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Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 140-146; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.8

Abstract:
This study examines why risk management is required in the energy industry. The variability of competitive laws in the world of business and energy has been highlighted as a major policy strategy in many countries. The rapid growth of technology, increasing riskability, risk in global markets and increasing changes in customer needs have been put new product development teams under increasing pressure. In order to be successful in identifying opportunities and threats in the energy industry, the risks involved in this process must be identified and addressed. Organizational risk management allows the company to anticipate changes and uncertainties in addition to moving in the right direction and achieving the intended vision. The most effective way to increase the effectiveness of risk management in the organization is to develop it as a process in the set of support processes in the organization and determine the process owner for it that they are responsible for managing and facilitating risk in the organization and guiding business managers in this field. Forming risk management committees in the organization with the participation of managers and reporting to senior management about the risks ahead are other methods of process management in which the success rate has been highly evaluated.
, Angel Vaillant
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 105-120; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.4

Abstract:
Background: Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative bacterium from family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is a human pathogen that is involved in nosocomial infection outbreaks that have proven difficult to manage. PCR-based techniques are suitable given the genus. Serratia has a higher GC content than many other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The ERIC PCR-based fingerprinting method was used to study the PCR patterns of clinical Serratia marcescens isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Methods: Surveillance was conducted for nosocomial cases of interest and the nosocomial pathogens were retrieved for identification via morphological and additional biochemical tests. Additionally, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and ERIC Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based fingerprinting molecular method was done on the clinical S. marcescens isolates. Results: From the study, five different strains of the clinical Serratia marcescens isolates were recovered and similarly five distinct susceptibility patterns were observed from the clinical S. marcescens isolates indicating consistency in the number of strains present in the clinical S. marcescens isolates. Conclusions: ERIC PCR fingerprinting base technique; a simple, rapid and cheap method for the determination of genetic relatedness between Serratia marcescens isolates can be applied for the thorough evaluation of nosocomial outbreaks to detect the source of infection and control the spreading of the infection.
Tanmayee Panigrahi, A.U. Santhoskumar
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 135-139; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.7

Abstract:
Heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd) , Copper (Cu), Zinc(Zn), Arsenic(As),Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Magnesium (Mg) and Sulphur (S) are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. The colossal increase in the use of heavy metals over past few decades is a no doubt a necessary consequence of increased flux of metals in aquatic environment. Removal of these metallic substances has become inevitable to maintain a balance in ecosystem. Many methods are being implemented to remove Heavy metals, among these use of activated carbon have become a very competent process. But heavy cost of the activated carbon has made Heavy metal removal as a great concern. Many researchers have been conducted to remove heavy metals using different materials. Various adsorbents have been used to remove different type of heavy metal ions from wastewater especially those are harmful to mankind. This project work has compared about the efficiency of removing heavy metals by using activated carbon from Prosopis Juliflora bark. Prosopis Juliflora tree is widely known for its extra ordinary character for absorbing water. Activated carbon was prepared from the barks of Prosopis Juliflora by thermal and chemical process. The Textile effluent was collected from Erode area where large stretch of textile industries is situated to conduct the specific experiments. Batch experiments were conducted to analyze Heavy metal elements from the effluent. The results show that this low cost and eco-friendly adsorbents can effectively used for the removal of heavy metals.
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 130-134; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.6

Abstract:
This study has examined risk management planning in the field of Information Technology in industrial companies. Today, information is considered a valuable factor along with other factors of production. With rapid technological change, globalization and the expansion of efficient domain are among the requirements for achieving competitive advantage. Information technology in the fields of hardware, software, volume and data type and telecommunication networks is rapidly evolving and changing. Most managers of organizations have become aware of the importance of using this technology in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations and greater customer satisfaction. In addition to failing to meet the projected benefits, it is likely that the failure of this IT will not be limited to the financial and economic disadvantages of managing the subtleties of project execution and may continue to IT as long as an organization fails. Regarding the process of risk management or information security risks, there are methods and methodologies which define steps to evaluation process and risk treatment according to the considered approach. But in most of these methods, some basic principles and concepts are considered the same.
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 169-179; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.10

Abstract:
In this study Analysis and simulating recuperator impact on the thermodynamic performance of the combined water-ammonia cycle Will be investigated. Due to the importance of power generation cycles including double cycles, many studies have been conducted in recent years in this field and many researchers have tried to optimize these cycles using existing methods. In this study, the water-ammonia cycle has been studied. The aim of this paper is to examine the recuperator on the thermodynamic performance of the combined water-ammonia cycle. First, the water-ammonia power generation cycle has been modeled in the current study then, in order to study and compare, the combined Gas-Rankine cycle has been simulated thermodynamically and have been studied from the perspective of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Finally, the effect of the recuperator on thermodynamic performance has been investigated.
Abida, Tauquir Alam, Mohammad Asif
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 93-104; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.2

Abstract:
Hydantoin derivatives are commonly used anticonvulsant drugs. It is generally effective against partial and tonic-clonic seizures but not in absent seizures. Phenytoin is the main drug of this group and other drugs ethotoin, mephenytoin also commonly used in the therapy of epilepsies. However, they have some adverse effects and long period of therapy to seizure control. To sort out these problems, various new hydantoin derivatives as well as prodrugs like fosphenytoin were prepared. Phenytoin is effective in some cases of trigeminal and related neuralgias. Phenytoin is also used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.
Tauqir Alam, Abida, Mohammad Asif
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 81-92; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.1

Abstract:
Most currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have restrictions for therapeutic use since they cause gastrointestinal and renal side effects that are undividable from their pharmacological activities. In this review various piperazinyl containing pyridazine derivatives have been studied for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and their side effects. Therefore, the synthesis of new compounds devoid of such side effects has become an important goal for medicinal chemists.
Omar El-Shahaby, Fikry Reicha, Maged Mohamed Nabil Aboushadi,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 105-113; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.3

Abstract:
Crataegus sinaica Boiss is a hawthorn plant that was found as a hybrid of two species, C. azarolus and C. monogyna, which grows vastly in the mountains of the Protectorate of St. Catherine, South Sinai, Egypt. The fruits of the plant are rich in primary and secondary metabolites, for instance reducing, total sugars, flavonoids, and phenols as demonstrated by the phytochemical analysis. The aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant was used to prepare the silver nanoparticles by green method, in which the reducing and total sugars facilitate the preparation step as they act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The nanoparticles of the plant were efficiently synthesized through mixing Crataegus sinaica fruits aqueous extract with silver nitrate solution at room temperature following the predetermined procedures for nanoparticle preparation. The prepared nanoparticles were identified by means of spectroscopic and analytical measurements i.e. UV-vis, IR, TEM, and zeta sizer-zeta analyzer. The extract of the fruits of the plant and its silver nanoparticles were assessed as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, in which the nanoparticle solution displayed the more potent activities against the diverse microbial species and potent antioxidant agent than the aqueous extract.
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 147-168; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.9

Abstract:
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions, and redox reactions. In organic synthesis, organic reactions are used in the construction of new organic molecules. The production of many man-made chemicals such as the production of pharmaceuticals drugs, plastics, food additives, fabrics depends on organic reactions. Factors governing organic reactions are essentially the same as that of any chemical reaction. Factors specific to organic reactions are those that determine the stability of reactants and products such as conjugation, hyperconjugation, and aromaticity and the presence and stability of reactive intermediates such as free radicals, carbocations, and carbanions. An organic compound may consist of many isomers. Selectivity in terms of regioselectivity, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity is, therefore, an important criterion for many organic reactions. There is no limit to the number of possible organic reactions and mechanisms. However, certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful reactions. Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens, although this detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone. Organic reactions can be organized into several basic types. Some reactions fit into more than one category. For example, some substitution reactions follow an addition-elimination pathway. This overview isn't intended to include every single organic reaction. Rather, it is intended to cover the basic reactions.
, MarkJobe Alberca Cayabo
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 120-129; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.2.5

Abstract:
The study is to determined the beliefs and practices on sexuality and reproductive health among Bachelor in Elementary Education (BEEd) and Bachelor in Secondary Education (BSEd). There were 304 respondents comprised of 191 females and 113 male, ages raging from 18-29 year old. In this study research design utilized the descriptive and inferential design in order to assess sexuality and reproductive health. A survey with the use of a structured questionnaire for data collection that was modified from the Illustrative questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People by John Cleland. Questionnaire covered BSEd and BEEd students of the College of Education, who has reached puberty but has not yet been married. Scores was carefully recorded and ensure the data collected were accurate. Data was used in the analysis and interpretation of data on age, sex, and socio-economic status of the subjects and respondents. Student-respondents were conscious over the issue of gender and sexuality but they have misconceptions that leads in answering undecided in the instrument. The extent of student-respondents practice of natural contraception was “slightly practiced” where withdrawal was highest. The extent of student-respondents practice of artificial contraception was “never practiced”. Student-respondents were aware of the presence of Reproductive Health (RH) Law in the country but they have misconceptions over the Law like on abortion and policy concerning women. There was no significant difference on their knowledge of gender and sexuality, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health Law, natural contraception across all year level concerned and practice of artificial contraception.
, Soroush Zarinabadi, , Ahmadreza Amosoltani, Mohammad Sadegh Tarkesh Esfahani, Kasra Kavousi, Gasoline Production Plant Isfahan Oil Refinery Company
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.6

Abstract:
The presence of H2S and CO2 is unfavorable in many processes and flows, particularly in natural gas flows. Therefore, removing this gas is one of the important issues in many systems. One of the most widely used techniques is the use of membrane. Therefore, the gas that passes through the membrane has low pressure. Membrane system is used to absorb a high volume of CO2. The factors needed for this kind of separation include gas composition, pressure, and temperature difference. An enhanced electrochemical membrane can also be used with coal gas to separate acid gases. Hydrogen is so rich in this process in which cathode and sulphur steam are produced and then exited. Granular activated carbon (GAC) can be used as supporting material to absorb H2S. The advantages of this method are including high capacity for H2S absorption and gas emission. Removing the H2S from waste gases or natural gas with high densities is done via bio-filter in this system. Granular activated carbon can be used as a supporting material to stabilize the microorganisms. Principal properties of the supporting material are including the mass density, the area of special surface, and the amount of its pH. This research discusses the membrane technology in removing the acid gases in the oil technology. © 2020 by SPC (Sami Publishing Company), Reproduction is permitted for noncommercial purposes.
Larisa Birichevskaya, Margarita Vinter, Natalia Litvinko, Anatoli Zinchenko
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 64-73; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.8

Abstract:
A series of conjugates of pharmacologically promising modified nucleosides with phospholipid was synthesized. Some liponucleotides were originally produced. Soybean lecithin served as the donor of phosphatidyl residue. Phospholipase D from strain Streptomyces netropsis BIM B-428D was engaged as biocatalyst in transphosphatidylation reaction. The yield of liponucleotide synthesis reaction varied in the range 44–95 mol% depending on the acceptor of phosphatidyl residue. 65 mg (about 68 µmoles) of pure phosphatidylclofarabine was recovered by chromatography on silica gel column, resulting in 68 mol% yield calculated from the amount of modified nucleoside supplied into the reaction mixture.
Akunna Stella-Marris Ogbuagu,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.5

Abstract:
The physicochemical characterization of n-hexane extracted oil of avocado (Persea americana) seed was carried out according to American Organization of Analytical Chemists (AOAC)/IUPAC standard methods. The result of the analysis showed that the oil sample contains an acid value of 1.542 mg/g, iodine value 127.40 g/100g, saponification value 196.35 mg/g and peroxide value 4.80mg/g, as well as specific gravity (0.8627), flashpoint (288oC) and relative viscosity (24.69 Cst.). This indicates that the oil can be used industrially for various purposes, including food processing, cosmetics etc
Haniyeh Shamsin Beyranvand, , Hamid Sarlak
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 55-63; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.7

Abstract:
Fossil fuels are the main source of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, which are sources of air pollutants. Environmental research has confirmed that atmospheric CO2 concentration has risen from 280 ppm in 1800 to 358 ppm in 1994 (an increase of 27.86%). Russia, the United States, China, the rest of the Asian countries, Latin American countries, and African countries accounted for 27, 22, 11, 13, 4, and 3% of the total global CO2 production, respectively. Various processes based on hydrogen sulfide and other acidic gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide have been introduced for natural gas sweetening. One of these processes involves the use of solvents. In the present research, a device that measures solubility of gases in liquids was employed to measure solubility of CO2 in solvent DEEA in the presence of TiO2 at different solvent concentrations (10, 15, 20% w/w), various pressures (5, 10, and 15bar) and different TiO2 concentrations (0.05 and 0.1% w/w) at ambient temperature. Results showed that solubility increased from 25.8 to 42.4% v/v at constant pressure and without the presence of a nanoparticle in the absence of TiO2 at solvent concentrations ranging from 10 to 15% w/w. At a constant concentration of the solvent (15% w/w), solubility increased from 31.8 to 36.7% when the pressure was raised from 10 to 15 bar. Moreover, solubility increased from 32.7 to 36.7% v/v at constant solvent concentration (15% w/w) and pressure (15bar) when TiO2 concentration was raised.
, D. O. Abakpa, T.T. Ligom
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 74-80; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.9

Abstract:
The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason a lot attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we buttressed the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; “local” (sample A), “julie” (sample B) and “john” (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 OC for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin and terpernoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agent. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agent in say food, cosmetics and allied industries.
, Godwin Ijuo, Blessing Ogoh-Orch
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.3

Abstract:
This study was carried out in order to obtain useful gases from waste polyethylene of high density polyethylene (HDPE) at low temperature pyrolysis. This was carried out by adapting a cylindrical pressure cooking pot of height 30.00 cm with an internal diameter 31.50 cm. The pyrolysis reaction was carried out with the influence of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst. The gases evolved during the pyrolysis reaction were collected using Tedlar bags and analysed using a BUCK 530 Gas Chromatograph. The pyrolysis reaction with fresh FCC catalyst at 150 °C and 250 °C using catalyst/sample ratio of 1:8 showed aliphatic hydrocarbons in the range of C1-C9 with total concentrations of 84.3969 and 526.4070 ppm respectively. The corresponding values obtained at 150 °C and 250 °C for HDPE using catalyst/sample ratio of 1:16 were obtained as 495.4315 and 385.5101 ppm respectively. The reaction with spent FCC catalyst at 150 °C and 250 °C using catalyst/sample ratio of 1:8 gave the total concentrations of 112.7276 ppm and 87.3531 ppm respectively. The corresponding values obtained at 150 °C and 250 °C using catalyst/sample ratio of 1:16 were 116.9178 and 109.4314 ppm respectively. Production of useful gases from waste polyethylene gave reasonable amounts of gaseous products which can serve as feed stock and as fuel gas.
, Aya Elmajbry, Zainab Al Borki, Aziza Ahmida, Abdalla Geath
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.1

Abstract:
Potentiometric titrations have been used to calculate the dissociation constants of Hippuric acid and its stability constants with Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) ions in ethanol-water mixed solvent system at different temperatures, and constant ionic strength of 0.1M solution sodium nitrate. The order of the stability constants of metal complexes at 298 K with respect to ligand was found to be Cu(II) > Pb(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Effect of temperature on stability of hippuric acid complexes with Cu(II) and Pb(II) has been studied in order to calculate the Gibb`s free energy and enthalpy of the complex formation reaction, the results showed that coordination process is spontanous and exothermic. Effect of solvent ratio has been studied only for Cu(II) complex and the dissociation of hippuric acid at given added different ratios decreases on the following order 75% > 50%.
, , Abolfazl Mohammadi, Bizhan Honarvar, Alireza Azimi
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.4

Abstract:
Natural gas and crude oil in natural underground reservoirs are in contact with water. Stability of these compounds at the presence of both components and complete dependence on the host molecules by forming holes in their guest molecules are replaced. There are many gases such as methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphides that can play the role of guest molecules. The natural gas hydrate formation in different sectors of the oil and gas industry in downstream processes causes the production to stop or decrease. Therefore, the need to know the causes and conditions of hydrate formation is strongly felt. In this study, Van der Waals and Platteeuw model was used to predict hydrate formation conditions. The prediction of hydrate formation conditions needs equilibrium fugacity of gaseous components, and for the equilibrium molar component of water.
, Kasra Kavousi, Soroush Zarinabadi,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 3, pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2020.1.2

Abstract:
Increasing the capacity of Gasoline Production Plant (G.P.P) will cause problems such as the increase of pressure downfall, reduction of output pressure of circulating gas compressor, increasing the thermal load of the re-boiler furnaces of unit towers, increase of the eventuality of formation green oil in vessels, increase of the eventuality of coke formation on the catalyst and eventually reducing the catalyst life span. In this research, operating conditions have been investigated that indicates the increase of the petrochemical feed with the design capacity of 71,000 barrels per day, to the 75,000 barrels per day. The results indicate that with increasing feed, the entrance temperature and pressure to the unit reactor should be increased. According to the obtained results the best temperature (in Feed) is 525 °C, output pressure of circulating gas compressor is more than 22 ton/hr and the circulation of catalysis range is 750-950 kg/hr, the Octane Number will be a Constant Rate 95 and the amount of Coke Formation in all Conditions 3.5-4.3%. The outcomes also show how this approach can be used to gain insight into some refineries and how to deliver results in a comprehensible and user-friendly way.
Omar El-Shahaby, , Reham Rabei, Heshmat Soliman Aldesuquy
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 22-227; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.7

Abstract:
The species belonging to the genus Pulicaria are well known for their traditional uses in folklore medicine, active chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the active constituents, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potential of Pulicaria incisa (lam.) DC extracts. Ethyl acetate and diethyl ether extracts of the dried aerial parts of P. incisa were prepared. The active secondary constituents (alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins) were quantitatively determined. The active constituents in the ethyl acetate extract were higher than those of diethyl ether extract. The ethyl acetate extract expressed higher antioxidant activity in terms of diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging assay in comparison with ascorbic acid as a reference standard. The antimicrobial activity analysis revealed that the ethyl acetate extract expressed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Erwinia carotovora and Candida albicans while that of diethyl ether expressed activity against Bacillus subtillis, Erwinia carotovora and Candida albicans. In conclusion the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of the studied extracts of P. incisa may be attributed to its richness with the medicinally active metabolites. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Vaghela Foram, Kariya Pooja, Vijay R. Ram, Pragnesh N Dave
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 228-234; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.8

Abstract:
There is an intriguing system for sex determination in Carica Papaya. To explain the genetics of the Papaya’s sex determination there were many hypotheses based on information and knowledge from time to time. Such information and knowledge were about a generic balance of sex autosomes and chromosomes, Classical XY Chromosomes. Nowadays determination of molecular level through genomic technology is possible. Predicted hypotheses can be proving by high density linkage mapping. It shows that with small specific region (MSY) of Y chromosome sex determination can be controlled by a pair of primitive sex chromosomes. It proves that two sex determination genes can control the whole pathway of sex determination. Feminizing or stamen suppressor gene, cause absorption before a flower inception with other while masculinising or carpel suppressor genes cause carpel absorption at the development stage of the flower. To reveal the structural details of sex determination region and sequencing of candidate sex determination genes physical mapping is essential. This process can be observed while papaya production. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Omar A. El-Shahaby, , Gamal Abd El-Fattah, Mohamed M. El-Hefny
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 211-221; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.6

Abstract:
The essential oils and fatty constituents of Capparis spinosa as an important medicinal plant were extracted in petroleum ether and tested as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The components of the petroleum ether extract were identified by spectroscopic analysis using GC/MS. The spectral analysis showed that this extract contains mainly tetracosane (14.368%), methyl-cyclopentane (11.979%), heptadecane (11.794%), heptacosane (10.098%), eicosane (3.481%), vitamin E (4.280%), α-Cadinol (3.079%), Spathulenol (0.868%), α-Curcumene (1.188%), Muurolol (0.917%), phytol (1.727%), trans geranyl geraniol (0.862%), Palmitic acid (1.132%) and stigmasterol (2.172%). The functional chemical groups were estimated using Fourier transform infrared” FTIR” spectroscopy. The main phytochemical constituents present in this extract were quantitatively estimated. The antioxidant scavenging activity of petroleum ether extract was also examined using DPPH·, FIC, ABTS+· and FRAP assays. The petroleum ether extract of C. spinosa expressed a good antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa extract was evaluated against several pathogenic bacterial strains such as Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneunomonia, Erwinia carotovora and Escherichia coli in addition to Candida albicans as pathogenic fungal strain. The extract exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum against the tested microorganisms. MIC and MBC of the extract were determined. The results showed inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms while showed cidal activity against only B. subtilis, K. pneunomonia and C. albicans. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Alagbe John, R.A Oluwafemi
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 170-177; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.2

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of growing rabbits fed diet supplemented with Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal (IZM). A total number of Fifty (50) growing rabbits of between seven and eight weeks of age were randomly assigned to five treatment groups in a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated five times with two rabbits per replicate. Five experimental diets were formulated such that T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was supplemented with IZM at 0g, 2.5g, 5.0g, 7.5g and 10g respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The hematological parameters determined included pack cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials while those of serum biochemical indices are: total protein, globulin, albumin, cholesterol, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Results on hematology revealed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the values of PCV, RBC, MCV, WBC and its differentials. Hb, MCH and MCHC values were significantly (P0.05) differences among the treatments. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of IZM up to 10g/kg had no deleterious effect on the hematology and serum biochemical parameters of rabbits. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Mohammad Asif,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 192-210; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.5

Abstract:
Cinnamic acid analogues are naturally occurring compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and flowers. It is used as dietary phenolic compounds and play vital role in the preparation of essential intermediate compounds which are crucial for the making of various pharmaceutical components. Cinnamic acid and its analogues are studied for its various types of biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antidepressants, insect repellents, antidiabetic and anticholesterolemic etc. Various substitutions on cinnamic acid moiety lead to different types of pharmacological activities such as m-hydroxy or p-methoxy group on cinnamic acid is significantly vital functional groups as an efficient insulin releasing compound while 3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid or caffeic acid showed hepatoprotective activity. Cinnamic acid analogues are showed variety of biological activities along with their milder to moderate adverse effects which are become obstacle for the clinical use of cinnamic acid analogues. So for the suitable use of cinnamic acid analogues, it is yet to investigate to decrease or terminate its adverse effects. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Mohammadreza Davarpanah, Hossein Abbasi, , Hamideh Sabahnoo, Vida Bodaghi-Namileh, Mohammad Mazidi, Hossein Movahhed-Tazehkand, Hossein Mohammadnejad-Mehrabani
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 185-191; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.4

Abstract:
The purpose of this research study is to prepare Exametazime (d,l-HMPAO) kit for labeling with 99m-technetium radionuclide as a brain perfusion diagnostic system. In first step, the active pharmaceutical ingredient d,l-HMPAO was prepared in two steps with the purity of 99.29 %. Its molecular structure was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. In second step, the d,l-HMPAO kit was prepared using six different formulations and labeled by technetium-99m radionuclide. The high radiochemical yield was attributed to the high amount of SnCl2 and adding phosphate buffer. The animal studies were conducted on three-month old male Wistar rats. The biodistribution studies revealed that, the mean activity in brain of all rats was above 1% ID/g. This showed the high isomerism purity of the synthesized compound (d,l-HMPAO) and optimization of the suggested formulations. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
, Maryna Labai, Eugeni Kvasyuk, Uliana Ivuts, Maksim Khanchevskii
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 178-184; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.3

Abstract:
The influence of the modified nucleotide arabinofuranosylcytosine-5`-monophosphate in the form of the free acid (Ara-CMP) and its salts with emoxipin (Ara-CMP+Em) on the viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the lymphocyte proliferation of mitogen-stimulated cells was studied. It was shown that emoxipin - the compound with strong antioxidant properties - does not lead to inhibition of the main function of the antimetabolite Ara-CMP, namely, cell growth arrest (p = 0.96) and lysis of target cells (p = 0.97). Under the conditions of nonspecific stimulation of lymphocytes, Ara-CMP at high concentrations (10-4 M) increased in both IFNγ-secreting T-lymphocytes (five times) and IFNγ-secreting other lymphocytes (three times). Emoxipin led to almost complete leveling of the detected effect. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
Mohammad Asif,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 150-169; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.4.1

Abstract:
Nutraceuticals provides medical and health benefits including the prevention and treatment of a disease. Nutraceuticals are naturally derived bioactive compounds that are found in foods, dietary supplements and herbal products, and have health promoting, disease preventing and medicinal properties. Nutraceuticals are the substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effects. Nutraceuticals are classifying on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements and dietary fiber. Herbal nutraceutical is used in maintaining health and act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. The nutraceutical revolution will lead us into a new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry will become research oriented to the pharmaceutical industry. The present review has been devoted towards understanding of the nutraceuticals from different medicinal plants based on their disease specific indications. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
, Vida Bodaghi-Namileh, Saman Sarshar
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 108-119; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.4

Abstract:
The main purpose of the present article is reactivity and stability properties study of the antagonist compound esketamine and analyzing of its binding to the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B and NR2D). In first step, the molecular structure of esketamine was optimized using density functional theory (DFT) method at B3YP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The reactivity and stability properties of the title medicinal compound were studied by global reactivity indices. The computational data showed the molecule is stable and has low tendency to interact with residues of the biomolecules like receptors and proteins. Secondly, the molecule binding to the receptors were analyzed by molegro virtual docker (MVD) program. Our computations indicated that the compound asserts its pharmacological effects mainly through interactions with NR2B receptors and the NR2B residues containing Gly [A] 128, His [A] 127, Gly [A] 264, Tyr [A] 282, Ser [A] 131, Asp [A] 265, Ser [A] 260 and Met [A] 132 are the main amino acids involved in the ligand-receptor complex formation. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
AbdAziz Foda, Haitham Mosallam, , Mohamed Fakih
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 120-133; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.5

Abstract:
The extract of cinnamomum have been evaluated as green inhibitor for the corrosion of Carbon steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) , electrochemical frequency modulation (FEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods of monitoring corrosion . The inhibitive property of the extract is attributed to the presence of cinnamic aldehyde as major constituent in the extract. measurements showed that this extract act as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitor concentration. Results obtained by various techniques are close to each other and maximum efficiency of 81.1 % is acknowledged at the inhibitor concentration of 600 ppm. Langmuir isotherm model is found most suitable to explain adsorption behavior of inhibitor for C-steel surface. Molecular adsorption of inhibitor over C- steel surface is found responsible for corrosion inhibition of C-steel in acid. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
, Titus Anure
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 92-98; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.3.2

Abstract:
This research reports the novel bioactivities of neem leaves powder, neem leaves concentrate, neem seeds powder and neem seeds oil against the weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) on bambara groundnut. The leaves were grounded, crushed and subjected to ethanol to get the concentrate. While the seeds were dried under shade for one week, ground into fine particles. Cold bulk extraction was then used to obtain the neem seeds oil. The mortality count of Callosobruchus maculatus (C. maculatus) was studied by exposing the weevil to neem treated bambara groundnut at different days under laboratory condition. The neem dosage were 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 1.0 g/10 g of bambara groundnut. The percentage weight loss and seed damage were also determined at the end. The results indicated that neem seeds oil and neem leaves concentrate provided effective and comparable mortality counts against the C. maculatus. Again the neem powder (seeds and leaves) mortality counts were also comparable, but were less effective against the weevils as compared to the neem oil and concentrate at least for the first two days. Therefore, these neem materials could be used as biopesticides at the dose of _0.1 per 10 g to prevent C. maculatus attack on bambara groundnut during storage. This will reduce the usage of synthetic pesticides, thereby preventing their adverse residual effects on human and the environment. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
, Taj Muhammad Jahangir, Muhammad Yar Khuhawar, Malik Alamgir, Razim Ali, , Syed Ghulam Musharraf
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 134-142; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.6

Abstract:
A simple and novel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination and quantification of phenolic compounds in brown whole grain rice varieties of Pakistani origin. The accumulation of these compounds was studied during germination stages and fermentation process, thereby, providing a reliable and rapid method for their quantification in food samples. Calibration curves for the standard phenolic compounds showed good linear regression values (r2 =0.996-0.998) within the test ranges. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found in the range of 0.04-0.06 µg/mL and 0.166-0.205µg/mL, respectively. Precision (%RSD) of the method was found in the range of 0.05-5.25 and 0.05-0.58 for inter-day (n=3) and intra-day (n=5), respectively. The robustness (%RSD) was found in the range of 1.05-2.65. Excellent recoveries were attained within the range of 93%-106%. The average amount of phenolic compounds was found to be 0.185 g/100g in controlled condition whereas, further accumulation of these compounds was noticed during germination and fermentation phases. The maximum average amount of phenolic compounds after germination period of 120 hours and fermentation process was found to be 0.284 g/100g and 0.565 g/100g, respectively. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
, Hamid Goudarziafshar, Zahra Jalilian
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 59-63; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.2.3

Abstract:
In this work, we have reported the preparation of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine dione derivatives by the tandem Knoevenagel-Michael-cyclocondensation reaction of malononitrile, various aldehydes and barbituric acid derivatives at the presence of isonicotinic acid as an efficient organocatalyst. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research (PCBR)
B.Sathish Mohan, Dharmasoth Ramadevi, K. Basavaiah
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 64-67; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.2.4

Muluh Emmanuel Khan, Adebayo Samuel Adeiza, Terumon Amon Tor-Anyiin, Abel Alexander
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.2.5

Mital K. Aadesariya, Vijay R. Ram,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 13-19; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.1319

Abstract:
The current study was carried out on the extraction, isolation, and identification of phytochemical constituents existing in the Abutilon pannosum and Grewia tenax leaves extract collected from Kachchh region of Gujarat state, India. The main aim of this study was to expose important polar phytochemicals in locally available medicinal plants using LC-Q-TOF-MS analytical techniques. The main analytical tool is liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) which is one of the most sophisticated and sensitive instruments that gives qualitative as well as quantitative information accurately with respect to constituents present in the sample. The continuous extraction of plant leaves was commenced by Soxhlet extractor utilizing methanol as a solvent. The crude methanolic extracts were inserted in LC-Q-TOF-MS for identification and isolation of useful phytochemicals. The results of phytochemical analysis displayed that there were significant phytochemicals found in methanol extracts of A. pannosum leaves (APL) such as alkaloids, photoproteins, antibioticand in G. tenax leaves (GTL) like alkaloids, photoproteins, glycoside, terpenoids, fatty amides, steroids, fatty alcohols, saponins, flavones, flavonols, steroid etc. Hence, methanolic extract of GTL gives good medicinal activity as compared to the APL.
Amira Salem Zaek, Balsam Ali Benhamed, Mabroka Ali Al Shahomy, , Akram Eshames
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.612

Khaitbaev Kh. Alisher, Toshov S. Khamza, Yuldashev Sh. Ikbol
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 2, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.33945/sami/pcbr.2019.2.15

, Moged A. Berghout, Mohamed R. Moustafa, Fathy M. El Taweel, Hader M . Farid
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 1, pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.29088/sami/pcbr.2018.1.1928

Abstract:
The molar solubility for 2-amino-4,5-dimethylthiophene-3-carboxamide (ADTC) in pure ethanol and mixed ethanol (EtOH)- water solvents were measured at five different temperatures, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K in the used mixed solvents, the solubility were increase by increase in the mole fraction of ethanol in the mixtures and increase of temperature due to more salvation parameters. All the solvation and thermodynamic parameters for ADTC in mixed EtOH+ H2O solvents were evaluated like solubility products, Gibbs free energies, enthalpies and entropies of solvation and discussed. Theoretical calculations for (ADTC) were done quantum mechanically by using Gaussian on set of calculations in ethanol for evaluating the different thermodynamic parameters.
G. Vinodhkumar, R. Ramya, Mark Vimalan, I. Potheher,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 1, pp 40-49; https://doi.org/10.29088/sami/pcbr.2018.1.4049

Abstract:
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized using strong oxidizing agents with the help of chemical reduction method. Structural and physiochemical properties of the prepared sample are studied by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis spectra of GO exhibit maximum absorption peak attributable to restoration of sp2carbon. Electrochemical study performed for bare and rGO modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical sensing of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) were conducted in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH = 7.0 done for both simultaneous and individual determination of DA and UA in the range of 500nM – 1mM exhibit a wide linear range of detection and having low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.67µM for DA, and 0.69µM for UA estimated for simultaneous determination and in individual determination it was found to be 0.51µM and 0.42µM for DA and UA respectively. Additionally, the modified electrode exhibits good reproducibility, selectivity, sensitivity and stability. The proposed sensor could be applied for the determination of DA and UA in real samples.
Onoshe Solomon, Wasagu Rabiu Saidu Umar, Hassan Sanusi Wara, Abubakar Sadiq Yakubu, Madusolumou Michael Azubuike, Mbahi Asugu Mary,
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 1, pp 29-39; https://doi.org/10.29088/sami/pcbr.2018.1.2939

Abstract:
Peptic ulcer disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders causing tremendous human suffering worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of the methanol and solvent stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol) and elucidate their possible antiulcerogenic mechanisms. The antiulcerogenic mechanisms were investigated by estimation of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT), Vitamins A, C and E, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and involvement of KATP channel. Pretreatment with the methanol extract and solvent fractions produce significant reductions in ulcer index in a dose dependent manner. Ethylacetate fraction (EtyAc) showed the highest antiulcer activity. Elevated MDA and decreased levels of SOD, GSH, CAT, Vitamin A, C and E observed in ulcer control groups were significantly decreased and increased respectively in the EtyAc fraction treated groups. Antiulcer activity of the EtyAc fraction was blocked upon coadministration with glibenclamide; a KATP channel blocker. The stem bark extract of Lannea acida possess antiulcerogenic activity and the mechanisms seems to involve antioxidant activity and KATP channel opening.
Adams Udoji Itodo, Ohemu Michael Itodo, Esther Iornumbe, Michael Omotola Fayomi
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 1, pp 50-59; https://doi.org/10.29088/sami/pcbr.2018.1.5059

Abstract:
Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic–organic hybrid Tungsten oxide-ethylenediamine (WOx–EDA) nanowires have been carried out by a simple, low-cost and high-yield solvo-thermal method. The WOx–EDA nanowire adsorbent was characterized using, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Adsorptive potential of the hybrid for aqueous phase copper and lead removal was investigated using batch adsorption process. The equilibrium data were subjected to various isotherm models. The Langmuir model shows high applicability (R2 of 0.921) for lead uptake. Other R2 values include 0.882 (for Freundlich model), 0.947 (Temkin) and 0.972 (Dubinin- Radushkevich). Similarly, adsorption experimental runs for Cu uptake gave correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.972, 0.584, 0.906 and 0.899 for the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich isotherm models respectively. Overall, Tungsten oxide ethylenediamine adsorbent proved its potential candidature for the chelating treatment of Pb and Cu poisoning as well as purifications of water containing such metals. Sorptive chelation of metals by inorganic functionalized organic WOx–EDA nanowires: adsorbent characterization and isotherm studies
M Eldefrawy, , Shereen Salem, Fatma Abdel Razik
Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, Volume 1, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.29088/sami/pcbr.2018.1.1118

Abstract:
Cyclic Voltammetric studies of calcium acetate salt [Ca(CH3COO)2] in absence or presence of Methylene blue (MB) were performed to predict and analyze the behavior of complexation between the ligand and metal ion in aqueous solution. From these studies, the values of solvation and kinetic parameters [Ep (peak potential), Ip(peak current), ΔEP (peak potential difference), E½ (half wave potential), D(Diffusion coefficient), Ks (electron transfer rate constant), Г(surface coverage) and Qa (quantity of electricity)] were evaluated. In addition, the effect of different concentration and a scan rate of above the calculated quantities were studied. In case of presence MB, the stability constants and Gibbs free energies were performed.
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