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Results in Journal Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies": 156

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A. Krasheninin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 76-85; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-9

Abstract:
Modern vehicles operated on the railways of Ukraine have almost exhausted or exceeded their resource. The overuse of financial and material resources for their maintenance continues. The standard service life of vehicles was calculated on stable economic conditions of use of vehicles and their timely updating in process of aging. The service life of modern vehicles is determined by the influence of many factors, the disregard of which can lead to significant costs, even in compliance with the standard service life. For railway transport, these factors need modern clarification, as in operation their service life often exceeds the standard or, as for intermodal transport, the service life does not have a strict justification. Accordingly, the article analyzes the issues of assessing the impact on the service life of vehicles of the components of the cost of its maintenance and average daily mileage. It is shown that, firstly, the definition of the service life of vehicles must be linked to the cost of vehicle development, its creation, testing and production, the cost of operation and storage, as well as additional costs, and secondly , with the optimal average daily mileage, at which all the costs are minimal.
R. Domin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 173-186; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-17

Abstract:
The article presents the principles of the method of operational investigation of rolling stock derailment. This method is intended to identify the most significant mechanical reasons for transport accidents in order to find directions to further improving the safety requirements for the state of maintenance of freight cars and tracks on the basis of the data. The developed method establishes a general methodological order of conducting computer simulation of the dynamics of rolling stock of multivariate studies on calculating the safety indicators of train’s motion, and shows the significance of technical factors that provoked a certain event. By this method, the operational investigation of rolling stock derailment is based on the development of adequate computer models of dynamics of cars in trains. In this case, in detail, all the features of the car, which descended from the rails, are first. The presented method is based on the principles of factor analysis, where the intervals of varying events are presented in natural units of measurement. In this case, the assessment of security indicators for each research of the experiment plan is also carried out taking into account their dimension. As a result, the function of multiple regressions on the chosen indicator of motion safety allows not only to determine the significance of the factor of the ascent, but also to establish the level of factors, with exceeding the criteria for motion safety, that is, to determine the boundaries of the region with an acceptable level of motion safety.
L. Tymchenko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 144-155; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-14

Abstract:
Considered modern problems of laser image processing. An analysis of existing solutions and recent research in the field of image processing of laser beam. Determined that the latter solutions have a number of disadvantages in terms of increasing the speed and density of information flow. There are also problems with excessive power consumption during image processing due to excess power. Also presented method of processing image of laser beam with the use of FPGA and parallelhierarchical transformation. Performing simulation modeling of methods for processing the coordinates of laser beam spots and its results are presented. Presented comparison of the results of image processing using a personal computer and using FPGA. The obtained results allow to evaluate the efficiency of FPGA application and methods with the use of parallel-hierarchical transformation during image processing of laser beams. Due to low power consumption and efficient image processing using FPGA and parallelhierarchical transformation - this technology has great prospects for use in the automotive industry. It can be used to improve the development of unmanned vehicle control, especially for electric vehicles.
O. Gertsiy
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 130-143; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-13

Abstract:
The main characteristics of graphic information compression methods with losses and without losses (RLE, LZW, Huffman's method, DEFLATE, JBIG, JPEG, JPEG 2000, Lossless JPEG, fractal and Wawelet) are analyzed in the article. Effective transmission and storage of images in railway communication systems is an important task now. Because large images require large storage resources. This task has become very important in recent years, as the problems of information transmission by telecommunication channels of the transport infrastructure have become urgent. There is also a great need for video conferencing, where the task is to effectively compress video data - because the greater the amount of data, the greater the cost of transmitting information, respectively. Therefore, the use of image compression methods that reduce the file size is the solution to this task. The study highlights the advantages and disadvantages of compression methods. The comparative analysis the basic possibilities of compression methods of graphic information is carried out. The relevance lies in the efficient transfer and storage of graphical information, as big data requires large resources for storage. The practical significance lies in solving the problem of effectively reducing the data size by applying known compression methods.
E. Shikula
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 119-129; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-12

Abstract:
A model of deformation of multidirectional reinforcement fibrous materials with differently oriented fibers is proposed. The solution to the problem is built in two stages. At the first stage, the known properties of fibers and binder are used to determine the effective thermoelastic properties and stress-strain state of the subsystem with fibers oriented in a certain way relative to the main coordinate system. It is based on stochastic differential equations of the physically nonlinear theory of elasticity using the method of conditional moments. At the second stage, using a given distribution function based on the Voigt scheme, a model of deformation of the entire system is constructed from the calculated properties of the subsystems. Strain curves are obtained for simple loading, and the deformation of materials at uniform orientation of fibers is investigated. It was found that a fibrous composite material with differently oriented fibers in a macrovolume is isotropic, and its effective thermoelastic constants substantially depend on the volumetric content of fibers.
N. Radkevich
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 50-58; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-6

Abstract:
The article examines the residual life of load-bearing metal structures (NMC) of special cars for the transportation of special contingent on the basis of the results of technical diagnostics and standard tests. Most scientific publications investigate the increase in the service life of different types of passenger cars by improving their design properties. The following methods are used in the study: resetting from wedges, resource tests for impact strength, impact tests, static strength tests. On the basis of carrying out technical diagnostics and standard tests the possibility of establishment of new appointed service life of cars is defined. The residual resource was set at one of the minimum calculated values obtained by mathematical dependence to calculate the residual service life. When determining the residual resource during the standard tests, the evaluation of the fatigue resistance margin was performed taking into account the stress of the load-bearing structures of the car during the tests. It is concluded that the condition of load-bearing metal structures of special wagons for transportation of special contingent after long operation does not approach the limit. The obtained practical and theoretical results make it possible to extend the service life of special wagons for the transportation of special contingent beyond the established by the manufacturer.
A. Mironovich
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-2

Abstract:
The article describes the production and use of crushed stone in Ukraine. The price factor of production and sale of crushed stone in the foreign countries is given and the comparative analysis with the Ukrainian producers is carried out. The dynamics of capacity and production of crushed stone products in Ukraine taking into account export and import components is given. It is established that the most capacious market is located in Zhytomyr region. It is noted that the share of crushed stone production of the enterprises located on the territory of the Regional Branch "South-Western Railway" is 44. It was found that only fruitful cooperation between two parties will get positive results, which will certainly increase railway traffic.
O. Gorobchenko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 187-195; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-18

Abstract:
The introduction of intelligent locomotive control systems requires better approaches to assessing and monitoring the current train situation than those used in modern traction rolling stock. Automatic detection of complex abnormal situations is currently not provided. For example, determining the inefficiency of the brakes, speeding, the presence of obstacles or people on the track, the deterioration of the traction properties of rolling stock, etc. relies solely on the driver of the locomotive. Given the important impact of these factors on traffic safety, it is proposed to include in the functions of automated and intelligent traffic control systems recognition of abnormal situations and notification of its occurrence. When driving a train, all objects of classification (train situations) are divided into a finite number of classes. A finite number of precedent objects are known and studied for each class. The task of pattern recognition is to assign a new recognizable situation to a class. The classifier or decisive rule is the rule of assigning the image of a train situation to one of the classes on the basis of its vector of features. An order of classification of train situations has been developed, which allows to allocate clusters of any complex shape, provided that different parts of such clusters are connected by chains of close to each other elements. The measure of difference is the square of the Euclidean distance.
I. Kulbovskyi
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 196-203; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-19

Abstract:
The article considers the problems of quality management of repair and operation of technical means in projects of development and maintenance of transport infrastructure, which is the most important factor in improving living standards, economic, social and environmental safety. The project quality management system and planning methodology are considered. It is investigated that in order to improve this system it is necessary to solve the problem of integration of quality management principles and their adaptation to transport infrastructure projects on quality management of repair and operation of technical means and the ways of solution are shown. A set of interrelated organizational and technological tasks and measures aimed at restoring the normative transport and operational indicators of repair and operation of technical means of transport is considered. It is investigated that the process of project quality assurance at the level of quality management in transport infrastructure projects consists of the adoption of planned systematic measures to ensure the implementation of all envisaged processes. On the basis of researches the system model of criteria by means of which it is possible to define system efficiency of development and realization of the corresponding projects of transport infrastructure is offered. As a result of solving this problem, a model of management and decision support for diagnostics of technical means in transport infrastructure projects has been developed, which opens prospects for planning and timely maintenance and repair of technical means of transport to ensure and improve traffic safety.
O. Fomin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 68-75; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-8

Abstract:
Currently, a significant number of units of specialized cars of 1520 mm gauge in Ukraine has a service life that exceeds that assigned by the manufacturer. At the same time, many years of experience in diagnosing and analyzing the operation of carts of these cars by specialized organizations, shows that their technical condition after long operation shows that the specified service life specified in the technical conditions in most cases far from the limit. This is largely due to the significant margin of safety, which is laid down in the design, and the peculiarities of the operation of a particular type of car. The paper considers the issues of assessing the operation of such cars on the example of the carriage of the weighing car, bogie model 18-102, and the carriage of the passenger car model KVZ-TsNII used in the track economy for transportation of workers. The average daily mileage of such cars is 60-70 percent less than the average mileage that is laid down when calculating the service life assigned by the manufacturer. The evaluation and methods of determining the strength of the frames of carriages of special cars are performed. Conclusions are made based on the results of the analysis of the strength of the carriages of special cars.
P. Kurdel
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 165-172; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-16

Abstract:
The functionality of the aircraft complex is determined by quality and safety. This is defined by the relationship between the entities airport – aircraft – airspace. Operational safe management and control at the airport is a directed action of independent factors. Their expression is embedded in the feeling of security and safety of each air traffic participant. Fulfilment of the ethical characteristics of security requires the implementation of management so that the control at the airport is carried out in the relevant security zone. Construction of a safe state can be achieved if the chosen method of safety experiments will faithfully reflect the real error in the control of air transport. The correctness of safety control procedures can be verified by simulation and models built on a physical basis. The motive of the article is to show one way of effective identification of errors in the management of security controls actors of air transport.
O. Fomin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 31-40; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-4

Abstract:
The dynamic loading of the load-bearing structure of the articulated platform car made of round pipes loaded with tank containers was determined. The research was conducted by mathematical modeling. The solution of the equations of motion is carried out in the MathCad software package. It is established that under the influence of a longitudinal force of 2.5 MN on the front stops of the autocoupling, the acceleration on the first section of the platform car is 27.7 m/s² from the side of the force application, and on the second - 24.4 m/s2. To reduce the dynamic load of the load-bearing structure of the platform car, the possibility of using the concept of a harness device on it as an alternative to a typical self-coupling device is considered. The quenching of the kinetic energy of the impact is carried out due to the viscous resistance forces arising in the concept. The proposed implementation allows to reduce the dynamic load of the load-bearing structure of the platform car by 10% compared to the use of a standard self-coupling device. The conducted researches will promote creation of innovative designs of cars-platforms and increase of efficiency of use of railway transport.
O. Fomin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 41-49; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-5

Abstract:
The publication proposes a monitoring technology for production automation based on automatic identification technologies, which will allow real-time monitoring of the progress of technological processes, ensure interdepartmental logistics, as well as perform access and identification security functions in production. On the example of one of the carriage depots, typical shortcomings of the organization of the production process, accounting and identification of parts of a railway transport enterprise are considered. The ways and stages of implementation of automatic identification technologies are proposed, in particular, it is indicated that it is advisable to introduce a system for monitoring production processes of railway transport enterprises in stages, starting with bar-coding technologies. The process of monitoring railway transport enterprises, the interaction of subjects and objects of the production process is disclosed in detail.
O. Fomin, State University of Infrastructure and Technologies
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 5-11; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-1

Abstract:
Traffic safety is an essential requirement for railways. In order to ensure uninterrupted transportation of passengers and goods by rail by the enterprise of JSC "Ukrainian Railways", the task of ensuring the operation of rolling stock outside the assigned line of service remains urgent. Proceeding from this, it follows that it is necessary to carry out tests aimed at creating conditions for the operation of rolling stock while maintaining dynamic and strength characteristics. This article presents the order, scope and results of strength tests of rolling stock after long-term operation on the example of an AS1a-type railroad car. The results of the maximum stress levels, standard deviation, fatigue safety factors, the dependence of the stress level on the speed of movement are obtained. Based on the research results, a technical solution has been developed that allows using technical diagnostics methods to extend the service life of the AS1a type railroad cars after the end of the assigned service life.
V. Tverdomed
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 86-96; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-10

Abstract:
The traditional structure of the upper structure of the track on the main railways of Ukraine in curved sections with a radius of less than 350 m is a link structure of the track with wooden sleepers. This track design is not rational under current operating conditions. The use of a more advanced jointless track design in curves with a radius of less than 350 m is limited primarily by the condition of ensuring the transverse stability of the rail-sleeper lattice. To be able to expand the use of jointless track construction in curved sections with a radius of less than 350 m, it is necessary to know the values of the transverse forces of interaction of the structures of the upper track structure with the moving carriage. Knowing the forces of interaction, it is possible to estimate by what value the transverse stability of the rail-sleeper lattice will be provided and to make constructive decisions on its increase. The method of determination of transverse horizontal forces of interaction of track and moving carriage in curves of radius less than 350 m taking into account quasi-static compressive forces in a train is given. The reasons for these forces are related to the presence of eccentricity of the autoclutch shank in the horizontal and vertical planes. Theoretical calculations of horizontal transverse forces of interaction are carried out according to the given technique and coefficients of stability of a rail-sleeper lattice in curved sites are defined. The main conclusions concerning the possibility of operation of the jointless track structure in curved sections with a radius of 350 m and less are made.
V. Shaposhnyk
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-3

Abstract:
The problem of breaks automatic coupling is becoming urgent for outbound transport. in the robot, a number of defects are shown, which were found in the damaged car parts. Carrying out an analysis of the equipment of the vehicle will indicate the presence of a stock of performance, and if there is a defect in the deteriorated parts of the vehicle, it will be overwhelmed by the stock. An analysis of the normative documentation and methods in the control of car breakdowns is necessary to provide information on the methods of ruinous and non-rudimentary control, so that it can be done when preparing and repairing car breakdowns. Tom found the crocodile in the first place in the world of problems and is to blame for the increase in the quality of control to the body of the vehicle. Proponent is the acoustical control, and the very thin or mirror-thin method for the control of the shank of the autozchep in the screw hole before the wedge of the traction clamp. The robots of the methods runtuyu on the change in the amplitude of the signal when passing through the discontinuity of the metal, which allows the appearance of internal defects. These methods allow the appearance of significant internal defects such as metal discontinuities, but also to reduce the speed of car breakdowns through the appearance of this type of defect. On the basis of the obvious methods for the control of internal defects, the methods are projected that are irregular and can be stagnated to all auto-breakdowns due to minor preparation of the surface for control.
D. Voloshyn
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 59-67; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-7

Abstract:
The current state of the freight wagon fleet is characterized by increased physical wear over time. Disproportionate renewal of rolling stock, low quality of repair due to the lack of appropriate modernization of production systems, the peculiarities of loading and unloading operations in operation make increased demands on the preservation of the wagon fleet. The issues of general management of the transport safety system deserve special attention. Control of safety of freight wagons should be carried out at all stages of operation: at freight works, at transfer in the international and domestic communication, at maintenance and repair. In this case, each stage requires the use of appropriate regulations, which ensures compliance with the conditions of storage of freight wagons in operation. The presented article analyzes the current state of the freight wagon fleet with a view to ensuring their safety during operation. The factors that are the most influential in terms of effective management of the wagon fleet are identified. Possible conservation strategies are considered. The statistical material on failures and damages of wagons is resulted. Based on this, an assessment of the most significant events in terms of the impact on ensuring the safety of wagons was made. Practical solutions for creating an effective system for preserving rolling stock in transport are proposed.
A. Sulym
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 1, pp 97-118; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2021-37-11

Abstract:
The paper deals with the justification of the need to use an asynchronous traction electric drive on the metro rolling stock. The advantages of using an asynchronous traction electric drive in comparison with a DC commutator motor drive are formulated. The characteristics of modern innovative metro rolling stock with asynchronous traction electric drive of domestic and foreign production are analyzed. Aspects of the choice of a variable frequency asynchronous traction electric drive for innovative rolling stock are formulated and the existing typical algorithm of such choice is given. The main reasons for the irrational choice of traction asynchronous electric drive for the metro rolling stock are considered and the consequences of such a choice are analyzed. It is proposed to improve the methodology for selecting a variable frequency traction asynchronous electric drive for the metro rolling stock in terms of such an important operational factor as the specific cost of electrical energy for traction. The rational parameters of the variable frequency asynchronous traction electric drive according to the proposed procedure for the specified characteristics of the metro rolling stock are specified. The reserves of energy savings for the given conditions due to the introduction of an asynchronous traction electric drive with rational parameters on the innovative rolling stock are determined. It is established that the efficiency factor of the asynchronous traction motor significantly affects the specific electric energy consumption for the metro rolling stock traction and operating costs.
O. Nevedrov, State University of Infrastructure and Technologies
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 24-32; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-3

Abstract:
Among the main causes of human operator errors are the following: unsatisfactory training or low level of qualification; non-compliance with the prescribed operating procedures; unsatisfactory working conditions associated with such negative phenomena as excessive noise, vibration, temperature fluctuations in the driver's cab (especially on locomotives); lack of attractive incentives to achieve the optimal level of quality of work. The choice of the criterion of optimal control can be ambiguous. The source of complexity is the inconsistency of goals. If you want to optimize one of the parameters in compliance with the restrictive requirements for other parameters, then a partial criterion is formed. In the presence of several optimality criteria, the additive criterion is chosen when the absolute values of the criteria are significant for the selected parameter vector. If a significant role is played by changes in absolute values of partial criteria in the variation of the vector of variables, then apply the multiplicative criterion of optimality. If the task is to achieve equality of normalized values of conflicting partial criteria, then the optimal design is performed by the minimum criterion.
V. Gaba, O. Strelko, T. Hrushevska, I. Gusar
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 150-162; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-16

Abstract:
The influence of the existing conditions of operational work at transportation of cargoes by group and single cars is investigated. An analysis of modern approaches to improving the efficiency of the car fleet and the competitiveness of railway transport in the transport market of Ukraine. The most perspective approaches and directions of improvement of cargo delivery systems are allocated. A study of the efficiency of the organization of transportation by the criterion of total car-hours of downtime under accumulation. A mathematical model of chemical cargo transportation by carriage, group shipments and transportation of container trains with accumulation to technical norms of trains in the directions of transportation has been developed. The efficiency of two models of chemical cargo shipment organization is compared and a more efficient transportation option is identified. It is established that for more efficient use of rolling stock and reduction of car turnover there is transportation of goods in cars as a part of a container train. The influence of the components of the car turnover on its final value is analyzed. A study of the cost of transportation of benzene in tanks and tank containers in some areas. According to research, the cost of transporting benzene in tank containers on railway ownership platforms is twice less than in private tanks and tanks of Ukrzaliznytsia fleet. These recommendations will improve the process of transportation and increase the volume of goods by rail.
Y. Datsun, K. Sarkisian, O. Miroshnichenko, D. Isaev
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-2

Abstract:
The analysis of the technological process of determining the parameters of rolling stock units (using the example of wheel set bandages) has been carried out in the article. It has been determined that its implementation by a person using a contact measuring instrument and manual recording of the results can lead to the appearance of errors in perception, attention, memory and thinking. These human errors can occur throughout the entire technological process.
A. Prokhorchenko, M. Kravchenko, D. Gurin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 184-198; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-19

Abstract:
The article examines the influence of freight transportation technology on special conditions according to the schedule of route trains on the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the operational work of the railway system of Ukraine. The calculations of the components of the freight car turnover are carried out. It was found that the strategy of routing, transportation by RRMP and coordination of loading and unloading terms significantly reduced the downtime of the car under freight operations. The analysis of indicators shows that the implemented technology of cargo transportation according to the RRMP allowed in 2019 to achieve a reduction within the busy flight of the number of technical stations from five stations in 2018 to 4.7 in 2019. The comparative analysis of technical and district speed is carried out and the speed coefficient is calculated. According to the analysis of the change in the speed factor, it can be stated that the ratio of precinct to technical speed remained unchanged in 2019 compared to 2018, which may indicate the lack of impact of transportation technology on dispatching, which was essentially unchanged for two years. Simulation according to the analytical approach of change of turnover of a freight car at increase in a share of transportations of freights under contracts on special conditions is executed. Calculations prove that with the increase of the share of cars of the working fleet, organized in the transportation of goods by RRMP in the element of car turnover - simple car at technical stations, can significantly reduce the overall turnover of the car. The influence of the technology of transportation according to the schedule on the reduction of the most significant element in the turnover of the car - the downtime of the car under freight operations.
T. Kovtun, V. Smrkovskaya, D. Kovtun
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 171-183; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-18

Abstract:
The article discusses the issues of environmental management in logistics based on the concept of sustainable development through the introduction of environmental logistics. The problem of human survival in conditions of limited natural resources against the background of the deterioration of the natural conditions of human existence has led to the creation of the concept of sustainable development, which requires taking into account environmental and social factors in all spheres of human life. Logistics as a field of practice makes a negative contribution to the state of the environment. Highlighted the contour of ecological logistics in the framework of the concept of sustainable development. On the basis of the basic rules of logistics, the rules of ecology were formed, which reflect the need for ecologization of logistics. The evolution of the development of ecology is investigated, the features of the ecologization of logistics at each stage of the development of logistics are highlighted. Ecology has been actively developing in recent years and has several promising research areas, one of which is reverse logistics, which focuses on managing the reverse flows of material resources. The essence, tasks and place of reverse logistics in the hierarchy of environmentally oriented directions have been determined. The evolution of logistics chains corresponding to the stages of logistics development has been investigated. Closed logistic chains as the basis of reverse logistics are considered, the composition of the flows forming them is determined.
N. Sudnyk
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 163-170; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-17

Abstract:
The market of bunkering services forms one of the most important segments of world trade in oil products. In fact, the bunker market provides the work of the entire shipping industry, the share of which in world GDP is growing steadily, and by 2018 was estimated at 10 to 20%. Currently, fuel bunkering is a problem for Ukrainian seaports. Over 15 years, the annual volume of bunkering in Ukrainian ports has decreased tenfold. In Ukraine there are necessary coastal bases in Kherson, Nikolaev, other places. Bunker companies can easily find the right number of bunkers on the market for service in our ports. The volume of the world bunker market is characterized by huge and constantly growing needs of the world navy in material and technical supply of fuel of the vessels of the most different function in scales of the World ocean. The determining factor of regional demand for bunkering is the intensity of vessel traffic. Demand volumes depend primarily on the number of calls to local ports, the scale of port activity, tonnage turnover, the geography of sea routes in the region, the proximity of busy shipping routes and the service of transit flows. In addition, the availability of infrastructure (technical, organizational, information) and adjacent sources of competitive fuel supply at the prices of local refineries (refineries), as well as a range of services, quality of service, traditional procurement, customer confidence. The largest bunker centers in terms of bunker fuel sales per year are Singapore, Fujairah, Rotterdam, Hong Kong, Busan, Piraeus, Antwerp, Kaohsiung, Suez Canal, Panama Canal, Houston and Gibraltar. When organizing the flight according to two schemes, two ports for bunkering were considered: Istanbul and the Pivdenny. As a result of calculations in two directions, it can be concluded that Ukrainian ports are attractive for bunkering ships in technological and economic terms. Therefore, when changing the design scheme of the bunker in the ports of Ukraine, you can get some benefits. Both carriers and bunker companies may be interested in this.
O. Fomin, M. Gorbunov, S. Kara, P. Prokopenko, P. Grindey
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 104-111; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-11

Abstract:
A 3D model and computational model of a freight car bogie of type 18-100 has been developed. The design model was validated in comparison with the complex of running tests. Calculations were carried out and indicators of strength and fatigue resistance were evaluated for further research. On the basis of the calculations, the probable zones of fatigue accumulation have been established.
A. Sulym, Z. Semko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-9

Abstract:
Comparative analysis of main requirements of the technical regulations concerning conformity assessment of the movable pressure equipment is given in the article. Terms, used in the technical regulations are considered, similarity and divergence of requirements is analyzed, classification of dangerous goods, examples of liabilities of the assessment process participants, appointed bodies concerning their activities is given.
D. Bulich, S. Sapronova, V. Tkachenko, A. Koshel
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 43-53; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-5

Abstract:
All elements of load-bearing metal structures of freight cars are subject to corrosion wear. In this article, a statistical analysis of corrosion wear for each element of load-bearing metal structures. Damage to load-bearing metal structures of gondola cars taking into account corrosion wear is considered. Measures to increase the possible maximum corrosion wear, which can be used to predict the residual life and structural finishing of the elements of load-bearing metal structures. Cracks and fractures that are not detected in time, which turn into through-corrosion during operation, have a great impact on corrosion. To determine the corrosion of the freight car requires an individual approach to each element of the load-bearing structures of the car, taking into account the performance and time of repair.Studies have shown that half of freight cars were operated with corrosion of some elements of load-bearing metal structures more than 30%. This shows the possibility of increasing the tolerance of the threshold of corrosion wear of cars, which will affect the ability to reduce the exclusion of freight cars from the inventory.
A. Kichkin, E. Kichkina
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-10

Abstract:
The article presents a simulation model of a seaport grain terminal, created in the AnyLogic 8.5 PLE environment. The agent paradigm was chosen as the modeling paradigm, which allowed to adequately reproduce the process of interaction of road, rail and industrial transport in the process of grain processing. To this end, the main models-agents have been developed that interact with each other and form the overall technological process of grain processing by the marine terminal. The interaction of the created agents-models makes the logic of interaction of different types of transport and production and storage systems of the grain terminal of the seaport. On the basis of an experimental study of the grain terminal of the seaport in different technological conditions, its adequacy was confirmed taking into account the interaction of different modes of transport: main (sea, rail, road) and industrial transport of the grain terminal. For information support, an information-analytical part was created, the basis of which is a database of a simulation model of a grain terminal of a seaport with the appropriate software. The creation of a database of the grain terminal of the seaport provided the primary information of the simulation model; accumulation of information on the results of simulation experiments; the possibility of analytical study of the results of simulation experiments. The corresponding calculation of economic indicators of functioning of the export grain terminal is made on the basis of the accumulated data of simulation modeling by means of the developed software which has allowed to provide efficiency not only technological, but also economic decisions. The developed simulation model of the grain terminal of the seaport and its information-analytical part is in fact a system of decision support by the relevant services of the terminal in the conditions of variable information from customers, the presence of technological and natural risks.
N. Radkevich, S. Sapronova, V. Tkachenko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 54-62; https://doi.org/10.32703/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-6

Abstract:
In order to ensure the uninterrupted performance of passenger traffic, the task of ensuring the operation of rolling stock outside the extended service life, including passenger cars for the carriage of passengers, remains relevant. Based on this, there is a need for comprehensive research aimed at substantiating the possibility of ensuring operation while maintaining dynamic and strength characteristics. The article examines the residual life of load-bearing metal structures of passenger cars based on the results of technical diagnostics and standard tests. It is concluded that the condition of the load-bearing metal structures of passenger cars built by the Kryukiv Carriage Plant (KСP) after long operation does not approach the limit. The obtained practical and theoretical results make it possible to extend the service life of passenger cars for the construction of KCP beyond the factory set by 41 years.
E. Shikula
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 121-131; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-13

Abstract:
The model of nonlinear deformation of a layered material with physically nonlinear layers is proposed. The laminate is considered a two-component material with random layers. The basis is the stochastic differential equations of the physically nonlinear theory of elasticity L.P. Khoroshun. The solution to the problem of the stress-strain state and effective properties of the composite material is constructed by the averaging method. An algorithm for determining the effective deformable properties of a layered material with physically nonlinear layers has been developed. The solution of nonlinear equations taking into account their physical nonlinearity is constructed by an iterative method. The law of the relationship between macrostresses and macrostrains in a layered material and the dependence of average strains and stresses in its layers on macrostrains has been established. Curves of material deformation are plotted for different values of the volumetric content of its filler. The dependence of the effective deformative properties of the laminated material on the volumetric content of the filler has been studied. The effect of nonlinearity of layers on the deformation of a layered composite material is investigated. It was found that the nonlinearity of the layers significantly affects the effective deformative properties and the stress-strain state of laminated materials.
I. Martynov, A. Trufanova, V. Petukhov, M. Serhiienko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 72-81; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-8

Abstract:
The article considers the issues of analysis of the patterns of operation of the bearing elements of the bodies of carriage. The fleet of carriage mainly consists of models developed and manufactured in the 70-90s of the last century at car plants in Germany and Russia. They are obsolete both morally and physically. A comparative analysis of the size and nature of the operation of structural elements of both compartment cars and open cars. The results of the study made it possible to consider the issue of further use of carriage, which are most affected by corrosion. Key words: carriage ,operation, rolling stock; corrosion, inventory, technical condition. The results of the study made it possible to consider the issue of further use of passenger cars, which are most affected by corrosion.
N. Provatorov, I. Ovcharuk
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 63-71; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-7

Abstract:
With the development and distribution of embedded control systems for industrial and household equipment, the generation of speed trajectories for systems controlled by motors, other rotary mechanisms and units remains an urgent task. Adjusting the acceleration profile improves the quality of the system, and the use of adaptive design of automatic controls theoretically increases the speed of work. Implementation of compulsory software control of the speed profile or its automatic generation, according to the current parameters of the system, reduces the risks associated with the human factor and protects the system from operator inaccuracy. Reducing the factor of undesirable interference and creating a model of controlled environment increases the level of production safety, therefore, improving and modernizing the existing approach to managing high-speed industrial systems is a necessary condition for its further development. This article proposes to consider an improved model of a software speed controller that controls the pulse driver of a stepper motor. Based on existing research and corporate solutions during production development used experimentally the adaptive design of the state machine of the system, makes it possible to vary the speed of rotation of the stepper motor during the operation of the system in real time.
D. Kruhlyi
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 143-149; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-15

Abstract:
Today, humanity has faced a fundamentally new catastrophe - the Covid-19 pandemic. Quarantine, closing borders, creating numerous problems for almost all states - all these are the realities of today. Experts will still be able to fully assess the scale of the economic shock associated with the epidemic and all its long-term consequences. But it is already clear that the recovery of the global economy is not an easy one. And already tested anti-crisis measures will not always work. It is necessary to look for fundamentally new, non-standard solutions. The aim of the research is to analyze the state of trade against the background of the global world economic situation. Identify the shortcomings of the industry, development prospects and highlight the economic benefits that need to be addressed as a matter of priority in order to improve performance and improve the situation during a pandemic. The article examines the current state of the global economic situation in the maritime transport industry during the Covid-19 pandemic. The international market of maritime trade is based on certain patterns, among which there is a clear focus on the parameters of international economic relations, the constant use of innovative technologies and the cyclical changes in key indicators. The trend of development of the maritime transport industry and its regionalization is due to a complex set of external and internal factors. Therefore, the article considers the relationship and impact of both negative and positive factors on the state of the world economy. The data of the interim economic forecasts for 2019-2022 in the estimated comparison of countries that have a global impact on the economic development of partner countries are studied. The interrelation of economic and maritime industries is analyzed, the state of modern problems of sea transportation is investigated, perspective directions are revealed and the necessity of concrete decisions for large-scale development of competitiveness of the transport industry is emphasized. As a result of the research it is suggested: in order to automate the process of sea transportation to accelerate the introduction of contactless document management, to consolidate the position of maritime logistics, which plays an important organizational and cost-effective role in modern economic relations and trade flows.
A. Falendysh, A. Gatchenko, O. Kletska, E. Kiritseva, M. Barybin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 132-142; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-14

Abstract:
The article considers the issues of determining rational approaches to the creation of train maps, the rational use of diesel modes and the use of automated computer simulation system. Based on the obtained results, an energy-efficient mode of train driving is proposed and a mathematical model of the locomotive operation character is created. There is a need to review obsolete regime and train locomotive crews in the latest methods of operation. The basic values and methods of calculation for specific operating conditions on the basis of the law of conservation of mechanical energy are established. It is proposed to create a passport of each locomotive to determine the rational weight norms on the existing service shoulders. After all, overloading or underutilization of the locomotive's resource is associated with loss of profit or the emergence of emergencies. The necessity of the offered methods within the limits of ecological requirements to traction rolling stock is proved. The possibility of forming a rational system of mileage between technical inspections and repairs for each locomotive as a whole on the basis of forecasting and statistics is determined. It is recommended to further implement mathematical modeling and digital means of monitoring the technical condition after repairs to achieve economic efficiency of railway transport.
O. Fomin, S. Kara, P. Prokopenko, M. Gorbunov, V. Fomin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 33-42; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-4

Abstract:
As part of the work, a theoretical and experimental study (based on running dynamic tests) of the running qualities of empty hopper cars, converted from cement trucks and mineral trucks, was conducted. Computer simulation of the dynamics of empty hopper wagons converted from cement and mineral wagons depending on the condition of the track, the technical condition of the wagons and the weight of the container, the repeated presence of maximum vertical deviations and horizontal deviations of the track. A significant disadvantage of the railway transport of Ukraine is the limitation of the speed of trains with individual freight cars in an empty state, which are equipped with carts model 18-100. Among the reasons for the descent of the wheels of cars from the rails are: malfunctions of the running gear of the cars (fracture of the side frames and spring beams of the carts, malfunctions of the roller bearings of the axle box), wear of friction damper elements, unacceptable deviations and upgrades. As part of the work, a theoretical and experimental study (based on running dynamic tests) of the running qualities of empty hopper cars, converted from cement trucks and mineral trucks, was conducted. Computer modeling of the dynamics of empty hopper wagons, converted from cement and mineral wagons depending on the condition of the track, the technical condition of the wagons and the weight of the container and studies of the dependence of the wheel stability on the east.
M. Botvin, A. Gertsiy
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies" pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-12

Abstract:
The article is an overview of the direction of graphic image processing based on clustering algorithms. The analysis of prospects of application of algorithms of cluster analysis in digital image processing, in particular, at segmentation and compression of graphic images, and also at recognition of images in transport sphere of activity is carried out. Comparative modeling of such algorithms of cluster analysis as K-means, Mean-Shift (clustering of average shift) and DBSCAN (based on density of spatial clustering for applications with noise) on various types of data is carried out. The simulation was performed on synthetic datasets in a Jupyter Notebook environment using the Scikit-learn library. In particular, four data sets were generated in this environment, to which these clustering algorithms were applied. The simulation results showed that the K-means algorithm can effectively describe relatively simple shapes. In contrast, the mean shift does not require assumptions about the number of clusters and the shape of the distribution, but its performance depends on the choice of scale parameters. The DBSCAN algorithm can successfully detect more complex shapes, which emphasizes one of the strengths of this algorithm - the clustering of arbitrary data. The disadvantages of the selected algorithms are also given and it is indicated on which types of images they effectively work with the estimation of computational speed.
A. Lovska, O. Fomin, D. Skurikhin, D. Fedosov-Nikonov, A. Rybin
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 36, pp 4-14; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-36-1

Abstract:
Проведено визначення динамічної навантаженості контейнера типорозміру 1СС,розміщеного на рол-трейлері при перевезенні залізничним поромом. Встановлено, що привідсутності переміщень рол-трейлера відносно палуби та контейнера на рол-трейлері (Ісхема) максимальні прискорення, що діють на контейнер складають 0,33g. При відсутностіпереміщень рол-трейлера відносно палуби та наявності переміщень контейнера на рол-трейлері (ІІ схема) максимальні прискорення, що діють на контейнер дорівнюють 0,43g.Отримані прискорення враховано при дослідженні стійкості контейнера на рол-трейлері приперевезенні залізничним поромом. Встановлено, що стійкість контейнера на рол-трейлері зурахуванням типової схеми взаємодії (фітинговий упор – фітинг) для І схеми забезпечуєтьсяпри кутах крену до 270, а при ІІ схемі – до 250.Визначено власні частоти коливань контейнера, розміщеного на рол-трейлері приперевезенні морем.Проведені дослідження сприятимуть забезпеченню безпеки перевезень контейнерів назалізничних поромах морем, а також підвищенню ефективності функціонування комбінованихперевезень в міжнародному сполученні.
A. Krasheninin, S. Yakovlev, O. Shapatina
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 36, pp 4-18; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2019-34-1-1

Abstract:
У статті розглядаються питання впливу тимчасового резервування роботи окремого обладнання локомотивів на його надійність за умови різних законів розподілу часу роботи, часу відновлення, часу на тимчасове резервування.
M. Ravliuk, Y. Fisina, R. Nurullaiev, V. Ravlyuk
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-3

Abstract:
The complex of theoretical scientific researches is conducted in the work, which proves that the typical design of brake lever transmission of three-element carts does not provide normative wear of the pads, therefore it requires correct researches, and its structure - modernization and revision of functional purpose of some elements. On the basis of 2D circuit models, analytical calculations were performed with a comparative analysis of their different design solutions — elements of the brake levers of three-element trucks of freight wagons. As a result, practical changes were made to the knot of the vertical linkage with the triangel spacer, and a reasonable distance between the hinge joint and the triangel beam. Comprehensive comparative calculations of the power factors acting in the elements of the lever gears during braking of the trolley for different cases of alternating vertical forces of inertia, at the collision of the carts on the inequality of the rail track of the type "rail joint", were made. The results of the theoretical calculations, which were obtained were confirmed by the experimental operation of freight wagons with innovative three-element trolley braking systems, which makes it possible to choose a rational calculation 2D circuit model of the brake lever transmission during design. Thanks to the proposed methodology and its application in railway and railcar enterprises, it is possible to significantly increase their competitiveness, reduce the intensity of brake pad wear and increase their life during the operation of freight wagons. В работе выполнен комплекс научных исследований, который доказывает, что типовая конструкция тормозной рычажной передачи трехэлементной тележки не обеспечивает нормативный износ колодок, поэтому нуждается в корректных исследованиях, а ее структура — модернизации и пересмотра функционального назначения некоторых элементов. С помощью 2D схем-моделей рычажных передач выполнены аналитические расчеты, по результатам которых предложены практические изменения в узле соединения вертикального рычага с распоркой триангеля. У роботі проведено комплекс наукових досліджень, який доводить, що типова конструкція гальмової важільної передачі трьохелементних візків не забезпечує нормативний знос колодок, тому потребує коректних досліджень, а її структура – модернізації та перегляду функціонального призначення деяких елементів. На основі 2D схем-моделей важільних передач виконано аналітичні розрахунки, за результатами яких запропоновано практичні зміни у вузлі з’єднання вертикального важеля з розпіркою тріангеля.
A. Sulym, P. Khozya, O. Yushko, Y. Khvoienko, E. Tretiak
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 60-68; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-7

Abstract:
В статті досліджено сучасний стан вагонобудівної галузі в Україні, розглянуто основні проблеми та перспективи розвитку вагонобудівних підприємств і передумови їх виникнення. Сформульовано проблеми, які стримують розвиток вагонобудівного комплексу України. Наведено основні шляхи вирішення сучасних проблем та пропозиції щодо поліпшення роботи вагонобудівних підприємств України. Виявлено перспективні напрямки розвитку галузі вітчизняного вагонобудування.
O. Bolgov
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 194-204; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-19

Abstract:
The nautical safety of bulk carriers is largely determined by their correct loading. Available ship instruments do not allow for prompt cargo operations planning and real time vessel state controlling during their realization. The vessel responsible officer has to spend considerable time preparing the plan for loading (unloading) the vessel. The plan, often already prepared and approved by the Captain, has to be changed rapidly due to the changed conditions of cargo operations at the port. The high intensity of cargo operations at modern bulk terminals and the lack of sufficient time to prepare and verify the new cargo plan may create a risk of cargo holds being overloaded. This may lead to deterioration in the local and longitudinal strength of the hull and a violation in the seaworthiness of the vessel. The solution to this problem should be the creation of new computer system that will automate the bulk carriers loading operations planning, as well as making possible rapid changes to prepared plan when it become necessary. Such system should be based on a method (strategy) for optimization the distribution of a certain quantity of bulk cargo, taking into account the availability of port facilities and the design of the vessel itself, her nautical parameters, stability, longitudinal and local strength. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary to formalize the cargo operations in terms of the mathematical model of the vessel and to establish the functional relationship between the parameters affecting the seaworthiness of the vessel. Obviously, the development of this method is a promising area of scientific research aimed to improve the safety of bulk vessels. The article describes the method of formalization of the loading operations of a bulk vessel with the task of choosing the best strategy for carrying out cargo operations according to the criterion of continuous seaworthiness of the vessel. В статье приведен метод аналитического описания грузовых операций навалочного судна с целью формирования оптимальной стратегии проведения грузовых операций по фактору непрерывного сохранения мореходного состояния судна У статті наведено метод аналітичного опису вантажних операцій навалювального судна з метою формування оптимальної стратегії проведення вантажних операцій по критерію безперервного збереження морехідного стану судна.
Y. Koskina, O. Drozhzhyn
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 205-215; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-20

Abstract:
An analytical overview of Ukraine's grain production volumes is presented, the dynamics and geography of the grain export of Ukraine are analyzed. The most part of the frown grain is exported from Ukraine and, as well as the grain production, the export structure is formed from wheat, corn and barley. The geography of export differs for these kings of grain products, however, key markets are separated (?) from Ukraine with sea. There are Asian and North-Africa countries and countries of the Middle East, which are depended from grain import traditionally. The transportation of grain turnovers thus is carried by maritime transport. This is Testify to this are significant volumes of handling of grain cargoes in national seaports and terminals operating in them. Тhe main grain ports are considered to be Mykolaiv, Odesa, Pivdennyi and Chornomorsk with their total share up to 90% of general grain export. In less volumes grain cargoes are handled in Kherson, Berdyansk and Mariupol'. For most Ukrainian ports grain is a strategic cargo, providing up to half of their cargo turnover. Представлен аналитический обзор объемов производства зерновой продукции Украиной, проанализирована динамика и география поставок украинского зерна на экспорт. Значительную часть вырощенного зерна Украина экспортирует, а основу экспорта, как и основу зернового производства, составляют пшеница, кукуруза и ячмень. География поставок этих видов зерновой продукции отличается, однако ключевые рынки сбыта отдалены от Украины морем. Это азиатские и северо-африканские страны, а также страны Ближнего Востока, традиционно зависящие от импорта зерна. Транспортное обслуживание зерновых грузопотоков осуществляется морским транспортом. Это подтверждается значительными объемами перевалки экспортного зерна отечественными морскими портами и расположенными в них терминалами. Основными зерновыми портами Украины являются Николаев, Одесса, Пивденный и Черноморск, которые отгружают до 90% зернового экспорта. В значительно меньших объемах зерновые грузы перегружаются в Херсонском, Бердянском и Маруипольсокм портах. Для большинства портов Украины зерно является стратегическим грузом, обеспечивая до половины их экспортного грузооборота Наведено аналітичний огляд динаміки та географії експорту зернової продукції з України, визначено участь морських портів у транспортному обслуговуванні зернових вантажопотоків. Аналіз обсягів відвантажень зернових вантажів на експорт українськими портами подано у динаміці за останні п'ять років із визначенням участі основних та другорядних портів та значущості зернових вантажопотоків для кожного порта.
O. Safronov
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 121-134; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-13

Abstract:
Absence of normative values of the actual coefficients in new rules of GOST 34434-2018 does not allow implementing and determining the optimal characteristics of the brake according to the previously adopted conditions of braking efficiency (braking distance), which causes uncertainty in solving this problem. The uncertainty lies in the fact that the choice of the characteristics of the brake system of a freight car has to be carried out by enumerating a large number of variations. In this respect, the article provides tools for determining the actual coefficient of the press force of composite brake blocks on wheels, satisfying the given braking efficiency of the freight train. Universal formulas are used as tools in the form of power dependence between the actual coefficient of press force of brake blocks and the braking distance of a freight train. The coefficients of universal formulas are obtained on the basis of computer simulation. Numerous examples show that the error in the use of universal formulas in calculation studies does not exceed 0.5% compared to the calculated ones according to GOST 34434-2018 methodology. Values of actual coefficients are given depending on the axial load of the car and speed at which the braking distances of the freight train correspond to the standard minimum permissible values. It is shown that performance of the calculation studies using universal formulas in the EXCEL environment allows automate the calculation process in full. A technique is proposed for determining the gear ratio of the brake lever mechanism of a freight car, at which a given braking efficiency is performed. The proposed technique allows you to perform multivariate studies on the selection of optimal parameters of the brake system of freight cars that meet the specified requirements for braking efficiency, and greatly facilitates the calculation studies. Предложены универсальные формулы для определения действительного коэффициента силы нажатия композиционных колодок и тормозного пути грузового поезда. Коэффициенты уравнений получены методом компьютерного моделирования. Методика позволяет выполнять многовариантные исследования по выбору оптимальных параметров тормозной системы грузовых вагонов, отвечающих заданным требованиям тормозной эффективности. Погрешность расчетных исследований по универсальным формулам не превышает 0,5 % по сравнению с расчетными исследованиями по новым правилам. Приведены примеры расчетов. Відсутність нормативних значень дійсних коефіцієнтів в нових правилах ГОСТ 34434-2018 не дозволяють здійснювати і визначати оптимальні характеристики гальма по заздалегідь прийнятим умовам гальмівної ефективності (гальмівному шляху), що викликає невизначеність у вирішенні зазначеної задачі. Невизначеність полягає в тому, що вибір характеристик гальмівної системи вантажного вагона доводиться здійснювати методом перебору великої кількості варіантів. У зв'язку з цим, в статті наведено інструментарій для визначення дійсного коефіцієнта сили натиснення гальмівних колодок на колеса, що задовольняють заданій гальмівній ефективності вантажного поїзда. В якості інструментарію використовуються універсальні формули у вигляді ступеневої залежності між дійсним коефіцієнтом сили натискання гальмівних колодок і гальмівного шляху вантажного поїзда. Коефіцієнти універсальних формул отримані на основі комп'ютерного моделювання. На прикладах показано, що похибка використання універсальних формул при розрахункових дослідженнях не перевищує 0,5% в порівнянні з розрахованими за методикою ГОСТ 34434-2018. Наведені значення дійсних коефіцієнтів в залежності від осьового навантаження вагона і швидкості, при яких гальмівні шляхи вантажного поїзда відповідають нормативним мінімальним допустимим значенням. Показано, що проведення розрахункових досліджень за універсальними формулами в середовищі EXCEL дозволяють повністю автоматизувати процес обчислень. Запропоновано методику визначення передаточного числа важільної передачі гальма вантажного вагона, при якій виконуються задана гальмівна ефективність. Запропонована методика дозволяє...
V. Samsonkin, O. Goretskyi, R. Shcherbyna
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 216-226; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-21

Abstract:
In the face of a protracted management crisis, JSC «Ukrainian Railways» loses its attractiveness to investors and its overall management. One of the directions of the strategy of the situation is to use the labor potential effectively. The authors of the article consider the influence of organizational culture on the activity of railway enterprises. The impact of corporate culture on internal regulatory processes, decision-making processes, organizational behavior, competitiveness, and overall performance of the organization. The authors describe a generalized scheme of the influence of organizational culture on the global activities of organizations. В условиях затяжного управленческого кризиса ПАО «Українська залізниця» теряет привлекательность для инвесторов. Ситуация требует эффективно использовать трудовой потенциал. Авторы статьи рассматривают влияние организационной культуры на деятельность предприятий железнодорожного транспорта. Влияние организационной культуры на деятельность организации проявляется в обеспечении самоорганизации социально-экономической системы с помощью повышении трудового потенциала организации, который является составляющей общего экономического потенциала предприятия. Авторами предложена обобщенная схема влияния организационной культуры на деятельность организаций Попри значний потенціал компанія АТ «Українська залізниця» залишається неповороткою і малоефективною. Але водночас вона є однією з найбільших державних компаній та одним із найважливіших стратегічних активів у країні. Не додає інвестиційної привабливості АТ УЗ і калейдоскоп зміни керівництва та наглядових рад. В результаті імідж компанії падає. В таких умовах ситуація вимагає ефективно використовувати трудовий потенціал. Автори статті розглядають вплив організаційної культури на діяльність підприємств залізничного транспорту. Визначення цього впливу розглядається як сукупність впливу на кожен напрямок життя і діяльності підприємства. Наголошено, що організаційна культура позитивно впливає на процес комунікації в компанії, а також на виробничий і трудовий процеси. Також корпоративна культура оптимізує процес прийняття рішень. Розглянуто вплив організаційної культури на організаційну поведінку. Наголошено на підвищення мотивації та покращення соціально-психологічного клімату під впливом організаційної культури. Наголошується, що вплив організаційної культури дозволяє збільшити трудовий потенціал підприємств залізничного транспорту. Це, в свою чергу, дозволяє покращити економічні результати діяльності ПАТ УЗ. Вплив організаційної культури на діяльність організації проявляється в досягненні головної цілі організаційної культури – забезпеченні самоорганізації соціально-економічної системи за допомогою персоналу, підвищенні трудового потенціалу організації, який є складовою загального економічного потенціалу підприємства. Авторами запропонована узагальнена схема впливу організаційної культури на діяльність організацій.
T. Kovtun, T. Smokova, D. Kovtun
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 156-168; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-16

Abstract:
The Ukrainian market of international freight transportation has considerable unrealized potential, therefore it is necessary to identify mechanisms for improving the efficiency of functioning of the transport system of Ukraine and its integration into the international transport system. One of the priority areas for the development of the Ukrainian transport industry is its integration into the world and European transport and logistics systems. This can be achieved by developing the country's transport and logistics infrastructure and creating a network of modern transport and logistics centers. Transport and logistics centers, as objects of transport and logistics infrastructure, have emerged due to the spread of integration processes in the economies of countries and have become an integral part of transport and logistics systems. The transport and logistics center is a complex system that includes several subsystems, integrated by integration links, through which it is able to perform logistic functions. The article provides an analytical overview of the transit potential of Ukraine and the country's transport and logistics system in the global environment, examines the world experience of creating and operating transport and logistics centers as elements of the transport and logistics system, and gives attention to the peculiarities of functioning of logistics centers in developed countries. The main characteristics of the transport and logistics center, its place in the transport and logistics system and the goals of operation are determined. Украинский рынок международных грузоперевозок имеет значительный нереализованный потенциал, поэтому возникает необходимость выявления механизмов повышения эффективности функционирования транспортной системы Украины и ее интеграции в международную транспортную систему. В статье представлены аналитический обзор транзитного потенциала Украины и транспортно-логистической системы страны в глобальной среде, рассмотрен мировой опыт создания и функционирования транспортно-логистических центров как элементов транспортно-логистической системы и уделено внимание особенностям функционирования логистических центров в развитых странах. Определены основные характеристики транспортно-логистического центра, его место в транспортно-логистической системе и цели функционирования Український ринок міжнародних вантажних перевезень має значний нереалізований потенціал, тому виникає необхідність виявлення механізмів підвищення ефективності функціонування транспортної системи України та її інтеграції в міжнародну транспортну систему. У статті подано аналітичний огляд транзитного потенціалу України та транспортно-логістичної системи країни в глобальному середовищі,розглянуто світовий досвід створення і функціонування транспортно-логістичних центрів як елементів транспортно-логістичної системи та приділено увагу особливостям функціонування логістичних центрів в розвинутих країнах. Визначено основні характеристики транспортно-логістичного центру, його місце в транспортно-логістичній системі та цілі функціонування.
I. Aharkov
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 52-59; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-6

Abstract:
The methods of calculation of steering systems of vehicles are analyzed. The main factors that influence the driver's efforts when turning steered wheels are identified. They depend on the design of the steering, the trajectory of movement, speed, mass. It is determined that on surfaces with high coefficient of adhesion when turning the steered wheels in place, a significant part of the moment of resistance when turning the wheels is the moment of resistance of the tire rotation. Reducing the torque of the tire occurs while driving, which in turn reduces the overall torque of the steered wheels. The characteristic of the moment of resistance of the rotation of the tire is non-linear, which complicates the calculation. Therefore, for the calculation of the characteristic is divided into sections with conditionally the same dependence. The dependence of the moment of resistance of the rotation of the tire on the spot on the angle of rotation of the steered wheel of the trolleybus with the maximum allowable load on the axle was obtained. The dependence of the driver's effort on the moment of resistance on the steered wheels is shown. The mechanical parameters of the electric power steering of the trolleybus are determined. Проведен анализ методов расчета систем рулевого управления транспортных средств. Получена зависимость момента сопротивления повороту шины на месте от угла поворота управляемого колеса троллейбуса при максимально-допустимой нагрузке на ось. Определены механические параметры электрического усилителя рулевого управления троллейбуса. Проведено аналіз методів розрахунку систем рульового керування транспортних засобів. Отримано залежність моменту опору повороту шини на місці від кута повороту керованого колеса тролейбусу при максимально-допустимому навантаженні на вісь. Визначені механічні параметри електричного підсилювача рульового керування тролейбусу.
O. Koshel, S. Sapronova, D. Bulich, V. Tkachenko
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 14-23; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-2

Abstract:
Most of the cars of hopper dosers and dumpkars (dumpers) on the railways of ukraine have a service life that significantly exceeds that established by the manufacturer. The article studies the residual life of load-bearing metal structures of hopper dosers and dumpkars (dumpers) based on the results of technical diagnostics and type tests. The analysis of the ratio of the actual thickness of the spinal beam of cars to the nominal values. Possible places of occurrence of typical defects in hopper dosers and dumpkars (dumpers) are determined. it is concluded that the state of the supporting metal structures of cars after long-term operation does not approach the limit. the obtained practical and theoretical results allow us to develop a set of measures to assess the residual life of the bearing metal structures of hopper dosers and dumpkars (dumpers). Большинство вагонов хоппер-дозаторов и думпкаров (самосвалов) на железных дорогах Украины имеют срок службы, который значительно превышает установленный заводом-изготовителем. В статье проведено исследование остаточного ресурса несущих металлических конструкций вагонов хоппер-дозаторов и думпкаров (самосвалов) на основе результатов технического диагностирования и типовых испытаний. Проведен анализ соотношения фактических толщин хребтовой балки вагонов до номинальных значений. Определены возможные места возникновения типичных дефектов у вагонов хоппер-дозаторов и думпкаров (самосвалов). Сделан вывод о том, что состояние несущих металлических конструкций вагонов после длительной эксплуатации не приближается к предельному. Полученные практические и теоретические результаты позволяют разработать комплекс мероприятий для оценки остаточного ресурса несущих металлических конструкций вагонов хоппер-дозаторов и думпкаров (самосвалов). В статті проведено дослідження залишкового ресурсу несучих металевих конструкцій вагонів хопер-дозаторів та думпкарів (самоскидів) на основі результатів технічного діагностування та типових випробувань. Проведено аналіз співвідношення фактичних товщин хребтової балки вагонів до номінальних значень. Визначено ймовірні місця виникнення типових дефектів у вагонів хопер-дозаторів та думпкарів (самоскидів). Отримані практичні та теоретичні результати дають змогу розробити комплекс заходів для оцінки залишкового ресурсу несучих металевих конструкцій вагонів хопер-дозаторів та думпкарів (самоскидів).
A. Fomin, P. Prokopenko, M. Gorbunov, S. Sova
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 44-51; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-5

Abstract:
Traffic safety is a crucial requirement for the operation of railways. Rail crashes have the greatest risk of derailment, with serious consequences. According to the results of the analysis, the consequences of the east are serious damage to the rolling stock, railway tracks and other elements of the railway infrastructure, slowing down and disruption of the train schedule. A significant drawback of railway transport is the restriction of the speed of trains with light-duty freight cars in the empty state, equipped with carts model 18-100. Among the reasons for the rise of the wheels of the wagons from the rails associated with the malfunctions of the undercarriage of the wagons, the following can be called: breakage of the side frames and cantilever beams of carts, breakage of axles and wheels, malfunctions of roller bearings of the axle assembly, wear of elements of friction dampers oscillations and bodies on the beam beams, the deviations of the sizes of the carts are inadmissible. Another important reason is the negative reduction of the wagon container by more than 10% of the factory installed by the factory. These faults, in particular those associated with the destruction of the undercarriage elements, directly lead to the descent of the wagons. However, some of them do not directly cause sunrise, but are the causes of the development of dynamic processes that cause increased force interaction of the rolling stock. Безопасность движения является важнейшим требованием к работе железных дорог. Среди аварий на железнодорожном транспорте наибольшую опасность представляет сход с рельсов, это может привести к тяжелым последствиям. По результатам анализа установлено, что последствиями схода есть серьезные повреждения подвижного состава, железнодорожного пути и других элементов инфраструктуры железной дороги, снижение скорости и нарушение графика движения поездов. Безпека руху є найважливішою вимогою до роботи залізниць. Серед аварій на залізничному транспорті найбільшу небезпеку становить схід з рейок, це може призвести до тяжких наслідків. За результатами аналізу встановлено, що наслідками сходу є серйозні пошкодження рухомого складу, залізничних колій та інших елементів інфраструктури залізниці, зниження швидкості і порушення графіка руху поїздів. Істотним недоліком роботи залізничного транспорту це обмеження швидкості руху поїздів з легковажними вантажними вагонами в порожньому стані, обладнаних візками моделі 18-100. У числі причин сходу коліс вагонів з рейок, пов'язаних з несправностями ходової частини вагонів, можна назвати наступні: злам бічних рам і надресорна балок візків, злам осей і коліс, несправності роликових підшипників буксового вузла, знос елементів фрикційних гасителів коливань і вузла обпирання кузова на надресорні балки, неприпустимі відхилення розмірів візків. Також важливою причиною є негативне зменшення тари вагона більш ніж на 10% від встановленої заводом виробником. Зазначені несправності, зокрема, пов'язані з руйнуваннями елементів ходової частини, безпосередньо призводять до сходу вагонів. Однак, деякі з них прямо не викликають сход, але є причинами розвитку динамічних процесів, які викликають підвищене силове взаємодія рухомого складу.
O. Fomin, A. Lovska
Collection of scientific works of the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies series "Transport Systems and Technologies", Volume 35, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.32703/2617-9040-2020-35-4

Abstract:
The dynamic loading of the improved bearing structure of the wagon-platform for transportation of military equipment and conducting fire action from it in motion is determined. It is established that the maximum value of the acceleration of the load-bearing structure of the wagon-platform is about 3.8 m/sec2 in the oscillation of hopping and – 3.9 m/sec2 in the oscillation of galloping. Establishing a resilient connection between the rotary sectors and the supporting structure of the wagon platform reduces the dynamic load when fired from anti-aircraft installations in the vertical plane by almost 30%. The conducted researches will promote creation of innovative designs of wagons-platforms and increase of defense capability of the country. Проведено определение динамической нагруженности усовершенствованной несущей конструкции вагона-платформы для перевозки военной техники и ведения огневых действий в движении. Установлено, что максимальная величина ускорения несущей конструкции вагона-платформы составляет при этом около 3,8 м/с2 при колебаниях подпрыгивания и 3,9 м/с2 при колебаниях галопирования. Постановка упруго-вязкой связи между поворотными секторами и несущей конструкцией вагона-платформы позволяет снизить динамическую нагруженность при выстреле из зенитных установок в вертикальной плоскости почти на 30% в сравнении с типовой конструкцией. Проведенные исследования будут способствовать созданию инновационных конструкций вагонов-платформ и повышению обороноспособности страны. Проведено визначення динамічної навантаженості удосконаленої несучої конструкції вагона-платформи для перевезення військової техніки та ведення вогняної дії при русі. Встановлено, що максимальна величина прискорення несучої конструкції вагона-платформи складає при цьому близько 3,8 м/с2 при коливаннях підскакування та 3,9 м/с2 при коливаннях галопування. Встановлення пружно-в’язкого зв’язку між поворотними секторами та несучою конструкцією вагона-платформи дозволяє знизити динамічну навантаженість при пострілі з зенітних установок у вертикальній площині майже на 30% у порівнянні з типовою конструкцією. Проведені дослідження сприятимуть створення інноваційних конструкцій вагонів-платформ та підвищенню обороноздатності країни.a
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