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Results in Journal Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique: 198

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Olga Borkivska, , Artem Platonenko
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 113-128; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.113128

Abstract:
This article discusses issues related to the concept of the Internet of Things and its application to the development of the Smart City. Smart City or "Smart City" is a new concept for the introduction of technologies (information and communication) to manage the life of the modern city. Existing technologies for long-distance data transmission in the Internet of Things are analyzed. Based on the calculations, the justification of the efficiency of LORA technology is substantiated, the energy potential of the communication line for LORA technology is given, the capacity of the LoRa network is determined. The network architecture has the best relationship between increasing the battery life of IoT devices and providing communication range. The protocol operates in a non-licensed range, and this is its uniqueness in cost and speed of implementation. Based on the study of the experience of implementing the protocol in the city of Lviv, the advantages and problems of implementation were identified. The possibility of using the technology in large cities was assessed. Software has been developed that allows the user to check that everything in his house is in order and that there are no gas leaks, water leaks and no movement in the house. The practical use of IoT in the "Smart City", the use of LoRaWAN technology, the principle of the network are shown. The experience of using the LoRaWAN protocol in Ukraine has been studied and analyzed. The experience of cities on the introduction of Internet of Things technologies in the housing system is considered.
, Oleksiy Yudin, Viktoriia Sydorenko, , Dauriya Zhaksigulova
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 6-19; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.618

Abstract:
Global trends in the number and complexity of cyber-attacks have led to the information and telecommunications systems (ITS) protection, in particular, industry, which are critical to society, socio-economic development and information component of national security. Given the needs of national security and the need to introduce a systematic approach to solving the problem of critical infrastructure protection, at the national level, creating a system of protection of such infrastructure is one of the priorities in reforming the defense and security sector of Ukraine. Thus, there is a need to develop methods and models for classifying ITS as a critical infrastructure to ensure Ukraine's national security. The paper studies the model of calculating the quantitative criterion for assessing the security of ITS based on the method of hierarchy analysis, which allowed the processing of expert assessments to obtain a quantitative indicator of ITS security. This made it possible to simplify the procedure for selecting experts, to avoid the specifics of processing expert data, as well as to assess ITS in a limited amount of statistics. The developed model allows to move from qualitative assessment in the form of an ordered series of alphanumeric combinations denoting the levels of implemented services, to quantitative assessment in the form of the ratio of functional security profiles. In addition, specialized software has been developed that implements the studied model, which allowed to conduct experimental research and verification of this model on the example of ITS of the National Confidential Communications System. In further research, the authors plan to investigate the model for calculating the quantitative criterion for assessing the security of ITS in other areas of critical infrastructure (energy, transport etc.).
Oleksandr Avtushenko, Vira Hyrda, Yuliia Kozhedub, Andrii Maksymets
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 159-171; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.159171

Abstract:
The article presents a detailed analysis of methods, methods, mechanisms, tools of decision theory for modeling information security systems. The basic terminological concepts are given, and their detailed definition is given. The combination of elements of decision theory with information security systems is shown. The connecting link for this is probability theory. The issue of decision-making procedure as a process is studied. Emphasis is placed on the qualitative parameters of the decision-making procedure that may be suitable for information protection purposes. Analogies have been made that indicate the applicability of decision theory methods to create a model of information security system. Implementation mechanisms are shown in decision-making algorithms. With the help of decision-making theory tools, it has been established that the modeling process can be formalized since both mathematical icons and verbalization. In general, the step-by-step process of designing an information security system is described. It is concluded that formalization as a type of symbolic modeling simultaneously with the application of decision theory is the best option for the descriptive part of the information security system. Modeling has been found to be the best scientific tool for combining theoretical calculations and the practical application of a wide range of research issues, including information security. To support the decision-making of the decision-maker, in other words the offender, in the field of information protection, it is important that the security officer or system administrator has experience and skills in regulated actions. Such actions are both well-known developments in this field of activity and a synthesis of already known algorithms to achieve the state of information security in general. Automation in decision-making is possible through the introduction of a decision support system that is widely used in automated systems: computer systems and networks, especially where there is a need to analyze significant data flows.
Serhii Laptiev
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 45-62; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.4562

Abstract:
Social interaction of subjects in the modern world, in addition to positive forms, also has negative ones. In modern society it is impossible to do without social networks and in the modern world the Internet - technologies prevail. Currently, everyone connected to a computer is registered in at least one social network. Social networks attract people, because in today's world all people communicate, exchange information, and get acquainted, some people come up with a virtual world in which they can be fearless, and popular and thus abandon reality. The problem related to the security of personal data in social networks is the most relevant and interesting in modern society. Analysis of methods of protection of personal data from attacks using social engineering algorithms showed that it is impossible to prefer any one method of protection of personal information. All methods of personal data protection purposefully affect the protection of information, but protection in full can not be provided by only one method. Based on the analysis of methods of personal data protection, we have proposed an improved method of protecting personal data from attacks using social engineering algorithms. Improvement is a combination of two existing methods aimed at improving the effectiveness of user training. Using the features of the proposed method formulated by us, it is the increase of user training that will provide better protection of personal data. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it uses the synergy of existing methods, which are aimed at educating users and learning to protect their personal information. The direction of further research: analysis and improvement of methods of attacks not only with the help of phishing social engineering but also with the help of other methods of social engineering of other types. Creating a mathematical model to protect personal information from attacks using social engineering methods.
Olena Trofymenko, Nataliia Loginova, Manakov Serhii, Yaroslav Dubovoil
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 76-84; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.7684

Abstract:
As a result of the transition to distance and hybrid learning, first due to the COVID-19 pandemic and then due to the Russian attack and large-scale war, the education sector has faced a wide range of cyber threats. Awareness of these threats can help universities and their staff protect themselves and their students from these vulnerabilities. Large amounts of personal data and financial information about students, faculty and staff, as well as information about research circulate in higher education institutions. It makes them an attractive target for cybercriminals. The article analyzes cyber threats in the higher education sector. The classification of the most common cyber threats in the higher education sector is offered. The basis of most successfully implemented cyber attacks is the human factor, ie the mistakes of staff or students due to ignorance or disregard for the basic rules of cyber hygiene. A study of the signs of cyber threats in the field of education made it possible to divide them according to nine criteria: threats to IoT devices, threats due to human factors, identity theft, ransomware or malicious software, financial gain, espionage, phishing, DDoS attacks, threats to CMS. The implemented classification of cybersecurity threats in the field of higher education will contribute to their clear understanding and specifics on one or another basis. Knowledge of the main threats to educational networks and systems, understanding of common ways of hacking and leaking confidential data of students, teachers and other staff will allow educational institutions to choose and apply the most effective tools and strategies at all levels of cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is a shared responsibility for everyone, and its success depends on being aware of the motives and methods of attackers, maintaining good cyber hygiene by everyone, and monitoring compliance.
Irina Maltseva, Yuliya Chernish, Roman Shtonda
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 37-44; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.3744

Abstract:
This article examines the most famous and high-profile cyber threats that were carried out against the state during the Russian invasion. We also analyzed the laws that were adopted during the hostilities on the territory of our state. They have significantly affected the protection against further threats to the entire system.The issue of Russia's destructive and destructive cyberattacks before the invasion of our country proves that cyberattacks play an important and strategic role in today's world and war, regardless of whether the public is aware of it. This threat is constant for us and it does not stand still and develops. Cyberattacks pose significant problems to our system and infrastructure with paradoxical consequences.Ukraine's security dependssignificantly on cybersecurity. This should not only focus attention, but even make every effort. Technological progress will grow, and behind it the dependence in cyberspace. It should be noted that the legislative regulation of relations also has its needs for constant updating and support of the rapid development of technological processes
Oleksandr Romaniuk, ,
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 98-112; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.98112

Abstract:
Abuse of privileges in the IT environment is defined as one of the threats to the information assets of the business at the present stage. The article examines and analyzes these problems, which are closely related to the leakage of information due to legitimate access to it and / or unauthorized access to it. Reports, research, acts, surveys at various enterprises contain a large amount of analytical and statistical materials that confirm the relevance and importance of this work. Based on the scientific literature, a review of key definitions on this issue, namely: characterized the definition of "privileged access"; the main examples of privileged access in the IT environment are considered; describes the risks and threats of information from attack vectors associated with privileged access to the IT environment. The mechanism for control and management of privileged access - RAM is presented, the steps of this process are highlighted and its expediency is substantiated. Experimental techniques allowed to choose the most applicable solutions of RAM: WALLIX Bastion PAM, One Identity Safeguard PAM, CyberArk PAM. The essence and functionality of each of these solutions are revealed. The advantages and disadvantages of each technology are established. As a result of research of technical and functional characteristics the comparative analysis of data of three decisions is carried out: obligatory components of the decision on control and management of privileged access are the manager of passwords and the manager of sessions (sessions), and additional - the module with analytics of privileged sessions and the access manager. use a VPN to access privileged assets. It can also be noted that the functionality of all products is very similar, so the implementation plays a big role, namely the practical approach during operation, internal algorithms, additional opportunities for integration and innovation. PAM solutions are recommended for organizations as a means to mitigate information security risks and threats due to insider activities of company employees who have privileged access to the IT environment.
, Andrii Turukalo
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 142-158; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.142158

Abstract:
The work is devoted to the estimation of resource consumption of the microcontroller for the synthesis of bar graph discrete-analog data display on the LED information field in bicyclic mode. The paper compares the programs of multicycle information output and its bicyclic analogue for discrete-analog means for the information display systems. The significance of the influence of bicyclic information models on the minimization of machine time resources of a single-chip microcontroller is shown. It is determined that in order to reduce resource consumption in the developed solutions it is necessary to focus on the maximum possible optimization of program blocks that are executed during interrupts and serve the I / O subsystem of the microcontroller. In this sense the bar graph displays based on the bicyclic additive information model has the best results. It was found that the traditional approach to assessing the effectiveness of programs using special benchmark programs, with subsequent measurement of code and execution time of the entire program does not allow to correctly assess the effectiveness of the program and the work of microcontroller at the device design stage. Therefore, as an alternative, it was proposed to use the size of the bytecode of the program and the speed of the main cycle - the procedure of information output to assess the effectiveness of the program. It was found that in terms of speed of execution and consumption of resources, the multicycle version significantly loses to the bicyclic program. Also, reducing the number of image formation cycles in the information field is one of the most effective way to minimize the consumption of microcontroller resources for display services.
Tetiana Muzhanova, Yuriy Yakymenko, Mykhailo Zaporozhchenko, Vitalii Tyshchenko
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 129-141; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.129141

Abstract:
Шукаючи кваліфікованих спеціалістів у сфері ІТ та інформаційної безпеки роботодавці віддають перевагу кандидатам з професійними сертифікатами від надійних та всесвітньо визнаних організацій. Залучення сертифікованих фахівців дозволяє компанії максимально ефективно використовувати свій персонал і тим самим підвищувати конкурентоспроможність бізнесу. Для кваліфікованого спеціаліста сертифікат є запорукою його компетентності та основою впевненості в успішній професійній кар’єрі. Сьогодні ринок професійної сертифікації з ІТ та інформаційної безпеки пропонує як програми сертифікації від відомих виробників програмного або апаратного забезпечення, так і незалежні сертифікати, розроблені експертними організаціями в цій галузі і не пов’язані з продукцією окремих виробників. Незалежні сертифікації забезпечують комплексний підхід до інформаційної безпеки та гарантують, що сертифіковані спеціалісти є компетентними з технічних та управлінських аспектів захисту інформації, а також володіють широким спектром різноманітних знань і практичних навичок. У статті досліджено найбільш популярні й затребувані на ринку професійні сертифікаційні курси з інформаційної безпеки від (ISC)2, ISACA, EC-Council та CompTIA. Встановлено, що розглянуті сертифікації мають такі спільні риси: короткий термін навчання за програмами сертифікації, зазвичай 5-7 днів; поєднання в межах курсів як базових, так і спеціалізованих компонентів; використання під час навчання переважно відкритих апаратних і програмних засобів; поєднання різноманітних форм і методів навчання: очне або дистанційне навчання з інструктором, самостійне навчання, онлайн-тести та використання спеціальних навчальних платформ; проведення комплексного іспиту з подальшою видачею сертифіката; трирічний термін дії сертифіката, який необхідно підтверджувати шляхом участі в наукових та практичних заходах за спеціальністю. Дослідження ринку міжнародної сертифікації фахівців з інформаційної безпеки в Україні показало, що існує кілька компаній - акредитованих постачальників послуг професійної сертифікації: Треніговий центр ISSP, група компаній Fast Lane, Київське відділення ISACA, компанія PwC в Україні, які сертифікують фахівців із інформаційної безпеки шляхом проведення незалежних від виробників курсів, а також сертифікаційних програм від розробників програмного та апаратного забезпечення.
Igor Kozubtsov, Oleksandr Chernonoh, Lesya Kozubtsova, Mykhailo Artemchuk, Ivan Neshcheret
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.1927

Abstract:
The subject of research in the scientific article is the system of Information Protection and cybersecurity in information and communication systems of special communication. The purpose of the article is to substantiate proposals for the selection of individual indicators for assessing the ability of the information security and cybersecurity system to function in Special Communication Information and communication systems in partial performance indicators. To achieve the goal and task, a set of interrelated theoretical research methods was used: analysis and generalization of scientific literature; structural and genetic analysis, when clarifying the object and subject of research; analytical and comparative analysis when evaluating the novelty of research results; synthesis and generalization-to justify indicators; generalization – to formulate conclusions and recommendations. Research results and conclusions. The result of the study was a reasonable solution of a new scientific and practical task to substantiate the performance indicators of the information security and cybersecurity system based on the results of the analysis of annual reports of cybersecurity incidents. The proposed solution significantly contributes to ensuring the national security and defense of Ukraine. Scientific novelty of the result obtained. For the first time, separate indicators for assessing the ability (effectiveness) of the functioning of the information security and cybersecurity system in Special Communication Information and communication systems are proposed. Prospects for further research in this area. The presented study does not exhaust all aspects of this problem. The theoretical results obtained in the course of scientific research form the basis for further substantiation of the methodology for assessing the ability (effectiveness) of the functioning of the information security system and cybersecurity of information in information and communication systems of special communication.
Yana Dmytruk, Tetiana Hryshanovych, Liudmyla Hlynchuk, Oksana Zhyharevych
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.2836

Abstract:
The paper describes the role played by information technologies, including cybersecurity, specialists, during the war in Ukraine. The concept and framework of the information front are outlined, the contribution of technologists to both the economy and the field of information warfare is highlighted. The article describes the course and circumstances of the information war on the territory of our state from 2014 until the full-scale invasion of Russian troops on the territory of Ukraine. The contribution of both domestic and foreign information protection specialists to the course of this war is described. The main problems in the information space that we have to face in the current conditions are outlined, as well as examples of assistance in the realities of today's war. The study found out in which directions domestic IT specialists are moving, what is their role in the current situation, how are foreign structures and volunteers involved. The separate role is given to foreign journalists who are also fighting on the information front, but they are not specialists in information technology or cybersecurity. Thus, it is clear that Ukraine will win in the information war primarily due to the coverage of true information and its dissemination, as well as due to the active opposition to fakes. It can also be concluded that the information front is no less important than the real one, as it not only weakens the enemy, but also breaks the system from within - destroys logistics, flaunts not the best side of the enemy and informs society about the real state of events. Currently, Ukrainian and foreign cyber troops are doing their best: actively opposing disinformation and fakes, investing in the economy and destroying sites that are still operational. The perspective of our study is to further monitor the cyberfront. It is important to find out how events will run, what other applications (software, technical) will be developed to counter the aggressor, whether certain conclusions will be drawn from Ukraine. From our point of view, there is a strong improvement in the protection of all systems from the possibility of hacking, training of cyber troops at the state level and the development of new solutions to protect existing software.
Sofiia Shmaiun, , Yevhen Ivanichenko
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 63-75; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.6375

Abstract:
This article analyzes existing supplements that help people monitor their health and nutrition, and reveals important current issues that have received little attention so far. Eating disorders also include some developmental abnormalities that can be prevented by diet, disorders that respond to dietary treatment, food allergies and intolerances, potential food hazards, and the interaction of food and nutrients with medications. This web application is for people who have special diets due to illness, doctors' recommendations. The implementation involves analyzing the possibilities of developing a software system that allows you to track meals, give advice on diet planning and recommend recipes and products for the user's health indicators to be adjusted. Potential users of this software product will be primarily patients with eating disorders, but also those who simply need to change their diet for one reason or another, such as allergies, diabetics, etc. To control their diet, you can use a variety of tools that differ from each other in the degree of convenience and accessibility. The easiest way to control is to independently count the food eaten and record information about them. Today, there are many applications, both mobile and web applications, that are designed to monitor diet, pick up recipes or keep a diary of meals. The health nutrition web application is designed primarily to monitor your health and the fullness of all the necessary components of the food you eat, as recommended by your doctor. The essence of the application is that the user enters his basic data such as gender, age, height, weight, and optionally, for more accurate and useful recommendations, the presence of allergies, the presence of diseases or genetic predisposition to them, food preferences, increased / reduced test results (which may be affected by nutrition), recommendations of doctors, etc.
Volodymyr Markitan, Mykola Vozniak, , Vitalii Bulatetskyi
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 16, pp 85-97; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.16.8597

Abstract:
Relational database management systems and the SQL language itself do not have any built-in mechanisms for storing and managing hierarchical structures. There are several different ways to represent trees in relational databases. This paper considers the method of modeling hierarchical data structures in the form of Adjacency Lists and Closure Tables. For each method, there are examples of writing queries to solve typical problems encountered when working with tree structures: finding all descendant leaves, all descendants and ancestors of a given leaf, moving a leaf to another ancestor leaf, and deleting leaves with all its descendants. The possibility of using recursive queries when displaying the entire tree in the Adjacency List model is considered. If the depth of the tree is not known, or it is not known at what level the specified element is, the query can not be built by standard means of the SELECT statement, then you need to create a recursive procedure, or write a recursive query. In order to avoid recursion when outputting the whole tree, all nodes of the subtree, and finding the path from a certain place to the root, the modeling of hierarchical data structures is performed in the form of a connection table (Closure Table). This complicates the process of adding a new leaf and moving the leaf to another ancestor leaf. In this case, to simplify the writing of queries, it is suggested to create triggers that will build or rebuild the links. Given the fact that sometimes there is a need to preserve dependent, in particular hierarchical structures in a relational database, you need to be able to plow the model of preservation of such data. The choice of method for solving a specific problem is influenced by the speed of basic operations with trees. Exploring different options for organizing SQL tree structures will allow you to understand and choose the best way to build such a structure in a relational database for a specific task. All SQL queries in this paper were created and tested for Oracle relational databases.
Vladyslav Kyva
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 53-70; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.5370

Abstract:
У статті розглянуто вплив розвитку та поширення інформаційно-комунікаційних технологій (ІКТ) у вищому військовому навчальному закладі (ВВНЗ), оскільки з одного боку – підвищує ефективність його функціонування та сприяє підготовці висококваліфікованих кадрів (тактичного, оперативного та стратегічного рівня військової освіти) для Сектору безпеки і оборони України, що є вкрай необхідним в умовах протистояння збройній агресії Російської Федерації, а з іншого – робить вразливим його інформаційний простір до кібератак, що актуалізує проблемне питання забезпечення кібербезпеки ВВНЗ. При цьому, автор зосереджує увагу на аналізі кібератак на заклади освіти останніх років, які обумовлені розвитком методів (засобів) їх виконання та широким доступом до них різних користувачів, зокрема зловмисників. До того ж визначено, що розподілена кібератака на відмову в обслуговуванні (Distributed Denial of ServiceDDoS) є найпоширенішою кіберзагрозою міжнародних освітніх закладів, що відображено в аналітичному звіті компанії Netscout (компанія розробник ІКТ рішень для протидії DDoS кібератакам – США). Проаналізовано, що останнім часом зловмисники використовують DDoS кібератаки з метою вимагання грошей. При чому DDoS кібератаки були спрямовані, як на банки, фондові біржі, туристичні агентства, валютні біржі, так і на заклади освіти. Тому, кібербезпека ВВНЗ потребує постійної уваги з боку учасників її забезпечення. Окрім того, проведений аналіз свідчить, що на кібербезпеку будь-якого ВВНЗ впливають зовнішні та внутрішні чинники, що підтверджує актуальність обраного напряму дослідження. У зв’язку з цим кібербезпека ВВНЗ вимагає аналізу чинників, які на неї впливають, з метою вибору кращого варіанту її реалізації. Відповідно у статті визначено сутність та основні особливості впливу чинників на кібербезпеку ВВНЗ та наведено їх характеристику. Зроблено декомпозицію впливу чинників на кібербезпеку ВВНЗ, зокрема за взаємозалежністю та критичністю їх впливу. Обґрунтовано необхідність врахування та постійного моніторингу впливу зовнішніх та внутрішніх чинників на кібербезпеку ВВНЗ, що дає змогу отримати ситуаційну обізнаність сучасного стану кібербезпеки та прийняти керівництву відповідні рішення.
, Lesya Kozubtsova, Igor Kozubtsov, Roman Shtonda
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 124-134; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.1241341

Abstract:
The subject of research in the scientific article is the system of Information Protection and cybersecurity of critical information infrastructure objects. An information security and cybersecurity system is a complex set of software, cryptographic, organizational, and other tools, methods, and measures designed to protect information and cybersecurity. Since the system of Information Protection and cybersecurity of critical information infrastructure facilities is relatively new, there is no single view on what functions this system should perform. As a result, the process of its formation and formation as a system continues. There was a need to define functions for further evaluation of the effectiveness of its functioning as a system. Evaluation is supposed to be carried out both in the process of creation, acceptance, and daily operation. Partial performance indicators are required to implement the procedure for evaluating the effectiveness of the information security system and cybersecurity of critical information infrastructure facilities. Using these indicators, it is possible to characterize the degree of achievement of the system's tasks assigned to it. The following performance indicators are proposed according to the functions: ID identification of cybersecurity risks; PR Cyber Defense; DE detection of cyber incidents; RS response to cyber incidents; RC restoration of the state of cybersecurity. The scientific novelty of the obtained result lies in the fact that Universal functions are proposed that the information security and cybersecurity system should implement at critical information infrastructure facilities. The presented study does not exhaust all aspects of this problem. The theoretical results obtained in the course of scientific research form the basis for further justification of indicators and criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the information security and cybersecurity system.
Vitalii Bulatetskyi, , Tetiana Hryshanovych
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 71-84; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.7184

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the causes and ways of solving the problem of free space lack on the system partition during the OS Windows exploitation. The peculiarities of the system partition organization during the installation of common Microsoft operating systems are analyzed. The main system file objects, paths to them, their purpose and role in the use of system partition space and in the functioning of the operating system are considered. Represented the list of paths to the files of the folders that occupy the largest volumes on the system partition. Thees folders correct cleaning or configuring may save a lot of space on the system partition. The main tools of the operating system for the cleaning methods implementation are considered: command line interpretator, PowerShell environment, system registry editing tools, and system library function calling tools. Particular attention is paid to batch files as the simplest and most effective means of implementing automated use of system utilities, taking into account the peculiarities of the command line interpreter. One of the ways to manipulate objects with commands is to use the PowerShell environment. This environment is able not to process commands, but to generate streams of objects related to this command and form their processed representation using both command and graphical interface. Described the logical and physical structure of the registry as one of the tools for managing Windows settings. Was made the comparative analysis of some software products, such as the system console utility for servicing deployment and management images, as well as a number of free software. It has generated the list of functions used for the system partition optimization and cleaning from excessive data. Based on the generated list, the efficiency of using the considered software tools for cleaning the system partition is analyzed.
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 148-163; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.148163

Abstract:
In one of the famous works, an incorrect formulation and an incorrect solution of the implementation problem of the CSIDH algorithm on Edwards curves is discovered. A detailed critique of this work with a proof of the fallacy of its concept is given. Specific properties of three non-isomorphic classes of supersingular curves in the generalized Edwards form is considered: complete, quadratic, and twisted Edwards curves. Conditions for the existence of curves of all classes with the order p+1 of curves over a prime field are determined. The implementation of the CSIDH algorithm on isogenies of odd prime degrees based on the use of quadratic twist pairs of elliptic curves. To this end, the CSIDH algorithm can be construct both on complete Edwards curves with quadratic twist within this class, and on quadratic and twisted Edwards curves forming pairs of quadratic twist. In contrast to this, the authors of a well-known work are trying to prove theorems with statement about existing a solution within one class of curves with a parameter that is a square. The critical analysis of theorems, lemmas, and erroneous statements in this work is given. Theorem 2 on quadratic twist in classes of Edwards curves is proved. A modification of the CSIDH algorithm based on isogenies of quadratic and twisted Edwards curves is presented. To illustrate the correct solution of the problem, an example of Alice and Bob calculations in the secret sharing scheme according to the CSIDH algorithm is considered.
Leonid Arsenovych
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 93-109; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.93109

Abstract:
The article analyzes the accrued national and foreign developments regarding the problems of digital competence formation and effective use of information technology in education. The components of digital competence are considered, which provide for a confident, critical and responsible interaction with digital technology for education, work and participation in social activities. The results of a global information security research are presented along with surveys of employees of leading cyber companies around the world, including Ukraine, that testify to the necessity of further application and implementation of an integrated approach to education using organizational measures, software and hardware means and management processes at all activity levels of any organization, as well as using the appropriate tools to raise the digital competence level. The essence of the importance of digital tools in the field of cyber security is formulated, which means a set of Internet tools (resources) to protect network environment entities against various information and cyber threats, ensuring proper organization of countering their effect, formation, functioning and evolution of cyber space and development of educational cyber technology and the information society as a whole. Three main groups of digital cyber security tools were analyzed, identified and proposed (professional cyber tools, education cyber tools and communicative cyber tools) that enable the use, access, filtering, evaluating, creating, programming and communicating digital content, managing and protecting information, content, data and digital identities, as well as working effectively with software, devices, artificial intelligence, robots and more. It is proved that present-day work with digital cyber tools and their content requires a reflective, critical and at the same time inquisitive, open and promising attitude to their development, as well as an ethical, safe, effective and responsible approach to their use
Volodymyr Akhramovich
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 35-52; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.3552

Abstract:
A mathematical model has been developed and a study of the model of personal data protection from network clustering coefficient and data transfer intensity in social networks has been carried out. Dependencies of protection of the system from the size of the system (and from the amount of personal data); information security threats from the network clustering factor. A system of linear equations is obtained, which consists of the equation: rate of change of information flow from social network security and coefficients that reflect the impact of security measures, amount of personal data, leakage rate, change of information protection from network clustering factor, its size, personal data protection. As a result of solving the system of differential equations, mathematical and graphical dependences of the indicator of personal data protection in the social network from different components are obtained. Considering three options for solving the equation near the steady state of the system, we can conclude that, based on the conditions of the ratio of dissipation and natural frequency, the attenuation of the latter to a certain value is carried out periodically, with decaying amplitude, or by exponentially decaying law. A more visual analysis of the system behavior is performed, moving from the differential form of equations to the discrete one and modeling some interval of the system existence.Mathematical and graphical dependences of the system natural frequency, oscillation period, attenuation coefficient are presented. Simulation modeling for values with deviation from the stationary position of the system is carried out. As a result of simulation, it is proved that the social network protection system is nonlinear.
, Victor Smolii, Andrii Blozva, , Tetiana Osypova,
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 135-147; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.135147

Abstract:
The article describes the conceptual model of adaptive management of cybersecurity of the information and educational environment of a modern university (IOSU). Petri nets are used as a mathematical apparatus to solve the problem of adaptive management of access rights of IOS users. A simulation model is proposed and modeling in PIPE v4.3.0 package is performed. The possibility of automating the procedures of user profile adjustment to minimize or neutralize cyber threats in IOS is shown. The model of distribution of tasks of the user in computer networks of IOSU is offered. The model, in contrast to the existing ones, is based on the mathematical apparatus of Petri nets and contains variables that reduce the power of the state space. The method of access control (ICPD) has been supplemented. The additions addressed aspects of the verification of access rights, which are required by the tasks and requirements of the security policy, the degree of coherence of tasks and allowed access to the IOSU nodes. Adjusting security rules and metrics for new tasks or reallocating tasks is described in Petri net notation.
, Oleksiy Nedashkivskiy
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 6-34; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.634

Abstract:
This article is devoted to solving the problem of information protection in radio channels, by applying comprehensive measures to protect against possible attacks aimed at intercepting and substituting transmitted data. The aim of the work is to analyze the security of wireless networks, identify methods for their protection and create a model for protecting wireless networks. In order to achieve this goal, the following list of tasks was performed: the existing solutions in the field of information protection through radio networks were analyzed; the description of the offered developed model is made; algorithms, experiments, experiments of this model are described. A means of protecting information through radio networks has been developed, the application of which has a significant increase in the level of information security in the radio channel. The practical value of this development is that the theoretical and practical results are recommended for implementation in organizations that use the radio channel to transmit confidential information with high security requirements
, Nataliia Yakymenko, , Oksana Konoplitska-Slobodeniuk Konoplitska-Slobodeniuk, Serhii Smirnov
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.8592

Abstract:
This paper investigates the linear transformations of the hash function, which is part of the developed advanced module of cryptographic protection of information, which by capturing information about the user ID, session ID, sending time, message length and sequence number, as well as using a new session key generation procedure for encryption, allows you to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data in information and communication systems process control. The object of research is the process of ensuring the confidentiality of data in information and communication systems management systems based on cloud technologies. The subject is the study of linear transformations of the proposed hashing function of the advanced module of cryptographic protection in information and communication systems. The purpose of this work is to study the linear transformations of the proposed hashing function of the advanced module of cryptographic protection in information and communication systems for process control based on cloud technologies. To use this module effectively, it is important to choose crypto-resistant encryption and hashing methods, as well as secret key synchronization. Cryptoalgorithms resistant to linear, differential, algebraic, quantum and other known types of cryptanalysis can be used as functions of cryptographic methods of encryption and hashing. The conducted experimental study of linear transformations of the proposed hashing function of the advanced module of cryptographic protection in information and communication systems confirmed the cryptoresistance of the advanced algorithm to linear cryptanalysis.
Zoreslava Brzhevska, Roman Kyrychok
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 164-174; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.164174

Abstract:
The conceptual model of information reliability includes information resources, sources of information, factors of information confrontation, sources of factors of information confrontation (threats to authenticity), goals of attackers, functions, methods and means of ensuring reliability, and reliability indicators. The reliability of information (the degree of trust in data) contained in information resources is largely determined by the quality of sources and the ability of individuals to influence information processes. However, the concept of reliability of information is often associated with the categories of integrity and availability of information resources. All this must be ensured in the functioning of the information space in conditions of accidental or intentional informational influences. A necessary condition for achieving the required level of reliability of information is the construction of a comprehensive system for ensuring the reliability of the information. Information space of enterprises exists in the system of commodity-money relations, which is based on the concept of economic efficiency and can not afford to spend uncontrollably and unreasonably material resources for any activities. As a result, the assessment of the level of reliability of information and decision-making on measures to improve it raise the concomitant task of assessing the economic effect of their implementation.
Valery Dudykevych, , Nazariy Dzianyi, Larysa Rakobovchuk, Petro Garanyuk
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 110-123; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.110123

Abstract:
One of the most vulnerable issues in the technical protection of information is the receipt of data, private or confidential, due to leakage through the optoelectronic channel, the main source of data is laser acoustic intelligence systems or laser microphones. There are active and passive methods of protection against laser acoustic reconnaissance systems (ACS). Active methods use various noisy or vibrating devices that pose a danger to human health. With passive protection, it is recommended to use either special corrugated windows or completely closed shutters, which create some inconvenience now. Detecting a working laser microphone is very difficult and in some cases technically impossible. For example, the removal of information using ACS occurs through glass building structures, usually windows. This article is devoted to the analysis of the principle of operation of laser systems of acoustic intelligence and passive methods of reading acoustic information. Triangulation laser sensors are designed for non-contact measurement and control of position, movement, size, surface profile, deformation, vibration, sorting, recognition of technological objects, measuring the level of liquids and bulk materials. Accordingly, they can be used to study the vibrational properties of glass and films applied to them. It is described the method of working with laser triangulation vibration sensors, which allows to study the deviations of glass from different manufacturers from sound vibrations, thereby investigating the anti-laser properties of existing glass, as well as different types of spraying and films. In addition, this method allows you to conduct and test deviations from sound vibrations for new types of glass, films and spraying, proving the results of spectral studies and their impact on the amplitude of vibration of the glass. The vibration sensor was adjusted and the software parameters were experimentally optimized to obtain the truest deviation values ​​required to work with sprayed samples for passive protection.
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 175-185; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2022.15.175185

Abstract:
The constant development of information technologies, the growing role at the present stage of human potential create new internal threats to the information security of enterprises. The article investigates and analyzes the problems of information security associated with internal violators of companies and their insider activity. Economic reports and analytical materials allowed to determine the relevance and importance of this work. Based on scientific literature, a review of various approaches to the definition of "insider" and "insider information" was carried out. The main key indicators of the insider and signs of insider information are described. The classification of data sources for the study of insider threats is presented, among which real data of the system journal and data from social networks are allocated; analytical information with synthetic anomalies; simulated data due to the formation of stochastic models; theoretical and gaming approach. Insider threat detection algorithms are described depending on intentions, behavior, capabilities of insiders, how resources are used, as well as models involving several algorithms. The normative issues of protection of insider information from unauthorized disclosure and legal responsibility for illegal use of insider information in Ukrainian legislation are covered.
Roman Drahuntsov, Dmytro Rabchun
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 6-14; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.614

Abstract:
In this article we highlight several potential vectors of attacks that can be carried out on a monitoring capacities powered by SOC SIEM using its common features and misconfigurations. Widely spread problems like excessive amounts of false positive alerts or not absolutely accurate configuration of the correlation rules may lead to situation where an attacker is able to trigger an undesired state of the monitoring system. We’ve find three potential vectors for evasion the SIEM powered SOCs monitoring. The first vector grounds on mechanisms used to collect event data – log collectors: the malfunctioning SIEM state can be achieved with generating and submitting the bogus event data to the processing party like SIEM. Fake data flow may cause generation of mistaken alerts which can confuse the analytics stuff. The second vector employs some of the attacker’s knowledge about actual SIEM configuration – exploitation of correlation rule flaws. Taking into account the fact that correlation rules are mostly hand-written, they are prone to some logic flaws – certain detection rules may not be triggered by all of the malicious attack indicators. An attacker with knowledge about that feature may fulfill the unrecorded conditions and trick the SIEM to treat the attack flow as benign activity. The last researched vector is based on redundantly sensitive detection rules which produce a lot of false positive alarms but are not removed. An attacker may trigger the malfunctioning alarm continuously to distract the analytics stuff and perform its actions under the cover of noise. Those discussed vectors are derived from analysis of the actual SIEM installations and SOC processes used as best practices. We have no actual indicators that those attacks are carried out “in wild” at the moment of issuing of this article, but it is highly probable that those tactics may be used in the future. The purpose of this research is to highlight the possible risks for the security operation centers connected with actual processes and practices used in industry and to develop the remediation strategy in perspective.
Svitlana Palamarchuk, Natalia Palamarchuk, Vladimir Tkach, Olga Shugaly
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.100106

Abstract:
The Law of Ukraine “On Electronic Documents” and “On Electronic Digital Signature”, which came into force on December 28, 2003 and January 1, 2004, respectively, gave the “green light” to the widespread use of electronic documents and digital signatures in the country. Continuation in the introduction of electronic documents, including electronic signature forms and their use in secure information systems, was the adoption in 2018 of the Law of Ukraine "On electronic trust services" (Law of Ukraine "On electronic digital signature" expired) and a number of bylaws regarding electronic interaction between two information resources (state registers / information and telecommunication systems…) and / or for the provision of administrative services. At the same time, the use of the latest technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of work creates new risks that can lead to the disclosure of sensitive information, the consequences of which can be critical. To prevent this from happening, the system being created or the existing system must be well protected and comply with the Concept of "Secure Information Systems". This Concept includes a number of legislative initiatives, scientific, technical and technological solutions. Also, it is necessary to refer to the definition of a reliable information system, which is provided in the "Orange Book". According to which, a reliable information system is defined as “a system that uses sufficient hardware and software to ensure the simultaneous reliable processing of information of varying degrees of secrecy by different users or groups of users without violating access rights, integrity and confidentiality of data and information, and which maintains its performance under the influence of a set of external and internal threats. " Today, among the established methods of information protection, a special place is occupied by an electronic signature (both for verifying the integrity of the document, confirmation of authorship and for user authentication).
Andrii Byts, , , Valerii Kozachok,
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 68-86; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.6886

Abstract:
The article considers the problem of ensuring the availability and integrity of wireless subscribers in cellular and other wireless corporate networks. The article aims to determine the threshold values for the moment of failure of video transmission, quantitative parameters, artifacts, and the number of errors for the image. Show the dependence of the integrity of data transmitted in real-time on the characteristics of the environment. Two approaches were used to assess the quality of video information: qualitative (image recognition assessment) and quantitative (error measurement). Because the research program was written in the Kotlin programming language, a library written in Java or Kotlin was required. After searching the library, it turned out that only three libraries meet such parameters as reliability, relevance, and availability of documentation: Jaffree, Xuggler, and VLCJ. After gathering information, it was found that the most common screen extensions for desktops are 1366 × 768 and for phones—360 × 640. An error occurred that RTP did not support more than one connection. Also, the RTSP protocol could not pass the experiment on codecs other than MP4V. The experiment stopped earlier than necessary without error. Judging by the indicators, this was a very high CPU load. All other protocols were successfully tested, and results were obtained. During the experiments, we encountered various video anomalies. The worst was the video playback problem with the MJPG codec. Other anomalies were also identified: frame delay, incorrect frame rendering, white noise, and white noise mixed with frames. It is clear how up to 128 kbps experiments are successful and then begin to stop the video stream without error information. According to the results of experiments, the H.264 codec performs best.
, , Kateryna Kravchuk
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 158-175; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.158175

Abstract:
This study focuses on the protection of information resources on the basis of risk-oriented approach for small and medium-sized businesses with an emphasis on risk assessment of information security (IS). The analysis of scientific sources allowed to characterize the essence of the risk-oriented approach and to formulate the main provisions for creating a model of information protection based on this technology. The content line of the model focuses on conducting qualitative and quantitative IS risk assessment, namely, SWOT-analysis, statistical method, expert assessment method and Monte Carlo method. The step-by-step procedure of carrying out the stages of analysis and implementation of these methods for IS risk assessment is described. In order to obtain a comprehensive map of IS risks at the initial stage, it is proposed to conduct a SWOT analysis, in particular to identify business weaknesses and external and internal threats. Use a statistical method to quantify IS risk if there are sufficient analytical reports. Otherwise, implement the method of expert assessments. The final step is to generate a script using the Monte Carlo method. To effectively describe the context of each information resource, use the technology of forming multiple pairs "threat - vulnerability". The relevance and possibilities of using this model as a methodology of information for small and medium businesses are substantiated.
Liudmyla Hlynchuk, Tetiana Hryshanovych, Andrii Stupin
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 118-130; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.118130

Abstract:
This research dedicated to the review, implementation and analysis of the symmetric encryption algorithm, namely - DES (Data Encryption Standard) that encrypts and decrypts text information. For this algorithm represented not only a verbal description, but also schemes of its execution and examples of implementation. Intermediate results and the results of information encryption / decryption in the implemented algorithm were verified using examples, so we can assume that the algorithm implemented correctly. Comparison of the execution time for the DES algorithm proposed implementation made for two utilities. One of them is OpenSSL, developed using assembler and the capabilities of the C programming language. The other utility developed using programming language Java. The comparison was made according to three criteria: full time from the utility execution start to its completion; the time spent by the process to execute the utility (downtime and time when the processor perform other tasks not accounted); the time taken by the operating system to run a utility, such as reading or writing the file. The analysis showed that the total execution time is not equal to the total amount of time spent by both the processor and the operating system to execute the utilities. This is due to the following: the total execution time is the real time spent on the execution of the utility; it can measure with a stopwatch. Whereas the time spent by the processor to execute the utility is measured somewhat differently: if two cores execute the same utility for 1 second, the total execution time will be 2 seconds, although in fact one second of time has passed. From the comparison follows the next conclusion: the time spent on encryption is less than the time spent on decryption. The execution time for different utilities is different: the time for OpenSSL utility turned out to be the best, because such an implementation is most adapted to the hardware. The utility in Java turned out to be the worst in terms of execution time. We propose the implementation of the DES algorithm of the nearest execution time to the fastest of the considered. Because a number of hacking possibilities have been found for the symmetric encryption standard DES, in particular due to the small number of possible keys, there is a risk of overriding them. Therefore, to increase crypto currency, other versions of this algorithm have been developed: double DES (2DES), triple DES (3DES), DESX, G-DES. In the future, it is planned to develop a utility based on our proposed implementation of the DES algorithm and to demonstrate the operation of its modifications.
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 87-99; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.8799

Abstract:
Algorithms for a neural network analyzer involved in the decision support system (DSS) during the selection of the composition of backup equipment (CBE) for intelligent automated control systems Smart City are proposed. A model, algorithms and software have been developed for solving the optimization problem of choosing a CBE capable of ensuring the uninterrupted operation of the IACS both in conditions of technological failures and in conditions of destructive interference in the operation of the IACS by the attackers. The proposed solutions help to reduce the cost of determining the optimal CBE for IACS by 15–17% in comparison with the results of known calculation methods. The results of computational experiments to study the degree of influence of the outputs of the neural network analyzer on the efficiency of the functioning of the CBE for IACS are presented.
Maksym Martseniuk, , Volodymyr Astapenya
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 131-147; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.131147

Abstract:
He who possesses information owns the world. This statement is becoming more relevant every day. It is information that has become a tool for modern management and development. Therefore, the role of information technology is also constantly growing along with the risk of their malicious use. Attackers use all possible methods and means of technical intelligence to use potentially possible and create new types of information leakage channels to intercept it. object of information activities. Such oscillations caused by a certain speech (acoustic) signal can be intercepted by means of long-range intelligence. Most often, a laser microphone is used as such. The essence of its action is to emit a laser on the surface of the selected OID, which circulates a speech signal that creates sound vibrations on this surface. The movement of the surface leads to the modulation of the wave by phase, which is manifested in the variable nature of the sound signal Doppler shift of the frequency of the received signal. Often, such a surface is the glass of the windows, which reflects the beam to the receiver, to which is connected a detector that can reproduce the sound from the OID. This study aims to study the dependence of the laser microphone on such factors as: the location of the radiation source and the beam receiver from the membrane; membrane surface material; receiver type; materials of fencing constructions OID. The goal is to create a stand to demonstrate the operation of a laser microphone. The research process is carried out on a smaller scale, which is why an improvised room in the form of a cardboard box was chosen as the OID. Available tools were used to reproduce the operation of the laser microphone, so a laser pointer was chosen as the illuminator, and devices such as a solar panel, a light sensor and a signal amplifier microphone were used as the receiver. The study of the influence of selected factors was performed by measuring the voltage and volume of the acoustic signal using a multimeter and a certified program on the tablet, respectively.
Tetiana Laptievа
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 15-25; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.1525

Abstract:
Social interaction of subjects in the modern world, in addition to positive forms, also has negative ones. One of such forms is information confrontation, the conceptual basis of which is to spread in the information space of the enemy unreliable information to influence the assessments, intentions, and orientation of the population and decision-makers. In this case, information becomes a more important resource than material or energy resources. The analysis of laws and properties of existence and distribution of information in the conditions of information confrontation is carried out. Based on the analysis of the above laws and studying the properties of information, the main features of the perception of information by the subjects are formulated. These are selectivity, attitude to certain information, authority (reputation), imaginary secrecy of receiving information. It is shown that on the basis of the formulated features of perception of information of subjects it is possible to create visibility of reliability of the information, and then no force will convince that it is specially made for the purpose of incorrect estimation, the negative orientation of the population and decision-makers. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that the parameters of information evaluation are used as a measure of the probability of propagation of inaccurate information. The degree of probability of dissemination of unreliable information is determined for each law of existence of information separately. The general estimation of the probability of distribution of unreliable information consists of the production of values of measures of each law in the person. Depending on the preference of a particular law for a particular type of information, the value of the measure will vary. That is, the proposed algorithm, in contrast to existing methods of evaluating information, additionally takes into account the type and class of information. The direction of further research: development of a scale of measures to assess the probability of spreading inaccurate information. Using as coefficients of the model the parameters of the developed scale of measures to assess the probability of propagation of inaccurate information. Creation of a mathematical model of distribution of unreliable information in the conditions of information confrontation.
, Sergii Ilyenko, Tatiana Kulish
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 107-117; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.107117

Abstract:
The article considers the problem of providing protection of the web framework application in the system of automatic build gradle and defines perspective methods of providing protection. This article defines that the basic and generally accepted approach to ensuring the security of a web application is a properly constructed test framework. During research the analysis of modern protection methods of web application of the framework based the automatic assembly gradle system is made. A comparative analysis of methods is also included.The basic approaches and methods concerning the organization of application protection are defined on the basis of the modern framework analysis. During planning a test framework, the automator is faced with the task of choosing methods that will solve the problem, will be flexible to change, easy to read and are fast for finding application vulnerabilities. At the stage of developing a test framework, it is planned to choose a suitable method for the specific category. Choose to check the client, web server or both at once; write api and ui tests to implement in individual or project or projects, choose the test data to use; define how to generate and transmit user tokens, which patterns to use; define whether they are needed. Implement parallelization for api tests or for ui as well; define how to check the models that come in the answers. This article outlines the methods that cover these issues and makes their brief analysis. The research of perspective methods and means of web application protection of the framework on the automatic assembly gradle system allows to state that correctly constructed test framework is one of effective and complex approaches to provide security information, which allows detection of vulnerabilities and correction of violations on the early stages of product development at the right time.
Volodymyr Akhramovich
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 36-49; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.3649

Abstract:
A mathematical model has been developed and a study of the model of personal data protection from network clustering coefficient and data transfer intensity in social networks has been carried out. Dependencies of protection of the system from the size of the system (and from the amount of personal data); information security threats from the network clustering factor. A system of linear equations is obtained, which consists of the equation: rate of change of information flow from social network security and coefficients that reflect the impact of security measures, amount of personal data, leakage rate, change of information protection from network clustering factor, its size, personal data protection. As a result of solving the system of differential equations, mathematical and graphical dependences of the indicator of personal data protection in the social network from different components are obtained. Considering three options for solving the equation near the steady state of the system, we can conclude that, based on the conditions of the ratio of dissipation and natural frequency, the attenuation of the latter to a certain value is carried out periodically, with decaying amplitude, or by exponentially decaying law. A more visual analysis of the system behavior is performed, moving from the differential form of equations to the discrete one and modeling some interval of the system existence. Mathematical and graphical dependences of the system natural frequency, oscillation period, attenuation coefficient are presented. Simulation modeling for values with deviation from the stationary position of the system is carried out. As a result of simulation, it is proved that the social network protection system is nonlinear.
Diana Tsyrkaniuk, , , Valerii Kozachok, Volodymyr Astapenya
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 50-67; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.5067

Abstract:
The number and complexity of cybercrime are constantly growing. New types of attacks and competition are emerging. The number of systems is growing faster than new cybersecurity professionals are learning, making it increasingly difficult to track users' actions in real-time manually. E-commerce is incredibly active. Not all retailers have enough resources to maintain their online stores, so they are forced to work with intermediaries. Unique trading platforms increasingly perform the role of intermediaries with their electronic catalogs (showcases), payment and logistics services, quality control - marketplaces. The article considers the problem of protecting the personal data of marketplace users. The article aims to develop a mathematical behavior model to increase the protection of the user's data to counter fraud (antifraud). Profiling can be built in two directions: profiling a legitimate user and an attacker (profitability and scoring issues are beyond the scope of this study). User profiling is based on typical behavior, amounts, and quantities of goods, the speed of filling the electronic cart, the number of refusals and returns, etc. A proprietary model for profiling user behavior based on the Python programming language and the Scikit-learn library using the method of random forest, linear regression, and decision tree was proposed, metrics were used using an error matrix, and algorithms were evaluated. As a result of comparing the evaluation of these algorithms of three methods, the linear regression method showed the best results: A is 98.60%, P is 0.01%, R is 0.54%, F is 0.33%. 2% of violators have been correctly identified, which positively affects the protection of personal data.
Roman Kyrychok, Zoreslava Brzhevska, Hennadii Hulak, , Volodymyr Astapenya
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 2, pp 148-157; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.14.148157

Abstract:
The dynamics of the increase in the number of vulnerabilities of software and hardware platforms of corporate networks, the accessibility of exploit modules for these vulnerabilities in the Internet and the Darknet, along with the lack of a sufficient number of highly qualified cybersecurity specialists make the problem of effective automation of preventive information protection mechanisms quite urgent. In particular, the basic algorithms for the sequential implementation of exploits embedded in the vulnerability exploitation tools are quite primitive, and the proposed approaches to their improvement require constant adaptation of mathematical models of the implementation of attacking actions. This justifies the direction of this research. This paper considers the issue of forming decision-making rules for the implementation of vulnerabilities’ exploits during an active analysis of the corporate networks’ security. Based on the results of the analysis of quantitative indicators of the quality of the validation mechanism of the identified vulnerabilities and the use of fuzzy logic methods, a fuzzy system was formed, membership functions for each of the linguistic variables were determined and a knowledge base was built, which makes it possible to determine the quality level of the validation mechanism of the identified vulnerabilities based on all available information. At the same time, in order to eliminate the “human factor” of making mistakes when validating vulnerabilities, based on the built fuzzy knowledge base and the established levels of exploit modules’ efficiency, the rules for the implementation of individual exploit modules during an active analysis of the corporate network’s security were formed. Results of research make it possible to create expert systems for diagnosing the effectiveness of the validation mechanism of the identified vulnerabilities of target systems, and also help to solve the problem of the lack of qualified specialists in the analysis and maintenance of an appropriate level of information security of corporate networks.
Serhii Krivenko, Natalya Rotaniova, Yulianna Lazarevska, Ulyana Karpenko
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.2938

Abstract:
The problems of the cybersecurity are becoming a daily threat to the business sphere and the Internet users. The field of the cybersecurity is constantly changing, but it is obviously that the cyber threats are becoming more serious and occur more often. The statistics on the number of cyber attacks in 2020 showed a sharp surge in the cybercrime. In the field of the information security, the majority of incidents has been related to attacks on the various distributed information systems recently. At the same time, a significant amount number of the successful attacks are those that carried out using such attacks as "Man in the middle" (MITM). MITM - attacks are dangerous because with their help attackers gain access to the confidential information, not only the companies but also the ordinary users. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to study the types of MITM - attacks, as well as to develop the recommendations for combating such types of attacks. The study was conducted using methods of analysis and description. The object of the study is MITM attacks. The subject of the study is to determine ways to counter attacks such as MITM. As a result of the conducted research the basic types and the technique of carrying out MITM - attacks are considered. The result of the study was the development of the recommendations for the countering MITM attacks. The proposed methods of preventing "Man in the middle" attacks can ensure a certain high level of the computer network security. This study will be useful in ways suggested to prevent MITM attacks, not only for security administrators, but also for Wi-Fi users trying to protect their personal data. The results of the study can also be used to develop better software that can increase the security of any computer network
Nataliia Rotanova, Tetiana Shabelnyk, Serhii Krivenko, Yulianna Lazarevska
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 123-132; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.123132

Abstract:
The study substantiates the urgent need to train qualified specialists capable of responding to cyber incidents and countering cyber threats in a short time, conducting state audits and creating effective management systems for information security and cybersecurity. The aim of the work is to reveal the ways and features of the organization of the study of mathematical disciplines in order to effectively train higher education students majoring in 125 «Cybersecurity». The role of the mathematical component of cybersecurity and the organization of the educational process of mathematical disciplines for the purpose of effective professional training of future cybersecurity specialists is considered. It is concluded that most professionally-oriented disciplines that provide basic knowledge in all aspects of information security are based on fundamental mathematical training. The study argues that the applied problems solved by the students of the specialty 125 «Cybersecurity» must meet the methodological requirements for real practical content, which provides an illustration of the practical value and significance of the acquired mathematical knowledge in the cyber- and/or information security field. The solution to the problem of improving the quality of mathematical training of the students is considered through the use of intra-subject and interdisciplinary links, the introduction of applied orientation of mathematical disciplines and the principle of continuity. The paper presents examples of professionally oriented tasks that are offered to higher education students majoring in 125 «Cybersecurity» studying mathematical disciplines. It is proved that the introduction of applied orientation of mathematical disciplines creates the necessary conditions and attracts students to the professional sphere, which is an important step towards improving the quality of training of cybersecurity professionals.
Nikita Moshenchenko,
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 63-80; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.6380

Abstract:
This article considers the problem of the process of using robots and their control in catering establishments with the help of wireless networks, shows the main features of existing solutions in the field of robotics and networks, their advantages and disadvantages. Wireless networks for their application in robot control have been studied. The main task of wireless networks is to provide high-speed local access to services and data in a certain area, the exchange of information between users within the territory. Building wireless Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) networks is now in high demand due to a host of benefits. Among the main advantages of this technology are the most attractive: low cost of equipment; flexibility of equipment use; high data rate. This technology provides the ability to run a number of custom applications. The infrastructure of wireless networks is the basis on which the further implementation of custom applications is built and the support of key services for the company is provided. Such services include network management, information security and service quality assurance (QoS) mechanisms. A virtual environment with the appropriate software was configured, a network simulation was performed, and its results were recorded. This solution can be used in catering establishments. It allows to introduce new technologies into the sphere of human life and increase the profits of food business owners.
Yuriy Yakymenko, Dmytro Rabchun, Mykhailo Zaporozhchenko
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 6-15; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.615

Abstract:
As the number and percentage of phishing attacks on company employees and regular users have tended to increase rapidly over the last two years, it is necessary to cover the issue of protection against this type of social engineering attacks. Throughout the pandemic, intruders are finding more and more new ways to cheat, so even experienced Internet users can become a victim to their scams. Due to the fact that e-mail is used in almost all companies, most fishing attacks use e-mail to send malicious messages. The article discusses the main methods used by attackers to conduct phishing attacks using e-mail, signs that the user has become a victim to social engineers, and provides recommendations how to increase the resilience of the corporate environment to such attacks using organizational methods. Because the user is the target of phishing attacks, and the tools built into the browser and email clients in most cases do not provide reliable protection against phishing, it is the user who poses the greatest danger to the company, because he, having become a victim of a fishing attack, can cause significant damage to the company due to his lack of competence and experience. That is why it is necessary to conduct training and periodic testing of personnel to provide resistance to targeted phishing attacks. Company employees should be familiar with the signs of phishing, examples of such attacks, the principles of working with corporate data and their responsibility. The company's management must create and communicate to the staff regulations and instructions that describe storage, processing, dissemination and transfer processes of information to third parties. Employees should also report suspicious emails, messages, calls, or people who have tried to find out valuable information to the company's security service. Raising general awareness through hands-on training will reduce the number of information security incidents caused by phishing attacks.
, Yuliia Zhdanovа, Pavlo Skladannyi, Svitlana Spasiteleva
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 133-144; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.133144

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the problem of applying graph theory in cybersecurity systems and is an overview. Widespread penetration of mathematical methods in the development of information technology characterizes the current stage of our society. Among the mathematical methods used in information and cyber security, a large niche is graph technology. A streamlined system of special terms and symbols of graph theory allows you to easily and easily describe complex and subtle things both geometrically and algebraically. A graph is a mathematical model of a wide variety of objects, phenomena, and the relationships between them. This justifies the choice and relevance of this study. The article outlines the main elements of graph theory, the wide scope of their implementation and provides a historical perspective on the development of this theory. The analysis of scientific works allowed to determine the main directions of application of properties, characteristics of graphs and graph algorithms in information and cyber security. Among them are studies related to the use of graphs in information systems and programming; with modeling, analysis and application of attack graphs; with cryptographic transformations; with the construction of a decision tree in decision-making tasks in conditions of risk and uncertainty. It is proved that the ability to operate with the methods of graph technologies contributes to the development of software and hardware for information protection. The considered approaches to the application of graph theory in information and cyber security can be implemented during the study of the discipline "Special methods in security systems: discrete mathematics" for students majoring in 125 Cybersecurity, as well as in training in research or course work or thesis. By increasing the professional orientation of training, future cybersecurity workers gain a thorough knowledge of fundamental disciplines.
Serhii Krivenko, Natalya Rotaniova, Yulianna Lazarevska
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 92-101; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.92101

Abstract:
The scenario (narrative schemas) is some established (in society) sequence of steps to achieve the set goal and contains the most complete information about all possible ways of development of the described situation (with selection points and branches). The creation of the XML platform gave rise to a new high-tech and technologically more advanced stage in the development of the Web. As a result, the XML platform becomes a significant component in the technology of information systems development, and the tendency of their integration at the level of corporations, agencies, ministries only strengthens the position of XML in the field of information technology in general. A system for automatic detection of non-standard scripts in text messages has been developed. System programming consists of stages of ontology formation, sentence parsing and scenario comparison. the classic natural language processing (NLP) method, which supports the most common tasks such as tokenization, sentence segmentation, tagging of a part of speech, extraction of named entities, partitioning, parsing and co-referential resolution, is used for parsing sentences in the system. Maximum entropy and machine learning based on perceptrons are also possible. Ontologies are stored using OWL technology. The object-target sentence parsers with the described OWL are compared in the analysis process. From a SPARQL query on a source object, query models are returned to the table object. The table class is the base class for all table objects and provides an interface for accessing values in the rows and columns of the results table. If the table object has exactly three columns, it can be used to build a new data source object. This provides a convenient mechanism for retrieving a subset of data from one data source and adding them to another. In the context of the RDF API, a node is defined as all statements about the subject of a URI. The content of the table is compared with the semantics of the sentence. If the sentence scenario does not match the OWL ontology model, there is a possibility of atypical object actions. In this case, a conclusion is formed about the suspicion of the message. For more correct use of possibilities of the analysis of the text it is necessary to form the case of ontologies or to use existing (Akutan, Amazon, etc.) taking into account their features. To increase the ontologies of objects, it is possible to use additional neural network teaching methods.
Volodymyr Hrytsyk,
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 102-112; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.102112

Abstract:
Today, in the era of the Covid’19 pandemic, people need to plan their future taking into account the specifics of new relationships - the new specifics of communications, work organization, and so on. Each industry has both common problems and its own specifics. This paper examines the specifics of the education sector (higher education in Ukraine) in the field of information technology. In particular, the influence of distance learning on job search and possible change of priorities that may have arisen during distance learning and distance communication with classmates is studied. The research is based on a survey of 3rd year computer science students at NU LP. The survey contains 15 questions, grouped into three subgroups: subjective feeling of the learning process, subjective feeling of choosing a profession, subjective feeling of Internet security. The survey was conducted in the target group of the most active part of society. The answers in the study group show the level of student satisfaction with the learning process and confidence in the quality of learning. Answers in the group: employment indicates the level of how the market sees the prospects of studying in the specialty of computer science. Answers in the group cyber security The attitude of young people (computer science students) to the provision of cyber communication at the state level. No research has been conducted on the provision of the Internet at the university level. The results of the work are visualized and presented both in graphs and in absolute and relative values. The study can assess the level of resilience of computer science specialties to the problems caused by the pandemic, including distance learning and distance work in IT firms. To enhance the results, the dynamics of recruitment of applicants over several years was analyzed. In the report for 2021, we see that the number of freshmen has increased in ICNI, this year received 1,130 students. 100% of the surveyed students who worked during the pandemic in the private IT sector of information technology worked remotely and received a full salary, which also shows the resistance of the specialty to the challenges of the pandemic (this mode reduces risks and the spread of risks).
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 16-28; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.1628

Abstract:
The article describes the methodology of multi-criteria optimization of costs for the information protection system of the object of informatization. The technique is based on the use of a modified VEGA genetic algorithm. A modified algorithm for solving the MCO problem of parameters of a multi-circuit information protection system of an informatization object is proposed, which makes it possible to substantiate the rational characteristics of the ISS components, taking into account the priority metrics of OBI cybersecurity selected by the expert. In contrast to the existing classical VEGA algorithm, the modified algorithm additionally applies the Pareto principle, as well as a new mechanism for the selection of population specimens. The Pareto principle applies to the best point. At this point, the solution, interpreted as the best, if there is an improvement in one of the cybersecurity metrics, and strictly no worse in another metric (or metrics). The new selection mechanism, in contrast to the traditional one, involves the creation of an intermediate population. The formation of an intermediate population occurs in several stages. At the first stage, the first half of the population is formed based on the metric - the proportion of vulnerabilities of the object of informatization that are eliminated in a timely manner. At the second stage, the second half of the intermediate population is formed based on the metric - the proportion of risks that are unacceptable for the information assets of the informatization object. Further, these parts of the intermediate population are mixed. After mixing, an array of numbers is formed and mixed. At the final stage of selection for crossing, specimens (individuals) will be taken by the number from this array. The numbers are chosen randomly. The effectiveness of this technique has been confirmed by practical results
Tetyana Muzhanova, Svitlana Lehominova, Yuriy Yakymenko, Iryna Mordas
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 50-62; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.5062

Abstract:
The increase in the number of information security incidents related to personnel activities, the frequency of which has almost doubled in the last two years, has led organizations to use effective technologies that prevent and counteract internal threats to information security. An important role in this context belongs to the tools of monitoring and analysis of user activity. According to experts, in the coming years, such technologies will be implemented in 80% of solutions to identify threats and prioritize information security incidents. The article reveals the essence and analyzes the functionality of several systems that monitor and analyze employee behavior, including Data Loss Prevention (DLP), Access Control, Analysis of User Behavior and IT objects (UBA / UEBA). The authors establish that the DLP system monitors and reports on user attempts to transmit confidential information by monitoring mail and web traffic, wireless access, external storage, input/output devices, user workstation software, audio and video surveillance of its activities, etc. Access control tools perform, in particular, the functions of monitoring access and movement of a person in protected areas of the object, collecting information from surveillance cameras, keeping records of working time. In the context of a pandemic, solutions have been developed that allow identifying a person in a mask on the face, to perform the functions of monitoring health. Analysis of the functional characteristics of UBA / UEBA behavioral analytics systems showed that they not only solve the problem of collecting data from all possible available sources (software and hardware, logs, user correspondence, etc.), but also analyze the collected data and report atypical user behavior in case of its detection. The article notes that behavioral analytics is used in a number of security technologies, such as Security Information and Event Management system, Intrusion Detection and Prevention System, and others, complementing and expanding their capabilities, helping to create comprehensive information security solutions. The authors recommend organizations to use tools for monitoring and analyzing the user activities in different combinations or as part of integrated Information Security Management solutions to achieve the appropriate information security level in the face of growing threats from personnel.
Ihor Skiter
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 158-169; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.158169

Abstract:
The paper sets the task of formalizing the processes of assessing the culture of cybersecurity of the information system of the organization. The basis is a comprehensive model that takes into account the technical and organizational parameters of the information system and the risks associated with them. The level of security culture of the information system is assessed on the basis of building an additive model. The model includes the characteristics of system state clusters. Clusters are formed on the basis of arrays of factors that correspond to different classes of information security culture. Classes are formed on the basis of sets of factors. Their impact is assessed using the severity of the consequences for the level of cybersecurity of the information system. In addition, the probability of manifestation of this factor in a particular information system is determined. The value of coefficients and probability distributions for each cluster and set of factors is estimated by expert methods and on the basis of a survey. A feature of the formation of arrays of factors is the inclusion in each cluster of a factor that reflects the passive behavior of the user to negative factors. Thus, the model introduces the probability of rejection of negative factors and the probability of ideal behavior for the formation of the appropriate class of threats. It is proposed to determine the average weights of the factors of the level of influence on the cybersecurity of the information system on the basis of the weighted average indicator. A method of estimating weights based on the equally probable distribution of negative factors within the cluster
, Borys Husiev, Victor Smolii, Andrii Blozva, , Tetiana Osypova
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.8191

Abstract:
Approaches to the application of methods of system analysis to solve problems related to information security of enterprises in transport, which have a complex IT structure with a large number of components. It is shown that the active expansion of the areas of informatization of the transport industry, especially in the segment of mobile, distributed and wireless technologies, is accompanied by the emergence of new threats to information security. It is shown that in order to build an effective information security system, the selection and implementation of adequate technical means of protection should be preceded by a stage of description, analysis and modeling of threats, vulnerabilities, followed by calculation of risks for IS and determining the optimal strategy for information security system. After evaluating the different NIB options according to several criteria, a decision is made: if the recommendations coincide, the optimal solution is chosen with greater confidence. If there is a contradiction of recommendations, the final decision is made taking into account its advantages and disadvantages, for example, the strategy of information security system development is chosen, which turned out to be optimal for at least two criteria. If different NIB development strategies are obtained for all three criteria, it is necessary to vary the values of pessimism-optimism in the Hurwitz criterion or change the data, for example, about possible threats to IP or automated enterprise management system. An algorithm for modeling the decision-making process for selecting the optimal strategy for managing investment design components of the information security system for the transport business entity is proposed.
, Oleksii Verkhovets, Andrii Tolbatov, Yevheniia Krasovska
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 1, pp 145-157; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.145157

Abstract:
Today there is an increase in the number and complexity of cyberattacks on critical infrastructure. This has led to the actualization of the security systems that are critical to national security. Software, including operating systems, is considered a resource of critical information infrastructure of the state, which is usually built on secure operating systems (UNIX, BSD family, Linux). But any operating systems and user software have flaws and security issues at different levels. It is important to model information flows in the operating systems, which will more effectively identify threats to information security, implement preventive and countermeasures. From these positions, the analysis of modern research in the direction of operating systems security and user software was carried out, which allowed to identify several basic areas, including the study of the impact of malware on operating systems and user software; vulnerability analysis; threat and risk research. The analysis showed that the issues related to the peculiarities of construction and information processes of a particular operating systems, as well as the lack of adequate mathematical models that can be applied to different security systems to obtain quantitative characteristics to compare the parameters of security systems. Also, structural and analytical models of information flows of the BSD family of operating systems were developed, which makes it possible to formalize the information processes of the studied operating system and develop effective preventive and countermeasures. In addition, the mathematical model of quantitative evaluation of software systems for information security operating in user mode has been improved. This model will be useful both for comparison of existing software information security systems, and for the analysis of changes in security algorithms of software information security systems
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique; https://doi.org/10.28925/2663-4023.2021.13.113122

Abstract:
Online meeting services are great resources that are now saving the world during a pandemic. This is a key component that helps many businesses continue operating, universities, colleges and schools continue teaching, even family and friends can stay in touch during isolation. Video conferencing is a telecommunication technology of interaction for three or more remote users, in which between them it is possible to ex change audio and video information in real time, taking into account the transfer of control data. To date, there are many such resources, but the question arises "who to trust", because in the news there is often information about data breaches due to the vulnerability of certain services. The article examines the issues of cybersecurity of three popular video conferencing services, such as: Microsoft Team, Zoom and Google Meet. The peculiarities of the work of these services are analyzed and the greatest emphasis is placed on the state of information security. It is found out what protocols ensure the transmission of voice and video information, how protection against unauthorized access is provided and the peculiarities of setting up such resources. The c onsidered services are compared on the basis of security criteria. Analyzed issues that occurred while using video services. It is clear that there is no perfect video conferencing tool - the final choice always depends on the needs of the user. The study found that it is safer to use Google Meet and Microsoft Teams. Here are tips to help protect online meetings based on best practices. It is worth noting to follow the rules of online hygiene for video conferencing, that will allow you to work efficiently a nd safely even in the most difficult periods. Keywords: virtual space; video communication services; cybersecurity
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