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Results in Journal Problems of Education in the 21st Century: 120

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Indrek Kaldo, Kandela Õun
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 595-611; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.595

Abstract:
Most universities teach mathematics in the first year and the complexity of the subject demands also different levels of mathematics. Although students understand the reason why they need to learn mathematics, there are more than half of students struggling during the math classes. It is also interesting to compare male and female students` study habits and differences. The aim of this research is to report first-year Estonian university students’ views on mathematics by gender. The quantitative data were collected from 440 university students of different disciplines. The participants completed the LIST questionnaire what measures several aspects of learning strategies of mathematics conducted by factor analysis of 69 questions in 4-point Likert scale. In this research, in two of nine factors, females hold a more positive view of learning strategies than did male students. This research indicates which learning strategies in mathematics are preferred by males and females. Factors Organizing and Repeating were the factors in which we found statistically significant gender difference. Females showed more powerful organizing skills and had better repeating strategies than males. Females try to order the subject matter in a way that makes it easy for them to remember, they go over their notes and structure the most important points more than males. In all the other factors, statistical differences were found only in some questions. Keywords: learning strategies, LIST-questionnaire, mathematics education, mathematics related effect, university mathematics.
Sintha Sih Dewanti, Badrun Kartowagiran, Jailani Jailani, Sciprofile linkHeri Retnawati
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 500-515; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.500

Abstract:
Mathematics is one of the fields that has important role in the 21st-century thinking because mathematics involves the process of logical and systematic thinking to solve problems. This makes mathematical competencies need to be developed through learning and integrated into knowledge, skills, and attitudes. When learning has facilitated the development of 21st-century mathematical competencies, the assessment must also be able to photograph it. This research aimed to find out whether the lecturers of the Mathematics Education Study Program have conducted a 21st-century mathematics competency assessment. This research used a qualitative approach with the phenomenological method. The data were collected using in-depth interviews with each participant. The research participants were 20 lecturers from Mathematics Education Study Program who came from 12 provinces in Indonesia. Data analysis was performed by using the help of ATLAS.ti 8 software to analyze participants' transcripts and documentation, formulate important phrases or sentences, formulate meaning, bring themes up, and be integrated into in-depth descriptions of the phenomenon. The result showed that lecturers of the Mathematics Education Study Program have not focused on the 21st-century mathematics competency assessment. The assessment of each mathematical competency was only done globally and not carried out in detail about each of the competency indicators. Keywords: 21st-century mathematical competencies, competency assessment, lecturers' experience in assessment, Mathematics Education Study Program lecturers.
Julio Cesar Gomez
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 533-552; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.533

Abstract:
This longitudinal, 2-year study explored the experience of a cohort of seven in-service teachers in an English Language Teaching master’s program as they carried out action research studies to determine the impact of the stages of the research process on the various components of their pedagogical content knowledge. The research design followed a qualitative multiple case study model. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, written reflections, and participant observation journal notes. Main findings highlight the way specific components of the thesis linked to stages of the action research study contributed to developing certain types of knowledge integral to pedagogical content knowledge. Knowledge of the students was highly impacted by the needs analysis and the design and implementation of the intervention. In terms of pedagogical knowledge, building the state of the art and theoretical framework along with the intervention clarified and further developed knowledge of teaching methodologies and strategies. Subject matter knowledge was highly impacted by the theoretical framework and the socialization opportunities. Establishing the setting of the study contributed to further understand the constraints and affordances of their teaching contexts. Overall, this action research study became an insightful experience that helped participants promote effective classroom practices to address their students’ needs. Keywords: action research, longitudinal case study, master’s thesis, pedagogical content knowledge, second language teacher education.
Sciprofile linkJhon Holguin-Alvarez, Sciprofile linkFernando Ledesma Pérez, Aquila Montañez Huancaya, Juana Cruz Montero
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 553-575; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.553

Abstract:
The coexistence allows the adaptation of the aggressors and assaulted in school communities through artistic interaction techniques. Due to its transformational value, artivist education allows students to be involved in raising awareness of their environment as well as themselves. For this reason, the interest of the research was to determine the benefits of artivism in school coexistence. Three studies based on sustainability, school exchange and meaning analysis were carried out in 80 fifth and sixth grade primary students. Measurement scales and the log of experiences were used, from whose data it was obtained that there was greater sustainability of direct and democratic coexistence from the fourth month of experimentation with activities based on artivist education (Experiment 1), as well as effects on school exchange with greater emphasis on the democratic component (Experiment 2). The conclusions of the research invited to deduce that artivist education allowed coexistence to be made more sustainable through the strategies that subjects adopted from their peers, in turn, direct interaction allowed to propose a formative process of adaptation between assaulted and aggressors. As a contribution, the research highlights the adoption of new forms of student interaction with power groups to the extent of how and how they establish acceptability behaviors in the shared context. Keywords: Artivism, artivist education, democratic coexistence, direct coexistence, school communities.
Sciprofile linkQuan-Hoang Vuong, Minh-Trang Do, Thi-Van-Anh Pham, Thi-An Do, Phuong-Thuc Doan, Sciprofile linkAnh-Duc Hoang, Thu-Hang Ta, Quynh-Anh Le, Sciprofile linkHiep-Hung Pham
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 644-662; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.644

Abstract:
Since 2013, Vietnam has implemented a plan to reform the whole education sector. However, there is little understanding on the status of educational research in Vietnam, which may lay the foundation for such plan. Thus, this research aims to analyze the whole picture of educational research from Vietnam, as seen from the Clarivate Web of Science (WOS) database: 215 publications were recorded, ranging from 1991 to 2018. These 215 publications were further analyzed from five perspectives: 1) number of publications by year; 2) research fields and levels of education; 3) top institutions with the highest number of publications; 4) international collaboration; and 5) quality. Some of the most notable results are: 1) the educational sciences in Vietnam have been still under-developed until recently; 2) among different research topics research among educational sciences, some (e.g., Vocational Education and Training or Early Childhood Education) seemed to be overlooked whereas others (e.g., Higher Education and Teaching and Learning) seemed to receive more attention from educational scholars; 3) all the most major education – specialized universities did not appear among the top five institutions with highest number of publications; 4) Australia, Thailand, the USA, New Zealand and China were the countries with the highest number of co-publications with Vietnamese researchers; and 5) The majority of publications belonged to low-ranked journals. Implications would be withdrawn for Vietnamese policymakers, education leaders, educational researchers and teachers in order to adjust their policies and/or action plans; thus, enhancing the performance and impacts of educational research in the future. Keywords: academic database, bibliometrics analysis, Clarivate WOS, educational sciences, international publishing, Vietnam.
Nyet Moi Siew, Norjanah Ambo
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 627-643; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.627

Abstract:
This research aimed to examine the effects of an integrated STEM project-based with cooperative learning (STEM-PjBCL) approach on fifth graders’ five sub-scales of trait dimension in scientific creativity. A quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group design was employed. A total of 360 fifth graders from four randomly selected primary schools were chosen as sample and assigned to STEM-PjBCL (n=120), PjBL (n=120), and Conventional (CV) (n=120) instructional methods. The Figural Scientific Creativity Test was used as the pre-test and post-test. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on the post-test scores with pre-test scores as the covariates to examine whether a significant difference existed across the three methods. The results showed that fifth graders taught with the STEM-PjBCL method significantly outperformed their counterparts in the PjBL and CV method in Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of title, and Resistance to premature closure. However, fifth graders taught in the PjBL method did not significantly outperform their counterparts in the CV method in the five sub-scales of scientific creativity. Large effect sizes were obtained for comparing STEM-PjBCL with the PjBL and CV method. The results suggest that the STEM-PjBCL method produces a significant beneficial effect on promoting the five sub-scales of trait dimension of scientific creativity among fifth graders. Keywords: cooperative learning, project-based learning, scientific creativity, STEM, trait dimension.
Marcela Šarvajcová, Ľubomír Rybanský
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 612-626; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.612

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to analyse the effects of family cultural capital on reading behaviour of the selected group of lower secondary and upper secondary school students in Slovakia. Based on the results of the international testing called PIRLS (2016) and PISA (2018) the school children in Slovakia achieved low results. Therefore, the selected aspects of family cultural capital were analysed to find out the extent of effect it has on the reading behaviour of the selected sample of the students in Slovakia. Specifically, the research was focused on the several selected factors, as follows: family trips, cinema, theatre shows, galleries and concerts attendance, family crafts, parental education, and parental reading behaviour. The sample was selected based on the age of the respondents and their school affiliation. Geographically the random sample was selected from the students of Nitra region in Slovakia. Although the data were collected about both parents of each student, the effect of mother’s reading behaviour appeared to have greater significance. Apparently, the number of books in the family library had some effect on reading behaviour of the children in the family, too. The results presented the importance of family environment in the process of reading behaviour development of the selected groups of students. Keywords: cultural capital, reading behaviour, mimic model, metric invariance.
Sciprofile linkKateřina Berková, Jana Borůvková, Dagmar Frendlovská, Sciprofile linkPavel Krpálek, David Melas
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 486-499; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.486

Abstract:
Knowledge of the appropriate learning styles in which students approach the study supports the effectiveness of the teaching process. There is international research that explores the factors that influence student learning styles or students' preferences. The results of some research based on the similar methodologies are inconsistent. The aim of this research under the conditions of Czech tertiary education was to verify what factors students´ learning style preferences in the subject Marketing depend on. The method of questioning based on quantitative research was used. 132 students of University of Economics, Prague and of College of Polytechnics Jihlava were involved in the research. The questions were formulated in a way to be able to define the learning style and whether students were aware of their sensory preferences. The model was based on the VARK model and the learning style according to motivation and intent. A chi-square test of independence was used for verification. The preferences of a deep problem-based learning style prevail. Learning styles preferences depend on factors related to the practical preparation of the students and the difficulty of the subject. Keywords: learning style, VARK model, deep problem-based learning style, Czech tertiary education, subject Marketing.
Rodolfo García Galván, Juan Carlos Rodríguez Macías, Sciprofile linkAlicia Alelí Chaparro Caso López
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 516-532; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.516

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the institutional and organizational characteristics of Mexican state public universities’ outreach with the surrounding area, by identifying and comparing best practices to design a new model for collaboration with the environment. The central question was: “What are the regulatory foundations for the planning and educational philosophies that underpin the outreach approaches of public universities in Mexico?” In methodological terms, this research was of a qualitative nature, and used institutional documents as its main data. It was a documentary review of regulations, planning documents, educational models, and organizational structure of the nine universities considered. Qualitative evidence was collected through deductive content analysis, on the basis of preconceived theoretical and conceptual precepts that guide the search for and analysis of documentary information. One key finding was that the regulations of the institutions examined did acknowledge the importance of strengthening ties between the university and the regional surroundings but were ambiguous in their definition of collaborative activities. In most universities, outreach was seen as a support for teaching and research, and its importance was not acknowledged. This is why it is necessary for universities to make promoting economic and social development a substantive function, to be reflected in specific regulations for outreach. Similarly, greater visibility is needed in organizational structures to position outreach within universities’ roles and activities. Keywords: collaboration, deductive content analysis, documentary review, regional impact.
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