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Agustina P. Khumara, Henry Y. Mandalas,
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 233-241; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.41503

Abstract:
Herbal medicines such as Servo tomato containing flavonoids and saponins can increase the number of fibroblasts in the wound tissue, therefore, it can help to speed up wound healing time. This study aimed to determine the effect of servo tomato ethanol extract on wound healing time based on the day of the incision. This was a true laboratory experimental study using 30 male Wistar rats (Rattus Norvegicus) divided into six groups; each group consisted of five rats, Group I was given aquadest as a negative control, Group II was given 10% povidone iodine solution as a positive control, and Groups III-VI were given 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% solutions of Servo tomato ethanol extract, consecutively. The results showed that there were differences in the length of the incision wounds among groups from time to time as a response of wound healing. Incision wound length in Group VI (100%) after seven days had a mean of zero (0.00 mm). The ANOVA test resulted in a p-value of 0.1537 (<0.05) in the six treatment groups. The mean incision length was the shortest in the group applied with 100% Servo tomato ethanol extract. In conclusion, there was an effect of Servo tomato ethanol extract on incision wound healing time on the labial mucosa of male Wistar rats. Keywords: tomato ethanol extract; incision wound; healing time Abstrak: Tanaman herbal seperti tomat Servo yang mengandung flavonoid dan saponin dapat mening-katkan jumlah fibroblas dalam jaringan luka yang membantu mempercepat waktu penyembuhan luka.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak etanol tomat Servo terhadap waktu penyembuhan luka berdasarkan hari dilakukan insisi. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik dengan hewan coba tikus Wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus) berjumlah30 ekor, dibagi menjadi enam kelompok penelitian; setiap kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus. Kelompok I diberikan larutan aquadest sebagai kontrol negatif, kelompok II diberikan larutan povidone iodine 10% sebagai kontrol positif, dan kelompok III-VI diberikan larutan ekstrak etanol tomat Servo 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 100%. Hasil penelitianmendapatkan perbedaan panjang luka insisi antar kelompok dari waktu ke waktu sebagai respon penyembuhan luka. Panjang luka insisi pada kelompok VI (100%) setelah tujuh hari memiliki rerata nol (0,00 mm). Hasil uji ANOVA mendapatkan nilai p=0,1537<0,05 pada keenam kelompok perlakuan. Jumlah rerata panjang luka insisi paling kecil pada kelompok yang diaplikasikan dengan ekstrak etanol tomat Servo 100%. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat pengaruh ekstrak etanol tomat Servo (Solanum lycopersicum) terhadap panjang luka selama waktu penyembuhan luka insisi pada mukosa labial tikus Wistar jantan. Kata kunci: ekstrak etanol tomat; luka insisi; waktu penyembuhan
Niko Falatehan, Wilson Edric
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 227-232; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.41044

Abstract:
: Tooth loss experienced by elderly can be alleviated with complete denture usage. Good complete denture hygiene behaviour is achieved due to effective instructions from dentists. Generally, instructions are given verbally or written but they are often ineffective due to misunderstanding or being forgotten by patients. Educational video method can be used by dentists to enhance the complete denture hygiene instructions.This study aimed to determine the effect of instructions given through educational video method on the complete denture hygiene behaviours of the elderly. This was an experimental study with the one group pre and posttest approach. Respondents were elderly at Yayasan Bina Bhakti Nursing Home. Hygiene behaviour was measured using a questionnaire and data were processed with SPSS T-Wilcoxon test. Data collection was done twice with same respondents, before and after the instructions were given through video, with 3-week interval. The results showed that complete denture hygiene behaviour of the elderly at Yayasan Bina Bhakti Nursing Home was categorized initially as bad category, and improved to good category after the instructions were given through video. Better hygiene behaviour was found in the elderly respondents (60-74 years old). In conclusion, positive change in complete denture hygiene behaviour was observed in the eldery after instructions through video. Keywords: complete denture hygiene behavior; educational video method; elderly  Abstrak: Kehilangan gigi yang dialami oleh lanjut usia (lansia) dapat teratasi dengan penggunaan gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL). Perilaku pembersihan GTL yang baik tercipta melalui pemberian instruk-si yang efektif dari dokter gigi. Secara umum pemberian instruksi dapat secara lisan dan tulisan, namun seringkali hal tersebut kurang efektif karena dapat disalahartikan dan dilupakan oleh pasien. Penggunaan metode edukasi video dapat dimanfaatkan oleh dokter gigi untuk menunjang pemberian instruksi kepada pasien lansia mengenai pemeliharaan kebersihan GTL. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian instruksi melalui metode edukasi video terhadap perilaku pembersihan GTL pada lansia. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental dengan one group pre and posttest design. Perilaku lansia diukur menggunakan kuesioner dan data diproses dengan SPSS uji T-Wilcoxon. Pengambilan data dilakukan dua kali pertemuan dengan individu yang sama, sebelum dan setelah menerima instruksi melalui video dengan interval waktu tiga minggu. Responden penelitian ialah lansia di Panti Werdha Yayasan Bina Bhakti. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan perilaku pembersihan GTL dari responden sebelum diberikan instruksi berada pada kategori buruk dan terdapat peningkatan menjadi kategori baik setelah diberikan instruksi melalui video. Perilaku yang lebih baik ditemukan pada responden elderly (60-74 tahun). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat perubahan perilaku pembersihan GTL pada lansia setelah diberikan instruksi melalui metode edukasi video. Kata kunci: perilaku pembersihan GTL; metode edukasi video; lanjut usia
Milinia Mongkaren, Aurelia S. R. Supit, Christy N. Mintjelungan, Janno B. B. Bernadus
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 221-226; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.41029

Abstract:
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are transmitted through sexual contact, and can manifest in the oral cavity. This study aimed to determine the oral manifestations of STDs. This was a literature review study using two databases namely Google scholar and PubMed. The results obtained six cross-sectional studies. Oral manifestations that could occur in patients with STD were necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative stoma-titis, linear gingival erythema, oral candidiasis, sarcoma Kaposi, oral hairy leukoplakia, gonococcal stomatitis, chancre, condyloma acuminata, snail track, and gumma. Oral manifestations caused by bacteria were necrotizing ulcerative gingiva, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, necrotizing ulcera-tive stomatitis, gonococcal stomatitis, chancre, snail track, linear gingival erythema, and gumma. Oral manifestation caused by fungi was oral candidiasis and oral manifestations caused by viruses were oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, and condyloma acuminata. In conclusion, oral mani-festations of STDs can caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The most common oral manifestation of STDs is oral candidiasis. Keywords: oral manifestations; sexually transmitted diseases Abstrak: Penyakit menular seksual (PMS) merupakan infeksi yang ditularkan melalui hubungan seksual, yang dapat bermanifestasi pada rongga mulut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui manifestasi oral PMS. Jenis penelitian ialah suatu literature study. Penelitian ini mempelajari tentang manifestasi oral penyakit menular seksual dengan menggunakan database Google scholar dan PubMed serta tahun publikasi pustaka Februari 2011-September 2022. Hasil penelitian mendapat-kan sebanyak enam pustaka. Manifestasi oral yang terjadi pada pasien akibat infeksi PMS ialah necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, linear gingival erythema, oral candidiasis, sarcoma Kaposi, oral hairy leukoplakia, gonococcal stomatitis, chancre, Condyloma acuminata, snail track, dan gumma. Manifestasi oral yang disebabkan oleh bakteri ialah necrotizing ulcerative gingiva, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, gonococcal stomatitis, chancre, snail track, linear gingiva erythema, dan gumma. Manifestasi oral yang disebabkan oleh jamur ialah oral candidiasis dan manifestasi oral yang disebabkan oleh virus yaitu hairy leukoplakia,sarcoma Kaposi dan condyloma acuminata. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah manifestasi oral PMS dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri, jamur dan virus. Manifestasi oral yang terbanyak ditemui yaitu oral candidiasis. Kata kunci: manifestasi oral; penyakit menular seksual
Sarah Mersil, Nicholas Limanda
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 214-220; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.41102

Abstract:
Abstract: Cheilitis is an inflammation of the vermilion border of lips. Exfoliative cheilitis occurs on the upper and lower lips in the form of exfoliation of the keratinized surface’s lips, accompanied by redness and edema. We reported a 21-year-old female patient, a dental student, with a chief complaint of sores on the cracked lower and upper lips, and bleeding since two weeks ago. She was not sure when this condition started, but she had realized it for almost three years. The patient used to feel dry lips, therefore she licked and sucked her lips and then peeled the dry surface off. She did not drink enough water, did not like fruits and vegetables very well, and was allergic to certain lipsticks, so, she discontinued using it since one year ago. She treated her lips with lip balm, but it did not show any improvement. Extraoral examination showed that the lower lip was not covered by epithelia, there was a blackish red crust of 1 cm around the vermilion border mixed with exfoliating yellowish crust. Several fissures were seen on the upper and lower lips associated with erythema. This patient was diagnosed as exfoliative cheilitis and was managed with applying lip balm and triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, twice a day that showed satisfying result. In conclusion, in managing exfoliative cheilitis, the causative factors have to be determined and controlled, and administration of topical steroid and moisturizer showed significant improvement. Keywords: exfoliative cheilitis; steroids Abstrak: Keilitis adalah adanya inflamasi pada vermilion border bibir. Kasus keilitis eksfoliatif terjadi pada bibir atas dan bawah berupa pengelupasan permukaan keratin bibir, disertai adanya kemerahan dan edema pada bibir. Kami melaporkan kasus seorang pasien perempuan 21 tahun, mahasiswi, dengan keluhan sariawan di bibir bawah dan atas tampak pecah-pecah, berdarah dan perih sejak dua minggu lalu. Tidak diketahui pasti sejak kapan kondisi ini dialami, namun mulai disadari sejak sekitar tiga tahun. Pasien sering merasa bibir kering, sering menjilat/menghisap bibir kemudian mengelupasnya. Kurang minum air, kurang menyukai buah-buahan dan sayur, serta alergi pemakaian lipstik tertentu dan sudah dihentikan sejak satu tahun lalu. Sudah melakukan pengobatan dengan lip balm, namun tidak menunjukkan perubahan. Pemeriksaan klinis ekstraoral menunjukkan sebagian besar bibir bawah tidak tertutupi epitel, terdapat krusta merah kehitaman ±1cm sekitar batas vermilion bercampur dengan krusta kekuningan hampir mengelupas (eksfoliasi). Beberapa fisur terlihat pada bagian bibir atas dan bawah disertai eritema. Pasien didiagnosis sebagai keilitis eksfoliatif. Penatalaksanaan dengan melanjutkan pemakaian lip balm dan pemberian obat oles bibir triamcinolone acetonide 0,1%, dipakai dua kali sebelum penggunaan lip balm yang memberikan hasil memuaskan. Simpulan kasus ini ialah dalam penatalaksanaan kasus keilitis eksfoliatif harus ditentukan faktor penyebab dan dikendalikan. Pemberian steroid topikal dan pelembab memberikan perbaikan yang berarti. Kata kunci: keilitis eksfoliatif; steroid
Farrah F. Sumangando, Christy N. Mintjelungan, Damajanty H. C. Pangemanan
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 197-203; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40534

Abstract:
: Parental knowledge is very important in shaping behavior that supports or does not support oral and dental hygiene of children. The ability of parents to maintain the dental health of their children is strongly influenced by their level of education, age, marital status, occupation, and income. This study aimed to determine the level of parental knowledge about the maintenance of dental and oral hygiene in early childhood. This was a descriptive study with a cross sectional design. Respondents were mothers of early childhood children who had complete primary teeth with an age range of 3-5 years, and domiciled in Tosuraya Village, Ratahan, Southeast Minahasa. The results obtained 32 mothers as respondents. Mothers with children aged 3 years had the highest number of 17 respondents (53.1%). Based on maternal age, respondents at the age of 26-30 years were 12 people (37.5%), and of 21-25 years were 11 people (34.4%). The most frequent occupation of respondents was housewife amounted to 24 people (75%). The most common level of education was SMA/SMK (senior high school) with a total of 21 people (65.6%). In determination of parental category based on maternal education level, the most frequent was senior high school (43.75%) followed by D3/S1 (18.75%) belonged to good category with a total of 20 respondents (62,5%). In conclusion, most parents (mothers) had good category level of knowledge about the maintenance of dental and oral hygiene in early childhood. Keywords: parental knowledge; dental and oral hygiene Abstrak: Pengetahuan orang tua sangat penting dalam membentuk perilaku yang mendukung atau tidak mendukung kebersihan mulut dan gigi anak. Kemampuan orang tua dalam menjaga kesehatan gigi anak sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat pendidikan, usia, status pernikahan, pekerjaan, dan pendapatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat pengetahuan orang tua tentang pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut pada anak usia dini. Jenis penelitian ialah deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Responden ialah ibu dari anak usia dini yang telah memiliki gigi sulung lengkap dengan rentang usia 3-5 tahun dan berdomisili di Kelurahan Tosuraya, Kecamatan Ratahan, Kabupaten Minahasa Tenggara. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 32 orang ibu sebagai responden. Responden yang mempunyai anak usia 3 tahun ialah terbanyak dengan jumlah 17 orang (53,1%). Responden dengan usia ibu 26-30 tahun sebanyak 12 orang (37,5%), dan 21-25 tahun sebanyak 11 orang (34,4%). Pekerjaan responden sebagai ibu rumah tangga berjumlah 24 orang (75%), dan tingkat pendidikan terbanyak ialah SMA/SMK dengan jumlah 21 orang (65,6%). Pengukuran tingkat orang tua berdasarkan pendidikan ibu yang terbanyak ialah SMU/SMK (43,75%) diikuti D3/S1 (18,75%) tergolong kategori baik dengan total 20 responden (62,5%). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tingkat pengetahuan ibu tentang pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi dan mulut pada anak usia dini sebagian besar termasuk dalam kategori baik. Kata kunci: pengetahuan orang tua; kebersihan gigi dan mulut
Mila D. Yurisya, Diah A. Purbaningrum, Donna Hermawati, Gloria Fortuna
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 208-213; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40152

Abstract:
Eggshell is one of the natural wastes which if not treated properly can cause environ-mental pollution. Broiler eggshells consist mostly of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) that can be synthesized into CaO (calcium oxide) then be processed into Ca (calcium). Calcium has a function to fill the density of bones and teeth that affects their strength and hardness. This study aimed to determine the effect of soaking in broiler chicken eggshell solution on the hardness of tooth enamel. This was an experimental laboratory study with a posttest only control group design. Samples were 24 maxillary first premolar obtained from dental clinics, public health centers, and hospitals in Semarang, Indonesia. Samples were divided into four groups: control group and treatment groups 1, 2, and 3 (duration of soaking in eggshell solution for 2, 7, and 14 days. respectively). The one way ANOVA test resulted in a p-value of 0.000 which meant that there were significant differences in the four groups. The post hoc test showed a p-value of <0.05, which meant that there was a significant difference between the control group (artificial saliva) and the treatment groups of 2.7 and 14 days. In conclusion, chicken eggshell solution has an effect on increasing the hardness of tooth enamel. Keywords: tooth enamel; hardness of tooth enamel; chicken eggshell   Abstrak: Cangkang telur merupakan salah satu limbah alam yang apabila tidak diolah dengan baik dapat menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan. Komposisi cangkang telur ayam ras sebagian besar terdiri dari CaCO3 (kalsium karbonat) yang dapat disintesis menjadi CaO (kalsium oksida) dan selanjutnya diolah menjadi Ca (kalsium). Kalsium memiliki fungsi untuk mengisi kepadatan tulang dan gigi yang memengaruhi kekuatan serta kekerasannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman larutan cangkang telur ayam ras terhadap kekerasan enamel gigi. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik dengan posttestonly control group design. Sampel penelitian ialah 24 gigi premolar satu rahang atas yang didapatkan dari klinik praktek dokter gigi, puskesmas dan rumah sakit di Kota Semarang. Sampel dibagi atas empat kelompok: kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakuan 1, 2, dan 3 (perendaman dalam larutan cangkang telur ayam ras selama 2, 7, dan 14 hari berturut). Hasil uji ANOVA one way memperoleh nilai p=0,000 yang berarti bahwa terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada keempat kelompok. Uji post hoc menunjukkan nilai p<0,05 yang berarti terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kelompok kontrol (perendaman saliva artificial) dan kelompok perlakuan (perendaman larutan cangkang telur ayam ras 2, 7 dan 14 hari). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah perendaman dalam larutan cangkang telur ayam ras berpengaruh dalam peningkatan kekerasan enamel gigi. Kata kunci: enamel gigi; kekerasan enamel gigi; cangkang telur ayam ras
Intan Wijayanthy, Atia N. Sidiqa
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 204-207; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40506

Abstract:
: Malocclusion can cause oral problems inter alia traumatic ulcers. The clinical appearance of traumatic ulcers is non-specific depending on the etiology. The ulcer has a smooth surface, yellowish base and red margin, and no induration. We reported a case of traumatic ulcer associated with class I malocclusion of Angle type I. The chief complaint was a sore lesion on the left part of the inner lower lip since two days ago due to being bitten while eating. Based on the anamnesis and clinical examination, the diagnosis of this case was traumatic ulcer with a predisposing factor of class I malocclusion of Angle type I. The management of this case was application of a covering agent, an antiseptic mouthwash, multivitamin consumption, and orthodontic treatments to manage the malocclusion in preventing the recurrence of the traumatic ulcer. In conclusion, the management of a traumatic ulcer case requires attention to the overall condition of the oral cavity by considering all the predisposition factors. Dentists must be able to recognize and to manage such case properly. Keywords: malocclusion; traumatic ulcer   Abstrak: Maloklusi dapat menyebabkan masalah rongga mulut, salah satunya ulkus traumatik. Gambaran klinis ulkus traumatik bentuknya tidak spesifik tergantung pada etiologinya. Ulkus memiliki permukaan halus, dasar lesi berwarna kekuningan dengan margin merah, serta tidak terdapat indurasi. Kami melaporkan kasus seorang pasien dengan ulkus traumatik disertai maloklusi kelas I tipe I Angle. Pasien datang dengan keluhan terdapat sariawan pada bibir bawah bagian dalam kiri sejak dua hari lalu karena tergigit saat sedang makan. Dari hasil anamnesis dan pemeriksaan klinis, didapatkan diagnosis penyakit pasien ini ialah ulkus traumatik dengan faktor predisposisi maloklusi kelas I tipe I Angle. Penatalaksanaan kasus ini menggunakan covering agent, obat kumur antiseptik, multivitamin, serta serangkaian perawatan ortodontik untuk mencegah rekurensi ulkus traumatik. Simpulan studi ini ialah penatalaksanaan kasus ulkus traumatik memerlukan perhatian terhadap keadaan rongga mulut pasien secara menyeluruh dengan mempertimbangkan segala factor predisposisi. Dokter gigi harus mampu mengenali dan menangani kasus demikian secara tepat. Kata kunci: maloklusi; ulkus traumatik
Desak Nyoman A. Susanti, Putri Rejeki, Alexander K. Wijaya
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 188-196; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40883

Abstract:
Dentist has a high risk of being infected of COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the practice modification efforts carried out by dentists in Badung regency in facing the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a mixed method design with a sequential explanatory strategy. Quantitative research was conducted with a questionnaire that was arranged based on PB PDGI guidelines and has been tested for validity and reliability with 72 respondents. Qualitative research was conducted by doing in-depth interview with two informants who had filled out the questionnaire to find out the reasons for the choice of answers and the possibility of other practice modifications carried out. The results showed that modifications to patient management procedures have been carried out such as screening the patients, asking patients to wash their hands, limiting the distance in the waiting room, and measuring body temperature. Modifications to the transmission prevention management carried out by dentists such as the use of complete PPE, limiting the duration of contact with patients, asking patients to rinse their mouth with povidone iodine, and installing exhaust fans in the practice room. The modifications that are slightly carried out are delaying the elective treatment and the use of rubber dams. In conclusion, dentists in Badung regency have made 83% modifications to patient management procedures and 93% modifications to the transmission prevention management recommended by PDGI, while the use of rubber dam is the least modification effort done because dentists are not used to it. Keywords: COVID-19; dentist; practice modification Abstrak: Dokter gigi merupakan profesi yang memiliki risiko tinggi tertular Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui upaya modifikasi praktik yang dilakukan dokter gigi di Kabupaten Badung dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19. Desain penelitian ialah mixed method dengan strategi eksplanatoris sekuensial. Penelitian kuantitatif dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner yang disusun berdasarkan pedoman PB PDGI dan telah diuji validitas dan reliabilitasnya dengan 72 responden. Penelitian kualitatif dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam kepada dua orang informan yang telah mengisi kuesioner untuk mengetahui alasan pilihan jawaban serta kemungkinan modifikasi praktik lainnya yang dilakukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan modifikasi prosedur tata kelola pasien yang telah dilakukan seperti melakukan skrining pasien, meminta pasien mencuci tangan, membatasi jarak di ruang tunggu, dan pengukuran suhu tubuh. Modifikasi tata laksana pencegahan transmisi yang dilakukan dokter gigi seperti penggunaan APD lengkap, membatasi durasi kontak dengan pasien, meminta pasien berkumur dengan povidone iodine, serta pemasangan exhaust fan di ruang praktik. Modifikasi yang masih sedikit dilakukan yaitu penundaan perawatan yang bersifat elektif serta penggunaan rubber dam. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah dokter gigi di Kabupaten Badung telah melakukan 83% modifikasi prosedur tata kelola pasien dan 93% modifikasi tata laksana pencegahan transmisi yang direkomendasikan oleh PDGI, sedangkan penggunaan rubber dam merupakan upaya modifikasi yang paling sedikit dilakukan (33%) dikarenakan dokter gigi belum terbiasa. Kata kunci: COVID-19; dokter gigi; modifikasi praktik
Neira N. Sakinah, Yuliana M. D. Arina, Depi Praharani, Peni Pujiastuti, Desi S. Sari, Melok A. Wahyukundari
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 182-187; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.40683

Abstract:
: Recently, the need for orthodontic treatment has increased along with the increasing need and public awareness of the importance of dental and oral health. During treatment, problems sometimes occur with periodontal tissue. Orthodontic devices that bond to the tooth surface can cause difficulties in controlling plaque, especially in marginal areas which can cause inflammation and gingival overgrowth. Too high tensile strength and weak tissue capacity are also the factors that can cause gingival overgrowth. This case report described the management of gingival growth in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment. We reported an 18-year-old female patient with a good systemic condition that had gingival overgrowth localized on the anterior part of mandibula. The surgical intervention was performed by using conventional surgical methods. Its goal was to remove the gingival pocket, therefore, the plaque could be easily controlled. The use of a scalpel was considered very effective for eliminating excessive gingiva. Two weeks after surgical treatment, the gum resulted in good repair. The continuity of orthodontic treatment could be achieved properly after 3-month surgical treatment. Instructions and motivation to maintain oral hygiene were important to avoid recurrence. In addition, multidisciplinary dentistry between orthodontist and periodontist was needed to achieve a better result. Keywords: gingival overgrowth; gingivectomy; orthodontic appliance
Azkya D. M. Latupeirissa, Calvin Kurnia,
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 168-175; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39786

Abstract:
: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microorganisms resulting in progres-sive damage of periodontal tissue. One of the main pathogens is Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontal disease can be treated with antibiotics but they have side effects and cause bacterial resistance. Herbal plants that can be used as alternative medicine, inter alia, lemon peel (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck). Its active compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and triterpenoids have antibacterial effects. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of lemon peel (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) against Porphyromonas gingivalis in several concentrations of 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The method used in this study was the broth microdilution test to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).The results showed that MIC was at a concentration of 2.5% with an inhibition result of 75.80% and MBC at a concentration of 10% with an inhibition result of 99.53%. In conclusion, lemon peel extract (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) had antibacterial effectiveness against Porphyromonas gingivalis.Keywords:lemon peel extract (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck; periodontitis; Porphyromonasgingivalis Abstrak: Periodontitis merupakan penyakit inflamasi yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme sehingga terjadinya kerusakan progresif pada jaringan periodontal. Salah satu patogen utama ialah Porphyromonas gingivalis. Penyakit periodontal dapat diobati dengan antibiotik namun memiliki efek samping dan resistensi bakteri. Tumbuhan herbal yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengobatan alternatif ialah kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) yang memiliki senyawa aktif seperti flavonoid, tanin, steroid dan triterpenoid yang mengandung efek antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak etanol kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) terhadap Porphyromonas gingivalis pada konsentrasi 0,625%, 1,25%, 2,5%, 5%, dan 10%. Metode yang digunakan ialah uji broth microdilution untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) dan konsentrasi bunuh minimum (KBM) berdasarkan Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Hasil penelitian pada berbagai konsentrasi yang diujikan menunjukkan bahwa KHM berada pada konsentrasi 2,5% dengan hasil inhibisi 75,80% dan KBM pada konsentrasi 10% dengan hasil inhibisi 99,53%. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah ekstrak kulit jeruk lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) memiliki efektivitas antibakteri terhadap Porphyromonas gingivalis. Kata kunci:ekstrak kulit jeruk lemon(Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck; periodontitis; Porphyromonas gingivalis
Christian F. Poluan, Pritartha S. Anindita, Christy N. Mintjelungan
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 176-181; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39676

Abstract:
: Dry socket is delayed healing of a socket resulted from extraction due to the release of blood clot leaving visible bone surface. There are several risk factors of dry socket such as dentistry skills, perioperative infection, gender, extraction site, use of oral contraceptives, smoking, use of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors, and position of impacted third molars. The risk of dry socket in smokers is greater than in non-smokers. This study aimed to obtain the occurrence of dry socket in smokers after odontectomy. This was a literature review study using databases of Google Scholar, PubMed, and Clinical Key. The results obtained 10 articles that were relevant to the topic of discussion. The incidence of dry socket was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The high incidence of dry socket in smokers was influenced by the ingredients contained in cigarettes, among others, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Nicotine affected the rate of epithelialization and blood flow, carbon monoxide caused a decrease in oxygen levels, and hydrogen cyanide could damage the metabolism of cellular respiration. These were related to the phase of wound healing at the stage of inflammation and epithelialization of fibroplasia. In conclusion, the incidence of dry socket after odontectomy is more common in smokers than in non-smokers. Keywords: dry socket; smoking; odontectomy  Abstrak: Dry socket merupakan keadaan penyembuhan soket bekas pencabutan yang tertunda karena lepasnya bekuan darah sehingga permukaan tulang terlihat. Terdapat beberapa faktor risiko terjadinya dry socket seperti keterampilan dokter gigi, infeksi perioperatif, jenis kelamin, lokasi pen-cabutan, penggunaan oral kontrasepsi, merokok, penggunaan anestesi lokal dengan vasokonstriktor, dan posisi gigi molar ketiga yang mengalami impaksi. Risiko terjadinya dry socket pada perokok lebih besar dibandingkan bukan perokok. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kejadian dry socket pada perokok pasca tindakan odontektomi. Jenis penelitian berupa literature review menggunakan database Google Scholar, PubMed, dan Clinical Key. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 10 artikel yang relevan dengan topik bahasan. Kejadian dry socket lebih sering terjadi pada perokok dibandingkan non perokok. Tingginya kejadian dry socket pada perokok dipengaruhi oleh kandung-an rokok antara lain, nikotin, karbon monoksida, dan hidrogen sianida. Nikotin berpengaruh terha-dap penurunan laju epitelisasi dan aliran darah, karbon monoksida menyebabkan penurunan kadar oksigen, dan hidorgen sianida dapat merusak metabolisme respirasi seluler. Bahan-bahan ini berkaitan dengan fase penyembuhan luka pada tahap inflamasi dan epitelisasi fibroplasia. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah kejadian dry socket pasca tindakan odontektomi lebih tinggi pada perokok dibandingkan non perokok Kata kunci: dry socket;merokok; odontektomi
Florenly Florenly, Novelya Novelya, Mizeli Janiar, Miranda Miranda, Le Quang Phan Dang Hai, Phang Minh Quang
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 154-161; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39014

Abstract:
Streptococcus mutans is a type of bacterium that initiates plaque formation on the tooth surface causing tooth decay, meanwhile, Staphylococcus aureus causes pyogenic infections such as abscesses to necrosis. Green betel leaf (Piper betle L.) contains secondary meta-bolites that have the potential as antibacterial. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L.) in micro and nano sizes against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. This was an experimental and laboratory study with a post-test-only design. The results showed that nano-green betel leaf extracts had antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Green betel leaf extract had a much larger inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus rather than against Streptococcus mutans in all groups (p<0.05), with inhibitory diameters of 13,883±1.1496 mm (micro 10%), 16,767± 1.8779 mm (micro 30%), and 18.667±3.148 mm (nano), respectively. A stable increase in antibacterial activity was derived from micro-green betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) concentrations of 10%, 30%, and nanoparticle size. In conclusion, nano-green betel leaf extract (Piper betle L.) showed better antibacterial effectiveness than micro-sizes in inhibiting Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Keywords: Piper betle L.; nanoparticles; antibacterial; Streptococcus mutans; Staphylococcus aureus
Kresna A. G. Samudra, Abdul G. Soulissa, Amelia S. Widyarman
Published: 6 June 2022
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 162-167; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i2.39052

Abstract:
: Shrimp shell (carapace) contains chitosan which is reported to have antibacterial property against periodontal bacteria. This study aimed to determine the antibiofilm efficacy of chitosan obtained from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)against Aggregatibacter action-mycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola in vitro. The antibiofilm activity was tested using crystal violet biofilm assay with variations of chitosan concentrations, as follows: 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1%. Chlorhexidine 0.2% was used as the positive control and acetate 1% as the negative control with 3-hour-treatment period. The biofilm optical density was analyzed using microplate reader with 490 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed statistically using One Way-ANOVA with the significance level of p<0.05. The result showed that all concentrations of chitosan were able to inhibit the biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans and T. denticola. The most effective concentration was 0.6% for both bacteria. In conclusion, Penaeus monodon chitosan has been proved to inhibit the biofilm formation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetem-comitans and Treponema denticola in vitro. Further study is needed to confirm this result with other oral bacteria.Keywords:chitosan of Penaeus monodon;Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans;Treponema denticola; biofilm Abstrak: Limbah kulit udang (carapace) mengandung kitosan yang memiliki sifat antibakteri yang dapat digunakan untuk melawan bakteri periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menge-tahui efek antibiofilm dari kitosan udang windu (Penaeus monodon) terhadap Aggregatibacter. actinomycetemcomitans dan Treponema denticola in vitro. Uji antibiofilm menggunakan metode biofilm assay dengan variasi konsentrasi kitosan: 0,2%, 0,4%, 0,6%, 0,8%, dan 1%. Kontrol positif menggunakan klorheksidin 0,2% dan kontrol negatif menggunakan asetat 1% pada perlakuan waktu 3 jam. Pengukuran optical density biofilm menggunakan microplate reader pada panjang gelombang 490 nm. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis sidik ragam satu arah dengan nilai kemaknaan p<0,05. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa semua konsentrasi kitosan dapat mengurangi perlekatan pertumbuhan biofilm A. Actinomycetemcomitansdan T. denticola. Kon-sentrasi paling optimalialah pada konsentrasi 0,6% untuk keduanya. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah kitosan Penaeus monodon mampu menghambat perlekatan pertumbuhan biofilm pada Aggregatibacter. actinomycetemcomitans dan Treponema denticolasecara in vitro. Dibutuhkan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk mengonfirmasi hasil ini menggunakan strain bakteri patogen rongga mulut lainnya. Kata kunci: kitosan Penaeus monodon; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans;Treponema denticola; biofilm
Theodora A. Dwiarie, , Wahyu Hidayat
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 149-153; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39267

Abstract:
: Recurrent intraoral herpes (RIH) is a reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) and is treated with an antiviral. In this pandemic situation, limited access to health care may lead to many consequences. This case report reports the difference in clinical response between acyclovir and valacyclovir in RIH and treatment in the pandemic situation. A 24 years old man complained of ulcers and pain in the mouth in the last two weeks. The patient had a history of recurrent ulcers since a year ago. Intraoral examination showed multiple ulcers, with erythema halo, 0.2-0.3 cm in diameters on the tongue, uvula, and pharynx. The patient had difficulty in eating. The IgG anti-HSV 1 test showed a positive result, and the lesions were diagnosed as RIH. The patient was treated with acyclovir, benzylamine HCl, and vitamin B12. One month after treatment, the lesions improved, but new lesions still emerged. Therefore, valacyclovir was substituted for acyclovir. Since the patient had difficulty in going to the hospital due to the lockdown policy, medication for two weeks was prescribed for him. One month after treatment with valacyclovir, there was no more new lesion emerging. In conclusion, there was a difference in clinical response between acyclovir and valacyclovir. It is assumed that the patient has resistancy to acyclovir which resulting in poor improvement. The pandemic condition forces us to be flexible in handling patients and adapting to government conditions and rules. Keywords: recurrent intraoral herpes; acyclovir; valacyclovir
Arofi Kurniawan, Shintya R. A Agitha, An'Nisaa Chusida, Beta N. Rizky, Beshlina F. W. R. Prakoeswa, Salma Nailah, Romario G. A Singarimbun, Mieke S. Margaretha
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 144-148; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39553

Abstract:
Dental age estimation methods have been developed in such a way as to fulfill various requirements of medico-legal, law enforcement, and victim identification in mass disasters. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Willems dental age estimation method for children in Indonesia. The estimated dental age (EDA) was assessed using the Willems method by two examiners. The statistical analysis was carried out using IBM® SPSS® Statistics version 23.0 (IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). The results obtained 92 panoramic radiographs ranging in age from 8 to 14 years from the Departments of Forensic Odontology and Radiology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. The average chronological age (CA) of the subjects in this study was 11.30+1.43 years for boys and 11.65+1.55 years for girls. The overall mean differences between the CA and the EDA for boys and girls were -0.08+0.76 and -0.31+0.97. In this study, the mean age difference was more significant in girls than in boys. The difference in growth spurt timing between boys and girls may explain the difference in dental maturation, as girls begin their pubertal growth spurt about two years earlier than boys. In general, girls' dental development begins and ends earlier than boys'.In conclusion, the dental age estimation method proposed by Willems can be applied to boys, as there is no significant statistical difference. However, when applying this method to girls, a thorough analysis may be required. Keywords: chronological age; dental age; forensic odontology; human rights; justice
Avina A. Nasia, Anisa N. Rosyidah, Nabhani Ibrahim
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 135-143; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39126

Abstract:
: Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children is affected by several factors inter alia characteristics of children and environmental factors including parental health behavior. This study aimedto assess the relationship between parental health behavior and OHRQoL among preschoolers. This was an observational study using cross sectional design. This study was conducted through interviews with 177 parents of preschoolers (5-6 years old) in Semarang using a questionnaire on parental behavior related to oral health that had been tested for validity and reliability and the Early Childhood Oral Impact Scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire. The Spearman correlation test analysis was used to assess the relationship between variables. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the relationship between knowledge and action aspects with all ECOHIS score domains. However, there was a significant relationship between aspects of parental attitudes and the subdomain of self-image and social interaction, in particular avoiding speaking (p<0.05). In conclusion, there is no significant difference in the relationship between parental behavior and OHRQoL among preschoolers. However, parental attitudes potentially affect self-image and social interaction of the preschoolers. Keywords: OHRQoL; quality of life; ECOHIS; preschoolers Abstrak: Kualitas hidup terkait kesehatan gigi dan mulut/oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) pada anak-anak dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, yaitu kondisi karakteristik anak dan faktor lingkungan, termasuk perilaku kesehatan orang tua. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan perilaku kesehatan orang tua dengan kualitas hidup terkait kesehatan gigi dan mulut anak-anak usia prasekolah di Semarang. Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui wawancara dengan 177 orang tua yang mempunyai anak usia prasekolah (5-6 tahun) di Semarang dengan menggunakan kuesioner perilaku orang tua terkait kesehatan gigi dan mulut yang telah diuji validitas dan reliabilitas, serta kuesioner Early Childhood Oral Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Analisis uji korelasi Spearman digunakan untuk menilai hubungan antar variabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak didapatkan perbedaan bermakna pada hubungan aspek pengetahuan dan tindakan dengan semua domain skor ECOHIS. Namun, terdapat hubungan bermakna antara aspek sikap orang tua dengan subdomain citra diri dan interaksi sosial yaitu menghindari berbicara (p<0.05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada hubungan perilaku orang tua dengan kualitas hidup terkait gigi dan mulut pada anak. Namun, komponen sikap orang tua berhubungan dengan sub domain citra diri dan interaksi sosial. Kata kunci: OHRQoL; kualitas hidup; ECOHIS; anak usia prasekolah
Pratiwi Soesilawati, Anita Yuliati, Fany Fandani, Noor Z. S. Prabowo, Tamariska Tamariska, Rizki F. Salma, Felia L. Dewi, Padma C. Pertiwi
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 129-134; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39183

Abstract:
Impacted wisdom teeth is a condition where the third molars experience malposition. Changes in dietary patterns are one of the reasons of impaction, as they result in less space for tooth growth. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between diet and wisdom teeth. This was a narrative review study using databases of Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Pubmed (MEDLINE) with a publication period between 2010-2019. The keywords used were amelogenesis imperfecta, enamel, and genes. The results showed that the definition of impaction was a condition that caused a tooth to fail to reach its functional position. Third molars, canines, and premolars were the most frequently impacted teeth. At present, evolution causes a reduction in the jaw dimensions due to dietary factors, namely the nature of the food or the level of utilization of chewing tools that affect the eruption of wisdom teeth. In conclusion, the modern diet results in the loss of growth stimulation in the jaw, which is a risk factor for non-eruption wisdom teeth that will cause impacted wisdom teeth. Keywords: wisdom teeth; diet; impaction
Dewi L. I Nasution, Herryawan Herryawan, Afifah B. Sutjiatmo, Suci N. Vikasari, Nanda T. Warizky
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 121-128; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39103

Abstract:
: Red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) is often used as an alternative herbal medicine, however, it has to be tested to determine the safety and effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of red betel leaf extract on repeated use viewed from death, body weight change, and relative organ index in Wistar rats. This was an in vivo experimental study using pre test-post test control design. Samples were 40 Wistar rats divided into four groups; each group consisted of five male rats and five female rats. The control group was given carboxymethylcellulose natrium (CMC-Na) 0.5%, meanwhile the test group was given red betel leaf extract with doses of 100, 400, and 1000 mg/kg BW by using an oral probe for 14 days. All samples were observed for death, body weight change, and relative organ index. The results showed that all doses of red betel leaf extract did not cause any death in 40 samples; did not cause significant change in body weight in male rats but resulted in significant body weight changes in female rats; did not cause any significant difference in the relative organ index in male and female rats. In conclusion, red betel leaf extract (Piper crocatum) is safe as an herbal adjunctive therapy for periodontal pocket. Keywords: red betel leaf; periodontal pocket; multiple repeated doses Abstrak: Daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) sering dijadikan sebagai alternatif obat herbal. Penggunaannya harus diuji terlebih dahulu untuk mengetahui keamanan dan efektivitasnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek ekstrak sirih merah (Piper crocatum) pada penggunaan berulang ditinjau dari kematian, perubahan berat badan, dan indeks organ relatif pada tikus galur Wistar. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik dengan rancangan penelitian pre test-post test control secara in vivo. Pengujian ekstrak daun sirih merah dilakukan terhadap 40 ekor hewan uji tikus galur Wistar yang dikelompokkan menjadi delapan kelompok, masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor tikus jantan dan lima ekor tikus betina. Kelompok kontrol diberikan carboxymethylcellulose natrium (CMC-Na) 0,5%. Kelompok uji diberikan sediaan uji ekstrak daun sirih merah secara berulang dengan dosis 100, 400, dan 1000 mg/kg BB menggunakan sonde oral selama 14 hari. Pada hewan uji yang diamati ialah kematian, perubahan berat badan. dan indeks organ relatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih merah dengan dosis 100, 400, 1000 mg/kg BB pada 40 ekor tikus tidak menimbulkan kematian; tidak menimbulkan perubahan berat badan yang bermakna pada tikus jantan namun menimbulkan perubahan berat badan yang bermakna pada tikus betina; dan tidak menimbulkan perbedaan bermakna pada indeks organ relatif tikus jantan dan betina. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah pemberian ekstrak daun sirih merah (Piper crocatum) aman sebagai terapi tambahan herbal untuk poket periodontal.Kata kunci: daun sirih merah; dosis berulang
Putu Ratna K. Giri, Mia Ayustina, Iga F. N. Sidiartha, Made Ayu N. K. Yadnya
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 115-120; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37377

Abstract:
: Root canal treatment is carried out in three stages of treatment: cleaning and shaping, sterilization, and root canal filling. A good root canal filling should be hermetic or fill the pulp chamber vertically and horizontally. The most biocompatible root canal filling material is gutta percha. Moreover, an additional sealer is required to fill the gap between the root canal wall and gutta percha. This study aimed to determine the difference in density of vertical and horizontal root canal filling using epoxy resin and calcium hydroxide sealer. This was an experimental study using the post test only control group design. Single root teeth that had been prepared using the crown down pressure technique (Protaper FHU, Dentsply) were randomly divided into two groups namely epoxy resin and calcium hydroxide sealer groups, each of 15 samples. The samples were soaked then the entire root surfaces were coated with two layers of nail varnish. Afterwards the penetration of methylene blue was measured. The result of the paired sample T-test showed pvalues of >0.05 for differences in density of vertical and horizontal filling. In conclusion, there is no significant difference in the density of single root canal filling vertically or horizontally using epoxy resin and calcium hydroxide sealers. Keywords: root canal filling; apical filling density; sealer Abstrak: Perawatan saluran akar dilakukan dalam tiga tahap perawatan yaitu pembersihan dan pembentukan, sterilisasi, dan pengisian saluran akar. Pengisian saluran akar yang baik harus hermetis atau memenuhi ruang pulpa secara vertikal dan horizontal. Bahan pengisi inti saluran akar yang paling biokompa-tibel dan digunakan hingga saat ini ialah gutta percha, namun diperlukan tambahan siler untuk mengisi celah yang terdapat antara dinding saluran akar dan gutta percha. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menetukan perbedaan kerapatan pengisian saluran akar secara vertikal dan horizontal menggunakan siler resin epoksidin dan kalsium hidroksida. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik dengan posttest only control group design. Sampel penelitian ialah gigi akar tunggal yang telah dipreparasi dengan teknik crown down presurless (Protaper Hand Use, Dentsply), dibagi menjadi dua kelompok secara random yaitu kelompok siler kalsium hidroksida dan kelompok siler resin epoksidin, masing-masing 15 sampel. Setelah perendaman sampel, seluruh permukaan akar dilapisi dengan nail varnish (dua lapisan), kemudian dilakukan pengukuran penetrasi metilen biru. Hasil uji paired sample T-test mendapatkan nilai p>0,5 untuk perbedaan kerapatan pengisian baik horizontal maupun vertikal. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna dari kerapatan hasil pengisian saluran akar teknik single cone dilihat secara vertikal dan horizontal menggunakan siler resin epoksidin dan kalsium hidroksida. Kata kunci: pengisian saluran akar; kerapatan penutupan apikal; siler
Verent Febrianto, Susanti Bulan, Dian Lesmana
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 109-114; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39156

Abstract:
Incision wounds in dentistry can be caused by several procedures inter alia incision of abscess, odontectomy, extraoral incision, parotidectomy, and others. Certain drugs are needed to accelerate wound healing and prevent infection. Generally, anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids and non-steroids are given to accelerate wound healing. Herbal remedies such as black cumin extract can also be an alternative to be applied topically. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of black cumin extract on closure time of incision wound on the back of male Swiss Webster mice. This was a laboratory and experimental study. Subjects were 36 Swiss Webster mice divided into two groups. Incision wounds were performed on the back of each subjects. Group I was not given any treatment meanwhile group II was treated with topical application of black cumin extract. The Mann Whitney test showed that the mean wound closure time of group II was 9.7 days, meanwhile of group I was 12.7 days (p=0.0000855). In conclusion, there was a significant effect of black cumin extract on the closure time of the incision wound on the back of Swiss Webster mice which resulted in the fastest complete wound closure on the 8th day. Keywords: black cumin extract; wound closure time Abstrak: Luka insisi dalam bidang kedokteran gigi dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai prosedur, seperti insisi abses, odontektomi, insisi ekstraoral, parotidektomi, dan sebagainya. Pemberian obat diperlukan untuk mempercepat penyembuhan luka dan mencegah terjadinya infeksi. Umumnya, obat anti-inflamasi seperti steroid maupun nonsteroid dapat diberikan untuk mempercepat penyembuhan luka. Obat herbal seperti ekstrak jintan hitam dapat menjadi alternatif yang diaplikasikan secara topikal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap waktu penutupan luka insisi pada punggung mencit Swiss Webster jantan. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik. Subyek penelitian berjumlah 36 ekor mencit Swiss Webster jantan yang dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Semua subyek dibuat luka insisi pada punggung. Kelompok I tidak diberikan perlakuan sedangkan kelompok II diberi perlakuan aplikasi ekstrak jintan hitam secara topikal. Hasil uji Mann-Whitney menunjukkan rerata waktu penutupan luka insisi kelompok II ialah 9,7 hari, sedangkan pada kelompok I 12,7 hari (nilai p=0,0000855). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat pengaruh bermakna dari ekstrak jintan hitam terhadap waktu penutupan luka insisi pada punggung mencit Swiss Webster yaitu terjadi penutupan luka sempurna paling cepat pada hari ke-8. Kata kunci: ekstrak jintan hitam; waktu pentupan luka
Garina Salsabila, Abdul G. Soulissa, Armelia S. Widyarman
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 103-108; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39050

Abstract:
: Commonly, periodontal disease is caused by bacteria in subgingival plaque, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Treponema denticola. Rambutan leaf (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contains phenolic compounds that can act as antibacterial; therefore, it can be an alternative for chemical treatment of this disease. This study aimed to determine the effect of rambutan leaf extract against A. actinomycetemcomitans and T. denticola biofilm adhesion. This was an experimental and laboratory study using the post-test only control group design. The biofilm adhesion resistance test was done by using the biofilm assay method with crystal violet staining in 24 hours of incubation time. The material used was rambutan leaf extract in concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.125%. The optical density of biofilm was measured by using a microplate reader with a wavelength of 490 nm. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc LSD (p<0.05). The results showed that rambutan leaf extract was most effective in inhibiting biofilm adhesion at 100% of concentration with an average optical density of 0.028 against A. actino-mycetemcomitans,and at 50% concentration with an average OD of 0.120 against T. denticola. In conclusion, rambutan leaf extract can inhibit biofilm adhesion of Aggregatibacter actinomycetem-comitans and Treponema denticola.Keywords:periodontal disease; rambutan leaf extract; Nephelium lappaceum L.; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Treponema denticola Abstrak: Umumnya penyakit periodontal disebabkan oleh bakteri pada plak subgingiva, seperti Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans dan Treponema denticola. Alternatif untuk perawatan kimiawi penyakit ini dapat berupa obat herbal, seperti daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.). Ekstrak daun rambutan mengandung senyawa fenolik yang berkhasiat sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek ekstrak daun rambutan terhadap perlekatan biofilm A. actinomycetemcomitans dan T. denticola. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratoris dengan post-test only control group design. Uji hambatan perlekatan biofilm dilakukan dengan metode biofilm assay dan pewarnaan crystal violet dalam masa inkubasi 24 jam. Bahan uji ialah ekstrak daun rambutan konsentrasi 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, dan 3,125%. Optical density biofilm kedua jenis bakteridiukur menggunakan microplate reader dengan panjang gelombang 490 nm. Data dianalisis dengan uji ANOVA satu jalan dan Post-Hoc LSD (p<0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak daun rambutan paling efektif dalam menghambat perlekatan biofilm pada konsentrasi 100% dengan rerata optical density 0,028 terhadap A. actinomycetemcomitans dan konsentrasi 50% dengan rerata OD 0,120 terhadap T. denticola. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah ekstrak daun rambutan dapat menghambat perlekatan biofilm Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitansdan Treponema denticola.Kata kunci: penyakit periodontal; ekstrak daun rambutan; Nephelium lappaceum L.; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Treponema denticola
Florenly Florenly, Cindy D. Wijaya, Kelvin Kelvin, Nguyen P. G. Bao, Pham C. T. Dung
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 95-102; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39001

Abstract:
: Oral biofilm containing microorganisms is responsible for various oral infections and inflammatory diseases. Bioactive compounds found in rambutan peel extracts (Nephelium lappaceum L) has antibacterial properties. Nanoparticle sizes were known to have the greater capability as an a antimicrobial. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of rambutan peel extracts (RPEs) in micro-particles with nanoparticles against oral bacteria, i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. This was a laboratory experimental study with a post-test-only design conducted by using RPEs in microparticles (62.5 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL) and nanoparticles (26.5 mg/mL). The particle sizes were measured; the active compound screening was carried out with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS); and the antibacterial activities were tested with the disc diffusion method. The particle size distribution for RPEs with microparticles was measured at 2489 nm, whereas the nanoparticle at 7.491 nm. The GC-MS results demonstrated that both microparticles and nanoparticle RPEs contained oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and decanoic acid. A higher percentage of oleic acid was found in nanoparticles of RPEs. There was a significant difference between microparticles of RPEs of 62.5 mg/mL (12.83±1.532) and nanoparticles (16.25±1.529). This study demonstrated that inhibitory power increased along with the elevation of RPEs’ concentration as the number of chemi-cal components intensified. The ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test showed significant differences in the effectiveness of RPEs in nanoparticles groups compared to microparticles 62.5 mg/ml against S. mutans (p<0.05). and S. aureus (p<0.05). In conclusion, RPEs were more effective in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus than Streptococcus mutans. Keywords: nanoparticles; rambutan peels; Nephelium lappaceum L;antibacterial activity; Streptococcus mutans; Staphylococcus aureus
Nicholaus Sandy, Mita Juliawati, Lia H. Andayani
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 88-94; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.39018

Abstract:
: Patient satisfaction is a comparison between the patient’s perception of the service received and their expectation before getting the service. The level of patient satisfaction is very important because it could be a measure of the success of a health care facility. The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on patient satisfaction due to changes in the service flow. This study aimed to determine the level of patient satisfaction with dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is an observational descriptive study with a cross sectional research design. The study was conducted by distributing the patient satisfaction questionnaire to 100 patients who received dental treatment at Puskesmas (Public Health Center) Kampung Sawah, Kecamatan Tanjung Karang Timur, Bandar Lampung. The results showed that 60.1% of patients had high level of satisfaction; 20.08% had moderate level of satisfaction; and 19.32% had low level of satisfaction. In conclusion, the majority of patients who received dental treatment at Puskesmas Kampung Sawah had high level of satisfaction of the services provided. Keywords: patient satisfaction; COVID-19; patient satisfaction questionnaire; dental services  Abstrak: Kepuasan pasien merupakan suatu perbandingan antara persepsi pasien terhadap pelayanan yang diterima dengan harapan sebelum mendapatkan pelayanan. Tingkat kepuasan pasien sangat penting karena dapat menjadi tolak ukur keberhasilan suatu fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan. Pandemi COVID-19 memiliki dampak terhadap kepuasan pasien akibat adanya alur pelayanan yang berubah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran tingkat kepuasan pasien terhadap pelayanan kedokteran gigi pada masa pandemi COVID-19. Jenis penelitian ialah observasional deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menyebarkan patient satisfaction questionnaire kepada 100 pasien yang menerima perawatan kedokteran gigi di Puskesmas Kampung Sawah, Kecamatan Tanjung Karang Timur, Bandar Lampung. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 60,01% pasien memiliki tingkat kepuasan tinggi; 20,08% memiliki tingkat kepuasan sedang; dan 19,32% memiliki tingkat kepuasan rendah. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah mayoritas pasien yang menerima perawatan kedokteran gigi di Puskesmas Kampung Sawah memiliki tingkat kepuasan yang tinggi terhadap pelayanan yang diberikan. Kata kunci: kepuasan pasien; COVID-19; patient satisfaction questionnaire; pelayanan kedokteran gigi
, Silvi Kintawati, Vinna K. Sugiaman
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 81-87; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.35790

Abstract:
: Ideal tooth extraction is removal of complete tooth structure from the alveolar bone with minimal trauma and without causing any pain. It leaves a wound in the form of an open tooth socket. Efforts to reduce the problem of wound healing can be done inter alia by forming new tissue engineering that replaces the damaged tissue with collagen which is easily absorbed biologically and has good biocompatibility. One of the wound covering materials containing collagen is resorbable collagen plug (RCP). It serves to accelerate wound healing, control bleeding due to its intrinsic hemostatic property, and accelerate the wound healing process. This was a literature review study using databases namely PubMed, Embase, Wiley Online Library, and National Center for Biotechnology. The keywords were tooth extraction, wound healing, collagen, and resorbable collagen plug. The results showed that the RCP could accelerate wound healing because it contained collagen which had the ability to stabilize blood clotting and to protect wounds. In conclusion, the use of resorbable collagen plug can accelerate wound healing after tooth extraction due to its collagen content. Keywords:  dental extraction; wound healing process; resorbable collagen plug (RCP) Abstrak: Pencabutan gigi ideal adalah pengangkatan struktur gigi secara utuh dari tulang alveolar tanpa menimbulkan rasa sakit dengan trauma minimal. Tindakan pencabutan meninggalkan luka berupa soket gigi terbuka. Tujuan penyembuhan luka yaitu memperbaiki kerusakan jaringan dan fungsi organ. Upaya untuk mengurangi masalah penyembuhan luka dapat dilakukan, salah satunya dengan membentuk rekayasa jaringan baru yang menggantikan jaringan rusak yaitu dengan kolagen. Kolagen merupakan protein yang memiliki sifat mudah diserap secara biologis serta memiliki biokompatibilitas yang baik. Salah satu bahan penutup luka yang mengandung kolagen ialah resorbable collagen plug (RCP) yang berfungsi membantu mempercepat penyembuhan luka, mengontrol pendarahan oleh karena sifat hemostatik instrinsik, dan mempercepat proses penyembuhan luka. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu literaturreviewmenggunakan database dari PubMed, Embase, Wiley Online Library, dan National Center for Biotechnology dengan kata kunci yang meliputi pencabutan gigi, penyembuhan luka, kolagen, Resorbable Collagen Plug.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa RCP dapat membantu mempercepat penyembuhan luka karena mengandung kolagen yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menstabilkan pembekuan darah dan dapat melindungi luka. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah penggunaan resorbable collagen plug dapat membantu mempercepat penyembuhan luka setelah pencabutan gigi oleh karena adanya kandungan kolagen. Kata kunci: pencabutan gigi; penyembuhan luka; resorbable collagen plug (RCP)
Aditya P. Sarwono
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 57-65; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.38047

Abstract:
In practice, dentists often find patients with very sensitive oral cavity, which results in patients being unable to tolerate the entry of foreign objects into the oral cavity. Gag reflex can be triggered by any kind of dental procedure both before and after treatment due to various causes. In addition, it can be said that the ability and patience of a dentis are important requirements to be able to control the gag reflex and create a comfortable treatment. This paper is a narrative review consisting of a collection of data on the gag reflex and various treatment methods recorded in the literature. This includes various modifications that dentists and prosthodontists can make during the treatment process such as molding, fabricating, and fitting dentures to treat the patient's gag reflex problem. Although there is no definite solution for the successful management of patients with gag reflex problem, dentists can use various methods to control the gag reflex at their discretion, so that dental treatment can be carried out comfortably.Keywords: gag reflex; prosthodontics; comfortable dental treatment Abstrak: Dalam praktiknya, sering kali dokter gigi menemukan pasien dengan rongga mulut yang sangat sensitif, yang berakibat pasien tidak dapat mentoleransi masuknya benda asing ke dalam rongga mulut. Refleks muntah dapat dipicu oleh segala jenis prosedur gigi baik sebelum dan sesudah perawatan karena berbagai penyebab. Selain itu, dapat dikatakan bahwa kemampuan dan kesabaran dokter gigi merupakan syarat-syarat penting untuk dapat mengendalikan refleks muntah dan menciptakan perawatan yang nyaman. Studi ini merupakan tinjauan naratif yang terdiri dari kumpulan data mengenai refleks muntah dan berbagai metode penanganannya yang tercatat dalam bentuk literatur. Hal ini mencakup berbagai macam modifikasi yang dapat dilakukan oleh dokter gigi maupun prostodontis selama proses perawatan seperti pencetakan, pembuatan dan pemasangan gigi palsu untuk menangani masalah refleks muntah pasien. Meskipun tidak ada solusi yang pasti untuk keberhasilan manajemen pasien dengan masalah refleks muntah, dokter gigi dapat meng-gunakan berbagai macam metode untuk mengontrol refleks muntah sesuai pertimbangannya sendiri sehingga perawatan gigi dapat dilakukan dengan nyaman.Kata kunci: refleks muntah; kedokteran gigi; prostodonti; perawatan gigi yang nyaman
Williyam W. Kalalo, Khoman Johanna A, Aurelia S. R. Supit
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 75-80; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.38207

Abstract:
Root canal treatment is a part of dental conservation treatment which aims to treat damaged tooth and pulp necrosis in order to maintain the tooth’s function, and to restore the condition of the diseased tooth. The type of dental restoration after root canal treatment must be considered based on indications as well as the support of the surrounding teeth and tissues. An ideal dental restoration must protect the missing occlusal and cusp surfaces, therefore, it can protect the tooth crown structure as much as possible. This study aimed to evaluate types and indications of post-root canal restoration. This was a literature review study using three databases namely Google Scholar, Garuda, and Pubmed. The results obtained nine articles of case reports. There were various types of restoration used in post-root canal treatment as follows: direct resin composite with onlay preparation; porcelain fused to metal; fiber post restoration and porcelain fused to metal; porcelain fused to metal and customed dowel; endocrown; fiber reinforced composite; porcelain onlay restoration; fiber reinforced composite; and fiber and porcelain fused to metal. A good restoration was able to restore the tooth’s function. In conclusion, there are various types of restoration options in this study. All are good to be used in post-root canal treatment, regarding their indications and usages. Moreover, porcelain restoration is an affordable and robust restoration. Keywords: restoration; root canal treatment Abstrak: Perawatan saluran akar merupakan salah satu perawatan konservasi gigi yang bertujuan untuk merawat gigi yang mengalami kerusakan dan nekrosis pulpa agar gigi tersebut tetap dapat berfungsi. Pemilihan jenis restorasi gigi pasca perawatan saluran akar harus memperhatikan indikasi penggunaan atau melihat dukungan dari gigi atau jaringan sekitar gigi. Restorasi gigi yang ideal harus melindungi permukaan oklusal dan cusp yang hilang sehingga secara maksimal dapat melindungi struktur mahkota gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelusuri restorasi pasca perawatan saluran akar. Jenis penelitian berupa literarure review menggunakan database google scholar, Garuda, dan pubmed. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan sembilan artikel laporan kasus. Terdapat banyak pilihan jenis restorasi pasca perawatan saluran akar yaitu: direk resin komposit preparasi onlay; porcelainfused tometal; pasak dan porcelain fused to metal; porcelain fused to metalandcustomed dowel; endocrown; fiber reinforced composite; restorasi onlay porcelain; fiber reinforced composite; dan pasak fiber and porcelain fused to metal. Restorasi yang baik harus memperhatikan pengembalian fungsi gigi. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat berbagai pilihan jenis restorasi yang dapat digunakan pasca perawatan saluran akar. Semua pilihan jenis restorasi ini baik untuk digunakan pasca perawatan saluran akar, namun harus mempertimbangkan indikasi dan penggunaan restorasi. Restorasi dengan bahan porselen merupakan restorasi yang terjangkau dan kuat. Kata kunci: restorasi; perawatan saluran akar
Theofany L. A. Santoso, Dinar A. Wicaksono, Paulina N. Gunawan
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37606

Abstract:
One of the instantaneous lifestyle can be seen inter alia from the high level of soft drink consumption. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks produces a pH ranging from 2.4 to 4.07 which is classified as low. CO2 dissolved in carbonated soft drinks is thought to increase acidity, therefore, decrease the pH of saliva. The continuous decrease in salivary pH can lead to demineralization of tooth structure which triggers the occurrence of dental caries. This study aimed to determine the effect of soft drink consumption on salivary pH related to the incidence of dental caries. This was a literature review studi using four databases as follows: Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and ClinicalKey. The keywords were "minuman bersoda" OR "minuman berkarbonasi" AND "pH saliva"; dan “soft drink” OR "carbonated drink" AND "salivary pH". The literatures were selected through inclusion and exclusion criteria and then a critical appraisal was carried out. The results showed that 29 abstracts met the criteria. Full-text articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and be used in this study were 18 articles in total. It was found that there was a change in the degree of acidity after consuming carbonated drinks. In conclusion,carbonated soft drinks can affect the pH of saliva which triggers the occurrence of dental caries. Keywords: carbonated soft drinks; salivary pH   Abstrak: Salah satu gaya hidup masyarakat Indonesia yang serba instan dapat terlihat dari tingginya tingkat konsumsi minuman ringan bersoda. Minuman ringan ini tersedia secara komersil dan bila dikonsumsi menghasilkan pH berkisar antara 2,4 hingga 4,07 yang tergolong rendah. CO2 yang terlarut dalam minuman bersoda dianggap dapat meningkatkan keasaman dan menurunkan pH saliva. Penurunan pH saliva yang terjadi secara terus-menerus dapat menyebabkan demineralisasi struktur gigi yang merupakan awal dari terjadinya karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsumsi minuman bersoda terhadap pH saliva pada kejadian karies gigi. Jenispenelitian ialah suatu literature review, yang menggunakan database Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, dan ClinicalKey serta kata kunci "minuman bersoda" OR "minuman berkarbonasi" AND "pH saliva"; dan “soft drink” OR "carbonated drink" AND "salivary pH". Literatur diseleksi melalui kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi serta dilakukan critical appraisal. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan jumlah literatur sebanyak 29 abstrak yang memenuhi kriteria sedangkan artikel fulltext yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi sebanyak 18 artikel. Hasil kajian mendapatkan terjadi perubahan derajat keasaman setelah mengonsumsi minuman ringan bersoda. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah minuman bersoda dapat memengaruhi pH saliva yang selanjutnya memicu terjadinya karies gigi.Kata kunci: minuman bersoda; pH saliva
Niko Falatehan, Denilson Denilson
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 51-56; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.38791

Abstract:
With increasing age, a person's ability to maintain dental and oral hygiene will decrease which can result in tooth loss, therefore, a complete denture is needed to restore esthetic, masticatory, and phonetic functions. Control time can affect the success of denture usage. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of control time on behavioral changes among elderlies by using the complete denture cleaning leaflet. This was an experimental study with a cross sectional design. Data were collected by using a questionnaire containing 15 questions. Subjects were 36 elderly living at Yayasan True Love Batam nursing home. Data collection was carried out in four meetings, namely the day before the instruction in the form of leaflet was given; control I was one day after the instruction; control II was one week after control I; and control III was two weeks after control II. The elderly behavior assessed from the questionnaire was then analyzed using the Friedman test. The results showed that the behavior of elderlies before being given instructions was in the moderate category. The highest increase of mean value of behavior was obtained after control II. The Friedman test resulted in a p value of 0.000. In conclusion, the best control time that had the most significant increase of behavior changes in complete denture cleaning was control II. Keywords: elderly; control time; leaflet; behavioral change; complete denture   Abstrak: Dengan bertambahnya usia, kemampuan seseorang dalam menjaga kebersihan gigi dan mulut akan menurun. Keadaan ini dapat mengakibatkan kehilangan gigi sehingga diperlukan gigi tiruan lengkap (GTL) untuk mengembalikan fungsi estetik, mastikasi, dan fonetik. Waktu kontrol dapat memengaruhi keberhasilan GTL. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas waktu kontrol terhadap perubahan perilaku pasien lanjut usia (lansia) dengan menggunakan leaflet pembersihan GTL. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental dengan desain potong lintang. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner berisikan 15 pertanyaan. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 36 lansia di panti jompo Yayasan True Love Batam. Pengambilan data dilakukan sebanyak empat kali pertemuan yaitu pada hari sebelum diberikan instruksi berupa leaflet; kontrol I yaitu satu hari setelah instruksi; kontrol II yaitu satu minggu setelah kontrol I; dan kontrol III yaitu dua minggu setelah kontrol II. Perilaku lansia dinilai dari kuesioner kemudian dianalisis menggunakan uji Friedman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku lansia pengguna GTL di Yayasan True Love Batam sebelum diberikan instruksi berupa leaflet termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Kenaikan nilai rerata perilaku lansia tertinggi diperoleh setelah kontrol II serta hasil uji Friedman mendapatkan nilai p=0,000. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah waktu kontrol terbaik dan yang memiliki peningkatan perubahan perilaku paling bermakna yaitu kontrol II. Kata kunci: lansia; waktu kontrol; perubahan perilaku; gigi tiruan lengkap
Ainy F. Nuriyanto, Rostiny Rostiny, Bambang Agustono
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.36615

Abstract:
Full dental prosthesis rehabilitation on flat mandibular ridge has been a difficult case for clinicians for a long time. A huge resorption of mandibular ridge results in inadequate retention, and tounge muscle pressure, as well as lip and cheek muscles, causing a decrease in denture’s stability and retention. Neutral zone is a potential area or position where lips and cheek on one side, and tounge on the other side have balance pressure. We reported a 60-year-old male patient with chief complaints of difficulty in mastication, and loose upper and lower dentures. He also complained of denture moving during swallowing and speaking. In case management, the aim was to acquire optimum stability of the denture and arrangement of the mandibular teeth in full dental prosthesis guided by using the neutral zone. Preliminary impression was done by using alginate, then, horizontal and vertical jaw relation was recorded by using bite rim. Suction method impression technique was used to acquire functional impression. Lower denture teeth arrangement adapted the result of neutral zone impression. Acrylic denture was being contoured to adjust the natural anatomy of the oral cavity. In conclusion, the patient got a new full denture with maximum retention and stability while speaking as well as masticating. This article discussed about making of full dental prosthesis with pressure point on neutral zone impression technique on flat mandibular ridge caused by huge resorption. Keywords: flat mandibular ridge; denture stability; neutral zone; impression technique
Serly Daud, Hariadi Said
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 38-45; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37435

Abstract:
: Issue of dental carries which is closely related to the consumption of cariogenic food, has not only become a dental health [roblem, but has also become an avid research interest in the room of scholarly research discussion. This study aimed to present an illustration of the association between cariogenic food and the occurence of dental caries in children. This was a literature review study using a descriptive research design. The electronic data base Science Technology Index (SINTA), specifically SINTA 2 and SINTA 3, was used to collect the appropriate reviewed articles, by using the entry keywords of “karies” “caries”, “kariesgigipadaanak”, “dentalcariesinchildren”, “makanankariogenik”, and “cariogenicfoods”. The results obtained seven articles fitting the topics. All articles stated that consumption of cariogenic foods including sweet food, carbohydrate-rich food, and sweet drink played an important role in the occurrence of dental caries among children. In conclusion, cariogenic food contributing to dental caries issue in children included sweet and carbohydrate foods as well as soft drinks.Keywords: dental caries; cariogenic food; children Abstrak: Isu karies gigi yang lekat kaitannya dengan konsumsi makanan kariogenik tidak hanya menjadi masalah di bidang kesehatan gigi, tetapi juga telah menjadi bahan riset menarik dalam ruang diskusi kajian ilmiah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan hubungan antara makanan kariogenik dengan kejadian karies gigi pada anak. Jenis penelitian ialah suatu literature review dengan desain penelitian deskriptif. Penelusuran bahan pustaka dilakukan dengan cara memasukkan kata kunci “karies” “caries”, “karies gigi pada anak”, “dental caries in children”, “makanan kariogenik”, dan “cariogenic foods” dengan memanfaatkan basis data Science Technology Index (SINTA), khususnya SINTA 2 dan SINTA 3. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan tujuh artikel yang sesuai dengan topik bahasan. Ketujuh artikel tersebut manyatakan bahwa mengonsumsi makan kariogenik yang mencakup makanan manis, berkarbohidrat maupun minuman ringan manis berandil besar tehadap kejadian karies gigi pada anak. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah makanan kariogenik yang menjadi biang masalah terjadinya karies gigi pada anak meliputi makanan manis dan berkarbohidrat serta minuman ringan. Kata kunci: karies gigi; makanan kariogenik; anak
Laurencia Katili, Pritartha S. Anindita, Juliatri Juliatri
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 46-50; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37608

Abstract:
: The 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) stated that the prevalence of students with dental and oral problems in North Sulawesi showed a fairly high number, which was 66.5%. In children, behavioral factors that ignore dental and oral hygiene could affect the development of dental and oral health. Behavior can be measured by using three domains, namely knowledge, attitudes, and actions. This study aimed to obtain the description of dental and oral health maintenance behavior of elementary school students. This was a descriptive study with a cross sectional design. Population of this study were students at the elementary school SDN 1 Bulawan East Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Meanwhile, samples were students of grades 5-6 totaling 44 children obtained by using total sampling method. Data were collected by using an online oral health maintenance behavior questionnaire via googleform. The results showed that the measurement scores were as follows: category of knowledge was 405; category of attitude was 394, category of action was 396, with a total score of 1195. In conclusion, the behavior of dental and oral health maintenance of students at SDN 1 Bulawan is classified as good. Keywords: behavior; dental and oral health maintenance Abstrak: Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2018 menyebutkan bahwa prevalensi siswa yang bermasalah gigi dan mulut di Sulawesi Utara menunjukkan angka yang cukup tinggi yaitu sebesar 66,5%. Pada anak faktor perilaku mengabaikan kebersihan gigi dan mulut berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan kesehatan gigi dan mulut.Perilaku dapat diukur dengan tiga domain yaitu pengetahuan, sikap, dan tindakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran perilaku pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut siswa sekolah dasar. Jenis penelitian ialah deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Populasi penelitian ini yaitu siswa di SDN 1 Bulawan, Bolaang Mongondow Timur, Sulawesi Utara. Sampel penelitian yaitu anak SDN kelas 5-6 berjumlah 44 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan metode total sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner perilaku pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut secara online melalui googleform. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa skor hasil pengukuran kategori pengetahuan sebesar 405, kategori sikap 394, kategori tindakan 396, dengan skor total 1195. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah gambaran perilaku pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut siswa SDN 1 Bulawan tergolong baik. Kata kunci: perilaku; pemeliharaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut
Indrayadi Gunardi, Rahmi Amtha, Helena G. V. Widyadhana
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37089

Abstract:
: The main transmission medium of Covid-19 is aerosol from nose and oral cavity when coughing, sneezing, and speaking. Due to the vast transmission of the virus, the Indonesian government has established various health protocols to reduce the impact of the disease. Until now, the high number of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Jakarta is suspected as a result of lack of knowledge and perception. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between knowledge, perception, and attitudes of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry in JABODETABEK Jakarta. This was an analytical and observational study with a cross-sectional design using online questionnaire containing 50 questions. This study was conducted on 572 subjects. The validity of the questionnaire was analyzed by using the Rasch model and the linear regression between variables and mediation analysis. The results obtained that the questionnaire showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.82 and item reliability of 1.00 with a separation of 29.97. Most subjects were in high category of knowledge (97.20%), perception (60.66%), and attitudes (93.88%). There was a relationship between knowledge and perception (p<0.001; 95%CI 0.357-0.925); perception and attitude (p<0.001; 95%CI 0.643-0.829); and the perception as a mediator between both variables. In conclusion, JABODETABEK community’s perception of COVID-19 transmission has an impact as mediator or influence people’s attitude in implementing their knowledge in dentistry. Keywords: knowledge; perception; attitude; COVID-19  Abstrak: SARS-CoV-2 merupakan tipe coronavirus baru yang dapat menimbulkan penyakit COVID-19. Media transmisi primer dari virus ini ialah aerosol yang keluar dari hidung dan rongga mulut saat batuk, bersin, maupun bicara. Oleh karena transmisi tinggi virus, pemerintah Indonesia telah menetapkan berbagai protokol kesehatan untuk menurunkan dampak dari keparahan penyakit. Hingga sekarang, adanya sejumlah tinggi kasus COVID-19 pada populasi Jakarta, diduga akibat adanya pengetahuan dan persepsi yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara pengetahuan, persepsi, dan sikap dari transmisi COVID-19 dalam bidang kedokteran gigi pada populasi JABODETABEK. Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang, dilakukan dengan kuesioner online yang terdiri dari 50 pertanyaan, dan diujikan pada 572 responden. Validitas kuesioner dianalisis model Rasch, dan regresi linier antara variabel dan analisis mediasi. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan kuesioner menunjukkan Cronbach alpha 0,82 dan reliabilitas item 1 separasi 29,97. Seluruh responden masuk ke dalam kategori pengetahuan tinggi (97,20%), persepsi (60,66%) dan sikap (93,88%). Hubungan ditemukan antara pengetahuan dan persepsi (p=<0,001; 0,357-0,925), persepsi dan sikap (p=<0,001; 0,643-0,829), dan persepsi sebagai mediator antara kedua variabel. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah persepsi masyarakat JABODETABEK terhadap transmisi COVID-19, berperan sebagai mediator atau memengaruhi sikap mereka dalam mengimplementasikan pengetahuannya di bidang kedokteran gigi. Kata kunci: pengetahuan; persepsi; sikap; COVID-19
Farisa D. P. Widhani, Isniya Nosartika, Ira A. Kusuma, Yoghi B. Prabowo
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 24-31; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37333

Abstract:
Tobacco use in Indonesia is still relatively high among teenagers-adults or the average of university students. There is a relationship between smoking and periodontal tissue parameters as well as gingival melanin pigmentation. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation and smoking behavior among college students. This was an analytical and observational study with a cross-sectional study design. Samples were 108 undergraduates of Diponegoro University batch 2018-2020 who met the inclusion criteria, obtained by using purposive sampling and non-probability sampling techniques. Data were collected by using an online questionnaire through the Google platform regarding the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation on smoking behavior. The data were analyzed by using the Spearman Rank Correlation Test.The results showed that the students’ knowledge about periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation was in a good category, meanwhile students’ smoking behavior was in the moderate smoker category. The Spearman Rank correlation test showed no significant correlation between knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation with smoking behavior (p=0.403). In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between the knowledge of periodontal disease and gingival melanin pigmentation and smoking behavior. Keywords: knowledge; behavior; smoking; periodontal disease; gingival melanin pigmentation  Abstrak: Penggunaan tembakau di Indonesia masih tergolong tinggi di kalangan usia remaja-dewasa atau rata-rata usia mahasiswa. Terdapat keterkaitan antara merokok dengan parameter jaringan periodontal dan perubahan pigmentasi melanin gingiva. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok mahasiswa.Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Sampel penelitian ialah 108 mahasiswa Strata 1 Universitas Diponegoro angkatan 2018-2020 yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi diperoleh dengan teknik sampel purposive sampling dan teknik pengambilan sampel non-probability. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner online melalui platformGoogle form tentang pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva terhadap perilaku merokok. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji korelasi Spearmanrank dengan menggunakan aplikasi statistik SPSS. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan tingkat pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva mahasiswa dalam kategori baik, dan untuk perilaku merokok mahasiswa termasuk dalam kategori perokok sedang. Uji korelasi Spearmanrank menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok (p=0,403). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pengetahuan penyakit periodontal dan pigmentasi melanin gingiva dengan perilaku merokok pada mahasiswa Strata 1 Universitas Diponegoro. Kata kunci: pengetahuan; perilaku; merokok; penyakit periodontal; pigmentasi melanin gingiva
Melisa Melisa
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.37292

Abstract:
Removable partial denture is a definitive prosthesis that has been used in dentistry for decades for the rehabilitation of partially edentulous patients. The visibility of the retentive arm in the metal denture sometimes causes esthetic problems for the patient. Therefore, aesthetic aspects should be considered to ensure patient satisfaction in dental treatment. This case report described oral rehabilitation using a combination of metal frame partial denture and thermo-plastic. A 40-year-old female patient with a history of old removable partial denture came to replace the old denture with a new one that was more aesthetic and showed no wire. The management of the patient included thorough anamnesis, extra and intra oral examinations, anatomic impression, determination of definitive treatment, preparation of rest on the abutment tooth, physiological impression, manufacturing of metal frameworks in the upper and lower jaws, determination of definitive vertical dimension, try-in denture, insertion, and control of combination of a metal frame partial denture with thermoplastic in the upper and lower jaws. The patient was satisfied with her new denture. In conclusion, the combination of a metal frame partial denture with thermoplastic can be an alternative treatment for patient who wants to replace his/her missing teeth with removable partial denture while still prioritizing aesthetic factors.Keywords: partial denture; metal frame; thermoplastic; retentive arm; aesthetics   Abstrak: Gigi tiruan sebagian lepas (GTSL) ialah protesa definitif yang telah digunakan dalam bidang kedokteran gigi sejak beberapa dekade untuk rehabilitasi pasien dengan edentulus sebagian. Visibilitas lengan retentif pada GTSL kerangka logam kadang-kadang menyebabkan masalah estetis untuk pasien. Oleh karena itu aspek estetika harus dipertimbangkan untuk memastikan kepuasan pasien dalam perawatan gigi. Kami melaporkan kasus yang dilakukan tindakan rehabilitasi menggunakan kombinasi gigi tiruan sebagian kerangka logam dengan termoplastik pada seorang pasien perempuan berusia 40 tahun dengan riwayat GTSL lama. Pasien ingin mengganti dengan GTSL baru yang lebih estetis dan tidak tampak kawat. Tatalaksana pada pasien ini meliputi anamnesis yang cermat, pemeriksaan ekstra oral dan intra oral, pencetakan anatomis dan penentuan perawatan definitif, preparasi rest pada gigi abutment, pencetakan fisiologis, pembuatan kerangka logam di rahang atas dan bawah, penentuan dimensi vertikal definitif, percobaan gigi, insersi, serta kontrol kombinasi gigi tiruan sebagian kerangka logam dengan termoplastik pada rahang atas dan bawah. Pasien merasa puas akan kombinasi gigi tiruan kerangka logam dengan termoplastik. Simpulan studi ini ialah kombinasi gigi tiruan sebagian kerangka logam dengan termoplastik dapat menjadi alternatif perawatan untuk mengganti gigi yang hilang dengan GTSL serta tetap mementingkan faktor estetika. Kata kunci: gigi tiruan sebagian; kerangka logam; termoplastik; lengan retentif; estetis
Lia H. Andayani, Ferry Sandra, Abdul G. Soulissa, James Handojo
Published: 31 December 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 10, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v10i1.35659

Abstract:
Abstract: The escalation of COVID-19 cases both in morbidity and mortality rates in Daerah Khusus Ibukota (DKI) Jakarta and its surrounding areas (JABODETABEK) continues to occur. Adherence in implementing health protocols depends on the knowledge and attitudes of the individuals. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Covid-19 prevention in an informal community, namely music community. This study was conducted online with 44 participants obtained through convenience sampling method. Participants filled out the questionnaires covering individual characteristics, general knowledge regarding Covid-19, and attitudes towards protective measures against Covid-19. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the differences in the mean score of knowledge based on selected variables. There were 52.4% of participants that had low level of knowledge. Meanwhile, 86.4% of participants had positive attitude towards protective measures against Covid-19. Significant differences were found in the mean scores of knowledge based on age (p=0.001), place of residence (p=0.004), and occupational status (p=0.032). In conclusion, most participants of the music community in Jakarta and surrounding areas have low level of knowledge, however, they have positive attitude towards protective measures against Covid-19. Keywords: Covid-19; knowledge; attitude; music community Abstrak: Peningkatan kasus Covid-19 baik dalam angka morbiditas maupun mortalitas di wilayah Daerah Khusus Ibukota (DKI) Jakarta dan sekitarnya (JABODETABEK) masih berlangsung. Kepatuhan dalam menerapkan protokol kesehatan bergantung pada pengetahuan dan sikap individu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran pengetahuan dan sikap mengenai pencegahan Covid-19 pada salah satu komunitas informal di masyarakat, yaitu komunitas musik. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara daring dengan 44 peserta yang didapatkan melalui metode convenience sampling. Peserta mengisi kuesioner survei yang berisi data karateristik individu, pengetahuan umum, dan sikap terkait Covid-19. Uji Mann-Whitney digunakan untuk melihat perbedaan rerata nilai pengetahuan berdasarkan setiap variabel. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan sebanyak 52,4% responden memiliki tingkat pengetahuan rendah namun 86,4% responden memiliki sikap positif terhadap upaya pencegahan penularan Covid-19. Perbedaan rerata nilai pengetahuan secara bermakna ditemukan berdasarkan usia (p=0,001), wilayah tinggal (p=0,004), dan status pekerjaan (p=0,032). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah sebagian besar komunitas musik di DKI Jakarta dan sekitarnya memiliki tingkat pengetahuan rendah namun memiliki sikap positif terhadap upaya pencegahan penularan Covid -19. Kata kunci: Covid-19; pengetahuan; sikap; komunitas musik
Putri Rejeki, I Gde K. Baskara, Luh Putu S. Ulandari
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 323-333; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35579

Abstract:
Abstract: Udayana University (UNUD) School of Dentistry (PSSKGPDG) is one of the dental school in Bali that has problems in analyzing the education cost. Based on previous financial reports, the calculation of the unit cost has been made using the activity based costing (ABC) method for the undergraduate phase. This study was aimed to determine the unit cost and the amount of clinical clerkship education costs that would be proposed using the ABC method. This was a mixed method study using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative approach used secondary data of financial statements for the 2019/2020 academic year analyzed by using the ABC method. Meanwhile, the qualitative approach was conducted through in-depth interviews with five informants selected by purposive sampling and then was analyzed thematically. The results showed that the unit cost per semester for PSSKGPDG FK UNUD students was Rp. 61,635,692 which was greater than the unit cost previously calculated by the study program of Rp. 22,319,000. Often the unit costs that had been prepared were not below the budget plan (RAB) due to the lack of detail in budgeting by the study program. In conclusion, although PSSKGPDG prepared RAB by applying the ABC method, in the end its implementation was not fully realized due to urgent activities or budgets that exceeded the ceiling. Periodic training is needed, therefore, employees can be more thorough and detailed in preparing a budget. Keywords: activity based costing method; unit cost; dentist clinical clerkship Abstrak: Program Studi Sarjana Kedokteran Gigi dan Profesi Dokter Gigi (PSSKGPDG) Fakultas Kedokteran (FK) Universitas Udayana (UNUD) merupakan salah satu institusi pendidikan dokter gigi di Bali yang memiliki permasalahan dalam analisis biaya pendidikan. Berdasarkan laporan keuangan sebelumnya, perhitungan satuan biaya pendidikan sudah dibuat dengan metode Activity Based Costing (ABC) untuk fase sarjana. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besaran biaya satuan (unit cost) dan besaran biaya pendidikan kepaniteraan klinik yang akan diusulkan dengan metode ABC.Penelitian ini menggunakan mixed method yaitu kombinasi pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Penelitian kuantitatif menggunakan data sekunder laporan keuangan periode tahun ajaran 2019/2020 yang dianalisis menggunakan metode ABC. Penelitian kualitatif dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam terhadap lima informan yang dipilih secara purposive sampling dan dianalisis secara tematik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa unit cost per semester mahasiswa PSSKGPDG FK UNUD sebesar Rp. 61.635.692 yang lebih besar dibandingkan unit cost yang telah dihitung sebelumnya oleh prodi sebesar Rp. 22.319.000. Seringkali unit cost yang telah disusun tidak sesuai dengan rencana anggaran biaya (RAB) dikarenakan kurang detailnya prodi membuat anggaran. Simpulan penelitian ini PSSKGPDG menyusun RAB dengan menerapkan prinsip ABC, meskipun pada akhirnya dalam penerapannya tidak terealisasikan dengan sempurna karena adanya kegiatan atau anggaran mendesak yang seringkali melebihi pagu. Pelatihan secara berkala sangat diperlukan sehingga pegawai dapat lebih teliti dan detail dalam menyusun suatu anggaran Kata kunci: metode activity based costing; unit cost; kepaniteraan klinik
Ratika F. Baliung, Vonny N. S. Wowor, Johanna A. Khoman
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 376-381; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.36424

Abstract:
Abstract: Periodontal disease is still one of the dental and oral health disorders that has a high prevalence worldwide. Moreover, it can cause disorders in pregnancy including low birth weight (LBW) infant with the risks of death as well as disorders of growth and development in children. To date, low birth weight is one of the causes of high infant mortality rate. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease in pregnant women and the incidence of LBW baby. This was a literature review study searching data on three databases namely Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar and using keywords and a combination of boolean operators. After being selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, critical appraisal was conducted, and nine literatures were obtained: cross sectional study, case-control study, cohort study designs. The results showed that the most common periodontal disease in pregnant women was periodontitis. Women who gave birth to LBW babies had poor periodontal conditions compared to women who gave birth to babies with normal weight. Most of the literatures showed a significant relationship between periodontal disease in pregnant women and the incidence of LBW baby. In conclusion, there is a relationship between periodontal disease in pregnant women and the incidence of LBW infant. Periodontitis is one of the risk factors of poor pregnancy outcomes. Keywords: periodontal disease; pregnant women; low birth weight (LBW)   Abstrak: Penyakit periodontal masih merupakan salah satu gangguan kesehatan gigi dan mulut dengan prevalensi cukup tinggi di dunia. Dampak penyakit periodontal dapat berupa gangguan pada kehamilan termasuk terjadinya kelahiran bayi berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR) yang berisiko kematian bayi, serta gangguan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak. Bayi BBLR merupakan salah satu penyebab tingginya angka kematian bayi (AKB). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara penyakit periodontal pada ibu hamil dengan BBLR. Jenis penelitian ialah suatu literature review dengan pencarian data pada tiga database yaitu Pubmed, ScienceDirect, dan Google Scholar menggunakan kata kunci dan kombinasi boolean operator. Setelah diseleksi berdasarkan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi, dilakukan critical appraisal, dan didapatkan sembilan literatur dengan desain studi cross sectional, case-control, dan cohort. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa penyakit periodontal yang terbanyak pada ibu hamil ialah periodontitis. Ibu yang melahirkan bayi BBLR memiliki kondisi periodontal yang buruk dibandingkan ibu yang melahirkan bayi dengan berat badan cukup. Sebagian besar literatur yang ditelaah menunjukkan adanya hubungan bermakna antara penyakit periodontal pada ibu hamil dengan kejadian BBLR. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat hubungan bermakna antara penyakit periodontal pada ibu hamil dengan kejadian bayi BBLR. Periodontitis merupakan salah satu faktor risiko hasil kehamilan yang buruk. Kata kunci: penyakit periodontal; ibu hamil; berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR)
Adine V. K. Herwanto, Christy N. Mintjelungan, Vonny N. S. Wowor
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 357-361; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.36429

Abstract:
Abstract: Behavior of maintaining denture hygiene is an important factor in the success of denture care. Poor denture hygiene maintenance can cause problems for dental and oral health such as caries, gingivitis, stomatitis, xerostomia, candidiasis, and periodontal disease, especially in users of acrylic-based removable dentures. This study was aimed to obtain the oral hygiene maintenance behavior of denture wearers. This was a literature review study using secondary data sources of the Google Scholar and PubMed databases with keywords, as follows: maintenance behavior, oral hygiene, denture users, acrylic removable partial dentures. Data selection were carried out based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by a critical appraisal. The selection results in six literatures consisting in the form of cross-sectional studies. The results showed that the hygiene behavior of acrylic-based removable dentures in the community was classified as poor. In conclusion, maintenance of oral hygiene behavior of acrylic removable partial denture wearers is classified as poor due to lack of knowledge of most denture wearers to keep their dentures clean. Keywords: maintenance behavior of oral hygiene; denture wearers; acrylic removable partial dentures Abstrak: Perilaku memelihara kebersihan gigi tiruan merupakan faktor penting dalam keberhasilan perawatan gigi tiruan. Pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi tiruan yang kurang baik dapat menimbulkan masalah bagi kesehatan gigi dan mulut seperti karies, gingivitis, stomatitis, xerostomia, kandidiasis, dan penyakit periodontal, terutama pada pengguna gigi tiruan lepasan berbasis akrilik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku pemeliharaan kebersihan mulut pengguna gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTSL) akrilik. Jenis penelitian berbentuk literature review dengan menggunakan sumber data sekunder yang diperoleh melalui pencarian database Google Scholar dan PubMeddengan kata kunci: maintenance behavior, oral hygiene, denture users, acrylic removable partial dentures. Seleksi data dilakukan berdasarkan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi, dilanjutkan dengan critical appraisal. Hasil seleksi mendapatkan enam literatur berbentuk cross-sectional study. Data hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa perilaku pemeliharaaan kebersihan gigi tiruan lepasan berbasis akrilik pada masyarakat tergolong kurang baik. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah pemeliharaan kebersihan gigi mulut pengguna gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan akrilik masih tergolong kurang baik karena kurangnya kesadaran dan pengetahuan dari sebagian besar masyarakat mengenai pentingnya menjaga kebersihan gigi tiruan. Kata kunci: perilaku pemeliharaan kebersihan mulut; pengguna gigi tiruan; gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan akrilik
Sari Dewiyani, Ika Puspitasari
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 317-322; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35773

Abstract:
Abstract: Dental caries results in destruction of hard structure of teeth that causes demineralization of calcified tissue associated with destruction of organic tissue due to microorganisms and fermented carbohydrates. Dental caries can be treated with tooth resroration. There are different types of materials for dental restorations, as follows: amalgam, composite resins, and glass ionomer cement (GIC). This study was aimed to obtain the usage of restoration materials at Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama) [RSGM FKG UPDM (B)] Jakarta from 2014 to 2016. This was a descriptive and retrospective study. Samples were obtained by using random sampling technique. There were 1322 cases categorized based on age, sex, and location of restoration. Amalgam restoration was the most common in patients aged 17-25 years and in females. Most teeth at posterior region were treated with amalgam restoration (72%). In conclusion, the most common cases were amalgam restoration, aged 17-25 years, female, and posterior location of restoration. Keywords: resin composite; glass ionomer cement (GIC); amalgam; dental caries  Abstrak: Karies gigi adalah suatu penyakit infeksi yang merusak struktur keras gigi sehingga menyebabkan demineralisasi jaringan terkalsifikasi, disertai kerusakan jaringan organiknya yang disebabkan oleh aksi mikroorganisme dan karbohidrat yang dapat di fermentasi. Salah satu cara penanganan karies gigi ialah dengan cara merestorasi gigi menggunakan bahan restorasi gigi. Bahan restorasi yang sering digunakan saat ini ialah amalgam, resin komposit, dan glass ionomer cement (GIC). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi frekuensi penggunaan bahan restorasi di Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)/RSGM FKG UPDM (B) Jakarta pada tahun 2014-2016. Jenis penelitian ialah deskriptif dengan pendekatan retrospektif. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik random sampling. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan 1322 kasus yang dikategorikan berdasarkan usia, jenis kelamin, dan lokasi restorasi. Perawatan dengan amalgam lebih sering dilakukan oleh pasien yang berusia 17-25 tahun dan berjenis kelamin perempuan. Regio posterior merupakan regio gigi yang paling banyak mendapatkan restorasi dengan amalgam. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah penggunaan bahan restorasi terbanyak ialah restorasi amalgam dengan kelompok usia terbanyak 17-25 tahun, jenis kelamin perempuan, dan lokasi restorasi pada posterior (72%). Kata kunci: resin komposit; glass ionomer cement (GIC); amalgam; karies gigi
Michelle Wilia, Mia A. Prasetya, Putri Rejeki
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 368-375; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.36964

Abstract:
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) can cause respiratory problems and affect all ages. The nature of the transmission and the mortality rate of this viral infection bring about anxiety among health workers, inter alia, dentists because they have a high risk of contracting Covid-19. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and the preparedness of dentists in facing the Covid-19 pandemic. This was an analytical study with a cross-sectional design. A quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire that has been structured and tested for its validity and reliability. The questionnaire was divided into two parts, as follows: demographic data and levels of anxiety. Data were analyzed univariately and bivariately with the Spearman correlation test. There were 276 dentists in Bali as respondents who participated in this study. The results showed that the highest level of anxiety was moderate anxiety (54.3%) and there was a relationship between level of anxiety and the number of screening and patient settings with a p-value of 0.034 (p<0.05). In conclusion, there is a relationship between level of anxiety and the dentist's preparedness in the form of number of screening and patient setting to face the Covid-19 pandemic in Bali. Keywords: Covid-19; dentist; anxiety  Abstrak: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19)dapat menyebabkan gangguan pernapasan dan menyerang segala rentang usia. Sifat transmisi dan tingkat mortalitas infeksi virus ini menye-babkan kecemasan di kalangan petugas kesehatan, salah satunya dokter gigi karena memiliki risiko tinggi tertular Covid-19. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara tingkat kecemasan dan kesiapan dokter gigi dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19 di Bali. Jenis penelitian ialah analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Penelitian kuantitatif dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner yang telah disusun dan diuji validitas dan reliabilitasnya. Kuesioner dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu data demografi dan tingkat kecemasan dokter gigi. Hasil data dianalisis secara univariat dan bivariat menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman. Terdapat 276 dokter gigi di Bali yang berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kecemasan paling tinggi ialah kecemasan sedang (54.3%) dan terdapat hubungan antara tingkat kecemasan dengan jumlah skrining dan pengaturan pasien dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19 di Bali dengan p=0,034 (p<0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat hubungan antara tingkat kecemasan dengan kesiapan dokter gigi yang dinyatakan dalam jumlah skrining dan pengaturan pasien dalam menghadapi pandemi Covid-19 di Bali. Kata kunci: Covid-19; dokter gigi; kecemasan
Juliatri Juliatri, Pritartha S. Anindita
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 362-367; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.37119

Abstract:
Abstract: Tooth loss can occur due to various causes including caries and periodontal disease. Dental clerkship students are expected to have a good level of understanding of dental and oral health, therefore, they can prevent tooth loss due to dental and oral diseases such as caries or periodontal disease. This study was aimed to obtain the description of tooth loss among dental clerkship students at Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Gigi, Faculty of Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University (PSPDG FK Unsrat) Manado. This was a descriptive study with a cross sectional design using total sampling method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires containing the identity and status of respondents with tooth loss, and were analyzed to determine the frequency and distribution of tooth loss. Out of a total of 228 students, 156 students filled in the questionnaires with a response rate of 68.4%. The results showed that 103 or 66% of respondents experienced tooth loss of one or more teeth and the total number of all missing teeth were 240 teeth. Caries was the most prominent cause of tooth loss, as many as 144 teeth or 60%. Of the 240 missing teeth, 202 teeth were not replaced with dentures. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth loss among dental clerkship students at PSPDG FK Unsrat was 66%. Caries was the most common cause of tooth loss. Most of the missing teeth were not replaced with dentures for various reasons. Keywords: tooth loss; dental student  Abstrak: Kehilangan gigi dapat terjadi akibat berbagai hal di antaranya karies dan penyakit periodontal. Mahasiswa tahap profesi dokter gigi diharapkan memiliki tingkat pemahaman tentang kesehatan gigi dan mulut yang baik sehingga dapat mencegah kehilangan gigi yang disebabkan oleh penyakit gigi dan mulut seperti karies atau penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran kehilangan gigi pada mahasiswa tahap profesi dokter gigi di Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Gigi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sam Ratulangi (PSPDG FK Unsrat) Manado. Jenis penelitian ialah deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Penentuan sampel dengan metode total sampling. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner yang berisi identitas dan status kehilangan gigi responden, dan dianalisis untuk mengetahui frekuensi dan distribusi kehilangan gigi responden. Dari total 228 mahasiswa, sebanyak 156 mahasiswa mengisi kuesioner dengan responserate sebesar 68,4%. Hasil penelitian menun-jukkan 103 atau 66% responden mengalami kehilangan satu atau lebih gigi dengan jumlah keseluruhan gigi yang hilang 240 gigi. Karies merupakan penyebab kehilangan gigi paling tinggi yaitu sebanyak 144 gigi atau 60%. Dari 240 gigi yang hilang, sebanyak 202 gigi tidak dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah prevalensi kehilangan gigi pada mahasiswa tahap profesi PSPDG FK Unsrat sebesar 66%. Karies merupakan penyebab kehilangan gigi paling tinggi. Sebagian besar gigi yang hilang tidak dibuatkan gigi tiruan dengan berbagai alasan. Kata kunci: kehilangan gigi; mahasiswakedokteran gigi
Saskia E. Sekeon, Paulina N. Gunawan, Damajanty H. C. Pangemanan
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 340-346; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.36347

Abstract:
Abstract: Going to a dentist can cause anxiety in children. One of dental treatments that causes anxiety is tooth extraction.This study was aimed to determine children’s anxiety level during tooth extraction.This was a literature review study. Data were collected from the database of Google Scholar by using predefined keywords children’s anxiety level and tooth extraction. Literatures were screened by title, and the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The critical appraisal was performed by using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal and eight literatures weres obtained. The results showed that children’s anxiety level during tooth extraction were anxiety and mild anxiety. Based on age, younger children were more anxious than older children. Based on gender, females were more anxious than males. In conclusion, during tooth extraction, the anxiety levels of most of the children were anxiety and mild anxiety. Keywords: child anxiety level; tooth extraction  Abstrak: Pemeriksaan kesehatan gigi dan mulut saat mengunjungi dokter gigidapat menim-bulkan kecemasan pada anak. Salah satu perawatan yang dapat menimbulkan kecemasan ialah ekstraksi gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran tingkat kecemasan anak saat perawatan ekstraksi gigi.Jenis penelitian ialah literature review, Pencarian data pada database Google Scholardengan menggunakan kata kunci tingkat kecemasan anak dan pencabutan gigi. Hasil pencarian dilakukan skrining berdasarkan judul, kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi, kemudian dilakukan uji kelayakan menggunakan the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal dan diperoleh delapan literatur. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan tingkat kecemasan anak saat perawatan ekstraksi gigi ialah cemas dan cemas ringan. Dilihat dari usia, anak lebih muda lebih cemas dibandingkan anak lebih tua. Dilihat dari jenis kelamin, anak perempuan lebih cemas daripada anak laki-laki. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tingkat kecemasan sebagian besar anak pada saat perawatan ekstraksi gigi ialah cemas dan cemas ringan. Kata kunci: tingkat kecemasan anak; ekstraksi gigi
Glady A. Tetelepta, Michael A. Leman, Paulina N. Gunawan
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 347-356; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.36422

Abstract:
Abstract: Maxillofacial trauma can be caused by various external and internal factors. The intervention to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in community social activities that contributes to the factors causing maxillofacial trauma during the pandemic. This study was aimed to obtain the factors that caused maxillofacial trauma before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a literature review study using three databases, namely Google Scholar, Pubmed, and ClinicalKey, and the keywords "maxillofacial trauma", "etiology factors", and "COVID-19". The literatures were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. A critical assessment was carried out and 11 literatures were obtained consisting of retrospective and cross-sectional studies. The results showed that the factors causing maxillofacial trauma in the period of before and during the pandemic belonged of three categories, as follows: falls, accidents, and violence. They consisted in detail of fall, traffic accident, sports injurie, industrial accident, suicide attempt, interpersonal violence, domestic violence. and animal-bite wound. In conclusion, fall is the most dominant etiology factor before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, there is a difference in the factors causing maxillofacial trauma before and during the COVID-19 pandemic which is attempted suicide.Keywords: maxillofacial trauma; etiology; COVID-19 pandemic Abstrak: Trauma maksilofasial dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor eksternal maupun internal. Adanya intervensi pencegahan pandemi COVID-19 menyebabkan perubahan aktifitas sosial masyarakat yang berkontribusi dalam berubahnya faktor penyebab trauma maksilofasial pada saat pandemi.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat faktor penyebab trauma maksilofasial pada masa sebelum dan saat pandemi COVID-19. Jenis penelitian ialah suatu literature review. Pencarian data melalui tiga database yaitu Google Scholar, Pubmed dan ClinicalKey menggunakan kata kunci trauma maksilofasial, faktor penyebab, dan COVID-19. Literatur diseleksi menggunakan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi, dilakukan penilaian kelayakan dan diperoleh 11 literatur dengan desain studi retrospektif dan potong lintang. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan factor-faktor penyebab trauma maksilofasial pada masa sebelum dan saat pandemi tergolong atas tiga kategori yaitu: jatuh, kecelakaan, dan kekerasan, yang secara detil terdiri atas jatuh, kecelakaan lalu lintas, cedera olahraga, kecelakaan industri, percobaan bunuh diri, kekerasan interpersonal, kekerasan dalam rumah tangga, dan luka gigitan hewan. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah jatuh merupakan faktor penyebab trauma maksilofasial paling dominan pada masa sebelum dan saat pandemi COVID-19. Perbedaan faktor penyebab trauma maksilofasial pada masa sebelum dan saat pandemi COVID-19 yaitu percobaan bunuh diri. Kata kunci: trauma maksilofasial; etiologi; pandemi COVID-19
Audia N. Hidayat, Diah A. Purbaningrum, Sudaryanto Sudaryanto, Nadia Hardini
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 334-339; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35707

Abstract:
Abstract: Enamel is the hardest structure of the tooth which contains 96% inorganic material. The hardness of enamel can be observed through the remineralization cycle. Remineralization can be produced by solution that contains ionic calsium and phosphate, such as milk. This study was aimed to determine the difference between immersed in cow milk and in pure soy milk on enamel hardness. This was an experimental laboratory study with the posttest only control group design. Samples were caries-free mandibular first premolars, obtained by using the simple random sampling. There were 27 specimens of human premolars to be measured for enamel hardness divided into three groups, as follows: immersed in artificial saliva, cow milk, and pure soy milk for 90 minutes (assuming consumption of cow milk/pure soy milk for 3 months). The hardness value was tested by using Vickers Hardness Tester with a load of 1000 grams for 10 seconds. The One Way Anova test showed that there were significant differences in tooth enamel surface among groups (p0.05). In conclusion, there was no difference between immersion in cow milk and in soy milk on the enamel hardness. Cow milk and soy milk can become remineralizing agents to increase the enamel hardness.Keywords: pure cow milk; pure soy milk; hardness of tooth enamel Abstrak: Email merupakan struktur terkeras dari gigi yang mengandung 96% bahan anorganik. Kekerasan email dapat diamati melalui siklus remineralisasi. Remineralisasi dapat dihasilkan oleh larutan yang mengandung ion kalsium dan fosfat, salah satunya ialah susu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan antara perendaman dalam susu sapi dan susu kedelai murni terhadap kekerasan email gigi. Jenis penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorik dengan the posttest only control group design. Sampel penelitian ialah gigi premolar pertama rahang bawah yang bebas karies, diperoleh dengan simple random sampling. Sejumlah 27 spesimen gigi premolar manusia yang diukur kekerasannya dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yang direndam dalam saliva buatan, susu sapi, dan susu kedelai murni selama 90 menit (asumsi konsumsi susu sapi/susu kedelai murni selama tiga bulan). Nilai kekerasan diuji menggunakan Vickers Hardness Tester dengan beban 1000 gram selama 10 detik. Hasil uji One Way Anova menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan permu-kaan email gigi yang bermakna (p0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara perendaman dalam susu sapi dan dalam susu kedelai murni terhadap kekerasan email. Susu sapi dan susu kedelai dapat menjadi agen remineralisasi untuk meningkatkan kekerasan email gigi. Kata kunci: susu sapi murni; susu kedelai murni; kekerasan email gigi
Angel E. Pusung, Pritartha S. Anindita, Aurelia S. R. Supit
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 298-302; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35294

Abstract:
Malocclusion problem is often found in the community. Z spring, one of the springs of the active component of removable orthodontic appliances, is divided into two types, namely Z spring with coil and without coil. Both can move teeth in a labial direction, therefore, they can be used to correct simple cases of malocclusion such as malposition of individual tooth. The addition of coil can increase the resilience and effective length of the spring which further increases the force, hence the malposition of the tooth can be corrected more quickly. This study was aimed to analyze the differences between the effectiveness of Z spring with coil and of Z spring without coil in correction of individual tooth malposition. This was a pre-experimental study with a one-shot case study method. There were two treatment groups, namely Z spring with coil and without coil. Each sample was activated by 1 mm per activation to correct tooth with 5 mm linguoversion in typodonts. After that, the number of activations required and the average value of the measurements of both groups were compared. The independent sample T-Test test on the average value of the displacement distance of each tooth showed that there was a significant difference in effectiveness between the Z spring with coil and the Z spring without coil groups (p=0.000; p<0.05). The Mann Whitney test showed that there was also a significant difference in the value of the number of activations for each Z spring sample between the two groups (p=0.000; p<0.05). In conclusion, Z spring with coil is more effective in correction of malposition of individual tooth than Z spring without coil.Keywords: removable orthodontic appliance; Z spring with coil; Z spring without coil Abstrak: Maloklusi merupakan permasalahan kesehatan gigi dan mulut yang banyak dijumpai dalam masyarakat. Z spring merupakan salah satu pegas dari komponen aktif alat ortodontik lepasan yang terbagi menjadi dua, yakni Z spring dengan coil dan Z spring tanpa coil. Keduanya dapat memindahkan gigi ke arah labial sehingga dapat digunakan untuk mengoreksi kasus maloklusi sederhana seperti malposisi gigi individual. Penambahan coil dapat meningkatkan kelentingan dan panjang efektif spring yang meningkatkan gaya sehingga malposisi gigi dapat terkoreksi lebih cepat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perbedaan efektivitas Z spring dengan coil dan tanpa coil dalam mengoreksi malposisi gigi individual. Jenis penelitian ini pre-experimental dengan metode one-shot case study. Terdapat dua kelompok perlakuan, yakni Z spring dengan coil dan tanpa coil. Masing-masing sampel penelitian diaktivasi sebesar 1 mm per aktivasi untuk mengoreksi gigi dengan linguoversi 5 mm pada typodont kemudian dibandingkan jumlah aktivasi yang dibutuhkan dan nilai rerata perpindahan gigi kedua kelompok. Hasil uji independent sample t-test pada nilai rerata jarak perpindahan masing-masing gigi menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan efektivitas yang bermakna antara kelompok Z spring dengan coil dan tanpa coil (p=0,000; p<0,05). Hasil uji Mann Whitney terhadap nilai jumlah aktivasi tiap sampel menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan bermakna pula antara kedua kelompok penelitian (p=0,000; p<0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah Z spring dengan coil lebih efektif dalam mengoreksi malposisi gigi individual dibandingkan Z spring tanpa coil.Kata kunci: alat ortodontik lepasan; Z spring dengan coil; Z spring tanpa coil
Bitha Ariyani, Desy Armalina, Diah A. Purbaningrum
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 289-297; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.34572

Abstract:
Caries could be minimized by reducing plaque accumulation with an antiseptic mouthwash. However, chlorhexidine 0,2%, the gold standard mouthwash, is known to have side effects. This has led to the innovation of an alternative herbal-based mouthwash that has antibacterial properties; one of the possible natural material is red dragon fruit peels. This study was aimed to prove the effect of red dragon fruit peel extract as mouthwash prepared in several concentrations to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. This was a quasi-experimental study with the post test control group design. There were six sample groups, namely mouthwash with extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, negative control (aquadest), and positive control (chlorhexidine 0.2%). The antibacterial assessment was done by using the well diffusion method calculating the inhibition zone formed around the wellbore. Data were analyzed by using the Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney Post Hoc test. The results showed that the average inhibition zones formed by extract mouthwash of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% were 3.18 mm, 5.13 mm, 7.30 mm, and 11.01 mm respectively, and by positive control was 14.65 mm. There were significant differences between each treatment group. All concentrations of red dragon fruit peel extract in mouthwash could inhibit effectively the growth of Streptococcus mutans although not as effective as the positive control. In conclusion, red dragon fruit peel extract mouthwash could inihibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans.Keywords: mouthwash; red dragon fruit peel; Streptococcus mutans; antibacterial effect Abstrak: Karies dapat diminimalisasi dengan mengurangi akumulasi plak menggunakan obat kumur antiseptik. Obat kumur chlorhexidine 0,2% merupakan obat kumur baku emas namun memiliki efek samping. Hal tersebut memunculkan inovasi untuk mencari alternatif obat kumur berbahan dasar herbal yang memiliki sifat antibakteri; salah satunya ialah kulit buah naga merah. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuktikan pengaruh ekstrak kulit buah naga merah dalam obat kumur dengan beberapa konsentrasi untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans penyebab karies. Jenis penelitian ialah quasi experimental dengan desain post test only group control design. Terdapat enam kelompok sampel yaitu obat kumur konsentrasi ekstrak 6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50%, kontrol (-) akuades, dan kontrol (+) chlorhexidine 0,2%. Uji antibakteri menggunakan metode difusi sumuran dengan menghitung zona hambat yang terbentuk di sekitar lubang sumuran. Uji statistik menggunakan Kruskal Wallis dan uji post hoc Mann Whitney. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan rerata zona hambat yang terbentuk dari obat kumur konsentrasi ekstrak 6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50% ialah 3,18 mm, 5,13 mm, 7,30 mm, 11,01mm, dan kelompok kontrol(+) ialah 14,56 mm. Perbedaan bermakna terdapat pada setiap kelompok perlakuan. Setiap konsentrasi ekstrak kulit buah naga merah dalam obat kumur berpengaruh menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans, namun belum sebaik kontrol (+). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah ekstrak kulit buah naga merah dalam obat kumur berpengaruh menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Streptococcus mutans.Kata kunci: obat kumur; kulit buah naga merah; Streptococcus mutans; efek antibakteri
Milenda E. K. Asri, Astika W. Utomo, Ira A. Kusuma, Isniya Nosartika
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 303-310; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.34531

Abstract:
Decrease of physical and cognitive conditions in the elderly makes them become risky for periodontal disease. Lack of knowledge and poor behavior of oral health are the main causes of periodontal disease. Gingival health problems can be detected in the elderly by observing the signs and symptoms of gingivitis. This study was aimed to analyze the influence of knowledge and behaviour of oral health on perception of gingival health problems in the elderly living at Unit Rehabilitasi Sosial (nursery home) Pucang Gading Semarang. This was an observational and analytical study with a cross-sectional design. Samples were 74 elderlies at Unit Rehabilitasi Sosial Pucang Gading Semarang, obtained by using the purposive sampling method. Data were collected by using questionnaire and were analyzed by using the Gamma and Somers’d test followed by multinomial logistic regression test. The results showed that most of the elderly at Pucang Gading Social Rehabilitation Unit had poor oral health knowledge and oral health behavior. Most elderlies had moderate perception of gingival problems. Multinomial logistic regression about the influence of knowledge and behaviour of oral health on perception of gingival health resulted in a p-value of 0.000 (p<0.05). In conclusion, there was a significant influence of knowledge and behavior of oral health on the perception of gingival problems in the elderly.Keywords: oral health knowledge; oral health behaviour; perception of gingival problem; elderly Abstrak: Penurunan kondisi fisik dan kognitif pada lanjut usia (lansia) menyebabkan mereka lebih berisiko terkena penyakit periodontal. Kurangnya pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut merupakan salah satu penyebab utama terjadinya penyakit jaringan periodontal. Permasalahan kesehatan gingiva dapat dideteksi pada lansia dengan mengetahui tanda dan gejala gingivitis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut terhadap persepsi permasalahan gingiva lansia di Unit Rehabilitasi Sosial Pucang Gading Kota Semarang. Jenis penelitian ialah observasional analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Responden penelitian ini ialah 74 lansia yang tinggal di Unit Rehabilitasi Sosial Pucang Gading Kota Semarang yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi diperoleh dengan metode purposive sampling. Pengambilan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji Gamma & Somers’d dilanjutkan dengan uji regresi logistik multinomial. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa lansia paling banyak memiliki pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut yang buruk serta persepsi permasalahan gingiva sedang. Hasil analisis uji regresi logistik multinomial mengenai pengaruh pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut terhadap persepsi permasalahan gingiva mendapatkan nilai p=0,000 (p<0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat pengaruh bermakna dari pengetahuan dan perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut terhadap persepsi permasalahan gingiva pada lanjut usia.Kata kunci: pengetahuan kesehatan gigi dan mulut; perilaku kesehatan gigi dan mulut; persepsi permasalahan gingiva; lanjut usia (lansia)
Hafidz I. Pradipta, Budi Wibowo, Purbaningrum Diah A, Yoghi B. Prabowo
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 282-288; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.34554

Abstract:
Elastomeric ligature is used to fasten orthodontic wires with brackets and can be stretched 1-3 mm as a simulation of bracket in the oral cavity. Its elastic force could decrease caused by salivary pH and water absorption of the elastomeric ligature. Consuming carbonated drinks causes the oral cavity to become acidic which increases the loss of elastic force in the elastomeric ligature with length of stretch variations. This study was aimed to determine the effect of immersion in carbonated drinks on the elastic force of the elastomeric ligature with length of stretch variations. This was an experimental laboratory study with a post-test only control group design. There were a total of 24 samples of American Orthodontic brand elastomeric ligature with royal blue color divided into six groups, consisting of three control groups immersed in artificial saliva, and three treatment groups immersed in carbonated drinks. Each control group and treatment group were given three variations of stretch length, as follows: 1, 2, and 3 mm. The calculation of the elastic force on the elastomeric ligature was performed by using the Universal Testing Machine. Data were analyzed by using the One Way Anova test and LSD post hoc test (p <0.05). The One Way Anova test showed a significant difference in the 1, 2, and 3 mm length of stretch variations for treatment groups. In conclusion, carbonated drinks affect the elastic force of elastomeric ligature with length of stretch variations.Keywords: elastomeric ligature; carbonated drinks; length of stretch variations Abstrak: Elastomerik ligatur adalah alat yang digunakan untuk mengikatkan kawat ortodonti dengan braket, dapat diregangkan 1-3 mm sebagai simulasi braket dalam rongga mulut. Elastomerik ligatur mengalami penurunan gaya elastik salah satunya disebabkan oleh pH saliva, dan penyerapan air dari elastomerik ligatur. Mengonsumsi minuman berkarbonasi menyebabkan pH saliva menjadi asam sehingga meningkatkan kehilangan gaya elastik pada elastomerik ligatur dengan variasi panjang penarikan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman minuman berkarbonasi terhadap gaya elastik pada elastomerik ligatur dengan variasi panjang penarikan. Desain penelitian ialah eksperimental laboratorium dengan post-test only control group design. Sebanyak 24 sampel elastomerik ligatur merek American Orthodontic dengan warna royal blue, dibagi menjadi enam kelompok, terdiri dari tiga kelompok kontrol perendaman pada saliva buatan, dan tiga kelompok perlakuan perendaman pada minuman berkarbonasi. Setiap kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan diberi tiga variasi panjang penarikan, yaitu penarikan 1, 2, dan 3 mm. Perhitungan gaya elastik pada elastomerik ligatur menggunakan alat Universal Testing Machine. Analisis data menggunakan uji One Way Anova dan uji post hoc LSD pada p<0,05. Hasil uji One Way Anova menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna pada penarikan 1, 2, 3 mm dalam perendaman minuman berkarbonasi. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat pengaruh perendaman minuman berkarbonasi terhadap gaya elastik pada elastomerik ligatur dengan variasi panjang penarikan.Kata kunci: elastomerik ligatur; minuman berkarbonasi; variasi panjang penarikan
Ni Lluh S. Desyani, Pritartha S. Anindita, Michael A. Leman
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 311-316; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35356

Abstract:
Malocclusion can trigger various health problems in the oral cavity. The simplest form of malocclusion is individual dental malposition which can be corrected by removable orthodontic appliances with active components T-springs made of 0.5 mm or 0.6 mm wire dimensions. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of the T-spring with wire dimensions of 0.5 mm and of 0.6 mm on the correction of individual dental malpositions. This was a pre-experimental study using a one-shot case study design. Study samples were divided into two groups, T-spring with wire dimensions of 0.5 mm and of 0.6 mm on removable orthodontic appliances attached to typodonts. The samples were activated, and the typodonts were immersed in warm water until the individual tooth malpositions were corrected. The number of activations and the average tooth movement each time the activation were calculated and analyzed. The numbers of T-spring activations with 0.5 mm and 0.6 mm wire dimensions were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test that showed a p-value of 0.042 (p<0.05). The data of the mean tooth movement each time the T-spring was activated were analyzed with the independent sample t-test that obtained a p value of 0.016 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the T-spring with wire dimension of 0.5 mm is more effective in correcting individual dental malpositions than the T-Spring with wire dimensions of 0.6 mm.Keywords: tooth malposition; removable orthodontics; effectiveness of T-spring Abstrak: Maloklusi dapat memicu berbagai masalah kesehatan pada rongga mulut. Bentuk sederhana dari maloklusi yaitu malposisi gigi individual yang dapat dikoreksi dengan alat ortodonti lepasan dengan komponen aktif pegas T (T-spring) yang terbuat dari kawat berdimensi 0,5 mm atau 0,6 mm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan efektivitas T-spring dengan dimensi kawat 0,5 mm dan 0,6 mm terhadap koreksi malposisi gigi individual. Jenis penelitian yaitu pre-experimental dengan menggunakan one-shot case study design. Sampel penelitian dibagi menjadi dua kelompok yaitu T-spring dengan dimensi kawat 0,5 mm dan 0,6 mm pada alat ortodonti lepasan yang dipasang ke typodont. Sampel diaktivasi dan typodont direndam dalam air hangat hingga malposisi gigi individual terkoreksi. Jumlah aktivasi serta rerata jarak perpindahan gigi setiap kali T-spring diaktivasi dihitung dan dianalisis. Data jumlah aktivasi T-spring dimensi kawat 0,5 mm dan 0,6 mm dianalisis menggunakan uji Mann Whitney yang menunjukkan nilai p=0,042 (p<0,05). Data rerata jarak perpindahan gigi setiap kali T-spring diaktivasi dianalisis menggunakan uji independent sample t-test dan memperoleh nilai p=0,016 (p<0,05). Simpulan penelitian ini ialah T-spring dengan dimensi kawat 0,5 mm lebih efektif dalam mengoreksi malposisi gigi individual dibandingkan T-spring dengan dimensi kawat 0,6 mm.Kata kunci: malposisi gigi; ortodonti lepasan; efektivitas T-spring
Yufitri Mayasari
Published: 2 May 2021
e-GiGi, Volume 9, pp 266-272; https://doi.org/10.35790/eg.v9i2.35013

Abstract:
Basic health research of Indonesia in 2018 showed that early childhood caries affected 93% of children. Early dental caries risk assessment using a dental caries risk simulator could be used to determine the appropriate program to prevent dental caries. This study was aimed to analyze the relationship between risk factors and dental caries status in early childhood. This was an analytical study with a cross sectional design using total sampling method. There were 51 preschool children at Taman Kanak Kanak (kindergaten school) Pelita Takwa, Pondok Betung, South Tangerang as samples. Dental caries was assessed by using the def-t index and dental caries risks were assessed by using the Irene's donut program. Interactive interviews with parents were conducted to determine the risk factors for dental caries among the students. The results showed that the prevalence of dental caries was 84.3% and the mean def-t was 5.35. The chi-square test was carried out to determine the relationship between dental caries status and risk factors. The result was not significant for three questions related to the factors, as follows: the child's tooth surface had white spots, the acidity level of the child's teeth was below pH 6.5, and the mother's age was 36 years old. Albeit, twelve other risk factors were shown to be associated with dental caries status. In conclusion, the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children was still high. Risk factors related to the dental caries status among pre-school children can be used as educational materials targeting pre-school children and their parents.Keywords: caries risk; dental caries; preschool children Abstrak: Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia tahun 2018 menunjukkan bahwa 93% anak usia dini mengalami karies gigi. Penilaian risiko karies gigi sejak dini menggunakan simulator risiko karies gigi dapat menjadi salah satu cara untuk menentukan program yang tepat dalam mencegah terjadinya karies gigi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan faktor risiko dengan status karies gigi pada anak usia dini. Jenis penelitian ialah analitik dengan desain potong lintang menggunakan metode total sampling. Sampel yang diperoleh sebanyak 51 anak usia dini di sekolah Taman Kanak-Kanak Pelita Takwa, Pondok Betung, Tangerang Selatan. Karies gigi dinilai menggunakan indeks def-t dan risiko karies subjek dinilai menggunakan program Irene’s donut. Wawancara interaktif dengan orang tua dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko terjadinya karies gigi pada pasien tersebut. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan prevalensi karies gigi sebesar 84,3% dengan rerata def-t 5,35. Uji chi-square terhadap hubungan status karies gigi dengan faktor risiko mendapatkan hasil tidak bermakna pada tiga pertanyaan terkait faktor permukaan gigi anak ada bercak putih, tingkat keasaman kuman gigi anak di bawah pH 6,5, dan usia ibu 36 tahun ke atas. Dua belas faktor risiko lainnya terbukti memiliki hubungan dengan status karies gigi. Simpulan penelitian ini ialah prevalensi karies gigi pada anak prasekolah masih tinggi. Faktor-faktor risiko yang terbukti memiliki hubungan dengan status karies gigi anak dapat dijadikan materi edukasi dengan sasaran anak pra sekolah serta orang tuanya.Kata kunci: risiko karies; karies gigi; anak usia pra sekolah
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