalaman 50, 100, 150, 200 dan 250 cm dengan masing-masing 5 kali ulangan setiap kedalaman. Sebelum inkubasi, dilakukan pengukuran konsentrasi oksigen terlarut di perairan sebagai kandungan oksigen awal. Pengukuran oksigen di dalam botol bening kembali dilakukan setelah inkubasi. Selain oksigen terlarut, dilakukan juga pengukuran konsentrasi bikarbonat pada awal dan akhir inkubasi. Sebagai kontrol, inkubasi juga dilakukan pada air laut (mengandung fitoplankton) dengan 5 kali ulangan. Daun lamun yang telah digunakan untuk pengamatan serapan karbon diukur luasnya dengan cara men-scan daun lamun dan dianalisis menggunakan software Imaje-J. Selanjutnya dilakukan pengeringan menggunakan oven dan ditimbang untuk mengetahui biomassa keringnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa serapan karbon per tunas berkisar antara 0,928-1,476 mgCO2/tunas/jam, per biomassa berkisar 10,647-25,745 mgCO2/gbk/jam, dan per luas daun berkisar 0,010-0,024 mgCO2/cm2/jam. Serapan karbon tertinggi didapatkan pada kedalaman 200 cm, baik serapan karbon per tunas, biomass maupun luas daun.
Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan SPERMONDE, Volume 4; doi:10.20956/jiks.v4i1.3803
Hard coral Porites lutea is an animal that lives on the ocean floor. This species may live for years and accumulate heavy metals from its surrounding environments. The aims of this study was to know accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu) pollution by Porites lutea at different islands in Spermonde Archipelago waters. This study used field surveys around Laelae, Bonebatang and Badi Islands of South Sulawesi. Field parameters measured were oceanographic parameters, metals in water and sediment. Hard coral was extracted using nitric acid, then measured its heavy metal levels using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Several field parameters such as temperature, salinity, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen indicated no differences at each location, whereas the difference was observed in the values of Total Suspended Solid and dissolved oxygen. The results showed the accumulation of heavy metals in the skeleton of Porites lutea was Pb>Cu>Cd and Laelae>Bonebatang>Badi Island.