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Sherry Sun
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p198

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2021
Fidel C. T. Budy
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n4p13

Abstract:
Sustainable development efforts to mitigate the challenges that women face in the midst of land grabbing could be significantly undermined or they could fail to address the concerns of rural African women if they are not driven by the everyday lived experiences of rural African women. Evidence suggests that current accounts of how rural African women experience land grabbing oversimplify the homogeneity of their experiences, depicting them as entirely passive and victims who lack the agency to react to the loss of their land. Addressing this gap in our appreciation of the impact of land grabbing on rural African women is significant to ensure equal access to land and secure tenure rights for women actually work. To this end, there are some in the literature that have, and continue to challenge the depiction of rural African women as entirely passive and victims, lacking agency. This paper builds on those studies to expand the parameter of inquiry by bringing fresh perspectives to the debate from Senjeh District in Liberia. Utilising data collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews in the district over a period of four months, this paper argues that there is a divergence between the well held notions by the literature and experts on the one hand and, women in Senjeh on the other hand. The paper also argues that rural women in Senjeh District exhibited various agency in multiple ways against the loss of their land to Sime Darby.
Stephen L., Mbugua J., Kyalo N. D., Maitho T.
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n4p1

Abstract:
The issue of adolescents’ reproductive ill-health has been widely recognized as a multi-scalar social problem that affects various sectors in the world today. In this regard, this empirical study was conducted to establish the extent to which social support structures, contribute to sustainable implementation of adolescents’ reproductive health programme in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. A descriptive cross-sectional survey and correlational designs, underpinned by the pragmatic paradigm or mixed-method research as the appropriate research technique, was adopted study to investigate its purpose and objectives. Through a multistage sampling technique, a sample size of 189 respondents was generated from a target population of 332 stakeholders, with data obtained through key informant interview schedules, focus group discussions and direct observation, and structured and unstructured questionnaires administered in Ghana. It was found that social support structures and sustainable implementation of adolescent’s reproductive health programme are positively and significantly linked, since the model results shows that r = 0.831. R2 =0.691, F (1.180) = 401.713. p<0.001<0.05. We concluded that for sustainable implementation of adolescent’s reproductive health programmes, social support structures play a significant role in the process. Hence programme implementers and duty bearers of adolescent’s reproductive health interventions should take note of this fact and act accordingly.
David T. Dillon, Joshua A. Crosby, Alyson G. Young
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p184

Abstract:
Poverty alleviation and health promotion programs have become part and parcel of life in rural Zambia. It is critical to track the performance of these programs to assess the impact they have on the people involved. The purpose of this study is to ascertain barriers, specifically related to market access and crop yields, faced by smallholder groundnut farmers in Eastern Zambia following implementation of the PROFIT+ program. Focus group discussion and informants were selected based on participation in the PROFIT+. Interview data were then qualitatively analyzed to determine consistent themes among farmers. Farmers highlight three general barriers/risks that impacted both their economic well-being and health. In some cases, these barriers may act as feedback loops, health affecting economic productivity and vice versa. These include (a) a lack of adequate storage facilities (b) exposure to aflatoxins produced by the Aspergillus fungus (c) and exposure to pesticides due to a lack of personal protective equipment. Generally, groundnut farmers have benefitted from the efforts of PROFIT+, though challenges remain. Farmers consistently report increased their crop yields; however, access to outside markets has yet to materialize. Exposure to both aflatoxins and pesticides are concerning, particularly in areas of high stunting rates as these chemicals may exacerbate the effects of malnutrition. Further, changing weather patterns in the context of climate change increase issues faces by smallholder farmers.
Cristiano Farias Almeida, Francisco Gildemir Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Henrique Cirino Araujo
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p168

Abstract:
There are some knowledge gaps regarding the relationship between transportation infrastructure and economic development, especially about economic impacts that occur due to implementation of infrastructure in a given region, albeit various studies have addressed the issue. This paper aims to identify variables that affect economic development in order to contribute to the development of a theoretical model that could explain the relationship between transportation infrastructure and economic development. The theoretical model is satisfactory because it begins by analyzing the actions generated by the transportation infrastructure. Moreover, the model is based on the Location Theory considering the economic development and taking into account variables such as transportation costs, gain, product value, consumption, competition between companies and lastly monopoly. Finally, an econometric procedure, Spatial Panel Auto Regressive Vector Model (PVAR), was used to evaluate the relationship between economic development and investments in transportation infrastructure.
Evgenia Gordeeva
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p164

Abstract:
I believe that the phenomenon of regionalization that currently gains weight as a characteristic of the international system bears a great potential for increasing the effectiveness of complex international environmental regimes. Constituting a sub-level within the international system, macro-regions create a bridge between the anarchy of the international system and the order of the state, by doing so, allowing for a certain amount of intra-regional cooperation to emerge and facilitating inter-regional coordination. The corresponding fragmentation of complex environmental regimes into sub-regimes consisting of groups of states sharing certain characteristics and interests can be expected to contribute to an increase in their effectiveness.
Cristiano Farias Almeida, Yaeko Yamashita, Mario Cools, Jean Marchal, Bernard Piette
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p147

Abstract:
Several scholars have addressed the locational factors necessary for the best installation of industries or services; among them, one finds the costs with transportation of products and raw materials, labor-related costs, benefits deriving from the agglomeration of companies, as well as place-environment associations. Some agglomeration types stand out in this context, each one of them has its specific features, although they share the same goal. The agglomeration of companies is an increasingly frequent trend observed in production centers. Companies belonging to the same production chain remain close to each other in order to reduce costs with product transportation, storage and distribution processes. Consequently, they get to optimize their processes and increase their profits. The proximity between companies belonging to the same branch increases competitiveness between them. In addition, there is significant presence of skilled labor in these regions, a fact that favors logistics operations such as the transportation of inputs needed to enable companies’ production, and cost reduction. Thus, the aim of the present research is to create a methodology capable of identifying the variables necessary to develop a logistics cluster based on concepts such as productive economic agglomerations, by taking into consideration aspects addressed in a survey conducted with key cluster policy-development actors. Moreover, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) was used to create an ontology to help better understanding the association among all variables necessary to structure logistics clusters.
Makokha Peter Wanyama, Lydia N. Wambugu, Peter Keiyoro
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p136

Abstract:
The main objective of this study was examine contribution of marketing reform interventions on the performance of agricultural programmes funded by the World Bank in Trans-Nzoia County, Kenya. The study arose out of the need to quantify the worth of reform packages currently implemented in the agriculture sector thorough innovative interventions. The sample size of this study was 268 respondents determined using the simplified Yamane formula of proportions. Pragmatism school of thought was the best suited philosophy to guide this study as it complemented the epistemological, methodological and axiological underpinnings desired for mixed-mode research. Results obtained showed β weight of 0.181 (F- value (0.029); ρ-value= 0.05) implying that marketing reforms contributed positively to the performance of agricultural programmes. Further analysis generated R=0.125, R2= 0.016 and adjusted R2 =0.012 indicating a better fit for the model and that marketing reform contributed to the performance of agricultural programmes by 1.6%. The analysis also generated F- value (0.029); (p<0.05) and the F-calculated (4.796) being significantly larger than the critical value (F=2.454) suggesting up to 95% chance the model’s strength in explaining it is statistically significant. These results support outcomes theory by providing documented analysis and empirical evidence to support the formulation of research-based policies and regulations. Findings from the study will therefore contribute immensely to the growth of project management discipline and agricultural marketing practices in Kenya and globally.
Nicholaus Mwageni, Robert Kiunsi
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p121

Abstract:
Green spaces in urban areas including in Dar es Salaam City provide multiple ecological, social and economic benefits. Despite their benefits they are inadequately documented in terms types, coverage and uses. This paper attempts to provide information on types, coverage and uses of green space in Dar es Salaam City. A number of methods including literature review, interpretation of remotely sensed image, interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to document city greenery. The research findings show that residential greenery is made up of greenery found within and external to plots. The dominant green spaces external to residential plots were natural and semi natural vegetation while within plots were woody plants, plots farms vegetable and ornamental gardens. Distribution of greenery varied among the wards due to differences in building density and distance from the city centre. Natural and semi natural vegetation increased with decrease of building density and increase of distance from the city centre, while the number of plots with trees for shade increased with increase of building density. Only Kawe ward that had greenery above Tanzania space planning standards, the other three wards which are informal settlements had green space deficit. Three quarters of the households use green spaces for shade provision and cooling, two thirds as a source of food products and a quarter for recreation and aesthetic purposes. The study reveals that Dar es Salaam City residents invest predominantly on shade trees in their residential plots compared to other green space types.
Alvaro Andrade Dourado, Jose Falcao Sobrinho, Francisca Edineide Lima Barbosa
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p107

Abstract:
Digital technology helps to visualize the natural potentiality of the landscapes that exist on the earthly surface. Indeed, information is more significant with fieldwork. The interpretation of the images through the application of the image segmentation function, available in the SPRING 5.5.5 software, granted the understanding of natural landscapes in the Pacoti River Watershed, precisely in the Baturité Residual Massif. Thus, geoprocessing may act as a mitigating tool in nature conservation since this tool reveals the diversity in nature and its uses.
Badriya S. Nassor, Makame O. Makame
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p95

Abstract:
Floods disasters around the world have increased for the last 20 years and affected billions of people. The same has been observed in Zanzibar, which resulted in severe impacts in many parts of the urban-west region and affected many people, threaten several lives and caused substantial economic losses. Therefore, this study intended to assess the community adaptation strategies to floods, the genesis of those strategies and the limiting factors for each adaptation strategies in flood-prone areas in the Urban District in Zanzibar, Tanzania. It involved 399 households. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire for heads of the households to assess their adaptation strategies. The study discovered that the community has been employing different adaptation strategies to reduce the floods risk at pre, during and after floods. Before flooding is cemented the floor, while during flooding moved to another place and after flooding did the structural repairs of their houses and recommendations to the government on providing necessary support are delineated.
Julius Kibet Cheruiyot, Lillian Otieno Omutoko, Charles Mallans Rambo
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p78

Abstract:
Forests are considered the second most important natural resource after water throughout the world. There is need to undertake review of policies and legislation on forestry to incorporate aspects of Participatory Forest Management to conserve and manage resources in a sustainable way. The paper sought to determine the extent to which Participatory evaluation influences conservation of Mau Forest programme. This study was guided by descriptive survey and correlational research designs. A sample size of 364 respondents was drawn from a target population of 4100 people using Yamane (1967) Formula.From the findings, r = -0.048 indicated that there was a weak negative linear correlation between Participatory evaluation and Conservation of Mau Forest programme. With a p-value=0.43), the null hypothesis was not rejected and recommended that there is need to do a holistic analysis of local people, their livelihood assets and strategies, resource-use patterns and power relations before the implementation of conservation programs.
Takehiro Hatakeyama
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p58

Abstract:
The significance of acknowledging well-being (WB) has increased in local sustainable development (SD) assessment. Meanwhile, scholars and practitioners have paid growing attention to using subjective indicators which rely on a person’s subjective evaluation to measure SD subjects, due to the frequent critique. The predominant use of objective indicators to assess SD frequently overlooks capturing individual’s and community’s WB. Nevertheless, the scopes and functions of subjective indicators remain underexamined in the SD assessment context. Therefore, this study discusses the distinctive characteristics of subjective sustainable development indicators (SDIs), contrasting with objective SDIs, complemented by examining WB indicators. To this end, an analysis of the literature on indicator-based assessment of SD and WB at the community and local level was conducted. The findings highlighted that the three distinctive approaches of SDIs could optimally capture and address associated WB: the objective SDIs could most sufficiently capture and address material WB capture, which turned, however, the shortcoming that overlooks other dimensions of WB. In contrast, the expert-led subjective SDIs could optimally capture and address community’s social WB, whereby the outcomes reflected social norms and preferences recognised by a community and sustainability theories. Likewise, the citizen-based subjective SDIs distinctly measured individual’s life satisfaction levels, whereby the outcomes explicitly presented individual’s subjective WB while addressing local needs and values. This study finally suggests that the complementary use of the respective SDIs contributes to a thorough local-level SD assessment, by optimally addressing associated WB, which ultimately helps meet the current and future generations’ WB in achieving local SD.
Sherry Sun
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p188

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2021
Eugene L Chia, Augustin Corin B Bi Bitchick, Didier Hubert, Mirrande M Azai, Maxime M Nguemadji
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p45

Abstract:
The international community has acknowledged the critical role of results-based avoided deforestation and forest degradation, sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) activities in curbing climate change. However, ensuring that REDD+ programs and projects deliver carbon and non-carbon results, remains a challenge. This paper analyses results-based determinants in REDD+ projects in Cameroon. Experiences from these projects are expected to inform the design and implementation of sustainable and effective REDD+ projects. It draws on data collected from feasibility study reports, project design documents, project evaluation reports and the opinions and perspectives of 86 REDD+ stakeholders. Findings indicate that projects employed a combination of incentives, disincentives and enabling measures towards achieving the intended REDD+ results. However, none of the projects proposed conditional incentives (direct payments) to land owners and users, the key innovation brought by REDD+. Despite the fact that these projects are branded REDD+ projects, they offer little or no experiences on the relationship between REDD+ payments and carbon and non-carbon outcomes. Achieving results from REDD+ projects depend on how effective choices are made by stakeholders in relation to the type of instruments/interventions and the location of projects, and the ability to make choices further depends on the technical capacity of stakeholders. Thus, the capacity of stakeholders to be involve in REDD+ project design and implementation should be strengthened, in order for them to better appraise the results-based requirements of REDD+.
Maria Vivianne F. G. de Miranda, Tiago Da S. Teofilo, Ana Paula P. de Assis, Helia Maria de S. Leite, Andrezza K. B. de Moura, Vitor Lucas de L. Melo, Jose Domingues F. Neto, Patricia De O. Lima
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p179

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of powdered cheese whey and milk powder as a substitute for whole milk on rumen development in calves up to 60 days of age. Twenty-one-week-old Holstein-Gir crossbred calves were randomized across four treatments and six replicates: LI: whole milk (Control); LP: milk powder; LPS1: 80% milk powder + 20% cheese whey powder; LPS2: 60% Milk Powder + 40% Cheese Whey Powder. The animals were slaughtered at 60 days of age. The consumption, weight of stomach and its compartments, ruminal papilla height, and rumen proliferative activity were measured. Dry matter intake, absolute and relative weights of the gastric compartments were similar. Significant differences were found in the development of rumen papillae and the mean height of the ventral sac was higher in the animals that received whole milk. There were no significant differences for cell proliferation rate in rumen papillae. It is suggested that feeding calves whey with powdered milk may be a viable alternative to the use of whole milk without harming dairy calves.
Trishita Mondal, Wade W. Bowers, Hossen Ali
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p23

Abstract:
The Sundarbans is one of the oldest, contiguous, and systematically managed mangroves in the world. This biologically diverse ecosystem provides numerous benefits and services to local communities and the environment, however, it continues to remain under threat from population pressure, overexploitation, natural disasters and lack of practical policy regimes. This study assesses attitudes of local stakeholders towards sustainable management and conservation of mangrove forests as a means to assist planners, policy-makers, and decision-makers. A mixed-method approach was conducted to fulfill the objectives of this study. The study reveals that the people of the Sundarbans Impact Zone are highly dependent on the Sundarbans for their livelihood. Indeed, collecting resources from both aquatic and terrestrial areas is considered a traditional right. As such, people are increasingly becoming more conscious about government policy, and they want the forest to be managed sustainably. Generally, the language of governance is very strong, but many argue that implementation of policy is difficult because of competing policies, weak infrastructure, inefficiencies, illegal approaches, and corruption. Efforts should be made to develop and advance coupled human-environment (socio-ecological) systems that call for more participatory management approaches. Wider participation and ‘empowerment’ of stakeholders would improve the governance of the Sundarbans and ensure common priorities and levels of agreement on both conservation and livelihood issues.
Hind Abdelmoneim Khogali
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n3p1

Abstract:
This research aimed to investigate the present situation regarding residential neighbourhood in hot-dry climates. The area of study comprised four urban classes in Greater Khartoum. The problems of residential buildings were examined, aiming to find a sustainable assessment method for evaluating residential areas and their services The methodology of the research began with a literature review for identifying passive and sustainable solutions suitable to hot-dry climates. This method employed eight main categories: sustainable sites, indoor environmental quality, outdoor thermal control, building forms, materials and resources, water supply, power supply systems, and environmental plan processes and CO2 emisions. In addition, a points scale was used, based on ratings of ‘Excellent’, ‘V. Good’, ‘Good’, and ‘Pass’, with a total of 125 points to determine the evaluation result for a building. The study evaluated an urban sample in the Al Taief neighbourhood. A survey was initiated by identifying the standards for selecting the case study, the survey studied 48 cases in the residential areas, analysed the collected data, and then summarised it into tables and figures. The results presented indicated that 19% were Good, 25% were Pass, and 56% were considered ‘weak’. The conclusions and recommendations regarding urban housing services can be applied to sustainable ecological neighbourhoods.
Amber Roeland, Indra de Soysa
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p163

Abstract:
Many argue that the twin problems of poverty and environmental degradation are best addressed by adopting greater egalitarian processes of governance. Greater egalitarian societies apparently contain the required social trust and consensus for making hard choices and tradeoffs for achieving environmental gains. We employ novel data on egalitarian democracy, which measure the equal access of the poor to political power and societal resources, and data covering weak and strong sustainability measured by the “adjusted net savings” and several indicators of atmospheric pollution. The results suggest that greater egalitarian governance reduces weak sustainability and increases the intensity of climate-harming pollution. Regardless of democracy, other measures of social equity, such as the GINI and equal access to health and political resources, increase, not decrease, atmospheric pollution. These results are robust to estimating procedure, several alternative models, and data. While liberté, egalité and fraternité should be pursued for their own intrinsic value, meeting urgent challenges from global warming may require more targeted solutions.
Jeffray Roy Stepaniuk
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p122

Abstract:
Effective non-traditional approaches to environmental lesson delivery and enrollee evaluation remain ephemeral in northern Manitoba as indicated by negative local attitudes towards imported and metropolitanized instruction (Martin, 2014; Mercredi, 2009). Current pandemic aside, and as increased attrition and abysmal failure rates have not changed in decades, there is relevance in exploring the experiential context and local implications of an inductive student model intended to improve remote environmental understanding and scholastic performance. To help prevent perpetuating a dis-order in which Indigenous expressions are neither recognized nor developed, learning experiences of University College of the North (UCN) students concerning regional freshwater availability and the calculation of stream flow were documented. Using componential analysis and participatory video as a mediating technology, allied empirical test scores and codified normative elements of self and environmental ‘awareness’ in traditional classrooms versus boreal settings were examined. Three exploratory factor axes explained more than 50% of the variance from an integrated but diverse set of 27 chosen variables. Titled axes declining in order of importance were Environmental Engagement, Scholastic Scoring and Non-Conventional Lesson Delivery. Seventy percent of unsolicited adult student responses suggest moralization and unique meta-ethical quale were undeniably and academically important. Empirical-‘ized’ findings advocate UCN must now ask which aspects of curriculum design, lesson delivery and enrollee assessment might result in greater scholastic success when nurturing personalized transformations in the milieu of ongoing threats to both freshwater sustainability and Cree safeguarding paradigms in northern Manitoba.
Ngacha Njeri
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p111

Abstract:
This research study strived to find out the influence of Political Environment on biosocial projects performance in informal settlements in the county of Nairobi. The extent to which political environment influence biosocial project performance. Biosocial projects are projects working with people with disabilities. Two theories, Theory of Constraint and diffusion were used in this field of study to support predictive and outcome variable respectively. Pragmatism paradigm and mixed research were adopted in this study projects. Quantitative data was collected through structured self-administered questionnaires while qualitative data was collected through interview guides. Collection of data was preceded by testing for validity of research instruments through reliability and content related method through test-retest criterion. In Nairobi County, a sample size of 183 individuals from 61 biosocial projects were selected from a target sample of 70 biosocial projects. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from 61 beneficiaries of the biosocial projects and 61 staff members directly working for biosocial projects in the County of Nairobi. In- depth qualitative interviews with 61 state and non-state actors through purposive sampling technique were executed. Arithmetic mean and the standard deviation were the statistical tools of analysis that were used for descriptive data, whereas Stepwise Regression (R2) and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r) were the statistical tools of analysis that were used for inferential statistics whereas F-tests were executed to test hypothesis. To avoid statistical analysis invalidation, statistical assumptions tests were executed before analysis of data. Null hypothesis after analysis of data analysis was rejected at r = 0.313, F = 8.988, p = 0.004<0.01. Conclusively, constitution of Kenya 2010 and the Persons with Disabilities Act, 2003 were some of the key legal legislation that were pointed out to be championing success of biosocial projects performance that champion for the rights of persons with disabilities.
Florian Berding, Andreas Slopinski, Regina Frerichs, Karin Rebmann
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p96

Abstract:
Achieving a sustainable economic system is a key challenge facing society. However, sustainable business to date has been only minimally considered when it comes to the requisites and curricula of business trainees. It generally has been left up to schools and teachers to provide their students with sustainable business skills. This involves creating teaching and training that effectively harmonize with learner requirements. To support teachers in this process, the following develops a sustainability-oriented innovation competence typology using a latent profile analysis based on data gathered from 1,149 business trainees who were in the first, second, or third year of their apprenticeship. This typology can be used to plan and develop classroom teaching. Competency assessment was done using a multiple-choice test along with a questionnaire to determine students’ beliefs about sustainable development. The latent profile analysis revealed six groups of learner competence profiles, each of which require specific teaching when it comes to achieving sustainable innovation skills. Based on these, the following paper develops recommendations for specific teaching methods and lessons that effectively promote business trainee sustainability-oriented innovation competence, while at the same time including their specific requirements into teaching.
Leonardo Herszon Meira, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Magalhaes Amorim, Leise Kelli de Oliveira, Viviane Adriano Falcao, Francisco Gildemir Ferreira da Silva
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p82

Abstract:
This paper aims to propose indicators to measure Brazilian transport systems' impact on meeting the 2030 Agenda and to analyze advances of Brazilian transport systems in terms of sustainable development over the last decade. The proposed indicators were based on a literature review and data availability. Time series data (2010-2019) were obtained to analyze the situation of Brazil. From 27 proposed indicators, only 12 showed some evolution based on the before-after method, relating to improvements in cleaner transport modes, such as railways and waterways, in exclusive lanes for public transport, and in improving active transport infrastructure. This scenario presents Brazil's challenges over the next ten years to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the 2030 Agenda. Results reinforce the importance of the transport sector to contribute to the world's sustainable development. Therefore, this paper contributes to improving the analysis hereafter of this thematic.
Jose Mostacero Leon, Helmut Yabar, Eloy Lopez Medina, William Zelada Estraver, Jordan De La Cruz Castillo, Armando Efrain Gil Rivero
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p66

Abstract:
The high Andean wetlands of Peru provide not only the well-known ecosystem services such as water storage, flood mitigation, erosion control, and purification of water, but are also a source of income for local economies (as fodder), have medicinal properties, are a source of food, contribute to the development of ecotourism among many other uses. Economic and population growth have already damaged many parts of the high Andean wetlands including their rich flora. In order to promote the conservation of its diversity and unique flora, this study conducted extensive botanical explorations to identify and map the floristic composition of the high Andean wetlands of La Libertad, Peru, as well as their influence on local communities. The authors conducted explorations taking taxonomic, biogeographic and ethno biological data of the flora species as well as their therapeutic and economic botany. The study identified 64 species of flora distributed in 46 genera and 27 families including Asteraceae (with 8 species), Juncaceae (with 7 species), Poaceae (with 6 species), Cyperaceae (with 5 species), Licopodiaceae and Rosaceae (with 4 species each), Apiaceae, Gentianaceae, Orobanchaceae and Sphagnaceae (with 3 species each) and Poligonaceae (with 2 species). With reference to economic botany, it was found that 32.8% of species constitute resources with a very good economic benefit. The study concludes that it is imperative to take actions to protect the high Andean wetlands as they are ecosystems with great biodiversity. This study contribution expects to raise concerns regarding the increasing impact of economic and population growth on the loss of not only natural habitats but species as well. Conservation efforts will help protect the heritage of the Andes wetlands for future generations.
Apolonia Diana Sherly da Costa
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p38

Abstract:
This study applies interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), Participatory Geographical Information Systems (pGIS), and a conceptual model of sustainability (CMS) using risk perception of local community to map flood hazard and assess the social and cultural copings to cope with river flooding in downstream areas i.e., Lasaen, Umatoos, and Fafoe villages of West Malaka Subdistrict of Belu Regency, Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the rural-river flooding was inundated at all three villages. The cycle of flood is twenty-years per event (1939, 1959, 1975, 1999 through 2000), and from 2000 its occurrence was each year until 2012. Based on interviews and FGDs, the information of flood characteristics of Lasaen and Fafoe villages were similar, but Umatoos village was not. The single longevity of flood inundation was in Fafoe village (1 week-1 month). Whilst Lasaen and Umatoos villages were experiencing less duration of flood inundations (0-7 days to 14-21 days). Lasaen and Umatoos Villages were dealing with flood depth’s variation from the lowest depth (0-50cm) to its deepest (251-300cm). For CMS, the most invaluable coping that might be sustainable was cultural capital. Both social and cultural coping enhancements were implemented by local community. The minimum and lack of both these transformable sub-copings were still the problem in the discourse unit of sustainability. As each sub-coping would be overlapped if there has no sufficient distribution of it, utilized by the local community. The genuineness local knowledge of community in applying their social and cultural copings in sustainability is seen as a unique reference and a useful form of local wisdom which can be highlighted and adopted as an effective and/or example discourse analysis by the other rural villages in developing nations that are also still struggling and coping with flood disaster.
Yoshinori Morita, Toshikazu Shiratori
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p27

Abstract:
The Montreal Protocol has been ratified to progress phase-out of CFCs and HCFCs globally. HFCs have come into wide use as alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs, but as we know today, it was found that HFCs have a huge negative influence on global warming, and the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol entered into force to promote phase-down of HFCs. Since the enforcement of the Fluorocarbons Recovery and Destruction Law (F-gas law) in 2002, Japan has been undertaking fluorocarbons collection and destruction by environmentally-sound manners. However, no study has been reported investigates on how the Japanese fluorocarbons destruction infrastructure has been developed over the past several years. To analyze the development, we studied key drivers that contributed to encourage fluorocarbons collection from end of life electric appliances and to promote fluorocarbons destruction by environmentally and commercially sustainable technologies. We showed that recycling laws and the F-gas law have made progress in encourage fluorocarbons collection and destruction by making relevant stakeholders take physical and financial responsibilities for proper fluorocarbons disposal. This study also researched fluorocarbons destruction technologies that destruction operators used as of 2004 and 2019, and found that three specific destruction technologies have long been used practically in Japan. Finally, we discussed influencing factors that have made these technologies accepted, installed and practically used by fluorocarbons destruction operators. In conclusion, we identified that existence of political frameworks as well as application of fluorocarbons destruction technologies that are commercially sustainable and socially acceptable were key drivers behind the development of fluorocarbons destruction infrastructure in Japan.
Fanougbo Avoce Viagannou
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p14

Abstract:
The issue of agricultural sustainability remaining a topical concern. While agriculture being an important sector for the development of world economies. It has noted that implementing farming sustainably for a better contribution in the next generation economic development needed. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic sustainability of the rice farms and market gardening benefiting from the FAFA MC project in the Southwest juxtaposed departments in Benin. Specifically, it is first of all a question of assessing, with regard to the two types of farms, which type of farming is the most sustainable. Next, to see whether rice farms are more sustainable than market gardening farms; and finally, to highlight the relationship between economic sustainability and environmental and social sustainability. The data used where obtained from FAFA MC database (2012). Finally, a data of 48 farms were used in the analysis. The analysis techniques have consisted of three steps these are: descriptive analysis, the principal component analysis applied and an ascending hierarchical classification applied. The analysis of data supported by SPSS 2.0, Excel 2013 and SPAD 5.5 software package. To understand the economic sustainability of the farms, the sustainability indicators methodology of IDEA was employed. Overall, it emerges from the analysis of results that the farms considered have limited economic sustainability (a score of 38.25 / 100); group farms prove to be more economically sustainable than individual farms and vegetable farms are more economically sustainable compared to rice farms. So, it seems important to encourage groupings of individual farmers, to clearly define property rights on agricultural land, to sensitize producers to the application of the principles of sustainable development.
Joseph Kwame Sarfo-Adu
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n2p1

Abstract:
The implementation of social protection programmes has seen some significant success in poverty reduction among nations. This notwithstanding, there are some challenges in the designing of these programmes that sometimes defeat their intended purposes. For this reason, there is the need for a further consideration on the design of social protection programmes in reaching the poor. This paper assesses how the design of social protection programmes in Ghana takes into consideration the needs of the poor and other intended beneficiaries. The study adopts the concepts of social protection designs by Norton, et al (2001) and the beneficiary-targeting approaches by Rama and Dean (2016) to compare and assess how Ghana’s programmes are designed. This is purely a qualitative study that interviewed 20 respondents with adequate knowledge on the design of the social protection programmes. The study revealed that generally, in Ghana, the design processes of social protection programmes adopt more institutional-consultation approach than beneficiary/community-level consultation. On the part of selecting beneficiaries for social protection however, programmes like LEAP, School Feeding and the Capitation Grants were community based, that allow representatives of communities to select beneficiaries for the programme. The design of social protection programmes should be responsive to the needs of their intended beneficiaries, there is therefore, the need for broader consultations with the targeted beneficiaries. Consultations should, hence, not just be limited at the institutional levels.
Bongs Lainjo
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p84

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This research paper focuses on strengthening program management protocols, which can help in mitigating nuances along with duplication, and redundancies. In this context, seven components have been considered for facilitating the achievement of sustainable management of a development program. Thus, for conducting this study, a conceptual framework of the “CARROT-BUS” model has been taken into due consideration. CARROT mainly stands for Capacity, Accountability, Resources, Results, Ownership, and Transparency, which emphasizes enabling the environment while BUS is perceived as a bottom-up strategy. Correspondingly, this holistic and causal model can be considered to be conceptually synonymous with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Additionally, each step of the model needs to be well-defined and described. Hence, designing and implementing sustainable development programs can be considered to be complex. Therefore, the systems presented in this abstract are a way of addressing these complexities. Herein, for conducting this study, secondary sources have been taken into high consideration. The use of these sources has significantly assisted in enhancing the existing knowledge on the identified issue in detail. Thus, the study has been able to understand the importance of sustainability in the present scenario, especially in project management. Based on the overall findings, it can be stated that sustainability is one of the key aspects, which are maintained by organizations all around the world for attaining success.
Ronald Adamtey, John Victor Mensah, Gifty Obeng
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p70

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Over the past three decades, various countries and stakeholders have aimed at having cities that can better handle natural and human-made disasters, protect human life, absorb the impact of economic, environmental and social hazards and promote well-being, inclusive and sustainable growth. This paper investigates how informal ties result in in-filling and the creation of slums in the context of efforts to make cities resilient in Ghana using the Accra Metropolis as case study. The United Nations Habitat classification of slums was used to purposively select two slum settlements in Accra for the study. The study used mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data from April 2018 to August 2018. Quantitative data was collected from 400 slum dwellers while qualitative data was collected from eight focus group discussion sessions and in-depth interviews with at least one senior official from related institutions such as Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA), Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD), Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), Ministry of Works and Housing (MWH), Ministry of Inner City and Zongo Development (MICZD), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ghana Police Service, and Ghana National Fire Service. Descriptive techniques were used for the analysis. The findings are that informal ties contribute to in-filling in slums. Slum dwellers do not plan to return home, they are not involved in land use decision making and the slums have opportunities and challenges to the slum dwellers and AMA. The AMA should avoid forced eviction of slums and rather enforce development control bye-laws, implement slum upgrading programs, and involve slum dwellers in upgrading programs. Slum dwellers must cooperate with AMA to make Accra resilient. The mainstreaming of the issue of slums in all urban development agendas needs to be given the needed political and policy attention by central government and all stakeholders.
Hélia Maria de S. Leite, Nayane V. Batista, Allison F. De Lima, Salenilda S. Firmino, Ana Paula P. De Assis, Maria Vivianne F. G. De Miranda, Vitor Lucas de L. Melo, Renata N. De Lima, Patrícia De O. Lima
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p60

Abstract:
The Brazilian sheep farming sector suffers from low productivity, related to the extensive animal production system and low availability of native fodder during most of the year. An alternative to the systems would be the use of a diet without roughage, allowing greater weight gain and better quality carcasses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diets containing different proportions of grains on the quality of carcass and meat of lambs as well as the economic indices of various diets. Three diets containing different proportions of concentrate and roughage (100:0, 80:20, and 60:40) were supplied. The concentrate comprised 85% whole-grain corn and 15% commercial pelletized supplement. Twenty-four male lambs (no racial pattern; average body weight, 20.9 ± 1.0 kg; age, 6 months) were randomly allotted to three collective bays for 52 days. Subsequently, the animals were slaughtered, and further analyses were performed. The diet with 100% concentrate achieved overall higher carcass yield, lower weight loss on cooking, and greater lipid oxidation. However, no diet affected weight gain, slaughter weight, carcass length and thorax depth, pH, temperature, color, water-holding capacity, and meat shear force (P > 0.05). The best economic indices were obtained with the diet containing 100% concentrate. Therefore, based on the results obtained, the use of 100% concentrated diet for lambs is the most suitable practice to improve the sheep production from a productive and economic point of view.
Helen Foley
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p52

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Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is seen as fundamental in the shift to realising sustainability. Unfortunately, the integration of ESD, especially in higher education is poor. An important question therefore is, what are the barriers preventing the integration of ESD? This paper explores key barriers preventing the integration of ESD. Additionally, it is emphasised in this paper that the dominant social paradigm fundamentally shapes and reinforces ESD barriers. It is argued here that addressing ESD barriers, particularly the dominant social paradigm, is fundamental to the integration of ESD. Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, resource overuse, water stress and wealth inequality, addressing ESD barriers is now imperative.
Zechariah Langnel, Pairote Pathranarakul
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p9

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This paper proposes some assumptions on the intricate relationship between governance, globalization, and sustainable development. A literature-based analysis was used. We assume that because environmental problems are complex, multi-faced, and transboundary, the relationship between governance and sustainable development may not always be linear. With respect to political institutions, we propose that a democracy is most likely (than autocracy) to promote sustainable development. The paper further signals that though globalization is likely to exert a negative impact on sustainable development, the relationship may be moderated by the level of economic development as well as the institutional quality. These assumptions will help researchers and practitioners in sustainability studies and other allied fields.
Safaa Alwedyan, Aymen Taani
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p36

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The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices is widely recognized as essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. This study analyzed factors influencing citrus farmers adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) in the Northern Ghor of Jordan valley. The study used a quantitative approach. Simple random sampling was adopted to select 115 farmers in the study area. The study found that the largest proportion 44.4% of the citrus farmers had a fairly high adoption rate of SAPs while 13.0% of ones had high adoption of SAPs. In addition, the study revealed that age was the significant variable that positively influences farmers SAPs adoption, while experience, primary education, and tertiary education have a negative influence on the adoption of SAPs. The study recommends that special attention be given to older farmers to exploit their skills and receptive to implementing SAPs, encourage and guide farmers toward implementing sustainable agriculture techniques and suitable inputs by providing premium and incentive payments to them, and take deterrent penalties against farmers who using inappropriate and harmful applications, or who do not use appropriate applications.
Nur Hikmah Zulhaid, Roslina Kamaruddin, Siti Aznor Ahmad
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p1

Abstract:
This study analyzes the determinants of alternative strategies undertaken by rubber smallholders in the state of Kedah. This study used primary data obtained through a survey of 343 smallholders using structured questionnaires in four districts. The information collected covers the demographic profiles and components of livelihood assets. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Chi-Square descriptive tests while inferential statistics were analyzed using Multinomial logit to identify determinants of strategy selection. The results showed that a majority of 44.9 percent of rubber smallholders opted for rubber and other agricultural activities while only 9.6 percent choose to use a combination of rubber and non-agricultural activities as their alternative strategies. The size of family dependence, duration of experience in agriculture, household income, technology, land size, assistance sources, gender, information sources, involvement in social associations and societies and money savings are all factors that contribute to the selection of smallholder alternative strategies. It is hoped that the government can focus on smallholder awareness measures in an effort to increase their involvement in alternative activities. Agricultural and non-agricultural activities are seen to improve the adaptive capacity of smallholders and thus increase their income.
Noah Kisuule, Nicholas Kiggundu, Noble Banadda
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/jsd.v14n1p26

Abstract:
This paper reviews the current state of bio-processing of market waste to poultry feed in Uganda. A focus was put on crop wastes since previous studies have indicated that, they contribute the biggest percentage (about 90%) of the total organic waste generated in markets. These wastes majorly comprise of fruits and vegetables like mangoes, pineapples, jackfruit, watermelon, cabbage among others. They are usually in form of residual stalks, leaves, peels, and damaged/rotten crops. Crop wastes are rich in various bioactive and nutraceutical compounds, like carotenoids, polyphenols and dietary fiber. The wastes are a major worthwhile raw material and present feasible solutions to the problems of poultry feed scarcity and high costs associated with the conventional feed stuffs. This transformation can be achieved by developing appropriate technologies for valorization of wastes by nutrient enrichment. In concern to this, solid state fermentation (SSF) and rearing insects and earthworm using crop wastes are the promising novel technologies. High value added products/feeds can be produced through microbial fermentation of crop wastes. Insect protein can also be produced to replace the expensive silver fish and soybean protein sources. The review indicated that, the technologies have not been fully cherished within the country’s poultry feed industry. All the attempts and work done are still under research and pilot scale level. However, the on-going endeavors are continued widely to better conversion technologies in order to produce products that are safe for poultry feeding. Lastly, the limitations and strategies for processing poultry feed from market waste are reviewed.
Agung Parameswara, Athina Wulandari
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p139

Abstract:
Globalization with the presence of information technology and development is a challenge for the sustainability of local communities that identic with tradition and culture. The value of local wisdom is an identity that is a strength because there is no in other places. This study wants to prove that local wisdom can provide added value and could even be used as a fundamental factor for sustainable development. The subject of study is the cultural industries. It is said, cultural industries that have cultural values are an important component and it contains the strength of narration of the output. The investigation is carried out by exploring local wisdom-based economic activities, access to labor, and social sustainability to show that the value of local wisdom as an identity can realize a sustainable economy in a rural area. In-depth interviews and observations with an ethnography approach to the case study method conducted in Tigawasa Village, Buleleng. This village is Bali Aga Village, home of Bali Mula or Bali’s original people, the earliest inhabitants of the island, which have local wisdom of bamboo.
Aimi Norhanani Nordin, , Mou Leong Tan, Chin Siong Ho, Hishamuddin Mohd Ali
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p130

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With numerous ecosystem services of urban green spaces (UGS), contributing to sustainability and a better quality of life, UGS provision is perceived as a pivotal role in urban planning. However, concern arises as to what extent local governments have effectively provided good quality and adequate quantity of UGS for the public? Provisioning those UGS aspects has been given a low priority due to insufficient resources and the limited budget allocated by local governments. As such, maintenance and management effectiveness of UGS is detrimentally affected, resulting in disused, overused spaces and thus hot spots for crimes. Therefore, public monetary contribution via taxation is suggested as an alternative to ensuring the continuity and sustainability of UGS services. This review paper is vital to identify and showcase specific factors and mediators, influencing the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents/users for UGS services. Methodologically, after conducting Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for the purpose of article screening and selection based on the two primary databases (Google Scholar and Elsevier), this paper reviewed 18 journal articles, from the year 2013 to 2020. Along with the indirect sub-factors, namely environmental behaviour/attitude and socioeconomic profiles of users, there are three main spatial and non-spatial variables (factors) identified: (i) accessibility/proximity to the nearest UGS; (ii) quantity/adequacy of UGS; and (iii) quality of UGS within a township area, influencing satisfaction and enjoyment as well as reasons and frequency of park visiting of users (mediators), which consequently affect their WTP for UGS.
Johnson Matu, Dorothy Ndunge Kyalo, John Mbugua, Angeline Sabina Mulwa
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p119

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This paper examines the influence of stakeholder participation in project execution on completion of road projects implemented by Kenya Urban Roads Authority. Descriptive research survey design was used for collection of both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis was performed using correlation and regression analysis. The results were r = 0.796, R2 = 0.634, F (4, 209) = 90.503 and p<0.000<0.05. The findings revealed that stakeholder participation in project execution showed a strong, positive and statistically significant relationship with completion of urban road transport infrastructure projects and accounted for 63.4% of total variation in such projects. The study recommends government agencies should endeavour should work together during project implementation to ensure that service lines and acquisition of land is done ahead of time to avoid delay in completion. This will aim at ensuring quality work is achieved by both the client and the consultant through a collaborative stakeholder engagement. In conclusion, the findings of this study will shape the future of road construction and stakeholder engagement in road construction projects.
Njeri Simon Ngacha, Christopher Mwangi Gakuu, Kidombo Harriet Jepchumba
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p99

Abstract:
This scholarly work studied Legal frameworks, political environment and performance of biosocial projects in informal settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya. Purpose of this scholarly work was to ascertain political environment moderate’s relationship between legal frameworks and performance of biosocial projects in informal settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya. The variable indicators were derived from legal frameworks and political environment indicators as independent variables against performance of biosocial projects indicators as dependent variable of this scholarly work. The study was premised on project theory for the two independent variables and for the dependent variable theory of constraint. In this study Pragmatism and mixed research approach were embraced to examine political environment, legal frameworks and performance of biosocial projects while descriptive and correlational research designs were adopted. Self dispensed questionnaires were administered to gather quantitative data while interview guides were used to collect qualitative data after the pilot testing of research instruments to test validity through content related method and reliability through test-retest criterion. A sample size of 183 individuals from 61 biosocial projects were selected from a target sample of 70 biosocial projects in Nairobi County through Gakuu, Kidombo and Keiyoro, 2016 sampling formula (s= (z/e)2). Quantitative data was computed from structured questionnaires administered to 61 staff members working in the selected biosocial projects and 61 beneficiaries from the biosocial projects besides qualitative in- depth interviews with 61 key informants from State and non-state actors through purposive sampling technique. The statistical tools of analysis that were used were arithmetic mean and the standard deviation for descriptive data whereas Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r) in addition to Stepwise Regression (R2) were used as inferential statistics tools of analysis, hypothesis was tested by use of F-tests. To avoid invalidation of statistical analysis, tests of statistical assumptions were carried out before data analysis. From the data analysis the null hypothesis that stated the relationship between legal frameworks and performance of biosocial projects in informal settlements in Nairobi County is not moderated by political environment was accepted with F = 15.207, p =0.000<0.05, r = 0.382, Adjusted R2 = 0.136 in step one against step two where F = 6.263, p =0.000<0.05, r = 0.390, Adjusted R2 = 0.128 and concluded that Adjusted R2 decreased from 0.136 to 0.128 and F statistics reduced from 15.207 to 6.263 the effect of relationship of legal frameworks on performance of biosocial projects.
, Charles Mallans Rambo, Charles Misiko Wafula
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p86

Abstract:
Construction of roads in Kenya, particularly done by local contractors, has adversely been faced with serious issues to do with cost overruns, longer periods in completion and above all poor quality upon completion. However, performance of roads in the post-delivery or post construction stage has not keenly been assessed or studied despite poor workmanship. Although financial aspect has been associated with completion road construction projects, studies have not used this predictor variable to study performance. The aim of the study was to establish the influence of financial ability of contractors and performance of road construction infrastructural projects in Nairobi County, Kenya. Both descriptive survey research and correlation research designs were adopted in this study. A target population of 460 comprising all public service vehicle drivers plying Eastern Bypass, and Outer-ring roads in Nairobi, as well as the contractors and engineers from the construction firms in Nairobi County. A sample of 210 was drawn from both categories of respondents and served with interview schedules out of which 153 were returned representing 72.8%. Results from the simple linear regression model revealed that contractors’ financial ability, explains 44.7% total variation in the performance of road construction infrastructural projects. This relationship was established to be lineally positive and strong (r=0.669) and also significant (P=0.000<0.05). The study findings play a vital role in construction project management during evaluation process of selecting effective contractors for better road performance.
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p73

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The biogas from waste has emerged as a realistic and reliable renewable energy proposition and can deliver social-economic benefits when integrated with local communities. In the last decade, the biogas sector in European countries has seen unprecedented growth due to favorable policy supports and perceived social-economic benefits. Among different biogas producing schemes, waste to biogas using anaerobic digestion is considered most environment friendly due to minimum carbon leakage and positive waste resource recycling impact. Many countries, including the UK, envision creating a circular economy utilizing Biogas from Waste (BfW) recycling potential. This paper aims to analyze the state of the UK’s BfW scheme through the lens of circular economy and discern areas that need attention to usher BfW potential in supporting a circular economy. The paper also discussed key challenges and barriers to create a local circular economy using the BfW scheme. Based on the analysis, it is observed that the BfW scheme in the UK is currently impeded due to lack cross-sectoral policy coherence, and far from contributing to a circular economy. Additionally, the UK's waste to energy concept is concentrated around incinerator-based systems without much attention on improving resource efficiency and waste recycling. This paper makes three recommendations to improve prospects of the BfW scheme in the UK (1) decentralized approach in the BfW scheme development, (2) considering bio-waste and digestate as value streams, and (3) creating a policy cohesiveness across multiple departments.
Jonathan Simbeya Mwamba
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p55

Abstract:
Presently, informal settlements exist as part of the urban fabric and a major constituent of the residential geographies of most Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The growth of informal settlements in cities of the global south has been widely discussed in existing literature as a critical concern. Urban development literature in Zambia in particular has focused on the rapid urbanization and poverty growth, but barely explains how this affects settlement sustainability. Studies have focused on measures put in place by government and supporting organisations to help find solutions to the problem. But this has been done without providing specifics as relates to interventions for settlement sustainability and user perceptions of their living environments. The article provides a conceptual analysis of the local dynamics influencing informal settlement development and sustainability. The historical perspective and modern day realities of informal urban settlement settings in Lusaka in Zambia are also reviewed. The case study findings indicate a need to refocus development interventions in informal settlements by considering informal dwellers concerns and requirements when formulating settlements development strategies. The article offers an insight into sustainability challenges that the settlement population faces despite a variety of development interventions by the State and private agencies. The article shows the potential success and sustainability of interventions when informal settlement residents are empowered and take responsibility of their own development agenda. The paper points out the need for collaborative approach to informal settlement improvement where all stakeholders including the local residents, participate in all stages of settlement development.
, Babette Never, Sascha Kuhn, Felix A. Asante
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p11

Abstract:
High and sustained economic growth rates of the Ghanaian economy in the past two to three decades have been accompanied by a growing urban middle class. With a rapidly growing middle class, overall consumption is not only increasing but changing too. This paper analyses the asset ownership patterns among the Ghanaian middle class, and examines the effect of household wealth, environmental concern and environmental knowledge on carbon dioxide emissions emanating from energy use and transport based on urban household survey data collected in Accra, the capital city, in 2018. We find that middle class households consume a variety of energy intensive consumer goods, and the intensity of consumption increases with household wealth. Regression results reveal statistically significant relationship between household wealth and carbon emissions from energy and transport use. We also find that environmental knowledge has a statistically negative effect on carbon emissions from transport. The policy implications are discussed.
, Felix Satognon
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p1

Abstract:
The social component of the environment associated mostly with human activities has significantly imposed a threat to the only life-support systems of the earth. Uganda made adjustments in its planning process to prioritize environment conservation. However, in the recent past years, mostly between 2013 and 2017, the country stretched its resources to increase agricultural production, both livestock and crops. The objective of this study was to establish and document the development and the environment conservation strategies at global and regional levels with an overview on the development planning process in agricultural sector, in Uganda. The results showed that the sustainable development plans with participatory approach at international, regional, national and local or community levels are the best methods to cope with and reduce the negative impacts of man’s activities on the environment. The understanding of the complexes of the environment is very important to ensure the relationship between the social, economic and environmental protection for a sustainable development. The results also indicated that in Uganda, the agriculture industry made consistent efforts to increase agricultural production by 431,161 hectares and livestock heads by 7,878,000 (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry) between 2013 and 2017. This increased agricultural greenhouse gas emission due to the use of synthetic fertilizers, burning of the cleared grasses, and use of manures applied to boost soil fertility and the reduction in the trees that sequester CO2. This study recommended that the agricultural sector should opt for sustainable agriculture by adopting practices like use of multipurpose crops that can offer environmental services like binding soil particles together to control erosion as well as yielding more food products. Dual-purpose livestock breeds should be adopted to avoid immense numbers that serve different purposes that will probably lead to increased GHG emissions.
Raffaella Leoci,
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p43

Abstract:
Until the first decade of 2000, isoproturon (IPU), a controversial and potentially hazardous chemical substance for animals, was one of the herbicides most commonly used in agriculture around the world. The current scarcity of scientific studies about its toxicity is evident, especially as regards the possible dangerous consequences on higher mammals and humans and the long-term effects on environment, other animals and plant organisms. Contrary to what happened for other categories of herbicides (in particular, clomazone and glyphosate), in some States the precautionary principle prevailed, prohibiting its use. However, this prohibition does not seem sufficient because IPU is still used in many countries and it also reaches other nations where it is banned in the form of contaminated agro-food products. This is one of the lesser-known consequences of the global markets.
Julie Snorek, Thomas Kraft, Vignesh Chockalingam, Alyssa Gao, Meghna Ray
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n6p26

Abstract:
Strong social connections between communities and institutions are essential to effective community-based natural resource management. Connectivity and willingness to engage with actors across scales are related to one’s perceptions of institutions managing natural resources. To better understand how individuals’ perceptions are related to connections between communities and institutions, and how these promote or inhibit interaction across scales, we carried out a mixed methods case study on the multiple actors living and working in the Namib Naukluft National Park in Namibia. We took a descriptive approach to the social network analysis and identified distinct subgroups as well as boundary actors for the community-institutional network. Thereafter, we regressed interview data on connections, perceptions, and willingness to reach out to institutions to understand more about network dynamics. Finally, we performed a qualitative analysis of interview data, to further highlight why community individuals were connected to institutional members. Positive perceptions are associated with greater connectivity for two out of three institutions. Better quality connections between community members and institutions was equated with a greater willingness (of community members) to reach out to an institutional member in only one out of three cases. As in other studies, willingness to reach out may be more strongly correlated to intergroup actor dynamics, as shown by subgrouping in the social network analysis, than one’s perceptions alone. This research highlights that direct interactions between community members and local institutions has the potential to support collaboration in the context of community-based natural resource management.
Ellen Forkuo Duah, Albert Ahenkan, Daniel Larbi
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n5p79

Abstract:
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which were adopted in September 2015 represent a challenging worldwide action plan that aims to end poverty, achieve gender equality, in diverse dimensions, promote decent work among others. Global realization of the SDGs by 2030 is highly dependent on the localization and effective implementation of the goals, yet little is known about diverse perspective of SDG localization and challenges involved. It is in response to this that the study examines the magnitude to which SDGs have been integrated into local development planning using Adentan municipal as a case study. A qualitative method with an in-depth interview of 20 key informants was adopted. The study developed a conceptual framework which was used to examine Adentan municipal Assembly on SDG mainstreaming. The study also did a critical analysis of the medium-term development plan of the municipal assembly to identify how the Assembly has effectively mainstreamed the SDGs at the local level. The findings from the study revealed that the authorities are aware of the SDGs. Majority of the targets in SDGs (1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11,13,14,16 and 17) have been integrated into the local development plan of the Assembly. However, SDG 7 and 15 were of no interest to the municipal. The findings further indicated that financing, low awareness of the relevance of the SDGs among the citizens in the municipality and bureaucracy are the major challenges of SDG mainstreaming at the local level. The study proposed a framework which extends the theory of change on effective SDG mainstreaming and can be added to other existing framework on SDG mainstreaming at the local level to address the challenges and needs of SDG mainstreaming for development initiative and may inform future research in mainstreaming and planning.
Vinnet Ndlovu, Peter Newman, Mthokozisi Sidambe
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n5p104

Abstract:
Cities are engines of socio-economic development. This article examines and provides insight into the extent of localisation of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) using the City of Bulawayo (CoB), in Zimbabwe, as the case study. The key question posited is ‘Does Bulawayo demonstrate potential for sustainable development?’. Bulawayo is a strange case study as in the period of the Millennium Development Goals Zimbabwe had a massive increase in death rates from 2000 to 2010 due to the HIV pandemic, political chaos and economic disintegration of that period. Coming out of that period there was little to help cities like Bulawayo grasp the opportunity for an SDG-based development focus. However, after the paper creates a multi-criteria framework from a Systematic Literature Review on the localisation of the SDG agenda, the application to Bulawayo now generates hope. The city is emerging from the collapse of the city’s public transport and water distribution systems, once the envy of and benchmark for many local authorities in the country, and has detailed SDG plans for the future. Bulawayo now serves as a planning model for localisation of sustainable development goals.
Sherry Sun
Journal of Sustainable Development, Volume 13; doi:10.5539/jsd.v13n5p119

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2020
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