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Results in Journal Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health: 171

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Akbar Falah Tantri, Mirni Lamid, Sugijanto Sugijanto
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 97-105;

Heavy metal is one of the water pollutants that are harmful to the environment and humans. Cockle (Anadara granosa) is only used for meat so that the shells become waste that pollutes the environment. This study examines the ability of cockle shell powder as an adsorbent in the process of adsorption of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). The ability of the adsorbent was tested through the batch method, using a glass beaker (100 ml) at a speed of 90 rpm; initial metal concentration 20 ppm; adsorbent weighing 0.1 – 0.5 grams; contact time of 20 minutes and 30 minutes. The results showed that the adsorbent weighing 0.5 grams can reduce > 75% concentration of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) had R2 > 0.9.
Agus Putra A. Samad, Eva Ayuzar, Ilhamdi Ilhamdi, Muhammad Hatta
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 106-114;

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of using turmeric extract (Curcuma zedoaria) on non specific immune of grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). During the study, fish were fed a diet containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 g extract/kg feed twice a day for 14 days. Observations of non-specific immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, chemiluminescent response, phagocytic activity, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity were sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that fish fed C. zedoaria with 0.5 g/kg feed affected non-specific immune responses, and showed significant effect in the short term. On contrary, for long-term administration causes a decrease and inhibition of non-specific cellular defense activity. Thus, this study concluded that the administration of turmeric extract added to the feed can act as an immunostimulant and increase the non-specific immune response in grouper (E. fuscoguttatus).
Victor David Nico Gultom
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 125-134;

Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is the most popular consumption fish in South Korea. Korean consumes flounder as sashimi, spicy soup, stew and cutlet. Due to its popularity; Korean considers Olive flounder as the nation’s raw fish. Despite advanced aquaculture technique, modern facilities and massive production, fingerling size grading and abnormal sorting are conducted by traditional method. This study was conducted by observation. A group of 5 to 6 person worked meticulously to sort out abnormal fingerling and juvenile. Sorting is based on physical traits such as the shape and structure of head, jaw, operculum, fin, body; body coloration, pigmentation and length. Due to the exclusiveness and technicality of this profession, information and standard in grading and sorting has been lacking. This research provides the information about sorting criteria of Olive flounder juvenile and detail description of physical abnormalities being sorted out.
Muhammad Browijoyo Santanumurti, Santrika Khanza, Zaenal Abidin, Berta Putri, Siti Hudaidah
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 1-9;

Microalgae have an important role in supporting the development of aquaculture because it can be used as natural feed. However, its culture requires an expensive cost because of the nutrient media. To reduce the cost, the media can be replaced by using wastewater from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture. This research was aimed to find out the performance of microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Dunaliella sp.) cultured on white shrimp wastewater. The performance was measured by the growth, density, and ability to reduce nitrate and phosphate. The experimental design used in this study was a Completely Randomized Design with three treatments and three replications. The treatments were A (Nannochloropsis sp. cultured in white shrimp wastewater), B (Tetraselmis sp. cultured in white shrimp wastewater), and C (Dunaliella sp. cultured in white shrimp wastewater). The density population of Nannochloropsis sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Dunaliella sp. were tested by ANOVA. ANOVA was used to assess the density population of Nannochloropsis sp., Tetraselmis sp., and Dunaliella sp., which was then followed by Duncan's test. The results showed that wastewater from white shrimp aquaculture could be used as a medium culture for Nannochloropsis sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Dunaliella sp. It also maintain good water parameter quality in media. Nannochloropsis sp. was the microalgae that produced the highest density of 34.5 x 104 ind/mL when cultured on waste water from white shrimp culture. Nannochloropsis sp. may also reduce nitrate and phosphate content by up to 76 and 61.37 percent, respectively.
Haris Setiawan, Ichsan Luqmana Indra Putra, Ridwan Alfatah, Akhmad Nizzar Nasikhudin
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 70-80;

Maggot (Black soldier fly larvae) as an alternative source of protein on feed can increase fish productivity. The research aims to study maggot flour as an alternative source of protein in feed on the growth, structure of the intestine organs and skeletal muscles of Mutiara catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822). The research used 144 Mutiara catfish that were kept for 21 days. The research used a completely randomized design consisting of 4 groups, namely 0% maggot in feed (Control), 25% maggot in feed (P1), 50% maggot in feed (P2), 75% maggot in feed (P3). The parameters consist of the growth, the structure of intestine and skeletal muscle of Mutiara catfish. Growth observations consist of measurements of the absolute length and weight of the fish. Intestine observations consisted of length and weight, as well as tissue structure consisting of villi height, crypt depth, villi / crypt ratio and villi area area. Skeletal muscle observations consist of muscle weight and tissue structure consisting of the diameter and area of muscle fibers. Data analysis was performed with one-way anova, followed by the Duncan Test. The results showed that 75% maggot feed gave significant results on absolute weight, structure of intestine and muscle organs compared to other treatments (P 0.05). The conclusion shows that 75% maggot feed can be used as an alternative source of feed protein because it can increase the growth, structure of the intestine organs and skeletal muscles of the Mutiara catfish.
Rudy Agung Nugroho, Retno Aryani, Hetty Manurung, Yanti Puspita Sari, Rudianto Rudianto
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 21-36;

This feeding experiment was performed to determine the effects of Myrmecodia pendens bulb extract (MBE) supplementation in fish feed on the growth, survival, and hemato-biochemical profile of Clarias gariepinus. A group of fish was fed with 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% MBE and compared to control group (without MBE) for 75 days observation. At the end of feeding trial, growth parameters, hematological profile such as red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Htc), differential leukocyte, blood plasma biochemistry (glucose, total albumin, cholesterol, and triglyceride), the hepatosomatic (HSI) and intestinal somatic index (ISI) were measured. Survival of all fish was also counted every two weeks. Supplementation MBE above 0.25% resulted significantly higher final biomass weight (FBW), body weight gain (BWG), daily weight gain (DWG), and average weekly gain (AWG). Meanwhile, fish group fed dietary MBE above 1.0% had significantly higher specific growth rate (SGR) (3.32±0.15) than other groups. Fish fed 1.0% of MBE also showed better value of feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.13±0.03), Hb, and HSI compared to others group. Survival, neutrophil, monocyte, and ISI of all groups was not affected by any concentration of MBE supplementation. Dietary MBE above 0.5% enhanced RBC, WBC, Hematocrit, platelet (PLT), lymphocyte, blood plasma biochemistry such as glucose, total albumin, and triglyceride. Cholesterol of fish fed MBE in the diet showed incrementally enhanced. Present finding suggested that 1.0% MBE in the diet of Clarias gariepinus is recommended to enhance growth, survival, and blood profiles
Oiseoje M. Wangboje, Ruth Idemudia
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 81-89;

The aim of this study was to determine the PCB levels in the Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scrombus) sourced from cold storage points in Benin City, Nigeria by GC analysis and its suitability for human consumption. The PCB concentrations (mg/kg) in S. scombrus ranged from 0.0183 for PCB 114 to 0.5542 for PCB 126 with a recorded total of 0.991 while the mean concentrations (mg/kg) of PCBs in S. scombrus by cold storage point ranged from 0.0111 for PCB 114 to 0.684 for PCB 126 both at the New Benin points, with no observed significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean concentrations of PCBs 126, 156 and 180 in fish between these points. The mean concentration (mg/kg) of PCBs in S. scombrus by month peaked in June with a value of 0.615 for PCB 126. However, there was no observed significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean concentrations of PCBs 114, 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180 in fish specimens between months. Essentially, data from the study revealed that the experimental fish species are suitable to eat by the consuming public as there was no glaring indication of immediate health hazard.
Rifqah Pratiwi, I Nyoman Sudiarsa, Pieter Amalo, Yusuf Widyananda Wiarso Utomo
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 135-144;

Vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the leading fishery commodities that have high economic value. If the process is implemented properly, shrimp production with a super intensive system becomes a profitable future of the aquaculture orientation. This study aims to examine the production process and product performance of super- intensive system vannamei shrimp on an industrial scale. This research method is a case study that includes observation, interviews, and directly follows the production process of shrimp on an industrial scale, without experimental design. The production process includes ponds preparation, media preparation, seed selection and stocking, management of feed and water quality, monitoring of pests and disease, monitoring of growth, and harvest. The treatment given was the application of Bacillus sp. as probiotics on rearing media to optimize shrimp growth. This study showed after 100 days of rearing resulted in SR 71%; biomass 8.96 tons; harvest size 45 – 32; ABW 22 g/tail; ADG 0.4 g/day; and FCR 1.6. Water quality was still in the optimal ranges to support of shrimp growth, includes: temperatures 27 – 31oC; brightness 14 – 120 cm; pH 7.4 – 8.6; salinity 33 – 34 mg/L; dissolved oxygen 3.8 – 5.5 mg/L; alkalinity 100 – 360 mg/L; TOM 40 – 103 mg/L; and nitrite 0.05 – 27.5 mg/L. The production process of vannamei shrimp on an industrial scale with a super intensive system that is applied by PT. Sumbawa Sukses Lestari Aquaculture, West Nusa Tenggara shows optimal growth and yields.
Muti'ah Muti'Ah, M. Shabri Abd Majid, Chenny Seftarita, Yahya Yahya
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 57-69;

This study empirically explores factors determining the production of fish aquaculture in the South Aceh District, Indonesia. The study selected 150 out 1,893 aquaculture fish farmers within 18 sub-districts in the regency as the study’s respondents using a multi-stage sampling technique. Primary data collected through questionnaires’ distribution were analyzed employing a multiple regression model. The research documented empirical evidence that fish pond area, number of fish farmers, and capital significantly and positively influenced the production of fish aquaculture in the South Aceh Regency. Meanwhile, the number of fish seeds had an insignificant impact on the production of fish aquaculture. These empirical results suggested that in improving aquaculture fish production, fish farmers have to possess an adequate amount of capital, pond area, and the number of workers. Soft loan assistance sourced either from the government or banking institutions, conversion of idle and abandoned lands into fish ponds, and various fisheries capacity building programs is among the strategic steps that require to be taken to extend aquaculture production.
Muhammad Andhika Pratama, Mochammad Agung Seno Pambudi, Eri Bachtiar, Mochamad Rudyansyah Ismail, Yeni Mulyani, Sulastri Arsad, Fiddy Semba Prasetiya
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 37-46;

The mangrove plants has long been utilized as traditional medicinal ingredients for treatments of various diseases in favour of bioactive components from its secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites from mangroves could act as an antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress. Mangrove may contain endophyte fungi in its tissues that are capable of producing secondary metabolites. In theory, endophyte fungi isolated from a plant can produce secondary metabolites similar to those of the original plants or even in relatively high numbers. In this research, mangrove species Avicennia marina was sampled from Blanakan, Subang District, West Java. Endophyte fungi were isolated from the mangrove roots that had been obtained. The experimental method was used to test antioxidant activitiy using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl) method and phytochemical content, with three replicates for each tests. Fungal isolates were coded according to the distance of the roots from the main mangrove tree, namely STAD and STAJ that represents “close” and “far” roots. Our results showed that the enviromental parameters, namely salinity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature meet the quality standards and mangrove life in the tropics. The A. marina type of substrate muddy soil and has a pH value, which did not meet the quality standards for mangrove waters. As for antioxidant activity, both extracts could reduce DPPH free radicals. Further determination of the IC50 value of the two extracts showed that the endophytic fungi STAD and STAJ had IC50 values of 97.8 ppm (classified as strong) and 822.56 ppm (classified as very weak) in the DPPH radical immersion method. Phytochemical test revealed that the two extracts of fungal isolates contain bioactive compounds, where flavonoids and alkaloids were identified in isolate STAD, whereas STAJ was positive for tannins and alkaloids content.
Edison Saade, Usman Usman, Haura Ainun Sulaeman, Nursun Marhumatul Jannah
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 10-20;

Corn starch is a source of carbohydrates for most cultivated fish, includes rabbitfish as one of the herbivores with high economic value. Therefore, rabbitfish requires cheaper carbohydrate sources to have a profitable business in its cultivation. This study was aimed to determine the substitution of corn starch with Sargassum sp. starch in the diet on the growth, relative feed intake, FCR and nutrient retention of rabbitfish. The average weight of rabbitfish used was 51.76±0.12 g/fish. Rabbitfish were cultivated in small net cages (1x1x1.5m) with a stocking density of 20 fish/net cage for 90 days reared. This study used an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Corn starch (CM) substitution with Sargassum sp. starch (SM) by 0% (A), 21% (B), 42% (C), 63% (D) and 83% (E) used as the treatments with three replicates each. The measured parameters were weight gain (WG), relative growth (RG), relative feed intake (RFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein retention (PR), energy retention (ER), and condition factor (CF). Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tuckey’s test. The results showed that the lowest FCR in treatment A had no significant effect with treatment B but was significantly different from treatments C, D and E. The WG, RG, RP and CF parameters had the same values at all levels of CM substitution with SM, while RFI and FCR increased with the increasing CM substitution by SM. It also indicated that CM in the rabbitfish diet could be substituted with SM by 83%.
Patrick Ozovehe Samuel, Paul Ozovehe Sadiq, Adesola V. Ayanwale, Adamu Z. Mohammed, Victoria Victoria, I. Chukwuemeka
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 115-124;

The cost incurred in raising fish to table size in fish farming has been a major issue both to the farmers and the consumers at large. To address this concern this study assessed the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed varying inclusion levels of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) bark. A total of 120 samples with 0.75±0.209g mean weight and 3.9±0.31cm mean total length were acclimated in the laboratory for a period of 14 days during which they were fed to satiation twice daily. Subsequently, they were randomly assigned to the five treatments diets with replicate in each case at 12 fish per treatment; T1 with 00%, T2 with 25%, T3 with 50%, T4 with 75% and T5 with 100% levels of inclusion as possible replacement for equal weight of soybeans. The set-up ran for 12 weeks and the growth parameters (lengths and weight) were determined on weekly basis. Weight gain and specific growth rate were calculated. The physico-chemical parameters of the test media were also determined on weekly basis according to standard methods. The data generated were subjected to one way analysis of variance. From the results: Treatments with 50% and 75% inclusion levels performed slightly better than the control in terms of weight gain. The highest weight obtained in T2 and T3 were 31.71±0.35g and 31.48±1.71g, respectively. Similarly, the optimum requirement of watermelon bark level in the formulation of practical diets for improved growth of C. garienpinus were 50% and 75% in terms of lengths. T2 and T3 had the highest total lengths with 19.05±0.35cmand 15.90±2.80cm, respectively; while the standard lengths in T2 and T3 were 13.50±0.35cmand 13.45±2.85, respectively. Hence, water melon bark can replace the more expensive soybean thereby reducing cost of production and curtail environmental filth and disposal problems associated with watermelon bark waste in Nigeria.
Veronika Oktavia Br Sinaga, Retno Cahya Mukti
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 90-96;

Feed is a source of energy to support the growth and survival of fish. To increase feed consumption to the maximum, it is necessary to add an intake to fish feed to increase the digestibility of fish to feed. One alternative that can be done is by adding (supplements) to the feed. Probiotics are an alternative that can be used as a supplement to aquaculture fish feed. The purpose of this field practice is to determine the effect of adding probiotics on the growth of tilapia. This field practice was carried out in August - October 2020 in Sakatiga Village, Indralaya District, Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatera. In infield practice, there were two treatments, namely P0: control (without the addition of probiotics) and P1: treatment with the addition of probiotic EM4 at a dose of 15 ml/kg. The container used is a waring placed in a concrete tub. The stages of the implementation of this field practice start from the preparation of containers, adding probiotics to feed, raising tilapia, and collecting data. The parameters observed were fish growth (length and absolute weight), specific growth rate, feed conversion (FCR), fish survival, and water quality (temperature and pH). The results showed that the results of the P1 treatment gave better results than the P0 treatment, the absolute length growth of 3.71 cm, the absolute weight growth of 6.10 g, the specific growth rate of 5.15% / day, the FCR of 0.74, and survival of 90%. The water quality in both treatments during maintenance was included in the normal standard for tilapia as the temperature of 27.5 - 29.8 °C and pH of 6.7 - 8.4. The addition of probiotics can be proposed as an effort to increase the production of tilapia aquaculture.
Frederika Niken Restu Kurnaningtyas, Ishaaq Saputra, Eko Hendri Gunawan
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 11, pp 47-56;

Greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) are high-value marine bivalves. In order to preserve the quality, most of edible aquatic animals were transported in live conditions. In addition, keep the condition at low temperature is considered as the best way to reduce the stress level of the animal. However, this method is still poorly understood in greenlip abalone. The present study examines the effects of pre-cooled (±14 °C) and non-precooled (±21 °C) temperature treatments on survival and physiological responses such as total haemocyte count, phagocytic assay, lysosomal assay, and lactate of live abalone during transport simulation at time intervals of 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Results indicated that pre-cooling treatment prior to transport increased the survival rate and minimised weight loss. The lactate levels were significantly higher in the abalones that were not cooled prior to transport. Both animals that were pre-cooled and those that were not cooled prior to aerial transport simulation showed increases in total haemocyte count and a decrease in phagocytic activity, which indicates that live transport has an impact on their immunity. The present study indicated that the importance of pre-cooling treatment before transportation to preserve the condition of live abalone.
, Mohamad Amin, Tanbiyaskur Tanbiyaskur, Dade Jubaedah, Kukuh Jaya, M Aiman Ziyad, Marsi Marsi
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 258-270;

Conventional catfish culture in Ogan Ilir (OI) have not optimal production, it can be increased by biofloc and aquaponics with local swamp bacteria as a starter. The purpose of this study was to apply biofloc technology and a combination of aquaponic-biofloc to increase the productivity of catfish (Clarias sp.) rearing. The study used two ponds, a biofloc circular pond and a combined biofloc and aquaponic (biofloqua) for two months. The results of the specific growth rate of fish in the aquaponic biofloc system were higher than that of the biofloc system alone. The survival of the fish during two rearing months of the Biofloqua system was 100% while the Biofloc system was 92-96%. The water quality data that measured were temperature, 30.3–31.9oC, Dissolved oxygen 4.5–7.2 mg.l-1, pH 6-7, and ammonia concentration 0.27-0.71 mg.l-1 in the biofloc system and 29.5-31.3oC, 4.7-7.4 mg.l-1, pH 6-7, 0.20-0.53 mg.l-1 in biofloqua system, respectively. The floc volume formation rate in the biofloc system alone reached 1.1 ml.l-1 per day, which was above the floc formation rate for the biofloqua system 0.42 ml.l-1 per day, due to the use of nutrients for plant growth. The combination of biofloc and aquaponics showed more optimal growth performance and both were efficient in feed (Food Conversion Ratio / FCR <1.00). Although the results of the 5% level t test showed no difference in the performance of the aquaculture biota between the two systems, Biofloqua can be an alternative to increase fish farmer income by harvesting vegetables and fish together.
Ibrahim Elkhalil Behmene, Benabdallah Bachir Bouiadjra, Mohamed Daoudi, Abdelkader Homrani
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 312-320;

These observations are intended to provide information on the growth of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) living in the Oued Takhamalte-Illizi South-East Algerian. The basic data are the frequencies of the fish sizes resulting from the experimental fisheries carried out in October 2019 in Oued Takhamalte South-East of Algeria. The ELEFAN I program incorporated into FiSAT II software was used. The Powell-Wetherall method provides an L∞ of the order of 53.84 cm and a Z/K of 3.254 with a correlation coefficient R = - 0.944. This asymptotic length is greater than the maximum observed value (Lmax = 50 cm) and the Taylor approximation (L max/0.95 = 52.63 cm). The corresponding K value (0.28/year) seems the most suitable for the growth of a species, for this we opted for the parameters obtained by the sub-program « area of equal responses» of the program ELEFAN I (L∞ = 53 cm and K = 0.28/year) for the continuation of our study. The reduced gap test proves that there is a significant difference between the observed slope (b = 2.41) and the theoretical slope (P = 3), which makes it possible to affirm that the height-weight relationship in both sexes of C. gariepinus shows minor allometry, meaning that the weight grows slower than the cube of length.
Linayati Linayati, Bramantiar Rizkyansyah, Tri Yusufi Mardiana, Muhammad Zulkham Yahya
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 380-386;

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding honey to the feed for growth and the best dosage for the growth of white snapper seeds.The white snapper seeds used have an average weight of ± 2.5 g / fish.This study used an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD).The experiment was carried out in 5 (five) treatments and each treatment had 3 (three) repetitions.The treatment consisted of adding honey to the feed with a treatment dose of (A) 0 ml / kg of feed, (B) 50 ml / kg of feed, (C) 100 ml / kg of feed, (D) 150 ml / kg of feed and (E) 200 ml / kg of feed.The results indicated that the addition of honey to the feed had a significant effect on the growth of white snapper seeds.The best dose of honey is at a dose of 200 ml / kg which has the best effect on fish growth.The condition of water quality during the study was in a suitable range for the life of white snapper seeds.
Abd Rahem Faqih, Wahyu Endra Kusuma, Septi Anitasari, Dian Kartika Sari
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 356-364;

Lempuk fish (Gobiopterus sp.) is one of the local species in Ranu Grati. The high level of Lempuk fishing and the low level of awareness of Grati community on the importance of conservation and domestication efforts, as well as the taxonomy of the fish itself have threatened the population. Therefore, long-term efforts should be undertaken to preserve and identify the origin of Lempuk fish by conducting a molecular phylogenetic study based on COI. This study aimed to determine, analyze and describe the kinship and phylogenetic relationships of Lempuk fish (Gobiopterus sp.). This study used a descriptive method, starting from the specimen collection, extraction by the Phenol-Chloroform method and amplification by the PCR method, to the screening process. The data analysis method used the MEGA 5 application. Phylogenetic study used the Maximum Likelihood method with a bootstrap value of 1.000 times. The results showed that the intra-population genetic distance of Lempuk fish is low at 0.00%. Genetic distance between the population of Lempuk fish is relatively high with G. brachypterus from Malaysia of 22.4%, Central Java of 21.5%, and India of 21.4% and with G. lacustris from Malaysia of 22.5%, the Philippines of 21.6% %, Thailand of 19.7%, and with G. chuno and G. semivestitus of 21.2% and 23.6% accordingly. The phylogenetic study obtained showed the formation of a separate group that is different between Lempuk fish group and other Gobiopterus fish, supported by a bootsrap value of 99%.
Farid Mukhtar Riyadi, Arief Prajitno, Mohamad Fadjar, Arif Syaifurrisal, Annisa Isti Fauziyyah
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 321-330;

This study analyzed the antibacterial activity of Moringa oliefera leaf extract against the growth of Edwardsiella tarda bacteria. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Moringa leaf extract (M. oliefera) against the growth of E.tarda bacteria. Inhibition testing is done by diffusion method (disc test). The disc test used five variations of concentration of 75 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 225 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 375 mg/L on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar) media and incubated for 2x24 hours. As a positive control, an antibiotic in the form of chloramphenicol was used. (5 mg/L) Moreover, distilled water was used as a negative control.Moringa leaf extract (M. oliefera) contains natural active compounds, bacteriostatic antibacterials, due to decreased bacterial growth after 48 hours of incubation. The highest inhibition diameter of E. tarda was 12.95 mm at a concentration of 375 mg/L after 24 hours incubation and decreased by 11.02 mm after 48 hours incubation. The highest inhibitory effectiveness was at a concentration of 375 mg/L with an effectiveness of 58.8%, while the effectiveness of the decrease was 48.1% after 48 hours of incubation.
Prayogo Prayogo, Agustono Agustono, Boedi Setya Rahardja, Muhamad Amin
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 373-379;

Aquaculture waste is rich in various nutrient contents from uneaten feed, faeces or urine including nitrogen in terms of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite. With the help of nitrifying bacteria, the nitrogen wastes can be converted into nitrate which is one of the main components of commercial fertilizer in agriculture. This study aimed at comparing the growth and nutrient contents (crude protein, crude fat, energy, and antioxidant) of mustard Green (Brassica juncea) cultured in different culture media (aquaculture waste which is generally known as the aquaponics system vs hydroponic system which used commercial inorganic fertilizer). The aquaponics system was prepared by previously growing Nile tilapia fingerling, Oreochromis niloticus, for ~2 weeks to reach nitrate concentration on the effluent water ~30mg/L. Mustard Green was cultured in the system for 30 days. Nutrient availability in both systems was also monitored by measuring nitrate content and total dissolved solids. The results showed that the growth, nutrient content including crude protein, crude fat, total energy, and antioxidant content of the vegetable were not significantly different between the system, p>0.05. Nutrient availability especially in terms of nitrate was also not significantly different between the culture system. These results suggest that the aquaponics system could be used to produce vegetables with the same growth and nutrient content as a vegetable grown in the aquaponics system. Furthermore, aquaculture waste can be used to replace inorganic fertilizer to grow vegetables which later contribute to the reduction of total production cost.
Berhan Asmamaw, Misikire Tessema
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 341-355;

The pattern of morphometric differentiation among three populations of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) sited in Koka, Ziway, and Langano lakes in the Ethiopian rift valley was examined. Morphometric differentiation was examined, compared and quantified by the use of twelve different body measurements in 391 specimens to generate baseline information for conservation and product improvement plans. The result revealed that comparisons of mean values of morphometric measurements in the three studied tilapia populations statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The Fulton’s condition factor (K) of Oreochromi niloticus samples collected from Lakes Koka, Ziway, and Langano was 1.48, 1.2, and 0.66, respectively. The Discriminant Function Analysis performed on seven variables led to a correct classification in 90.5 % of cases. Differences observed between samples in this study indicated that there is important morphometric variation between the studied tilapia populations. Plotting the two significant canonical discriminant functions separated the Lake Langano population from the other two.
Rahayu Kusdarwati, Muhamad Amin, Aldiansyah Budi Wardana
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 331-340;

Aeromonas hydrophila infection can cause mass mortality fish and result economic losses for farmers. These is bacterium secretes substances or compounds that support its virulence by producing toxins and extracellular proteins in the form of enzymes. This study aimed to determine the activity of β-hemolysin toxin, DNase enzyme and gelatinase enzyme of A. hydrophila isolated from catfish (Clarias batrachus) in Sidoarjo. This research was carried out in November 2020 in Dukuh Tengah Village, Buduran District, Wedoro Village, Waru District, Wadung Asri Village, Waru District and Keboan Sikep Village, Gedangan District. The sampling technique was carried out by researchers by following activities in the field and visiting correspondents directly in the catfish cultivator ponds, then the catfish samples were carried out by biochemical tests and toxin and enzyme activity tests to obtain the information and data needed. The results showed that A. hydrophila bacteria in catfish produced positive β-hemolysin toxin, DNase enzyme and gelatinase enzyme. The conclusion of the research was that 10 isolates of A. hydrophila bacteria isolated from catfish (Clarias batrachus) in Sidoarjo showed the activity of β hemolysin toxin, DNase enzyme and gelatinase enzyme.
Suprabadevi Ayumayasari Saraswati, Lumban Nauli Lumban Toruan, Yulianto Suteja, Dadang Karmen, Putu Eddy Purna Wijaya
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 304-311;

Coastal areas are dynamic and vulnerable to environmental changes, both due to natural processes and human activities, the coastal waters in Kupang City are strategic in supporting the development of the economic sector. Coastal areas have unique characteristics, both in terms of bio-geophysics and social, economic and cultural aspects. Some have a high level of vulnerability to global warming. The high value of vulnerability is inseparable from the geomorphological conditions of Kupang City in the form of sandy beaches and coastal erosion. This condition caused Kupang City to become one of the areas affected by tidal flooding. This research is a preliminary study which aims to determine the potential for rob in the coastal city of East Nusa Tenggara that occurred in February 2014. The impact of the tidal floods submerged residents' houses above the knees of adults as high as 70 cm.. The results of this study were to determine the potential for tidal reoccurrence in the city of Kupang, NTT based on tidal forecasting data. Based on the results of the analysis using the Admiralty method, it was found that the Formzhal (F) value for the coast of Kupang City was 25.82, the position of the lowest water level at Oesapa 2 Beach was 206.9 cm, while the sea level elevation position reached the highest peak on Kelapa Lima 2 Beach, namely 478, 5 cm. The value of the harmonic analysis results from the coastal area of Kupang City has HHWL (Highest High Water Level) which is 340.09 cm, the MSL (Mean Sea Level) value is 212.07 cm, and LLWL (Lowest Low Water Level) is 73.36 cm based on these results. The Kupang coast has the potential for tidal flooding.
Alimudin Laapo, Dafina Howara, Saharia Kassa, Hardianti Sultan, Abd. Rahim
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 271-281;

The sustainability of seaweed cultivation is influenced by multidimensional factors such as the quality of the aquatic environment, cultivation technology, economic contribution to cultivators, social conditions of the community, and government institutional support. This paper aims to reveal the leveraging factors for the sustainability of seaweed cultivation in the coastal area of Parigi Moutong Regency by using a multidimensional scaling approach and the RAPFISH application. The results showed that the sustainability of seaweed cultivation in the coastal area of Parigi Moutong Regency was in the less sustainable category. Leveraging factors that play an important role in the sustainability of seaweed farming are employment at the cultivator level and the feasibility of cultivation as a good factor, while the low quality of seeds of seaweed, socio-cultural capital, and fluctuating commodities prices are categorized as bad factors.
Atiek Pitoyo, Muhammad Akbarurrasyid, Ren Fitriadi, Lukas Giovani Gonzales Serihollo, Fajar Tri Widianto
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 296-303;

Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) is a freshwater fish commodity widely cultivated since it is both easily cultivated and in demand by consumers. The growth of tilapia is influenced by the quality of the feed. Probiotics and herbal ingredients can optimize fish growth. One example of probiotics and herbal ingredients is PHL Pro and curcuma. This study aims to determine the effect of probiotics dose of the feed on the growth rates of tilapia seeds. This research was conducted in Pangandaran Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Campus. The study was carried out using 4 treatments and 3 replications, namely Control or without the addition of probiotics, (P1) 150ml/kg feed, (P2) 200 ml/kg feed, (P3) 250 ml/kg feed. Fish growth measured by the researchers was the average weight and total length of fish every 7 days. Based on observations of the data, it can be concluded that the provision of probiotics in the feed affected the growth rate and total length of tilapia. The optimal dose of probiotics was 150 ml/kg of feed. Based on the study results, the best treatment was P1.
Mustika Palupi, Ren Fitriadi, Muhamad Sulaiman Dadiono, Rika Prihati Cahyaning Pertiwi, Candro Dea Bagaskara Super Yudhistira
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 290-295;

This study aims to determine the feasibility of freshwater fish farming as an effort to support the minapolitan area of the Banyumas Regency. The research was carried out in Karang Lewas District. Data collection was carried out proportionally by interviewing the fish farmers of each fish farming group. Data analysis on the feasibility of fish farming was performed using the B/C ratio, PP, and BEP (Break-Even Point) criteria. The analysis method of the business feasibility was an analysis of business costs and income. Results of the analysis of B/C ratio value in fish farming was 1.13 to 1.69, BEP calculation used data according to the respondents, while the Payback Period (PP) of the fish farming ranged between 1.00-1.49 meaning that the capital return in less than 5 years. Those values state that the activities of freshwater fish farming have a capital return of more or less over 1 - 1.5 years. It shows that the business of freshwater fish farming in both hatcheries and fish rearing is feasible to maintain.
Annisa Isti Fauziyyah, Arief Prajitno, Mohammad Fadjar, Arif Syaifurrisal, Farid Muchtar Riyadi
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 282-289;

Production problems related to aquaculture cannot be separated from diseases that can cause death in fish. Efforts to overcome the bacterial disease Edwardsiella tarda can be done by using natural materials such as the leaves of croton (Codiaeum variegatum). This study aimed to analyze the content of active compounds contained in croton leaf extract which is antibacterial against E. tarda bacteria. Inhibition test was performed by dilution method Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC test) and agar diffusion (disc test). The MIC test used five concentrations: 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L on Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) media, while the disc test used five doses of croton leaf extract, namely: A (100 mg/L), B ( 200 mg/L), C (300 mg/L), D (400 mg/L) and E (500 mg/L), 2 controls (positive and negative), and three replications on Tryptone Soy Agar (TSA) media and incubated for 2x24 h. The positive control used chloramphenicol (5 mg/L) antibiotic. Croton leaf extract contains several compounds, namely saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and polyphenols, which are antibacterial and could kill the test bacteria with the highest average inhibition zone results obtained at a dose of E (500 mg/L) of 6.34 mm, while the lowest results were obtained at dose A (100 mg/L) of 3.12 mm.
Fariq Azhar, Muhammad Junaidi, Bagus Dwi Hari Setyono, Andre Rachmat
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 365-372;

Vibriosis is a type of shrimp disease caused by Vibrio sp. In the disease control of consumption biota, it is highly recommended to use natural ingredients that are not carcinogenic, one of which is red betel leaves (Piper crocatum). This study aims to determine the best dose of red betel leaf extract (P. crocatum) mixed in Vannamei shrimp feed to prevent vibriosis. In this study, shrimps were reared for 40 days at a density of 20 fish/container. The treatments included positive control, P1 (without extract + bacterial infection), negative control P2 (without extract and without bacterial infection), P3 (0.5% extract + bacterial infection), P4 (1% extract + infection), and P5 (2% extract + bacterial infection). The application of red betel leaf extract at a dose of 0.5% resulted in 75% survival after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, Vannamei shrimps of THC 7.70×106 cells/mL, and DHC (hyaline 82.94% granular 20.10%). The number of bacteria and the number of vibrio in the intestine were 52×108 CFU/mL and 12×108 CFU/mL accordingly. The best dose was obtained at P3 (Feed +0.5% red betel leaf extract), seen from the increase in survival rate, the number of hemocytes, differential haemocyte counts, and a decrease in total bacteria, so the application of red betel leaf extract can be used in the cultivation of Vannamei shrimps as an immunostimulant.
Andi Apriany Fatmawaty, Achmad Noerkhaerin Putra, Aris Munandar, Nuniek Hermita, Mustahal Mustahal, Dodi Hermawan, Lukman Anugrah Agung, Arif Rahman, Mas Bayu Syamsunarno
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 165-175;

Dietary lipid in the forms of fish oil and corn oil are known as the best lipid sources. An effort to find an alternative to lipid sources other than both forms of oil can be done through the use of ts rubber seed oil. The study was conducted to evaluate rubber seed oil as a lipid source in the diet for increasing the growth of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fingerlings. A tested diet having isoprotein (30.14±0.01%) and isoenergy (271.26±0.08 DE kcal/100g) was used in this study. Fish oil, corn oil, and rubber seed oil at a total of 3% were used as the diet's lipid sources. Rubber seed oil was added to the diet at 0, 1, and 3%, respectively. After acclimatized to the experimental condition, striped catfish fingerlings (9.72±0.01 g) were randomly stocked in 12 aquariums (69x29x35 cm3; Volume 50 L) with a density of 15 fingerlings/container and fed on the tested diet at satiation for 40 days. The use of rubber seed oil as a source of lipid in the diet does not affect the survival rate and body fat (P> 0.05). The composition of 2% rubber seed oil in the feed gives the best growth in striped catfish fingerlings, with feed intake of 233.00±1.00 g, a specific growth rate of 2.01±0.05% day-1, feed efficiency of 75.45 ± 1.18%, protein efficiency ratio of 2.45 ± 0.11% and body protein of 44.03 ± 2.42%. There is a tendency that higher rubber seed oil content in the diet, produce better the fatty acid profile in the body of the striped catfish.
Yuni Kilawati, R Adharyan Islamy
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 252-257;

The pathogenic bacterial infection is one of the problems in the cultivation of vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), causing a high mortality rate of cultured shrimp. The use of antibiotics or chemicals with inappropriate concentrations can harm the aquatic environment, cause resistance, and endanger consumer health because the residues from the chemicals used will periodically accumulate in the body of shrimp. One way to control and prevent shrimp disease is to increase the shrimp immune system by using immunostimulants from seaweed. This study aims to analyze the immunostimulant activity of seaweed extract (Gracilaria sp. and Padina sp.) against vannamei shrimp (L. vannamei) infected with Vibrio harveyi by observing the nonspecific immune system based on its hematological features, namely by counting the number of hemocytes and phagocytic activity. The research was conducted at the Hatchery Unit, Brackish Water Cultivation Development Center (BPAP) Situbondo, East Java. Seaweed sample Gracilaria sp. and Padina sp. purchased from seaweed farmers in Jepara, Central Java. The result of this study shows that supplementation of Gracilaria sp. and Padina sp. at a dose of 10 g/kg of feed can increase the total number of hemocytes and phagocytosis activity of L. vannamei shrimp. The best treatment is Gracilaria sp.
Shyh-Shyan Jan, Dai-Qing Yang, Rommanee Thammasena
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 137-146;

This study aimed to investigate the effect of different levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) supplementation in the diet feed on growth performance, survival rate, biochemical parameters in swamp eels. Healthy fishes were randomly assigned to five groups feeding with different supplementation of AMPs (0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg/kg) in diets for 68 days. Results showed that relative weight gain, feed coefficient and survival rate were significantly (p<0.05) increased by supplementation of AMPs in feed. Level of protein (TP), triglyceride TG, alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP), acid phosphate (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in the serum were significantly (p<0.05) improved in all AMPs treatments, while no significant difference was found between the control and AMPs 200 mg/kg. AMPs supplementation significantly enhanced (p<0.05) the survival rate and immune protection in swamp eels after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila compared to the control group and eels fed with AMPs 800 mg/kg had the highest survival rate and immune protection (32.50 and 85.71%, respectively). The diets containing AMPs enhanced the survival rate, immune ability, and antioxidant capacity in swamp eels, indicate that an appropriate dosage of AMPs can be used as a potential alternative to antibiotics in swamp eels.
Muchtar Muchtar, Mochammad Farkan, Mugi Mulyono
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 147-154;

The failure of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farming could make farmers stop their cultivation activities. As an alternative, vannamei shrimp cultivation gives hope for productive, profitable, and sustainable cultivation. The development of shrimp farming in Tegal City is carried out through simple methods, intensive technology, and the use of Busmetik technology or mini-scale shrimp farming on plastic ponds. The high demand in the shrimp market continues to encourage farmers to increase their productivity by increasing stocking density. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of vannamei shrimp cultivation which is cultivated intensively including yields, survival rate (SR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and shrimp growth in Tegal City, Central Java Province. The research was conducted from July to October 2019. The research method used was a case study with 16 plots of ponds, and the average area of the pond was 1000 m². Based on the results of the calculation, it can be seen that the average yield is 1,603 kg per pond with a stocking density of 100 fish/m², a survival rate (SR) is 85.6%, a feed conversion ratio (FCR) is 1.41 and the shrimp growth is 0.16 grams per day. Economically, based on the Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C ratio) of 1.46, vannamei shrimp cultivation in Tegal City is profitable so that shrimp farming can be carried out sustainably.
Asep Awaludin Prihanto, Kartika D. Aninta, Soffi Trisnaningrum
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 186-191;

The need for protease in the industrial field has been increasing. Candidates for producing these enzymes can be isolated from the digestive tract of catfish (Clarias sp.). The purpose of this study was to obtain bacterial isolates that produce proteolytic from the gastrointestinal tract of catfish and determine the effect of different production media on the activity of proteolytic. The first step of this study was isolation, screening, and identification of bacteria. The second step was to test the effect of the media Luria Bertani, trypticase soy broth, and skim milk broth on proteolytic activity. Nineteen isolates were obtained from the screening process of proteolytic bacteria. Isolate no 1, was known as the best isolate in producing enzymes and was known as Bacillus sp. Tests with different growth media gave results that semi-quantitative, nutrient growth media produced the highest activity with a proteolytic index value of 2.09 ± 0.41. In addition, based on quantitative tests, the media Luria Bertani Broth produced the highest specific activity with a value of 36.479 U/mg. The conclusion of this study, Bacillus sp. from the gastrointestinal tract of catfish that cultured on the Luria Bertani Broth medium produced the best activity.
, Aroef Hukmanan Rais
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 229-238;

Danau Panggang is a unique habitat for fish species used for food and economic purposes that live in it. This study aims to identify several important and endangered fish species in Danau Panggang using the DNA sequence method and water quality in Danau Panggang. The DNA sequence was then aligned with the RefSeq from the GenBank data library by using the BLAST program of NCBI to find the closest identity associated with several types of fish samples being analyzed. The sequence analysis of the DNA show that some fish species analyzed have specific identifications :Trichopodus pectoralis, Phalacronotus apogon, Belodontichthys dinema, Anabas testudineus, and Leptobarbus hoevenii. Based on the results of the phylogenetic tree, it is also found that the relationship between fish taxons in flooded swamps of Danau Panggang is close to one another.
Lina Asmara Wati, Riski Agung Lestariadi, Supriyadi Supriyadi
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 239-251;

Fisherman Insurance Premium Assistance is applied to all coastal areas in Indonesia. In Malang Regency, it just started in 2016 through JASINDO, so many fishermen still do not fully understand the benefits against possible risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the fisherman insurance system focusing on producing a model of insurance demand and the projection of the demand and growth of fisherman insurance in the future. The method used in this research was a series of system dynamics modeling. The results of the validity test in this study indicate the mean comparison and error variance is the following: fisherman insurance program = 4.8% and 6.01%; fishermen’s value = 4.0% and 21.55% and premium assistance = 3.9% and 12.17%. Moreover, the structural and parametric scenario analysis results show the average value of the increase in tourists: Scenario 1 - Structural: Premium assistance = 602 fishermen, Scenario 2 - Structural: 394 fishermen, Parametric Scenario 1 - Optimistic = 578 fishermen, Parametric Scenario 2 - Most Likely = 289 fishermen, and Parametric Scenario 3 - Pessimistic = 201 fishermen. However, the projection of the demand for fisherman insurance in 2021-2029 has not shown the expected results. The largest number of demands is 421 and the smallest is 321 in 2026. Moreover, after several simulations, the study found the most possible simulation to be carried out and to have a significant, stable effect on the results desired by the government, which is through premium assistance. If at least insurance premium assistance of Rp. 118,000x109 can be given annually, it will be able to generate a fisherman insurance demand at a minimum of 500.
Arif Syaifurrisal, Arief Prajitno, Mohamad Fadjar, Farid Mukhtar Riyadi, Annisa Isti Fauziyyah
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 221-228;

This study analyzed the antibacterial activity of curry leaf extract (Murraya koenigii) on the growth of Edwardsiella tarda bacteria. This study aims to determine the bioactivity and antibacterial effectiveness of M. koenigii leaf extract against the growth of E.tarda bacteria. Inhibition test was carried out by delusion (MIC test) and diffusion (disc test) methods. MIC test used 5 variations of concentration: 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 500 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L on TSB (Tryptone Soya Broth) media; it was incubated for 24 hours. While the disc test used 5 variations of concentration: 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, 300 mg/L, 400 mg/L and 500 mg/L on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar) media and incubated for 2x24 hours. Chloramphenicol (5 mg/L) was used as a positive control, and distilled water was used as a negative control. M. koenigii leaf extract contains natural bioactive; it was bacteriostatic antibacterial due to bacteria's growth after 48 hours incubation. The highest inhibition diameter of E.tarda was 7,20 mm at a concentration of 500 mg/L after 24 hours incubation. The highest inhibitory effectiveness was at a concentration of 500 mg/L with effectivity 56.3%, while it declined to 46,44% after 48 hours incubation.
Mustika Palupi, Ren Fitriadi, Muh Sulaiman Dadiono, Danang Yonarta, Rima Oktavia Kusuma
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 192-198;

The development of tiger grouper cultivation technology has not been maximally implemented so that the survival rate of fish is very low. The result is that it is very vulnerable to losses in cultivation. This study aims to analyze the profitability of tiger grouper hatchery. The research method used is a case study. Primary data is collected through observation, interviews, and questionnaires. Secondary data is data obtained indirectly. The calculated data analysis is the Benefit-Cost (B/C) Ratio, Break-even Point Analysis and Profitability. The results obtained are BEP in units is 170,606 heads and BEP in price is IDR 1,709,750, B/C Ratio is 1.65, and the payback period is 5 years 2 months.
Tiara Puspa Anjani, Dinamella Wahjuningrum, Sri Nuryati, Ikhsan Khasani
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 155-164;

Snakehead fish Channa striata is a high commercial freshwater fish commodity. It has the potential as a pharmaceutical ingredient. Intensive snakehead fish cultivation starts to experience a problem, namely Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS) caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the addition of commercial yeast in feed to improve snakehead fish immunity. This study was designed with a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments with 3 replications (reared in the net) and 6 treatments with 3 replications (reared in the aquarium). The treatments were K (feed without yeast), F5 (feed with the addition of 5 g/kg of cake yeast), R3 (feed with the addition of 3 g/kg of tempeh yeast, R5(feed with the addition of 5 g/kgof tempeh yeast), and R7 (feed with the addition of 7 g/kg of tempeh yeast). The results show that the survival rate after 30 days is 88.89- 92.22%. The best treatment after A. hydrophila infection was found in fish fed with 3 g/kg oftempehyeast with a survival rate of 56.67%, total erythrocytes of 4.07x 106 mm-3 cells, hemoglobin of 7.40 g% of total leukocytes 4.97x 104 mm-3 cells and phagocytic activity of 33.67. In conclusion, the addition of tempeh yeast at a dose of 3 g/kg could be used as an alternative to prevent the effect of A. hydrophila pathogen infection in snakehead fish.
Sesilia Rani Samudra, Ren Fitriadi, Bintang Marhaeni
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 213-220;

Biofouling refers to the attachment of organisms to the surface of an object submerged in water. It is often undesirable due to its detrimental effects, meanwhile, one way of managing biofouling is via antifouling. This study aims to examine the potential of kenikir (Cosmos caudatus) and bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides) leaves extracts as an alternative to natural antifouling. The research was conducted using the exploration method where the extract of both plants was examined in field and laboratory scales. Moreover, the extracts were mixed with paint without antifouling and then tested on a field scale by painting on wooden blocks. Observations were made by counting the number of microfouling in form of bacterial colonies attached to the painted wood surface by scraping the surface of the wood submerged in freshwater for one week. The results showed that the number of bacterial colonies with kenikir leaves extract was less than the bandotan extract. Moreover, based on the phytochemical analysis results, both kenikir and bandotan extracts contain alkaloids, steroids, tannins and saponins, however, the alkaloid content in kenikir leaf extract was higher compared to bandotan leaves. In conclusion, kenikir leaves extract has greater potential as an alternative source of antifouling compared to bandotan because the former has more bioactive content, especially alkaloid compounds.
Dian Wahyu Wardani, Abdul Mulki Purnama, Hartati Kartikaningsih, Abdul Aziz Jaziri
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 199-212;

Intensive aquaculture on catfish (Clarias sp.) has been getting problem due to pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish infected by A. hydrophila would bear various symptoms, including hemorrhagic on the skin, gills, ulcers, and pale skin color. To tackle this situation, salt (sodium chloride) treatment with different concentrations can be used, which acts as both bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents. This study aimed to determine the effect of different salt concentration (viz. 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) added in the treated samples by evaluating the availability of pathogenic bacteria using total plate count (TPC) and total A. hydrophila, along with proximate and organoleptic assessment. An experimental method was used in this research with a completely randomized design (CRD). The results showed that the TPC value in all sample treatments was higher (around 5 × 105) than that recommended by Indonesia National Standard (SNI). On the other hand, the sample added 10% and 15% salts exhibited a significant effect on the decrease of A. hydrophila through a selective medium Rimler-Shotts agar. For proximate analysis, the treated samples contained in the ranges of 67.33-80.03% (WB), 0.91-13.58% (WB), 35.06-69.92% (DW) and 4.41-1451% (DW) of moisture, ash, crude protein, and fat, respectively. In addition, a sensory test of catfish flesh samples showed that all parameter tests, including mucus, odor, and texture met the referred standard. Taken together, this study may contribute to developing an approach in treating pathogenic bacteria during rearing and also post-harvesting catfish; however, further research is required to obtain a better outcome in dealing with food safety issues.
Ibrahim Elkhalil Behmene, Benabdallah Bachir Bouiadjra, Sifi Mustapha, Mohamed Daoudi, Abdelkader Homrani
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 127-136;

Hence, the interest in variations in feeding frequencies in captive Nile tilapia fry. Two hundred forty mixed-sex fries, intended to test the feeding frequency, with an initial average weight of 0.03 0.04g; corresponding to an average size of 1.4 cm, randomly distributed in (12) boxes each containing 4 fry/L. Fry are fed with Naturalleva import pellets for 30 days. A single photoperiod is studied for long days (18L: 6D) and to maintain an intensity of 2500 lux. The Statistics data are analyzed using software (R) and tested for normality and homogeneity of variance before being subjected to variance analysis (ANOVA; p≤0.05) and Duncan’s method. A multiple range test was used to compare the mean differences. A feed frequency of 4 times and six (06) times a day shows more efficient use of food than once, twice, and three times a day of food intake. The overall growth parameters for larval tilapia rearing are satisfactory, with the feeding regime set at 35% of the biomass of captive residents for two weeks of rearing, and 17.5% for the remaining two weeks. These results represent standards for the launch of captive breeding of the Nile tilapia strain, which will allow freeing themselves from the often expensive and foreign currency imports of fry for the country.
D.P.N. De Silva, M.F.A. Fasmina, S. C. Jayamanne, N.P. P. Liyanage, J.L.C.S. Perera
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 176-185;

Water quality deterioration due to inorganic and organic pollutant is a serious issue and the presence of toxic trace metals cause a serious threat to the aquatic ecosystem. Fish embryos have gained interest in risk assessment because of their high sensitivity to pollutants and the ecological relevance. This study investigated the acute toxicity effect of trace metals Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. Embryos were exposed to ten different concentrations of individual trace metals and lethality rate was recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours based on the coagulation of fertilized egg, lack of somite formation, lack of detachment of the tail and lack of heart beat. The results indicated a significant difference between the control and trace metal treated embryo (P< 0.05) and higher mortality rate along the increase of trace metal concentration. Along with the increase of exposure time for Cu, Zn and As, the mortality rate became slower. Sub-lethal and teratogenic deformities such as growth retardation, lack of tail development, lack of eye lens (placode), yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, hemorrhages, shrinkage of chorion and scoliosis were observed in most of the trace metal treated embryos. The results showed the toxic effects to aquatic biota due to trace metals emphasizing the usefulness of zebrafish embryo model for integrated biological hazard assessment.
Fariq Azhar, Nanang Satria Sumarjan, Siti Hilyana
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 117-126;

Prevention of disease in tilapia seeds can be done by increasing non-specific defense systems by improving and supplementing the nutritional content of the feed. This study aims to determine the effect of adding Moringa leaf meal combined with probiotics to feed on the survival rate of tilapia seeds and the number of seed blood cells that have been infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The method used was an experimental method using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Treatment A = addition of 4% moringa leaf meal + 6 ml / kg of probiotic feed + A. hydrophila injection; Treatment B = addition of 6% moringa leaf meal + 6 ml / kg of probiotic feed + A. hydrophila injection; Treatment C = addition of 8% moringa leaf meal + 6 ml / kg of probiotic feed + A. hydrophila injection; Treatment D = feed + probiotic 6 ml / kg of feed (positive control) + injection of A. hydrophila; Treatment E = feed + probiotic 6 ml / kg of feed (negative control) + injection of physiological solution. The results showed the addition of Moringa leaf meal combined with probiotics got the best results in treatment C with a survival value of 86.67%, hemoglobin levels of 2.3 g%, erythrocytes of 2.20 × 106 cells, leukocytes of 11.5 × 104 cells, and the total number of intestinal bacteria was 10.34 × 106 cfu / ml.
Ockstan Jurike Kalesaran, Cyska Lumenta
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 75-84;

Chinese pond shell, Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana (Lea, 1834), is a freshwater bivalve that has essential ecological and economic functions. The microstructure of the nacre is of great interest and is the main attraction for the development of pearl farming. This study aims to describe the microstructure and composition of biomineral elements of the nacre at several shell sizes of S. woodiana. The shell is cut with a small forcepon the ventral margin with a size of 3-5 mm for Scanning Electron Microscpy (SEM). SEM images display that a shell layer consists of periostracum, prismatic and nacre layers. The surface of the nacre layer is an irregular or labyrinth patterned. The nacre tablets are hexagonal, glued to each other, so the nacre tablets become polygonal. Moreover, the microstructure of the nacre tablets is like a brick wall, and the thickness of tablets from 0.43 μm to 0.59 μm. The composition of the biomineral elements are C, O, Ca, and the mineralization mechanism is under the control of aquatic environmental factors that help the process of microstructure formation in nacre.
Abdul Wafi, , Abdul Muqsith, Mohammad Mahmudi, Mohammad Fadjar
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 17-24;

In intensive shrimp culture, oxygen consumption of shrimp is an important indicator that greatly affects the physiological condition of shrimp as a reared organism. The purpose of this study was to dynamically determine the oxygen consumption of shrimp in intensive culture as well as the variables of water quality and shrimp growth. This research was conducted with the concept of ex-post facto causal design in intensive aquaculture ponds during the shrimp cultivation period. During the shrimp culture period, the rate of oxygen consumption of shrimp is inversely related with the sigmodial average increase in shrimp body weight. Meanwhile, based on the simulation analysis with the dynamic modeling concept, it is shown that oxygen consumption was linear to the dynamics of average daily gain and inversely proportional with the increasing rate of shrimp biomass in the ponds. In addition, oxygen consumption rate of shrimp in intensive ponds had a close relationship with water salinity and total organic matter. In conclusion, dynamically, the fluctuation of oxygen consumption rate and average daily gain of shrimp in intensive culture are closely related to the stability of the water quality conditions on the shrimp habitat.
M. H. Amiruddin, M. F. Norhalis, Sri Sumarwati, Y. Norma-Rashid
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 25-33;

Red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the famous fish cultures in the aquaculture industry, especially in Malaysia. The appearance of redness makes the fish more attractive for customers to buy. Product appearance is one of the big criteria that customers choose when they buy food. Bright color effects give high expectations for high quality, nutritious, and healthy food. Therefore, to achieve quality products it is necessary to research how to improve the color quality of tilapia as desired by customers. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary effect of red paprika used to enhance the coloration of red tilapia. This study is an experimental quantitative study. Red tilapia used as an experimental material was obtained from Freshwater Hatchery, University Malaysia Terengganu. A descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data in this study. This study shows that giving red paprika has an effect on the length and weight of red tilapia, where the highest length and weight gained (1.79 cm and 12.37 g) given red paprika 2% and the lowest length and weight gained (0.63 cm and 2.5 g) which given 4% red paprika. The findings of this study found that only 2% of red paprika treatment showed different growth performance. The crude protein, lipid, and moisture composition of tilapia were also higher at 2% red paprika treatment. Meanwhile, the highest composition of ash is feed with 4% red paprika content. The result of this research showed that the caudal and dorsal either muscle or fin showed the highest color at the fish which fed with 8% red paprika. The finding also found that 8% red paprika containing diet feed for six weeks could improve the coloration of the red tilapia. Future studies suggest the use of Dunaliella salina microalgae which is one of the richest sources of carotenoids used as dyes in food.
Catur Pujiono, Akhmad Taufiq Mukti, Woro Hastuti Satyantini
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 1-8;

Euchema cottoni or Kappaphycus alvarezii is one type of seaweeds that is widely cultivated in Indonesia. Water pollution caused by the accumulation of Pb heavy metals will affect the seaweed to grow and develop. This study is aimed to determine the tannin levels in K. alvarezii and the relationship of Pb heavy metal pollution level with tannin levels in K. alvarezii in different waters. This study used an observational experiment, and samples were taken from two different locations with 4 stations in each. From each sample in both locations, K. alvarezii was taken and was then measured for the tannin levels, water quality, and heavy metals (Pb) in water and in K. alvarezii. The results were analyzed at the Laboratory of PT. Sucofindo and the Laboratory of Testing Service Unit, Airlangga University Surabaya. The data were analyzed using a statistical test in the form of a t-test to determine the differences in samples in both waters, and a C-square test was used to determine the relationship between PB and tannin levels in K. alvarezii. The results showed that the level of Pb heavy metal pollution in the two waters did not show a significant difference due to water quality which was quite similar in both locations. Moreover, the tannin content in K. alvarezii in Bluto waters (0.053±0.004%) was higher than that in Talango waters (0.020±0.009%). Meanwhile, a t-test showed a significant difference in seaweed tannins in both waters. The relationship between Pb heavy metal pollution and tannins of seaweed in Bluto and Talango waters was that they did not affect each other, and tannin concentration was more influenced by chemical oxygen demand (COD), salinity of both waters, and the cultivation methods used.
Fani Fariedah, Maheno Sri Widodo, Soko Nuswantoro
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 101-108;

Tilapia is euryhaline fish which is commonly cultivated in former shrimp ponds, and belongs to mouthbreeders. The purpose of this study was to determine the hatching success of Tilapia eggs outside the mother's mouth, which was carried out in the salinity medium added with bromelain and papain enzymes. The research method was factorial CRD with enzyme (factor A) and salinity (factor B), with three replications. The research was conducted at the Fish Cultivation laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Brawijaya University in January-February 2020. The results showed that papain had more effect on hatchability (93.77%), while the salinity of 5 ppt was the salinity that produced the highest hatchability (93.89%). Moreover, the hatchability was also influenced by the interaction between the enzyme and salinity, namely papain enzyme with a salinity of 5 ppt (98.89%). Meanwhile, bromelain had more effect on the survival of larvae (87.86%), and the salinity that produced the highest survival rate was at 5 ppt (85.75%), but the interaction between enzyme and salinity did not have an effect on the survival of larvae.
Dpn De Silva, Jlcs Perera, Hsd Fernando, Rrmkp Ranatunga, Bgdnk De Silva
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 66-74;

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a migratory fish commercially exploited due to high export value. Presence of parasites in fish lead to economic losses in the export market and public health issues. This study was conducted to identify the parasite larvae inhabiting swordfish and to determine its phylogenetic origin using ribosomal subunit gene sequence. Parasite samples were extracted from swordfish muscles and five larvae belong to Molicola genus, confirmed by scolex morphology, were used for genomic DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunit genes followed by Sanger sequencing. DNA sequences were edited by BioEdit software and assembled by CLC genomics version 8.0. Consensus sequences were aligned with NCBI blast to determine the species status. Isolated larval sequences were best aligned with genus Molicola followed by genus Gymnorhyncha. Out of the two published Molicola rRNA gene sequences, 99% identity was observed with Molicola sp. HP5 isolate from Indonesia. Due to lack of sequence data on other Molicola species (except M. thyristes) for comparison, our sequences were published as Molicola sp. Sri Lankan isolates. This is the first record of Molicola sp. in swordfish from Sri Lanka and the results will enhance the knowledge on the distribution of Molicola species while contributing to expand the genetic information on rRNA coding sequences.
Anggi Novita Dewi,
Journal of Aquaculture and Fish Health, Volume 10, pp 46-55;

Surabaya as the capital of East Java Province has a tourism attraction based on mangrove ecosystems namely Wonorejo Mangrove Ecotourism. Interest to the growth of loyalty to the destination depends on service quality, motivation, and destination image. Service quality as the heart of marketing and one of the concepts of loyalty success determines the sustainability of a tourist destination in the future. In addition, motivation is also considered as the main driver for traveling. However, this depends on destination image in the minds of tourists. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationship between service quality and motivation towards destination loyalty, which is mediated by destination image. From 276 online and offline questionnaires distributed to local tourists who visited or visited the Wonorejo Mangrove Ecotourism in the past years, 182 questionnaires were filled in completely. Data analysis used WarpPLS to examine the relationship of influence between variables. The results showed that service quality and motivation had a positive and significant effect on destination loyalty directly or mediated by destination image. Destination loyalty can be effectively increased by encouraging visitor motivation supported by an increase in destination image because the value of the total influence was at the largest of 0.443.
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