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Results in Journal Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research: 201

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E. U. Ezeani, N. C. Ngobiri,
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230254

Abstract:
The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) is the total of different types of hydrocarbons in the crude oil mixture. It includes volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and extractable petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPH determination techniques are primarily grouped into spectroscopic (ultraviolet spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy) and non- spectroscopic (gravimetric, immunoassay, gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MSD), gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID)) techniques. Solvent and the sample characteristics determine the efficiency of the techniques. This paper compares spectroscopic (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy) and non-spectroscopic (gravimetric and gas chromatography) methods in the determination of TPH in soil. Spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic techniques are efficient, but the paper recommends spectroscopic techniques because the techniques are efficient with small operational time, and are safer in occupational health and safety issues. In addition their results are accurate and reliable.
, Ashrafuzzaman, Nazrul Islam, Laila Arjuman Banu, Kudrat- E- Zahan
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 8-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i330257

Abstract:
The condensation of aromatic aldehyde with amine results in the formation of Schiff's bases, which are considered to be one of the most significant groups of ligands. Schiff's base metal complexes have received a lot of attention because of their high biological activity. Such include antimicrobial, anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current research is focused on the synthesis and characterization of two Schiff's base ligands obtained from the reaction of isoniazid with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde (L1) and 5-nitro-2-furfurldehyde (L2), respectively and their metal complexes with Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ ions. FT-IR, UV-Vis, conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility (µeff) measurements were used to describe the ligands (L1 and L2) and their complexes. The square planar geometry of Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes, as well as the tetrahedral geometry of Zn2+ complexes, are supported by the Uv-Vis spectra and magnetic moments data. Their antibacterial effectiveness against various pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated in the presence of standard Kanamycin-30. The CuL2 complex, among all the metal complexes derived from the L2 ligand, exhibited better antibacterial activity against S. aureus than that of Kanamycin-30. When compared to the BHT antioxidant, all Cu2+ complexes showed excellent efficacy.
, L. Shuaibu
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i330256

Abstract:
The levels of Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were determined in six different samples of Borehole waters obtained from six designated areas of Birnin Kebbi metropolis, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals ranged from 0.0005 mg/L Cr to 0.2108 mg/L Fe. The relative abundance of the metals in Borehole waters followed the sequence of Fe (0.1769 mg/L)> Cr (0.0342 mg/L)> Cu (0.0298 mg/L)> Zn (0.0052 mg/L). The levels of Cr and other metals were found below the SON/WHO recommended safe limits for metals in water. The low concentration of Cr and absence of Pb in all the samples examined are indications that these Borehole waters contribute fewer toxic effects of metals. The pH values of the water samples were far below the recommended values by the SON/WHO and these could be adjusted through pH correction.
M. O. Ogbu, , A. M. Fulata, C. V. Nnam-Obi, D. E. Ndukwu
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230252

Abstract:
The recent surge in drug resistance and failure is belief to be a factor in the trend for the isolation of natural products from plants and other sources. This is largely due to the efficacy and safety of their components. Haemanthamine is an alkaloid of Amaryllidaceae family, the compound was reported to have lots of medicinal effects against microbes and some forms of cancers with significantly low or no side effects. The plant Daffodil is one of the commonest reservour of this alkaloid and used traditionally in the treatment of urinary disease, headache, fever, swelling growth, joint ailments, skin diseases, bruises, sprains, respiratory problems, gastrointestinal disorders among others. These medicinal potential of the plant stimulated our interest to isolate and characterized the Haemanthamine alkaloids from the plant using NMR and Mass Spectroscopic Techniques. The results obtained are in good agreement with the previously reported literatures which indicate that Haemanthamine was successfully isolated.
, Lorrie M. Murphy
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230251

Abstract:
The sorption uptake of lead by marine brown alga Fucus spiralis was investigated in bimetallic solutions. The experimental data fitted very well to Langmuir model. In bimetallic systems, the affinity of biomass for lead and cadmium increased and the sorption uptake of these metals was not affected by increasing concentrations. However, in solutions with both metals there was a significant mutual decrease of their sorption levels at high concentrations of the other metal. There is practical removal up to 100 ± 4% for biomass dosage 4.0 ±0.1 g which correspond to lowest adsorbed amount of 0.25 ± 0.1 mg/g. The highest adsorbed value was recorded with biomass dosage 0.25 ± 0.1 g but with the lowest percentage removal of 92.50 ± 6%. In this study at initial metal concentration of 10 mg/L the highest metal removal of 96% was achieved.
Elham Abdalrahem Bin Selim, , Samia Mabrook Bin Mahram, Wedad Mohammed Al–Haik, Khalid Saeed Sonbol
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230250

Abstract:
Three new amide compounds 6, 8 and 9 were derived from diazo dye 4. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(2,6-dinitrophenyl) benzaldehyde 4 was reacted separately with compounds 5 and 7 to obtain 6 and 8, respectively. The amide compound 9 was synthesized by two different methods. The reaction between 6 and a diacyl chloride compound 7 gave compound 9. Also, compound 9 was produced via the reaction of compound 8 and an N-terminus compound 5. All compounds were characterized by their melting points, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectra. Moreover, the mass spectrum and elemental analysis of compound 9 were determined. All three synthesized compounds were tested against P. mirabilis, E. coli, and S. aureus at different concentrations and showed significant results.
Abdolahi Mohamed Adawe, Amir O. Yusuf, John Onyattac, Godfrey A. Wafulad
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i230249

Abstract:
The need for clean and safe consumable water is of vital importance to any society since water is an essential substance for the sustenance of life. Mogadishu is one of the rapidly growing cities in the world with a high population, resulting in poor levels of sanitation and an inadequate clean water supply system. A total of 6 water samples were analyzed from the Mogadishu region in seven sites namely, Rer M.Shiekh, Gorgor, Umu batula, Cisse qodax, Soonikia (digfer), and Tarabuuna (umu caisha) respectively to assess the levels of heavy metals. The levels of selected heavy metals analyzed were Cd, Zn, and Pb, the analysis was done by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and other parameters analyzed were the level of pH, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, water hardness, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), and the status of water borehole quality in the Southern Mogadishu region, Somalia. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO). pH values ranged (8.1-8.9) which were below WHO standard limits except for Cisse qodax borehole (8.9) which was higher than WHO standard limits. Other value for parameters were fluoride (0.28-0.596 mg/L); chloride (279.57-888.92 mg/L); nitrate (4.27-146.6 mg/L); electrical conductivity (1.428-3.280 mS /cm); hardness (229.32-501.76 mg/L); total dissolved solids (1340-3428 mg/L); cadmium (0.03-0.07 mg/L). Lead and zinc were not detected. Hardness, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), cadmium values were higher than WHO standard limits. Nitrate values were below WHO standard limits except for Umu batula borehole (60.92 mg/L) and Rer M.shiekh borehole (146.6 mg/L) which are values higher than WHO standard limits. All boreholes had low fluoride content. However high cadmium concentration is of much concern health-wise. The presence of heavy metals in the water borehole is of concern since they could impact negatively on human health even at low levels due to their accumulation. This study is of significance in providing information on the heavy metals content of the selected water boreholes in Mogadishu, information that is currently lacking considering the management issues in the Country. Further, it could help in mapping out the boreholes based on their water quality.
Emmanuel Wellington, Onyeike Ogbomade, Eugene Nwaogwugwu, Dikioye Emmanuel Peters, David Joshua, Sampson Joe Ogbomade
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 55-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130247

Abstract:
There are numerous medicinal plants in the Southern and Eastern Nigeria. These plants are widely utilized in Nigerian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of countless of illnesses. This paper focused on the phytochemical and essential composition of the aerial parts of Leonurus cardiaca. The phytochemical and essential oil screening and characterization were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Results obtained from this investigation showed seven different terpenoids and their total concentrations were 26.19 x 10-1 (mg/100 g), nine different phenolic acids (506.33 mg/100 g), twelve different saponin (62.33 mg/100 g), seven different cyanogenic glycosides (118.03 mg/100 g), thirteen different glycosides (16.17 mg/100 g), five (5) different anthocyanins (56.53 mg/100 g), twenty six different alkaloids (1.31 mg/100 g), six different flavonoids (7.31 mg/100 g), seven different sterol (5.91 mg/100 g), tannins (426.49 mg/100 g), and phytate (69.12 mg/100 g). Analysis for essential oils showed fourty one different essential oils (100. 00 %). Our uncovering indicated Leonurus cardiaca is an excellent source of terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, phenolic acid, sterols, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and essential oils. This present research exemplify the preparatory detection for discretion or selection of Leonurus cardiaca potential source of novel therapies for the treatment of various diseases.
, S. A. Adegbite, A. P. Onifade, A. A. Sangoremi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 73-78; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130248

Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate the impact of pollution on the receiving waters (Iguosa and Ikopba rivers) in Benin City. Effluents and water samples were analysed quantitatively for the presence of lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Nickel (Ni) for both wet and dry season were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Heavy metals analysis results for 7-Up Bottling Company showed that Pb (0.06mg/L – 0.97mg/L), Cu (0.12mg/L – 2.84mg/L), Cr (0.5mg/L – 8.16mg/L), Mn (0.88mg/L – 4.36mg/L), Fe (0.55mg/L – 7.55mg/L), Zn (0.38mg/L – 3.97mg/L), Ni (0.27mg/L – 1.66mg/L) and Cd (0.03mg/L – 0.74mg/L) while results for Guinness Nigeria Plc showed that Pb (0.06mg/L – 0.95mg/L), Cu (0.07mg/L – 2.62mg/L), Cr (0.14mg/L – 2.96mg/L), Mn (0.16mg/L – 6.63mg/L), Fe (0.31mg/L – 4.96mg/L), Zn (0.14mg/L – 7.98mg/L), Ni (0.12mg/L – 1.69mg/L) and Cd (0.03mg/L – 0.56mg/L) for both wet and dry season. This showed that the concentrations of the metals were higher during wet season than the dry season except that of lead and cadmium. However, the presence of metals at various concentrations revealed that the effluents from these industries contaminated the stream.
David Nørgaard Essenbæk, Andreas Erbs Hillers-Bendtsen, Kurt V. Mikkelsen
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130243

Abstract:
We present linear optical absorptions of photo/thermochromic molecules interacting with a gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic system is the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) system and our aim is to study the effects of the interaction between the gold nanoparticle and the molecular systems. We consider the changes of the one-photon excitations of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene system as we increase the interactions between the molecules and the nanoparticle by decreasing the distance between them. We utilize a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method for investigating the photo/thermochromic molecular system interacting with the gold nanoparticle. The photo/thermochromic molecules are described quantum mechanically using density functional theory whereas the gold nanoparticle is represented as gold atoms with atomic polarizabillities using molecular mechanics. We observed that the optical properties of the photo/thermochromic systems are affected by the presence of the nanoparticle and the changes depend strongly on the conformer of the molecular system along with the relative orientation and distance between the photo/thermochromic molecules and the nanoparticle.
Christopher A. Idibie, Kehinde J. Awatefe, Julius I. Ese
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130246

Abstract:
Adsorption using activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be effective in the treatment of wastewater. In this study, Carica papaya seeds were utilized for activated carbon (AC) preparation using zinc chloride as the activating agent. Experiment was carried out to explore the methylene blue uptake by both the Carica papaya seeds activated carbon (CPSAC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC). The physicochemical characteristics, Iodine number and adsorption isotherms of CPSAC were also compared with those of CAC. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fit for both CPSAC and CAC with the coefficient correlation (R2) values of 0.9922 and 0.9964, respectively. Going by the good fitting of the Langmuir isotherm, MB adsorption on both CPSAC and CAC can be ascribed to be of monolayer adsorption process, and is associated with the chemical functional groups inherent on carbon surface. The optimum adsorption capacities of CPSAC and CAC according to the Langmuir isotherm at approximately 25C were 238.78mg/g and 241.14mg/g, respectively. This implies that CPSAC demonstrated similar outstanding adsorption properties to CAC for MB.
, F. A. H. El-Soukkary, E. A. El-Naggar, R. R. Abdelsalam
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 33-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130245

Abstract:
Gluten-free (GF) products are made using commercial flours formulas and are poor in protein, fiber, minerals and have weak physical properties that affect the quality of the final products. These factors are responsible for hampering adherence to the GF diet and for general dissatisfaction. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physio-chemical, functional and antioxidant evaluation of some combinations of GF flours formulas that have been prepared compared with available GF commercial flour formula in the local market. The moisture content of Gluten-free flour (GFF) formula sold in the local market used in the research was 12.60%. On the other hand, the prepared formulas' moisture content ranged from 12.23% (F2) to 12.90% (F3). The highest protein content was recorded with F2 and F4 formulas with no significant difference (p<0.05). Gluten-free flour formula had the lowest protein content (5.07% on a dry weight basis (DWB). In comparison to control (GFF), the amount of ash and crude fiber recorded in F2 doubled. The ash and crude fiber contents of the various formulas differed significantly. The GFF had the lowest ash and crude fiber content (0.51 and 0.31%, respectively on DWB). The highest values of total phenolic compound and antioxidant activity was observed in the F2 formula (313.15 mg/100g and 7.95%, respectively), followed by the F4 formula (226.56 mg/100g and 7.22%, respectively), then the F1 formula (223.57 mg/100g and 6.62%, respectively) on DWB. While, the lowest value was in the commercial flour formula sold in the local market (GFF) (75.10 mg/100g and 3.23%, respectively) on DWB. Gluten-free flours formulas exhibited high values for the water holding capacity in samples F2 (164.98%) and F1 (134.17%). While, GFF commercial flour formula showed lower water binding capacity in comparison to other GF flours formulas. Significant differences in the oil holding capacity of GF flours formulas were also observed. The mean values showed higher oil holding capacity for F2 (145.92%), followed by F4 (138.51%), F1 (130.11%) and F3 (126.64%), whereas, the lowest 75.43% was for GFF. The GF composite flour samples have close values and non-significant variations at p≤0.05 in the protein solubility. The increase in the values of emulsion stability and foam stability determined for GF flours formulas were significant at p≤0.05 as compared with those determined for the GFF commercial flour formula sample.
Caroline K. Nakiguli, Viola J. Kosgei, Jackson K. Cherutoi, John Odda
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 17-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i130244

Abstract:
Aims: Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. barbadensis) is one of the most treasured species from the Aloe genus that has been used in management of various ailments. However, there are few reports on the secondary metabolites, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of its leaf latex and gel. This study aimed at comparing the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and distilled water extracts of latex and gel of A. barbadensis leaves from Kisumu, Elgeyo Marakwet and Baringo Counties of Kenya, East Africa. Study Design: The study employed quantitative and qualitative research designs. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya between May 2021 and August 2021. Methodology: Leaf samples were extracted by maceration using distilled water and PBS. Phytochemical screening was performed following standard screening procures while TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method, Aluminum Chloride colorimetric assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with Tukey post hoc test at P = .05. Correlations among TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of the extracts were assessed using Pearson’s bivariate correlation. The analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism for windows (v9.0, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Results: Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, steroids, terpenes and quinones as the main secondary metabolites in the extracts. TPC and TFC were found to be highest for the aqueous extracts, with the highest contents (102.393 ± 0.121 mg GAE/ g DW and 47.228 ± 0.248 mg QE / g DW) being for dry latex of leaves from Baringo. The highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 21.900 ± 0.0594 mg/mL) was for aqueous extract of fresh latex of leaves from Baringo, followed by those from Elgeyo Marakwet and then Kisumu. Conclusion: This study established that dry and fresh latex and gel extracts of A. barbadensis leaves possess therapeutic phytochemicals with antioxidant activities, which support their use in traditional phytomedicine in Kenya.
A. H. Abdel Reheem, M. A. Kenawi, H. M. Ali, S. M. Hussien
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430242

Abstract:
Sugarcane molasses is a nutritious beverage with a black color, characterized by its viscosity, distinctive taste and aroma, which makes it a unique food with high nutritional value. The quality characteristics of sugarcane molasses stored inside various packaging materials at different storage periods were evaluated. The evaluation included the determination of the physicochemical properties of sugarcane molasses stored in four types of packaging materials (glass jar, pottery pitcher, plastic jar and tin container). The stored sugarcane molasses were analyzed periodically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months for the optical density (at 420 nm), acidity, viscosity values and total phenol content. All studied physicochemical properties increased significantly (p≤0.05) with increasing storage time, the results showed that pottery pitchers and glass jars are suitable for packaging sugarcane molasses. They produce the most stable sugarcane molasses, so they are practical containers to use. Therefore, it is recommended to use this type of packaging materials with care of the storage temperature.
Fei Liang, Taowen Zhang
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 51-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430241

Abstract:
As an important part of artificial intelligence and machine learning, artificial neural network (ANN) has been widely used because of its strong information processing and autonomous learning capabilities. In this paper, the development history of ANN is summarized, and the three common types of ANN are introduced: MLP neural network, BP neural network and recurrent neural network. Finally the practical application of ANN in chemical production forecasting are analyzed and an outlook on its development direction is prospected.
Liliana Lisset Gallegos Flores, Vanessa Elizabeth Martínez Mendoza,
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 39-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430240

Abstract:
Aims: Recently, the removal capacity of different heavy metals from sites contaminated by low-cost materials has been studied, with promising results. These adsorbents include dead microorganisms, clay minerals, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and other materials. The objective of this work was studying the removal capacity of Chromium (VI) by the biomass of the shell of Pachyrhizus erosus, by the Diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Faculty of Chemical Sciences. Autonomous University of San Luís Potosí, S.L.P., between July and November 2021. Methodology: The biomass was obtained from the shell of P. erosus, acquired in the Republic market of the city of San Luís Potosí, during the month of July 2021. For obtain the biomass, the shell was washed during 24 hours in EDTA at 10% (p/v), and 1 week with tridesionized water under constant stirring, with water changes every 12 hours, and we work with 100 mL of a 100 mg/L solution of Chromium (VI) obtained by diluting a 1 g/L standard solution prepared in tridesionized water from K2Cr2O7. The pH of the solution was adjusted with 1 M H2SO4 and/or 1 M NaOH, before adding it to the biomass. Results: The highest bioadsorption was at 7 hours, at pH 1.0 and 28°C. Regarding temperature, the highest removal was at 60°C and 1.5 hours, with a removal of 90.69%. At the metal concentrations analyzed, the natural biomass showed a good removal capacity, in addition too efficiently removal the metal in situ (93.6% of contaminated water), at 3 days of incubation, with 5 g of biomass, and 100% of removal from contaminated earth, at 52 hours of incubation, with 5 g of biomass). Conclusion: Therefore, this biomass can be used to remove it from industrial wastewater and contaminated earth.
, A. El-Naggar Eid, N. Kenawi Mohamed
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430239

Abstract:
Fermentation of oats by probiotics provides higher nutritional value and can be considered as a significant source of bioactive compounds for the human body. Moringa leaves powder (MLP) at the levels of 0.25 and 0.50% were used as an additional prebiotic source to supply oat fermentation by Lactobacillus plantaram ATCC 14917 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus EMCC 11102. The results indicated that oat products supplemented with MLP (0.50%) and fermented by L. delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus EMCC 11102 showed the highest values of free phenolic content and antioxidant activity (30.87 mg Gallic acid (GAL) /100 g and 7.64%, respectively), followed by oat products supplemented with MLP at level 0.50% and fermented by L. plantaram (28.38 mg GAL /100 g and 5.31%, respectively). Also, oat products fermented by probiotics showed different antibacterial activity by well-diffusion agar method against selected pathogenic bacteria. It is thus concluded that supplementation of fermented oat products with MLP will improve the nutritional value and health benefits of fermented oat products.
W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga, L. D. A. M. Arawwawala, H. M. D. R. Herath
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 6-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430236

Abstract:
Snake bite is considered as a major occupational health problem in Sri Lanka. A traditional decoction consists of nine medicinal plants clinically proven its efficacy for snake bites. In the present study, an attempt was done to carry out chemical analysis of the decoction. Chemical analyses were carried out for the decoction in terms of (a) phytochemical screening (b) quantification of total phenols and total flavonoids and (c) in vitro antioxidant activities. Present study, revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids and tannins in the decoction. Moreover, total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of the decoction were 66.03 ± 2.74 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract and 18.93 ± 0.90 mg quercetin acid equivalents/g of extract respectively. ORAC value was 3.51 ± 0.23 mg trolox equivalents/g of extract and dose dependent (R2 = 0.9788) DPPH radical scavenging ability was observed. IC50 of the decoction for the DPPH assay was 4.58±0.12 µg/ml. In conclusion, traditional decoction which used to treat snake bites consists of many important phytochemical classes and exhibit potent in vitro antioxidant activity.
J. O. Ogbuagu, U. E. Ukpai, , E. N. Obi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430237

Abstract:
Contamination of water bodies due to the presence of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) has been a major concern in the environment. This study aims at determining the concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Known as PCBs and Heavy Metal in sediments and water samples in Bodo River. Standard Analytical techniques were employed during the sampling process in order to achieve high level of accuracy and precision. The samples were digested and the extracts were collected for GCMS determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the samples collected. The results of the analysis shows that the concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls were found to exceed the maximum residue limit of persistent organic pollutant. Therefore it is advised that farmland and borehole connected to the sampling location be evaluated so as to minimize the health risk associated with exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.
R. Rajalakshmi, S. Ramkumar, R. Arulmani
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430235

Abstract:
A series of p-substituted thiazolyl styryl ketones were synthesized by the Claisen -Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes with 5-acetyl-2,4-dimethyl thiazole. The IR spectra for all the chalcones were recorded and effect of substituent on the carbonyl and C=N stretching frequencies are analyzed.
, F. A. H. El-Soukkary, E. A. El-Naggar, R. R. Abdelsalam
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i3-430238

Abstract:
Preparation of gluten-free products is a big challenge to the manufacturers with the main challenge of finding suitable alter-natives for gluten. Gluten-free products commercially available are poor sources of protein, fiber, minerals, and calories in the diet and poor sensory properties. Also, that GF products are not widely available and are both poor in quality and more expensive than gluten-containing products. The objective of this work was to investigate the chemical composition, functional properties, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound of some flours types as GF ingredients and compared to wheat flour containing gluten as a control. Among the GF ingredients used pseudocereals (quinoa and buckwheat), millet, rice, chickpea flours. The chemical composition of GF flours ranged between 10.34 – 11.71% moisture, 7.28 – 22.52% crude protein, 2.03 – 6.09% crude fat, 0.45 –2.37% ash, 0.34 – 5.56% crude fiber, 61.89 – 88.91% starch, 66.82 – 89.90% Carbohydrates and 385.13 – 406.99 Kcal /100g on dry weight basis. While, wheat flour (extraction 72%) contained 11.30% moisture, 12.26% crude protein, 2.46% crude fat, 0.59% ash, 0.61% crude fiber, 82.57% starch, 84.08% carbohydrates and 407.50 Kcal /100g on dry weight basis. The total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity were (279.89, 517.92, 163.99, 50.67 and 232.19 mg/100g on dry weight basis) and (16.92, 43.83, 4.27, 2.75 and 8.20%) for quinoa, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours, respectively. Whereas, the total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity for wheat flour was (147.56 mg/100g) and (4.26 %) on dry weight basis, respectively. On other hand, the results of water and oil holding capacity indicated that quinoa, buckwheat flours gave higher values than that observed for wheat flour. Also, it was found that quinoa, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours were higher soluble protein than the wheat flour. In addition, buckwheat, millet, rice, chickpea flours showed markedly higher foaming stability than of wheat flour.
, M. H. Awad, Khaled A. Hreeba
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 41-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i230234

Abstract:
A poly(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid) thin-film was formed on the surface of a platinum (Pt) electrode by oxidative electropolymerization of a new carbazole derivative. Electrochemical polymerization was performed in reaction medium containing monomer and 0.1 M TBABF4 mixture in acetonitrile (ACN) using repeated cycling at a scanning rate of 250 mV. The electrochemical polymerization of 2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid (25mM) was studied using cyclic voltammetry on both Pt and ITO electrodes. The structure of the soluble polymer was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13CNMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The weight average molecular weight of poly(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid) was determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and found to be 130900 g/mol. Characterizations of the resulting polymer were performed by cyclic voltammetry, dry conductivity measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the UV-Visible spectroscopy and electrochemical spectroscopic studies indicated that the poly(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid) film showed a green color in the oxidized state, and high transmittance in the neutral state. Moreover, the poly(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid) film is soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMSO, THF, NMP, and DMAC. The conductivities of poly(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) acetic acid) is about 4.3x 10-2 S/cm.
A. H. Abdel Reheem, M. A. Kenawi, H. M. Ali, S. M. Hussien
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i230233

Abstract:
Sugarcane molasses is defined as a product obtained from the concentration of sugarcane juice. This product is accepted in the Egyptian market and can be used as a sweetener instead of refined sugar. The packaging materials and storage temperature affect the quality properties of the sugarcane molasses. In this study, the sugarcane molasses was packed in four different packaging materials (glass jars, pottery pitchers, plastic jars, and tin containers) and stored at two different temperatures (20 and 40oC) to study the quality properties. The changes in the physicochemical, antioxidant activity and sensory properties were estimated at periodic intervals of 60 days during the period of storage study (12 months). The results showed that, pH, total soluble solids, moisture, total sugars, antioxidant activity, flavor and overall acceptability score of stored sugarcane molasses were reduced significantly (p≤0.05) with the progression of the storage period. The stability of packed samples stored at 20°C was better, as the highest values of all studied quality traits were recorded compared to their counterparts at 40°C. Among the studied packaging materials, sugarcane molasses filed in glass jars with metallic covers, and pottery pitchers with sterilized tampons had the best quality properties. Final of storage period, the glass jars recorded the highest values of total soluble solids, moisture and total sugars. While pottery pitchers were better for pH, antioxidant activity, flavor and overall acceptability score. These results may come from the physiochemical properties of the raw materials of the pottery pitchers.
Okoye Ogechi, Onyewuchi Akaranta
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 16-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i230232

Abstract:
There has been an increase in demand for green demulsifiers that will be as effective as the chemical demulsifiers but without the negative environmental effects. This demand has been partly addressed with the production of some bio-based demulsifiers. It is of importance to know the substances that act as emulsifiers in the production of crude oil and understand the mechanism of emulsification. This paper has reviewed emulsifiers and the mechanism of emulsification as well as bio-based demulsifiers and their mechanisms. This will enhance our knowledge on the type of compounds that can be used in the formation of effective demulsifiers. Innovation of these demulsifiers will enhance crude oil production and in the long run boost profitability and environmental sustainability. Currently, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) derivatives are in use for the formulation of effective green demulsifiers for water-in-crude oil emulsions.
Elham Abdalrahem Bin Selim, , Hassan Hadi Abdullah, Dahab Salim Al–Nohey
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 10-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i230231

Abstract:
Two bis-Schiff Bases 1 and 2 are ligands that can coordinate with manganese metal to form stable complexes and have biological activity. Thermodynamic parameters, HOMO-LUMO energy levels and FTIR spectra of two ligands have been computed using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) functional of the DFT calculations. Both ligands are favored thermodynamically, and the ligand 1 has been shown to be more stable than ligand 2. The Polarizability values of two ligands have been investigated. The results refer that ligand 2 interacts earlier than ligand 1 to the metal ion. The FTIR spectra of two ligands have been evaluated. All results show the good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data.
, Mullaicharam Bhupathyraaj, Saleem Desai, Alaa Mohammed Bait Ateeq, Saja Yaareb Abdullah, Muna Salim Al Rahbi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i230230

Abstract:
Dark chocolate is one of the most studied foods in the recent period due to its potential effects and health benefits. Admittedly, people's attitudes and acceptance of dark chocolate are still unknown. The cross-sectional study was aimed to determine the usage and effect of dark chocolate on health. It also aimed to study the attitude of young adults in Oman towards the consumption of dark chocolate and to discover the most preferred brands of DC in the Omani market. The study was conducted from spring 2020 to Fall 2021 in Oman. Two types of surveys were conducted. Firstly, a product survey was done to compare some brands according to the price, ingredient, expiry date, and country of origin. Secondly, across sectional-based survey was done focusing on the health benefits of consuming dark chocolate. Three hundred and forty-five (345) respondents participated in completing this survey. The results proved that many people are now aware of the health benefits of dark chocolate. The majority of the participants expressed their knowledge of the health aspect of dark chocolate and their interest in choosing the best product by examining the ingredients - especially the cocoa percentage- of the product before purchasing.
, Lakshmi Sreenath, Hanan Obaid Al-Habsi, Nirmala Halligudi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 57-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130229

Abstract:
Acne is derived from the Greek word “acme” which means “prime of life”. It is mostly considered to be benign and self-limiting condition but if it is ignored than it can progress to lifetime presence and scaring of the skin. Almost 85% of adolescence are affected by acne and from here males are at higher ration that female due to testosterone level that causes increase size in sebaceous gland which in turn causes more production of sebum (oil production). Women are affected more during adulthood due to imbalance of premenstrual hormones and over use of oil based cosmetics. There are many different factors that contribute to acne formation and it has many different forms. Herbal medication are considered safer than allopathic medicines because allopathic medicines are associated with various side effects such as like contact allergy, local irritation, scaling, photosensitivity, itching, redness, skin peeling, necrosis of the skin etc. In this study there are 3 herbal plants were used to prepare cream formulation that were used to investigate the anti-acne property. The aim of this research work was to develop formulations and to perform its evaluation as an herbal anti-acne cream. The objective of this study was to focus on the ant-acne or anti-bacterial effect of the formulated polyherbal cream containing three plants, Thyme, Aloe Vera and Basil. The results showed that the formulation 10 showed potential anti-acne property had that twice more concentration of aloe Vera than basil and thyme.
Festus Chioma
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 40-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130228

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: The resistance of microbes against anti-bacteriological drugs leading to countless deaths and terminal ailments remains a basis for concern. Hence, the main interest of this study was to design, synthesize and report unusual compounds with basic hydrophilic moieties plus hydrophobic functions for anti-bacteriological studies. Materials and Methods: Analytical (melting points, micro-analysis (C. H.N.S) magnetic susceptibility (µeff), molar conductance plus solubility test) methods; spectral (Fourier Transform Infrared(FTIR)), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- plus 13C-NMR), electronic(UV-Vis)) measurements; theoretical (DFT) evaluations were utilized for the characterization of the chelator and its chelates. All synthesized compounds were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials while the chelator was singly evaluated for solvent extractive capacity. Results: A nitrogenous based chelator-ligand, (E)-1-(((4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)imino)methyl) naphthalen-2-ol(LH) synthesized through reflux-condensation reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine with 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde was acquired. Further reflux of the chelator-ligand with bivalent ions of iron-sulphate and zinc-acetate salts plus 2,2’-bipyridine resulted into separate bivalent-heteroleptic metallic chelates. The deprotonated nitrogen of the amine moiety and carbon of the carbonyl gave rise to the chelator-ligand with N2O2 chromophore detected around the metallic atom in the chelates. The µeff data plus UV-Vis spectral values of the chelates conformed to 6-coordinate octahedral geometry. All the chelates were high spin and non-ionic in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of the compounds presented moderate to fantastic results, while the metallic extractive proficiency of the chelator showed outstanding extractability for Fe2+ and Zn2+ions with an efficiency of 79.34% and 51.92% correspondingly. Conclusion: All the synthesized compounds are novel and demonstrated prospective biological, plus metallic ions’ extractive potentials required for designs plus isolation of products also for such actions.
, E. N. Obi, A. P. Okeke, U. E. Ukpai
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 26-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130227

Abstract:
The distribution of the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in surface water, sediment and three fish species (African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Trout fish (Mormyrus rume) and Hetrobranchus longefilis) from Ezu-river, Anaku, Anambra State, Nigeria. The samples were analysed for PAHs by means of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of PAHs showed that, in surface water, the highest concentration was related to benzo(a)pyrene whereas benzo(k)fluoranthene was the most important pollutant in sediment. For the fish samples, Hetrobranchus longefilis recorded the highest concentration in Naphthalene while Anthracene was the most dominant pollutants in Mormyrus rume and in Clarias gariepinus benz(b) fluoranthene was the highest pollutants. The Health and exposure risk assessment was conducted for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic exposure in adults and children which shows that the cumulative cancer risk and hazard index were within USEPA regulatory standard. Calculated Hazard Index for fish and water samples were less than one and thus be recommended for consumption.
Sujan Kanti Das, , Rajib Chandra Das, Manas Mondal, Snahasis Bhowmik
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 14-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130226

Abstract:
Compression molding has produced quartz-reinforced polyester composites (QPCs) weighing 10 to 40 per cent quartz relative to the weight of unsaturated polyester resin. Synergistic changes were made in the composite properties and were superior to those of the individual components. The composite's physical and mechanical properties such as bulk density, water absorption , tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness have illustrated the competency of the composite being developed. It was found that for the resultant composite examined, the percentage of water absorption is very small. However, when quartz content were increased, water absorption grew very slowly. Enhancement of mechanical properties strongly corresponds to strong adhesion force of quartz with the matrix and it influenced by well-disperse quartz particles on the whole surface of composite. This paper also performed thermal characterization of the composites. Because of these remarkable properties, as prepared composite can find applications in packaging, fuel cell, solar cell, structural materials and households purposes.
I. O. Oyo-Ita, U. A. Ugbaja, E. E. Oyo-Ita, C. Oge, B. B. Asuquo
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v10i130225

Abstract:
Polychaetes play an important role in nutrient cycling and remediation of coastal ecosystems. Large quantities of organic matter that could lead to pollution of pond and coastal waters are generated by aquaculture waste. To assess the remediation prospects of Arenicola marina and Syllis prolifera species, laboratory sediment microcosm experiments were conducted where large size Arenicola marina and Syllis prolifera were introduced to sediment in microcosm A, large size Arenicola marina to sediment in microcosm B, large sized Syllis prolifera to sediment in microcosm C and no polychaetes to sediment in microcosm D. Microcosm A′, B′ and C′ as replicates for small size polychaetes were also set up, respectively. After 30 days, microcosm A, B and C had significant decrease in organic carbon levels with microcosm B being the highest (Total organic carbon (TOC); 27.87%; p< 0.05). Both large and small polychaetes promoted significant decrease in sulphur (S) content (mean=62.76±0.21; 62.81±0.21%) and iron(Fe) (mean=49.43±1.47; 36.28±5.90%) respectively. Increase in pH by 31.15±0.13% was found in the presence of large size polychaetes, most likely associated with the burrowing process involving oxidation of Fe to Fe2O3. Large size polychaetes had better survival (mean=92±0.82%) than their small size counterpart (mean=55±4.08%). The extent of biodegradation B>A>C>D observed revealed that large size Arenicola marina was a better bioremediator of organic matter (OM), Fe and S enriched aquaculture pond sediment, probably due to its biological characteristics, well suited for the aquaculture than other species of sea worms that produce free swimming larvae. Therefore, large size Arenicola marina significantly improved sediment quality as well as increased its pH without compromising their survival. As the search for a better bioremediator of organically enriched sediment continues, our result revealed large size Arenicola marina as a more promising candidate compared to other species documented elsewhere in the world. Hence, rearing of large size Arenicola marina sp is recommended as their feeding habits are well suited for aquaculture.
, Badra Boubakeur, Noura Ayad, Laid Boukraa, Si Mohamed Hammoudi, Boumedienne Abdelhak, Rachida Benaraba
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 51-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430224

Abstract:
Aims: In this study the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata were investigated. Study design: The study contains determination of the chemical composition of the essential oil of E. caryophyllata and the in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of this oil. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the laboratory of research on local animal products of Ibn-Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria during the period from December 2020 to March 2021. Methodology: The essential oil composition was characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometrical analyses. The antibacterial activity of this oil was tested against four pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33862, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 by using disc diffusion method and agar incorporation method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the tested oil. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results: Our results have shown a greater antibacterial effect of E. caryophyllata essential oil against all the bacterial tested strains with inhibition zone diameters varied from 17.5 to 20.5 mm and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged between 0.8 μl / ml and 4.4 μl / ml, B. cereus and S. aureus are the most sensitive species with a MIC value of 0.8 μl / ml, however P. aeruginosa is the most resistant species with a MIC value of 4.4 μl / ml. The result of the antioxidant effect showed that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata is a powerful antioxidant that expresses a higher antioxidant activity than the standard antioxidants: gallic acid, vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that the essential oil of E. caryophyllata has a strong antibacterial and antioxidant effect and it may be an alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria and oxidative stress.
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430222

Abstract:
Cementation or metal displacement reaction is one of the most effective techniques for removing toxic metals from industrial waste solutions. Aims: The main purpose of this work is to study the rate of cementation of cadmium by using a rotating bed of Zn Raschig rings packed in a perforated impeller basket for the investigation of the removal of Cd 2+ from waste solution. Study Design: The reactor was tested for Cd2+ concentration removed, the diameter of Zinc Raschig rings, and the rotational speed of the basket. Methodology: The results indicate that there are two rates of cementation for Cd-Zn system, a high rate at the beginning, followed by a lower rate after the initial period. The results also show that percentage removal of Cd2+ ions from solution increases by increasing the speed of basket rotation, and as the diameter of Zn Raschig ring packed in the basket reactor, increases the removal of Cd2+ decreases. The cadmium deposits on zinc as powder. Results: The removal of Cd2+ is optimum for ring diameter of 0.5 cm, initial concentration of 100 ppm, and basket rotation speed of 500 rpm. The experimental data fit the following equation: Sh=0.041 Sc0.33Re0.40. This equation can be used for the design scale-up and operation of reactors used to remove Cd2+ from wastewater by cementation. Conclusion: Rates of cementation were expressed in terms of the rate of mass transfer, the mass transfer coefficient increases as the rotational speed of the basket increases.
Akpan Esther Emmanuel, , Kinigoma Boma
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430221

Abstract:
Aims: This study evaluates total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in wastewaters from three locations of the oil-producing flow station in Rivers State. Study Design: By experiment and the results obtained by analytical means. Place and Duration of Study: This work was conducted at the Department of Industrial Chemistry/Petrochemical Technology, School of Science and Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria between February and August, 2021. Methodology: The evaluation was done using gas chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer Detector (GC-MSD). Results: Results obtained showed low levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranging from 0.051, 0.119, and 0.07 mg/l and 0.01, 0.06, and < 0.01 mg/l for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the three locations, respectively. The results also revealed that the concentrations of the total petroleum hydrocarbons of the samples from the three locations were highest at carbon atom 17 suggesting a biogenic contribution of organic matter. The chromatographs obtained gave evidence that the nature of the contamination was minimally crude oil, because crude oil normally distributes in broad range, as observed in the locations samples as against the narrower carbon range of C8 to C40 characteristics of refined products. The pristane/phytane ratios, which were 0.925, 0.891 and 0.372 for the three samples, depicted an oxygenated environment. The C17/pristane ratios (39.53, 38.93, and 31.48) for all three locations revealed that the wastewaters were slightly weathered. The low concentrations as well as absence of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and higher concentrations of low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons support the petrogenity of the wastewaters. The phenanthrene/anthracene ratios (1.26, 0, and 0) for the three samples confirm the nature of the wastewaters. In addition, the absence of benzo(a)anthracene to chrysene ratio for all three samples point to proper treatment of the wastewaters. Conclusion: From this study, the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) obtained from all the samples were lower than the maximum recommended levels by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). This study recommends constant monitoring in the total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic hydrocarbons concentrations because even at its low concentrations can be injurious to health of the people residing within the facility and beyond.
, Phanice T. Wangila, Jackson K. Cherutoi
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 17-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430219

Abstract:
Aims: To establish the shelf -life of mango fruits coated with unmodified and modified M. esculenta edible coating at low (4 ± 2°C) and room temperature (23 ± 2°C) conditions. Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at Moi University, School of Sciences and Aerospace studies, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry between January 2021 and June 2021. Methodology: Ocimum gratissimum leaves essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using Clevenger apparatus. Preparation and modification of the coating were homogenized at 70 ± 2 °C. Physico-chemical parameters including weight loss, titratable acidity (TA), Vitamin C concentration, total soluble solids (TSS), and pH were used to establish the fruits’ shelf-life. Results: The modified M. esculenta (cassava) starch coating (1.5%) treatment, their interactions and storage duration significantly affected the physico-chemical parameters of mango fruits. The modified coating-maintained TA 0.66%, 0.87%, reduced weight loss by 27.81%,14.62%, delayed the increase of TSS 7.50%, and pH 5.20, 4.93 while retaining the vitamins C 8.13 mg/100g, 15.09mg/100g concentration up to eighteen days and twenty-seven day of storage at 23 ± 2°C and 4 ± 2°C respectively. The distilled water treatment (control) reduced TA to 0.11%, 0.23%, increased weight loss to 47.12%, 24.21%, TSS 20.22%, 17.41%, and pH 8.21, 5.20 while retaining the vitamin C 3.74 mg/100 g, 8.13 mg/100 g concentration at 23 ± 2°C and 4 ± 2°C respectively. Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that M. esculenta edible coating incorporated with O. gratissimum essential oil extended the shelf life of mangoes up to eighteen and twenty-seven days of storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) and low temperature (4 ± 2°C), respectively. This treatment might be an effective farm-based post-harvest treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fresh produce while maintaining their physico-chemical parameters.
, Salah Aldin Naman, Kanaan Ramadan Ahmed, Anastasiya Vladimirovna Razina, Akhmetov Arslan Faritovich
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330217

Abstract:
Four types of Kurdistan crude oils have been studied to determine the heavy and trace metals. The significance of determining trace elements that exist in crude oils is helpful for further information about exploration, production and the refining process. In this work crude oil can be separated into products such as (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and atmospheric distillation residue +350°C) by using atmospheric distillation unit and vacuum distillation unit. The trace metals can be determined with acceptable accuracy and precision by spectroscan MAX-G. However, the values of Ni concentration were the best in accuracy among the group of metals of interest. The average values of the results will be employed as reference values of the trace metal content in the coming discussion and using Ni and V as test elements. The crude oil samples are characterized by with a dominance of V over Ni with a V/Ni ratio of 3.7 to 2.5. Trace element analysis of the five metals in crude oils and atmospheric distillation residues +350°C, for each crude oils and atmospheric distillation residues +350°C is investigated, samples of these areas has not been previously examined for trace element contents. In this study to find the relation between metals in crude oils and atmospheric distillation residue of samples. To detect the concentration of trace elements by using this instrument.
Lucy N. Karanja, Isaac O. K’Owino, Phanice T. Wangila, Rose C. Ramkat
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i430218

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of Solanum incanum fruits against Ralstonia solanacearum. Study Design: Experimental design involving completely randomized design Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace studies, Moi University, Kenya, between January and June 2021. Methodology: Extraction was done by maceration using ethanol as the extracting solvent. Phytochemical screening was done following standard procedures. Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The extract was further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier transformed Infrared (FT-IR). In vitro antibacterial activity was determined using disc diffusion method while in vivo studies was done under greenhouse conditions. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and terpenoids. The TPC and TFC were found to be 84.997 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g and 20.535 ± 0.2 mg/g QE of dried sample respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 15 compounds, (9E)-1-Methoxy-9-Octadecene (26.85%), 9-Octadecenamide (Z) (21.43%), E-15-Heptadecenal (7.28%), E-14-Hexadecenal (6.28%), 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol (4.96%) among others. FT-IR analysis revealed presence of OH, C-H, N-H, CO functional groups at wavenumbers 3348 cm-1, 2931 cm-1, 1589 cm-1, and 1218 cm-1 respectively. The antibacterial activity for in vitro studies at concentrations 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 g/10 mL, the diameters of zone of inhibition were 20.75 ± 1.3, 25.75 ± 0.5, 27.25 ± 0.5, and 30.75 ± 0.5 mm respectively. This was comparable (P= .02) to that of ampicillin (positive control) which had zones of inhibition of 26.75 ± 0.5, 28.75 ± 0.5, 31.75 ± 0.4, and 35.00 ± 0.0 mm at the concentrations respectively. For the in vivo studies the plant extract and ampicillin delayed the development of the disease by eight and ten days post-inoculation respectively while symptoms of bacterial wilt for water treatment (negative control) were observed four days post-inoculation. Conclusion: The plant extract had remarkable antibacterial activity and can be used to make viable formulations to control the devastating bacterial wilt disease.
L. Shuaibu, U. Abdullahi, A. I. Yaradua,
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330216

Abstract:
This study investigated the phytoremediation potentials of Cynodon dactylon in heavy metal contaminated soils of Challawa Industrial Estate, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. A total of 100 samples comprising of 50 soils and 50 plant parts of C. dactylon were evaluated for the presence of heavy metals by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method. Extent of heavy metal soil contamination and phytoremediation potentials of the study plant were assessed by the use of metal contamination factor (Cf) for soil; Bioaccumulation and translocation factors for the plant sample respectively. From the results, levels (mg/kg) of the metals in the C. dactylon from contaminated and control sites were found to be in the sequence of Fe (442.60) > Cu (138.35) > Zn (133.53) > Cd (61.50) > Pb (42.47) > Mn (28.40) > Ni (18.40) > Cr (17.73) and Fe (88.60) > Zn (38.18) > Cu (33.60) > Ni (13.70) > Mn (12.67) > Pb (6.07) > Cd (5.60) > Cr (5.03) respectively. The contamination factor values Cf, (mg/kg) of all the metals in the soils were found to be in the sequence of Cd (10.73) > Cu (5.64) > Cr (3.07) > Pb (2.98) > Ni (2.17) > Zn (2.09) > Mn (2.00) > Fe (1.72). The results showed that the soils are highly contaminated with Cd, considerably contaminated with Cu and Cr, and moderately contaminated with Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccumulation and translocation factor values (BAF>1 and TF1) for the plant species were greater than 1 for Fe suggesting efficient accumulation in the shoot. However, C. dactylon could be recommended as good candidate for phytoextraction of Fe and phytostabilization of the study investigated metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in multi-metal contaminated soils.
, K. Muthukumaran
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330215

Abstract:
Discharge of Cr(VI) laden effluents is highly toxic and decontaminating the wastewater from Cr(VI) is necessary for Environmental Protection. An investigation on the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon prepared from neem nut (NNC) for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater by varying the parameters such as carbon dose, pH, equilibration time by batch studies was found to be effective for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. Carbon characteristics of activated neem nut carbon were ascertained. Evaluation were done by varying the pH from 1 to 6, carbon dose from 0.1 g to 0.5 g and equilibration time from 1 to 6 hours. Maximum Cr(VI) removal of 95% took place when batch studies were done at an optimal pH of 2, carbon dose of 0.2 g//100mL, and equilibration time of 4 hours. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were considered for analysis.
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330214

Abstract:
Theoretical modeling of organic synthesis is a powerful tool and leads to further insight into chemical systems. Computational chemistry allows obtaining the potential energy surface that experimentally cannot be observed, in addition to transition state calculations, which lead to better understanding the reactivity of an organic synthesis work. The Diels-Alder (DA) reaction of cyclopentadiene 1 and N-phenylmaleimide 2 has been studied at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. This DA reaction occurs through a one-step mechanism. It was expected that this reaction undergoes two regio-isomeric reaction paths passing through two different transition states to form two different products 3 and 4. The reaction paths are irreversible due to the exothermic character of -41.24 and -41.73 kcal.mol-1. This DA reaction are exergonic with reactions Gibbs free energies between -27.26 and -27.74 kcal⋅mol−1. Analysis of the CDFT indices predict the global electronic flux from the strong nucleophilic cyclopentadiene 1 to the electrophilic N-phenylmaleimide 2.
Chenhan Zhuang, Weilan Xue, Zuoxiang Zeng
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i330213

Abstract:
Aqueous polyurethane emulsion was prepared with diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), polybutylene adipate diol (PBA-1000) as main raw materials and 2, 2-dihydroxymethyl propionic acid (DMPA) as hydrophilic chain extender. On this basis, epoxy resin E-44 was introduced to modify the polyurethane prepolymer, and epoxy resin modified waterborne polyurethane emulsion was obtained. In order to obtain better performance waterborne polyurethane, the effect of DMPA content、the amount of epoxy resin added and modification method on the properties of polyurethane was discussed. The results show that when the DMPA content is 4wt%, the overall performance of the emulsion and the film is the best. And the addition of epoxy resin significantly improves the water resistance, solvent resistance and tensile strength of the waterborne polyurethane film, and its hardness and thermal stability are also improved to a certain extent. When the amount of epoxy resin added is 8wt%, the storage stability decreases significantly, the suitable amount of epoxy resin added is 6wt%. The overall performance of the film obtained by chemical modification is better than that of physical modification.
, Lainur Nahar, Shahnaz Parven, Muhammed Yusuf Miah
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 31-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230211

Abstract:
The potential of biodegradable polymers has long been appreciated. In this work, an attempt has been made to synthesize biodegradable polymer composite from potato starch and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with different ratios of starch (0%-15% w/w) by using an extruder. The structure and morphology of film surfaces was studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The physical (density, water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural) and thermal (TGA and DTA) analyses of starch/LDPE bio-composites were evaluated through standard methods and instruments. Biodegradation tendency was investigated utilizing soil burial and Rockwell micro-hardness test.The results revealed that the density and water absorption of polymer blends increased with increasing the starch content in starch/LDPE composites. The tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with starch content whereas the elastic modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus rose. The biodegradability of composites enhanced by increasing the starch content and the result was backed by weight loss during burial of the samples in soil for 90 days. Microhardness test also supported the biodegradation probability as hardness found to reduce extensively after soil burial. However, further study to decide the optimum starch loading alongwith some modifications to starch and LDPE is highly suggested to have a biodegradable LDPE polymer composite in a realistic time frame.
Krishna R. Gupta, Sneha Shelke, Anvesha V. Ganorkar, Nishiben Patel, Milind J. Umekar
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 22-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230210

Abstract:
The research work aims to develop a bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography and validated for the determination of canagliflozin by using an internal standard. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur (MS). Isocratic chromatography separation was achieved on an LC system with PDA detector on an ACE C18 (150mm× 4.6mm × 5µm) column using a mobile phase composition of acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer in the ration of 50:50 v/v (pH 4.5), orthophosphoric acid is used to adjust pH of mobile phase and the flow rate at 1.0ml/ min. and estimation was carried out at 291 nm. The retention time of a drug was 4.633 minutes. The method was validated for several parameters (specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy) and also successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic in female rats. Calibration plot was linear (r2 > 0.9973) over the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml for canagliflozin. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation (%RSD) confirm the suitability of the method. The result of Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.1099 μg/ml and 0.3331 μg/ml, respectively. The new RP-HPLC method can be conveniently adapted for examining canagliflozin concentration in rat plasma after oral administration.
H. S. Abd Alraoof, S. I. El Syiad, A. A. Abdel Hamid, Sanaa A. El Sherif
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230208

Abstract:
The most serious processing problem can clear arise from the presence of dextran gum. The presence of dextran in sugar processing leads to less of sucrose and creates problems to sugar producers by increasing viscosity, lowing sugar yield, increasing molasses purities slowing filtration. The application of dextran enzyme to reduce dextran from raw juice was more efficient and economic than adding it to clear juice and syrup. Sixty percent of dextran removal was achieved when dextranase applied at concentration of 20u/100ml raw juice and 30min incubation. The dextran reduction and reached 65% by the use of 30u under some condition in clear juice, the percentage of dextran reduction reached 25,27 and 45% when dextranase enzyme used at 30u /100mol after 10,20 and 30 min of the incubation respectively. The use of the application of dextranase enzyme to reduce dextran from raw juice was more efficient and economic than adding it to clear juice and syrup. Sixty percent of the dextran was removed when using dextranase applications at a concentration of 20u/100ml of raw juice over 30 minutes.
Pooja T. Chhanikar, Krishna R. Gupta, Milind J. Umekar
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230207

Abstract:
Derivatization is the process of chemically modifying a compound to develope a new compound which has properties that are suitable for analysis using HPLC. Derivatization improves the detectability of a target analyte by reaction with suitable derivatizing agent. Derivatization reactions are simple chemical modification of substance that make it compatible with the selected separation method or transforms substance with a low UV- absorption into highly sensitive product. Derivatization reactions in liquid chromatography modify the solutes adding a chomophore for easy UV detection or a fluorophore for sensitive fluorescent detection. The chemical structure of the compound remains same and just modifies the specific functional group for reacting compounds to derivative of deviating chemical and physical properties in order to make them detectable. Introduction of certain elements or groups through chemical derivatization may enhance the detector’s response helpful for the elucidation of structure of analytes. In conclusion, the present review describe various derivatization reagents for pre-column and post column derivatization process in HPLC by UV-visible and fluorescence detection are summarized along with reactions and some practical aspects. The commonly used derivatizing reagents in HPLC are 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, ninhydrine, 4-N-N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4’-sulfonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, phenyl isocyanate for UV-visible detection and o-phthalaldehyde, fluorescamine, 1-dimethylaminonapthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (DNS-Cl), 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc-Cl), benzofurans for Fluorescence detection.
Opeyemi F. Ojaniyi, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Daniel O. Omokpariola
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 64-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130205

Abstract:
Human activities on environmental resources have negatively affected floras and faunas in maintaining fair balance. In this research study, selected heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) concentration in three fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Heterotis niloticus and Anguilla labiate), surface water and sediment samples in Ogbaru axis of River Niger, Anambra State, Nigeria. We evaluated the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Al, Cd) analysis in fish samples showed that Cr was detected in Clarias garipinus and Anguilla labiate with a concentration of 0.001mg/kg in both species but was not detected in Heterotis niloticus. Hg and Al were not detected in Anguilla labiate but both metals were detected in the other fish species with a mean concentration of 0.311mg/kg and 0.019mg/kg respectively for Clarias garipinus and 0.001mg/kg and 0.005mg/kg respectively for Heterotis niloticus. In decreasing order, the heavy metal concentration in Clarias garipinus in increasing order of Cu >Fe > Ni > Hg > Pb > Zn > As > Cd > Al > Cr, while Heterotis niloticus followed the order Cu > Zn > Fe > Ni > Pb > Cd > Al > As > Hg > Cr, and Anguilla labiate followed the pattern of Cu > Fe > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr > As > Hg > Al. For surface water, As (0.005mg/l), Cd (0.032 mg/l), Cr (0.099 mg/l), Cu (0.186 mg/l), Fe (2.308 mg/l), Hg (1.501 mg/l) and Pb (0.724 mg/l) showed high concentration for the raining season compared to dry season, as Al (0.246 mg/l), Ni (0.773 mg/l) and Zn (2.903 mg/l) were dominant during dry season, while sediment samples of Cr (0.112 mg/kg), Cu (0.029 mg/kg), Ni (0.945 mg/kg) and Pb (0.039 mg/kg) concentration in raining season were higher than dry season and vice versa for other As, Cd, Fe, Hg, Zn. Correlation matrices showed positive value showing that heavy metals were from a similar source with migration route and vice versa for negative correlation. Health and exposure risk assessment was conducted for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic exposure in adults and children, where the cumulative cancer risk was within USEPA regulatory standard (1.0E-6 – 1.0E-04) and cumulative hazard index were above 1 for adults (2.02) and children (4.93), implying that children are at risk of having adverse health issues compared to adults. Therefore, there is a need for regulatory advocacy and special care to mitigate anthropogenic release and safeguard the environment.
Rabie S. Farag, Hanafy A. Hashem, Abdel-Al Rahman Naser,
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 33-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130204

Abstract:
Non healthy oils & fats consumption in foods is the major reason of obesity in human beings. Common cooking oils & fats are composed of medium and long chain triglycerides. Each triglyceride consist of fatty acids called medium and long chain fatty acids abbreviated as (MCFAs & LCFAs). The ratio of LCFAs is mostly higher than the MCFAs in common cooking oils to be to be suitable for heat stress applications like cooking and frying. On the other side there is natural dietary fats are rich in Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like coconut oil and dairy fats. Also there are synthetic medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils which are synthetized by a processes called fractionation that extracts the MCFAs as caprylic and capric acid from the other fatty acids in the coconut or palm kernel oil. The MCFAs, shows substantial metabolic advantage compared to LCFAs. MCFAs are a preferred source of energy (b-oxidation). The last 20 years studies confirmed the potential of MCFAs to reduce body weight and may reduce fasting lipid levels more than oils rich in LCFAs. The same is true for glucose levels. In this study, the authors did chemical and instrumental studies on dietary structured MLCT and non-structured MCT/LCT cooking oils which were used for producing for weight reduction and obesity control purpose Capric /caprylic MCT oil was used as a source of MCFAs for producing of novel. Different sources of long-chain triglycerides (LCFAs) have been used including sunflower oil (SFO), Canola oil(CNO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), palm oil (PO) and double fractionated palm olein (DFOlein). The following techniques have been used for preparation of structured and non structured cooking oils in this study : 1-Physical blending. 2 - Chemical interesterification in a multipurpose batch reactor. 2- Enzymatic interesterification using immobilized Lipase enzyme in pilot scale packed bed reactor (PBR). Different analytical and instrumental techniques were used in this study including Gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Rancimate, and smoke point tester. The study shown that the non-structured MCT/LCT oils gave reasonable heat stability, higher smoke points compared the structured MLCT oil which make it more suitable for cooking and frying applications. The chemical and enzymatic interesterification (CIE & EIE) technique yield a real structured MLCT oil which is more effective in caloric reduction and obesity control purpose during long term consumption in dietary foods, however, due to its much lower smoke point compared to its relative LCFAs oil so it will be suitable only for cold applications like salad dressing and other culinary applications. But not suitable for heat stress applications like deep or shallow frying.
Mohd. Washid Khan, Ravi Prakash Mishra, Bhavesh Patel, Shradha Patel, Sujit Gupta, Souvik Sen
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 16-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130203

Abstract:
Sulphadiazine and their copper metal complexes are dexterous ligands, which are condensation products of primary amines with carbonyl compounds gaining importance day by day in the present scenario. Spectral characterization and examination of the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the synthesized complex were performed. The imine Cu(II) complex is characterized by FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The Stoichiometric M:L ratio was determined by Joe and Jones method. These compounds and their copper metal complex are very important in various biological systems and their medicinal and pharmaceutical fields. Schiff foundations show beneficial natural functions such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and antiglycation. The present review summarizes information on the diverse biological activities and also highlights the recently synthesized numerous Schiff bases and their metal complex as potential bioactive core.
, Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, M. A. Abd– ElSayed, Mallak Megalea Zikry
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130202

Abstract:
In this research synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a green method is studied. The high importance of silver nanoparticles using extract of Delonix regia (DREAgNs) is due to their unique properties, such as non-expensive, easily available and have application in water treatment. Synthesized silver nanoparticles AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer to indicate the synthesis of AgNPs by green methods. The maximum absorbance of UV-Vis. analysis at wavelength 464 nm. (FT-IR) spectra to indicate the functional groups of phytochemical compounds at Delonix regia extract (DRE) and the silver nanoparticles (DREAgNPs) and also shows the role of active chemical constituents in stabilization and reduction of (DREAgNPs). Based on the transmission electron microscopy image analyses (TEM) confirmed the formation of spherical DREAgNPs with a particle size range of 20-50 nm with an average particle size of 35 nm. The Cu2+ ion adsorption process was studied by (DREAgNPs). The Cu2+ ions removal efficiency (R. E.) is 88.4 % at an initial concentration 15 ppm. Removal efficiency (R. E.) decreases as the Cu2+ ion concentration increases. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies confirmed that the biosorption process was endothermic and the positive value of ΔG° is quite common when an ion-exchange mechanism applies in the biosorption. The Positive value of ΔS◦ suggested an increase in randomness during the biosorption. The Freundlich isotherm has a good fit with the experimental data (R2 =0.99) compared to Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.90). This study shows that DREAgNPs are available, low cost, effective and environment friendlly biosorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous environment.
, Fredrick O. Kengara, Kirimi H. Kiriamiti, Yousif A. Ragab
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research pp 74-87; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i430201

Abstract:
Aims: To synthesize and characterize six caprolactam-based ionic liquids (CPILs) by combination of caprolactam with different organic and inorganic Brønsted acids that can be utilized for lipid extraction from microalgae. Study design: Experimental design include quantitative and qualitative. Place and duration of study: The study was done at Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, School of Sciences and Aerospace Studies, Moi University (Kenya) between November 2020 and May 2021. Methodology: Six CPILs were prepared through a simple neutralization reaction between Caprolactam and Brønsted acids such as Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Methane sulphonic acid (CH3SO3H), Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid (CF3SO3H), Acetic acid (CH3CO2H), Trifluoroacetic acid (CF3CO2H), and Sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The first three acids were used in the synthesis of CPILs for the first time. The chemical structures of the synthesized CPILs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The densities and viscosities were measured at 20 oC using the weight (pycnometer) and capillary viscometer (Oswald) methods, respectively. Results: All the CPILs were insoluble in hexane and had high miscibility with water and methanol. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the CPILs were compared with that of free Caprolactam. The characteristic absorption bands of the synthesized compounds showed a big shift in position and/or intensity (compared to caprolactam), indicating the formation of the CPILs. The results showed that both the density and viscosity increased with the molecular weight of the anion - except in Caprolactamium hydrogen sulphate (CPSA)- which could be due to the strong interactions between the cation and anion resulting from the dimerization between hydrogen sulphate anions. Conclusion: The hydrophilic nature of the CPILs indicated by high miscibility with polar solvents (water and methanol) indicates that they are suitable for the dissolution of cellulose of microalgae cell wall and thus could result in high lipid extraction efficiency. Further studies should therefore utilize the synthesized CPILs in lipid extraction from microalgae.
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