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Ahmed Hassan Kadhim, Ahmed Abies Moter
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.13

Abstract:
Study complete in postgraduate laboratories at the College of Science, Department of Biology, University of Kufa. The anatomical study revealed a variation in the formation of complex cells and epidermal cells, where they differed in their shapes and were irregular with wavy ridges and on the axial surfaces in R. sativusvar red L. and R. sativuslongipinntus L. Their walls were weak jagged in only R. raphenstrum. Also, the stomata were located on both sides of the leaf blade, and the upper epidermis contained fewer stomata compared to the lower epidermis.
Cornelius K.A. Pienaah, Bruno Berewono, Mahama Dangana, Joseph Angkyelaa, Daniel Gandiibu
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.12

Abstract:
Honey commonly referred to as ‘liquid gold’’ is a sweet, thick liquid natural food produced by honeybees through secretions of living plants that transform and combine with specific substances of their own, and leave it in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Honey is spoken of by all religious books, and accepted by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern as very medicinal and nutritious food. The paper explored the source, brand and packaging of honey sold, the quality features of honey consumers look out for during purchase, average consumption (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly) of honey, health and nutritional benefits of honey and the concerns consumers have about honey purchased for consumption. A consumer survey in peri-urban and urban communities in Wa Municipality was carried out. A total number of 400 consumers were accidentally sampled and consented for the study after verifying consumer’s eligibility from a check list. The study found out that, consumption of honey was common among urban and peri-urban dwellers thereby creates a business opportunity for producers, processors and vendors, Two major sources of honey were identified, wild and apiary honey. The brands identified were also the local and external honeys. Honey in the Municipality is packaged and sold in plastic/rubber bottle, recycled drinking water bottle and beer bottles for consumers. Honey consumers in the Wa municipality commonly use four quality characteristics (flavor, taste, color and thickness) in buying honey for use. They believe that these physical characteristics are all-inclusive in determining the quality of honey and stretches an upright conclusion of honey quality. The overall daily average quantity of honey consumed per person in Wa Municipality was calculated at 1.7 ml, weekly 11.9ml, monthly 47.6ml and yearly 571.2ml. In terms of access point of honey, consumers buy honey from processors, distributers and vendors. Majority of the consumers bu
Utkalendu Suvendusekhar Samantaray, Ms. Samuka Sahu
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.11

Abstract:
Cellulose undergoes hydrolysis utilizing chemicals to deliver glucose, which might be utilized for the production of ethanol, organic acids, and various chemicals. Cellulases are a collection of hydrolytic catalysts that can hydrolyze the most plentiful natural polymer for example cellulose into smaller sugar components including glucose subunits. Cellulase is overpriced and contributes simply half to the general expense of hydrolysis because of the low explicit activity. This enzyme has enormous potential in industries and its use in food, beverages, textile, laundry, paper, and mash industries, and so forth. Consequently, there has been a lot of examination focused on new microorganisms producing cellulose enzymes with higher specific activities and greater efficiency. Currently, work is pointed toward screening and disconnecting cellulolytic growths from the marine samples gathered from the Bay of Bengal, Puri coast, Odisha. All out 7 fungi were isolated from these dirt examples, out of which 2 fungi were portraying the extensive cellulase activity. The fungal isolate, for example, MWF-1 andMSF-6 isolated from water silt respectively were recognized to show the most extreme zone of hydrolysis of carboxy-methyl cellulose. The cellulase activity was assayed by Carboxymethylcellulose "CMCase" (endoglucanase) measure.
Osama Asanousi Lamma
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.10

Abstract:
Sewage effluent water is consistently used for the agricultural irrigation in rural and urban region farms. The spread of the potential infectious diseases is the major concern for farm workers and also for city inhabitant when they get exposed to these effluents. They also will affect those people consuming crops developed using effluent water irrigation system, particularly when the farm produce is consumed raw by people or otherwise, the farm yield is brought in that raw condition into the kitchen. Only way of preventing is by making adequate measures to disinfect the effluent. Moreover, the effluent water must meet all the conditions of usual irrigation water parameter needs such as trace elements, sodium adsorption ratio, salt content, and so on. Regrettably, no proper interest taken and awareness paid to curtail sewage irrigation long-term effects on principal groundwater. The irrigation water is mostly applied during the dry climatic conditions that evaporates quickly. Whereas, the non-biodegradable chemical concentration of the drained water and deep-percolated water goes down to join the groundwater, which may remain at a higher level than the effluent water itself. There are various chemicals included in such effluent water, comprising of various salts, potential pesticide residues, nitrates, and they are usually expected in the farming and irrigated farming. However, the chemicals in the sewage, such as pharmaceuticals, organic, synthetic compounds, by-products of disinfection, and pharmaceutical active endocrine disruptor, chemicals, Fumic acids are mainly known to be the main disinfection precursor by-products. They are formed as soon as the drainage water joins the drinking-water, which gets chlorinated subsequently. Therefore, the groundwater right under the sewage-irrigated regions finally can become completely unfit for human consumption and drinking. The is the main issue that is raising questions of its accountability and burden, when the sewage
Isha Kumari, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.8

Abstract:
Nature has gifted humans a vast variety of medicinal plants, which are the rich source of bioactive compounds. Calotropis procera is an important medicinal plant that belongs to the family asclepiadaceae. It is commonly known as madar and milkweed plant in english and arka in hindi. It is mostly found in the tropics of asia and africa. Calotropis procera is a highly valued plant in the folk medication system. Each part of the plant is richly endowed with diverse nature of phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, saponins, terpenes, and flavonoids, etc. These phytochemicals are significantly associated with various therapeutic and pharmacological properties such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, antifertility, anti-diarrheal, and spasmolytic. In this review article, the therapeutic and pharmacological value of this important plant has been summarized along with its utilization in the folklore and ayurvedic medicinal system.
Amit Prakash
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.9

Abstract:
Oral drug delivery is the most commonly used and preferred route of delivery of pharmaceuticals which has been successfully treating wide number of diseases. The advantages of this method of delivery are patient friendly, cost effective, established delivery system, noninvasiveness and convenient, and In the pharmaceutical field it is the most favored drug delivery system. Oral drug delivery systems along with other effective delivery system types that are effective and promising are discussed in this paper based on the mechanism of drug release.
Raveendran Sathasivam, Dassanayakke Pb, Dammika Aryarathna
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.6

Abstract:
Introduction: Infliction of painless death in a patient suffering from severe pain or distress due to incurable terminal illness by another person called as mercy killing or euthanasia. If this happened in a hospital with the consent in a country, where euthanasia is legalized there is nothing to be discussed. Absence of deceased account related to the incident and the so-called history of “mercy killing” opens up much discussion. Case Report: A 63-year-old married woman was found dead with a cut injury from which bled a lot onto her bed in an early morning with a sharp knife at the scene. History revealed that she had sustained cervical spinal cord injury upon accidental fall around 5 months ago confining her to bed with quadriplegia and much pain. The pain and the hardships that she was facing were too distressing and were unbearable to the husband who loved the wife very much. The husband had planned himself to get suicide after killing his wife with the pure intention of ending of her suffering. As a result, husband slashed her neck with a sharp knife. There after he tried to commit suicide with cut throat and hanging but both methods were failed. At the autopsy, the clothes showed flashed blood on the upper part of the blouse. A deep, horizontally placed, incised neck injury was found on the front and right side of middle third of the neck. Death was opined as due to exsanguinous bleeding resulting from deep cut of the neck produced by a sharp weapon. Upon the medico-legal examination of the alleged husband with superficial cut injuries at the neck and head and a ligature mark, confessed that he killed her wife solely because of the incurable suffering. Conclusion: The important fact here to be considered is the intention of the alleged assailant i.e. actual case of mercy killing, or a malicious act or he was insane, depressed, etc. It needs psychological assessment of assailant by Forensic Psychiatrist. Among many other facts this case highlights the consid
Ashmit Gill, Somi Patranabis
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.7

Abstract:
The global burden of cancer is projected to have more than doubled over the next two decades, raising the prospect of a significant investment in health systems, thus posing a real medical problem. The increasing number of people with cancer highlights the need for more cancer prevention efforts. An established history exists for plant-derived compounds as effective anticancer agents. More recently, several phytohormones have been assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth and survival of human cancer cell lines. Phytohormones or plant hormones are chemical messengers responsible for harmonizing various cellular activities that revolves around growth, development, and stress-response. The aim of this literature review article is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the several naturally occurring phytohormones which have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of variety of different type of cancers.
Rohit Sharma, Ram Keval
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.5

Abstract:
The pigeonpea was infested with the number of insect pests at various stage of crop growth. Out of which the incidence pattern of C. gibbosa was studied. The result of the investigation pertaining to the “Screening of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] against Tur Pod bug, Clavigralla gibbosa (Spinola) in long duration Pigeonpea genotypes” was carried out in 2018-19 at the Agricultural Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. This insect was studied during reproductive phase of the crop during 2018-19. The very first presence of pod bug, [C. gibbosa (spinola)] was reported in all genotypes with a maximum population of (1.13 bug/plant) in the MAL-13 (AVT1) genotype in the 4th standard week pursued in the first week by AVT1-706 (1.06 bug/plant), AVT1-705 (1.03 bug/plant) in first week. Pod Bug population continued between the 4th standard Week of 2018-19. Throughout all genotypes, that 12th standard week Pod bug populations had been reported to also be especially high mostly during 12th standard week for nearly every genotypes. MAL-13 (AVT1) genotypes, accompanied by AVT1-704, would have the highest percentage of 10.55 bugs/plant, as well as 9.62 bugs/plant populations. In genotypes AVT1-707 (4.96 bug/plant), the lowest population of pod bugs was found. AVT2 - 903 (5.02 bug/plant), and AVT1-703 (5.17 bugs/plant) during the 10th standard week. The mean pod bug population was substantially different in different genotypes and ranged from AVT1-708 (1.72 bugs/plant) to MAL 13(AVT1) (3.77 bugs/plant). . Its degree of damage in cultivar AVT2-904 ranged from 27.33% to 51.00% in cultivar AVT1-703. The grain loss in genotype AVT2-904 ranged from 12.68% to 30.52% in genotype AVT2-907.
Robin Adhikari
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.4

Abstract:
The field experiment was conducted to know profitability of different cucumber variety at agriculture farm of Girija Prasad koirala college of Agriculture and Research centre (GPCAR) of Purbanchal University, Gothgaun from March to July 2020. The experiment was conducted in Randomized complete block design with Walk–in structure with three treatments (GS16, Bhaktapur Local and Cucumber green long) and five replications. Each treatment consists of two plants in a replication. Sex ratio was seen on first thirty flowers after sowing of seed. All fruit harvested was considered for research purpose. The research revealed that fruit yield was poor in Bhaktapur local, satisfactory in GS16 and Cucumber green long. The fruit yield was higher in Cucumber green long followed by GS16. There was no satisfactory fruit yield in Bhaktapur local. Hence, it is concluded that thermo sensitive variety of cucumber Bhaktapur Local is not profitable to grow in summer season in plain area of eastern Nepal. Growing of cucumber green long for pickling quality is beneficial although slicing quality is better seen in GS16. The research hints that cucumber green long is a profitable agriculture commodity for the research area.
Spozhmai Osmani
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.3

Abstract:
The widespread usage of gas chromatography for food analysis makes it a value for scientific research. The typical chemical and food analysis tasks performed by Quall Expand use mostly quantitative or qualitative analysis of food constituents, poisons, pesticides, and waste chemicals. As well as the changes in food taste and packaging, and odour composition, and work with various extraction procedures such as using water and steam distillation, solvents. This review provides a general introduction to gas chromatography research and mentions the main uses of gas chromatography in food science in addition to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Trends from past and forecasted implementation practices are noted, evaluated, and possible trends in the present and possible future behavior of food industries. They predict that in food applications, which do not include the already gas chromatography, the fastest-developing research methods in the next decade would be used known as gas chromatography. The main three methods for quick gas chromatography are low-pressure gas chromatography or TOFOT gas chromatography/time-of-MS, which is only briefly defined, and the features of a gas chromatography are evaluated.
Anakpua Blessing C, Nzeakor Emmanuel C, Emefo Chinyere N
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.2

Abstract:
This study determined the effect of differentiated instruction on students’ achievement in geometry. Two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 alpha levels guided the study. The study employed pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study consisted of 1603 Senior Secondary two (SSII) students in Onitsha North Local Government of Anambra State and a sample of 224 SSII students were randomly selected from two co-education secondary schools from the population. Geometry Achievement Test (GAT) which contained 30 items was face and content validated by three experts. Reliability of the instrument was estimated at 0.78 using split-half reliability method. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested using z-test and t -test at 5% level of significance. The findings of the study showed that students that were taught geometry with differentiated instruction achieved better than those taught with conventional method. Both male and female students achieved high in geometry with the use of differentiated instruction. There is a statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught geometry with differentiated instruction and those taught with conventional method. Again, there is no statistically significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught geometry with differentiated instruction. It was recommended among others that Mathematics teachers and educators should adopt the use of differentiated instruction while teaching and learning mathematics. Also curriculum developers should incorporate the use of differentiated instruction in the mathematics curriculum.
Das Sankar Das
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.3.1

Abstract:
A total of 111 no. of Germplasm of Millets with code no’s have been assembled through formal process of Collaborative programme experimented from 2017-2020 Cropping season. The Germplasm has been evaluated for various Agronomic traits (biotic, abiotic, grain quality, etc.). The organisation, Watershed Support service & Activities Network (Wassan) with Odisha Millet Mission Project holds 111 no. of Millet Germplasm collection with 108 no. of indigenous and 3 no. of rare types having information on important trait specific characters from the communities, community managed seed bank. The Present Paper highlights the assessment of Millet diversity assembled and conserved under Odisha Millet Mission Project & thrust areas identified for future conservation and utilization.
Shifali Thakur, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 227-236; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.30

Abstract:
Herbal plants have been a significant source of therapeutic agents to cure human diseases. Plants are being in use for treating various kinds of diseases across the world. Terminalia arjuna is a widely used herbal plant since ancient times. The ancient indian practitioners utilized the powdered tree bark of arjuna for the treatment of "hritshool" (angina) and other cardiovascular problems. Terminalia arjuna is regionally called as arjuna which belongs to the combretaceae family. The plant is utilized as a medicine in the various indigenous system like ayurveda, siddha and unani. Arjunic acid, arjunolic acid, arjungenin, arjunone, arjunolone and luteolin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (opcs), phytosterols are the major phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna that possesses many useful biological properties like anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifeedant, cardio protective, etc. Various clinical evidence of Terminalia arjuna and its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. The present review is summarizing the phytomedicinal value of Terminalia arjuna in ayurveda and the folk system of medicine.
Nisveta Softić, Halid Makić, Edisa Trumić, Husejin Keran, Melisa Ahmetović
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 259-261; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.34

Abstract:
One of the most important public- health tasks is to provide hygienic and healthy food and water, which will not have harmful consequences for the health of consumers, and in this way a safe food trade is ensured, therefore protecting everyone in the chain from the producer to the consumer. This paper presents the concentrations of heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), from 5 samples of thyme infusion (lat. Thymus serpyllum), which can be found on the market of Travnik. Sample infusions were prepared by holding the filter bags in boiling deionized water for 10 minutes. Mean values of concentrations of these heavy metals were for Fe 0.0508 ± 0.0139 mg/kg, Mn 0.06 ± 0.0069 mg/kg, Zn 0.0436 ± 0.0147 mg/kg, while the Cu content was not detected in any infusion of the said tea. The risk assessment of the intake of tested heavy metals for the health of consumers, expressed through the Hazard Index (HI), which was <1, shows that the samples of analyzed teas are safe for consumption.
Prabha Adhikari, Prativa Sharma, Surya Sharma Bhatta
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 45-51; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.6

Abstract:
Dairy farming is emerging as commercial enterprise and milk as the part of dietary food but the milk productivity of the cattle varies with the variation in climatic factors. So, breed selection plays imperative role on maintaining productivity and adoptability in different environments. Holstein Friesian and Jersey being the temperate breeds with high milk producing capacities could not perform well on the tropical and sub-tropical region. With proper feeding, Holstein has higher milk yield and low-fat percentage than Jersey. Milk yield varies by 2.58% in Holstein and 2.09% in Jersey cow with the change in climatic factors (minimum temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). In hot areas, both breeds suffer from heat stress showing low feed intake, higher body and rectal temperature, high respiration rates and high heart beats. Holstein has high increase than Jersey in rectal temperature and heart beat by 0.550C and 15.4 inhalations/min respectively which shows Jersey are more heat tolerant than Holstein. It is due to the larger heat dissipating area, short and light hair, lighter body coat and thin fat. Heat stress can be managed by providing shade, nutritious feed and genetic improvements. As the climate change is emerging, it can affect cattle in tropical regions even more in near future. To overcome this future challenge, further research and study must be done for the proper management of Holstein and Jersey in stress condition and heat tolerance breed must be developed by genetic improvement.
Sayed Mohammad Naeim Oighun
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 69-71; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.9

Abstract:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) haploids and doubled haploids are widely used in breeding, the investigations of a combinative variability and its stabilization in homozygotes. In four domestic varieties of winter wheats (Moskovskaya 56, Moskovskaya 39, Galina, Nemchinovskaya 24) and three domestic varieties of spring wheats (Ester, MIS, Amir). With spring wheat variety Falat as a control, the efficacy of embryogenesis in isolated microspores was tested using standard protocol for induction of direct embryo formation in the isolated microspore culture. In all winter varieties there was shown a low frequency of cytoplasmic strands, which are typical for the embryogenic microspores, whereas in the spring varieties it was high. After 4 days cultivation in the medium used for induction, the microspore viability decreased in winter varieties. and another 10 days later the Viable cells were not observed. The spring varieties developed the multicellular structures, which could produce embryos. The reference variety Falat produced 28 % of proembryoids, able mostly to further embryonic formation. Basing on these results, the protocol for inducing direct embryogenesis in wheat microspores was modified, including maltose concentration in medium, the conditions of spikelet heat treatment, the number of ovaries and time when they were added to the culture, the combination and concentration of hormones in the media for induction and cultivation.
Edrees Khan Rahmatzada, Paras Nath Yadav, Yuba Raj Pokharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 88-97; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.11

Abstract:
Thiosemicarbazone have the antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer effects. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited the cell viability of HepG-2 cells by CV assay in a concentration dependent manner (control, 1μM, 3μM, 10μM, 30μM, and 100μM) with IC50 value of 9.587622μM. Further colony formation assay demonstrated that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibits colony number and size of HepG-2. Wound healing assay exhibited that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit the migration of HepG-2 cells. DAPI staining showed that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited proliferation of HepG-2 cells in 30μM and 100μM concentrations respectively. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited VEGF, p38 alpha, C-JUN, BECN-1, ERK, NF-KB, in HepG-2 cells. We found that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit proliferation of HepG-2 cells by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway, 3-OH-Me-TSC can be developed as future chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma after the evaluation of this compounds in more cancer cells an in vivo model.
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 114-125; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.14

Abstract:
Cichorium intybus is commonly known as Chicory, kasani. It is a recognized medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. This plant is a well-known traditional herb used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicinal system to treat variety of diseases ranging from wounds to diabetes. The species is native to the European region (Mediterranean region) but can also grow in the temperate and semi-arid regions. The juice extracted from this plant is used as a traditional remedy to cure uterus cancer and tumors. The plant is well-known for its roots that are used as an additive in coffee as it provides bitterness in taste without the caffeine. It is also reported that the roots of the plant contain 40% inulin and acts as an anti-diabetic agent. Historically, the plant was cultivated by ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, vegetable crop, coffee substitute and also used as animal forage. Cichorium intybus contains various phytochemical constituents mainly sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, inulin flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids terpenoids and many more. The reported pharmacological properties of the C. intybus plant include hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cardiovascular, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antimalarial, anti-allergic and gastroprotective activities. In this review article, the medicinal and ayurvedic importance of C. intybus plant along with its phytochemicals are briefly explained.
C. P. Khuntia, S. K. Kar, N. Mohanty, H. K. Khuntia, B. Dwibedi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 153-155; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.19

Abstract:
Salmonella meningitis is a disease with high mortality in infants though incidence is rare. This article reports a case of Salmonella meningitis in a two months male infant, who presented with high fever, convulsion and difficulty in breathing. Salmonella typhi was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that showed resistance to Cephalosporins, Fluroquinoles, Macrolides and Aminoglycosides but susceptiblity to Chloramphenicol and Cotrimaxozole. This case was admitted on fourth day of onset of illness and treated with parenteral Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone to cover both gram positive and negative bacterial agents of bacterial meningitis in a young infant, but succumbed to death on ninth day of illness. This indicated importance of S. typhi as a possible bacterial etiology and a great concern on resistance to the normally chosen antibiotics. An early suspicion can be suggested to reduce the risk of mortality. Environmental hygiene and household cleanliness practices also warrants attention, which were identified as possible risks for enteric infection in spite the baby was absolutely breast fed.
Resty C. Samosa
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 162-166; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.21

Abstract:
Physics phenomena are widely viewed in daily life, and the technical nature of physics makes modern life seem to be simpler than it was many years ago. Physics teaching and learning, on the other hand, has not always been done effectively, especially in developing countries. This study aimed measured the effectiveness using mobile physics on students’ reinvigorating active engagement and learning dynamics on teaching uniform accelerated motion. The study employed the one-group pretest–posttest design. The design compared the result obtained from researcher – made - pretest and posttest and adapted science engagement scales. The study revealed that mobile physics as innovation had a positive effect on the learning dynamic of the learners, as evidenced by the significantly greater mean in the posttest. The data showed that there is significant difference in the pretest and posttest score of students in the utilization of mobile physics on teaching uniform accelerated motion. It is also evident that learners highly have engagement during the innovation on teaching uniform accelerated motion. Future utilization of this mobile physics as an innovation would raise learners’ active engagement and learning dynamics in teaching physics concepts.
Nikita Nimsarkar, Mayuri Kulkarni, Faiyaz Shaikh
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 167-172; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.22

Abstract:
The current study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation of phenolic compounds in distinct developmental stages of Wheatgrass (Tritium aestivum). The wheatgrass was grown in the container/tray in the standard condition in the laboratory space provided by the department. Overnight soaked seeds were then sowed in the soil containers for 25 days. The accumulation of phenolics compounds was qualitatively and quantitatively checked in the leaves at 5, 10,15,20,25 days. Phenolics compounds were sequentially extracted in methanol, n-hexane, and acetone. For qualitative analysis, various biochemical tests were carried out and phenolics compounds were quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Among three solvents methanol extract was found to accumulate phenolics compounds in increasing concentration at various developmental stages i.e. 5th days - 0.7135 mg/ml, 10th days 1.2614 mg/ml, 15th days- 1.1244 mg/ml; 20th days - 1.8093 mg/ml and 25th days - 4.0693 mg/ml. On the qualitative check, methanol extract was found to be positive for tannins, terpenoids, and glycosides. These phenolics could be analyzed for antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities are the future perspective of this study.
Chandrayee Talukdar, Swastik Sastri
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 225-226; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.28

Abstract:
The important properties of spider dragline silk and other protein polymers will find many applications. We have demonstrated the production of spider silk, which has many important properties, are produced from the bacteria including Escherichia coli. The productions of high molecular weight spider drag line encoded by synthetic genes. Silk protein can be efficiently produced by the microbial system has become an advantageous method like quick secretion and simple product recovery has become an efficient method .From the observation of various experiments done by several scientists has shown silk made in laboratory. The study of RIKEN centre for sustainable resource science has shown that spider silk can be produce huge amount. Observation shown that joining of the fragments by split intein sequence which then cut itself to yield full name protein .Spun into fibers make the microbial spider silk tough , stretchable and stronger. Better modification of bioengineering can increase the amount of production.
Ajmal Shahim
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 147-152; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.29

Abstract:
Classroom Research, Teacher Research, and Action Research are three methods that are often misunderstood. Classroom analysis is research undertaken in language classrooms that reflects on participation in the lessons; the Research’s emphasis as well as the environment in which the data is obtained characterizes it. For language teachers and the discipline as a whole, doing classroom Research may be helpful. Teacher research is classified as research performed by the Teacher; in other words, the person who performs the thesis specifies it. The iterative cyclic procedures of preparing, behaving, observing, evaluating, and replanting are used in action analysis to address challenges and develop local practice. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the distinctions between classroom research, Teacher research, and Action research, as well as familiarity with the research method in this field. The analysis of vague information in the field of science research, particularly research in the classroom, professorial research, and practical research in language teaching, is the product and result of the research work on this subject, which has added to the richness of this scientific – research essay. Aim- Receiving correct and necessary knowledge on these three forms of Research in the field of English language and literature, as well as a brief summary of systematic and general research on classroom research, Teacher training, and Action research in language teaching classrooms.
Umesh Timilsina, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Arbind Srivastava, Anuja Rijal
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 262-266; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.35

Abstract:
A study entitled “Ripening regulation and post-harvest life improvement of banana Cv. Malbhog using ethephon” was under taken to assess the effect of ethephon on banana fruit ripening and quality parameters after harvest under ordinary room condition. The experiment was conducted at Central laboratory of Post-Harvest Horticulture of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal in 2016. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in which the experiment comprised of five treatments; control(no use of ethephon), ethephon @ 250 ppm, ethephon @ 500 ppm, ethephon @ 750 ppm and ethephon @ 1000 ppm replicated four times. On the final day of storage, the maximum physiological loss in weight was observed with ethephon @ 1000 ppm (24.52 %) and the colour score (7.75). Similarly the highest Total Soluble Solids content (19.32ºBrix) was observed with ethephon @ 1000 ppm and the maximum shelf life was found with control (14 days). From the experiment, the use of ethephon @ 1000 ppm and ethephon @ 750 ppm was found more effective regarding banana ripening and other various post harvest parameters and in case, if the bananas are to be stored for long duration, the control treatement is recommended to the farmers because it increases the shelf life.
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Madhusudan S., Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 98-106; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.12

Abstract:
Berberis aristata is also known as daruharidra which is a famous plant and used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani, Chinese and Allopathy for a very long time. It is a spinous, hard, yellowish herb belongs to the family Berberidaceae. The plant is distributed in sub- Himalayan regions, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and hilly areas of Nepal. It played a significant role as an herbal remedy for more than 2500 years. It was used by ancient Egyptians to anticipate plague disease. European herbalists used this plant to treat liver and gall bladder disorders during the early middle ages. Russian therapists used B. aristata plant to cure inflammation, high blood pressure and abnormal menstrual cycle. It is used as a bitter tonic, stomachic, cholagogue, antiperiodic and alternative by American Indians to cure intermittent fever, neuralgia and menorrhagia. In the traditional medicinal system, the plant is used to treat skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhea, eye problem inflammation and wound healing. Fruit of the plant is a rich source of Vitamin C. The main active constituent of the plant is Berberine found mainly in its roots. The most important formulation of this plant is 'Rashut' that is acts as a tonic as well as blood purifier and also used to treat ulcer and ophthalmic diseases. Reported clinical and experimental studies showed that the plant possesses various pharmacological properties like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and cardiotonic activity.
Khayber Najafi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 107-113; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.13

Abstract:
In recent years, the use of (or lack of) of English textbooks in teaching English as a second/foreign language classrooms has become an issue of great debate among English teachers. Regarding the critical role of teaching materials in second language instruction, this study was an attempt to evaluate the English Coursebook taught at the 10th grade in Afghan schools from the perspectives of both teachers and students. To this end, 30 Afghan teachers of English were asked to fill out a piloted, Likert-scale questionnaire whose items tapped different aspects of the book. In addition, 100 Afghan students at the 10th grade were given another questionnaire to elicit their opinions on the book. After collecting and analyzing the data, the results indicated that, except for the pictures and illustrations used in the book, other aspects including ‘meeting syllabus objectives’, ‘compatibility with Afghan socio-cultural norms’, ‘teachability’, and ‘effectiveness of the testing system’ are confirmed by the teachers. In addition, except for the paper quality and suitability of the illustrations and pictures, the students agreed on the effectiveness of the book in vocabulary development, topic selection and sequence of the exercises.
Istabraq A. Al-Husseiny
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 126-130; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.15

Abstract:
Variation in DNA, and genes to a lesser or greater extent, can play an important role in most diseases; that is because this variation in will reflect and affect the function of DNA, and genes (combined genes and DNA or separately). This can be affected by environment, life style, as well as the inheriting from parents and previous generations. All these factors can contribute in human diseases. There are different alterations in genes, like imbalance and inequality in chromosomes, disorder in gene (deficiency in gene, which could be complex or single disorder), and cancer. In the last decades, scientists were focus on medicine and genetics; they pay an extensive attention to reach better understanding about diseases and their causes, to serve patients in better way. This tendency and preparations were focused on genes and the changes that may occur, and the sequences of these changes on health. In this regard scientists studied the epigenetic diseases as well, and the application of genes in therapy. Implementation of these concepts in labs and clinics required full understanding of genetic alterations.
Prakash Bharatee, Ankit Soti, Rajendra Regmi, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Ananta Raj Devkota, Resham Bahadur Thapa
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 131-136; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.16

Abstract:
Field experiment was conducted in single factor randomized complete block designed to evaluate effect of different color polythene mulch and net house on insect pest incidence of brinjal in chitwan, nepal during october 2016 to may 2017. Five different treatment were selected with four replications, included net house with black polythene mulch, black polythene mulch only, reflective polythene mulch only and black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate 5%sg spray and control (no mulch+ no net + no pesticide spray) . The result revealed that the net house totally restricts the brinjal shoot and fruit borer whereas black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot reduced brinjal shoot and fruit borer larvae upto 70.58%. Total marketable yield was found highest in the black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot (49.17 mt /ha) followed by black polythene mulch only (38.59 mt/ha) and lowest in control plot (28.53 mt/ha). Damaged fruit percentage by brinjal fruit and shoot borer was highest in the control (35.68%) followed by black polythene mulch (28.10%), reflective polythene mulch (19.02%) and lowest in net house with black polythene mulch (0%). The damaged weight inside the net house with black polythene mulch and black mulch with pesticide were significantly different whereas the damaged weight in other treatments similar which proved that there was no effect of mulch on brinjal shoot and fruit borer. The B:C ratio was the highest (3.34:1) in the black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate spray plot while the lowest in net with black polythene mulch (1.68:1). Although the B:C ratio was lower in the net with black polythene mulch due to the low yield in the winter season. Creation of suitable soil environment by black polythene mulch and being biologically originated, having minimum residual effect and short half-life of emamectin benzoate, black polythene mulch with emamectin benzoate can be used for the eco-friendly management of brinjal shoot and fruit borer.
Doaa Dawood Salman
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 137-140; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.17

Abstract:
Corona Virus Disease or what is known (Covid 19) is pandemic spread quickly among most countries of the world, where the infections reached to 50 million humans, and more than 1.250.000 deaths. The reasons of the disease spread among people are the infected and not taking adequate preventive procedures. The delay of the laboratory test result to confirm infection also contributes in the disease spread. Examples of the test are RT-RPC, which requires a lot of time, accuracy in the work, and high experience techniques. These conditions are not available in almost countries, which do this test for limited people with clear symptoms. In this research, some Laboratory tests are concerned to show their role in detecting the virus, where the result of this study show that the results of RT-RPC test are inaccurate by 20%, and so most of the countries that suffered from the rapid spread of the virus resorted to relying on other laboratory tests that less cost and give a quick results to early detection of the virus infection, and these tests can identify false results of RT-RPC.
Abdulrazzaq Mohammed Hamood
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 141-146; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.18

Abstract:
Parasites are microorganism that need host to continue its lifecycle, some of them need direct life cycle while others needs indirect lifecycle. In this review article the researcher focus on things that related to types of parasites, as well as their lifecycles, and the type of the hosts, and how parasites affect the host and their relationship. The review comes over a wide range of years up to 2020, and the last published researches that are related to the topic of this review. The review discusses briefly the classification of the parasites and classified them into three main classes (groups), which are, Helminthes, Protozoa, and Arthropods. Eventually, the researchers came to a certain conclusions such as parasites are living species that needs host to continue its life cycle, there are many types of hosts depend upon the needs of parasites, there are more than eight million of parasites and their weight ranged from 25 microgram up to 70 grams.
Meena S. Farman, Marwa A. Akoul
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 173-183; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.23

Abstract:
Obesity is a main health problem, that affects people all over the world. According to recent articles, obese patients should be denied any therapy to aim improving ovulation rates and achieving pregnancy until their BMI is reduced. We believe that this approach does not solve the issue, but rather exacerbates the maternal and perinatal complications linked to fertility clinics. Obesity independent of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related with anovulation, and a weight loss alone is an effective treatment for inducing ovulation in both obese women with or not PCOS. As a result, weight-loss lifestyle programs should be considered an ovulation induction therapy, with due consideration for a possible pregnancy in an obese woman. Obesity has been linked to menstrual irregularities and infertility, Despite the fact that a critical mass of adipose tissue is needed for development female reproductive function. The severity of fat tissue distribution and obesity are important factors that affect the female reproductive system. The mechanisms of pathogenetic that link them aren't well understood. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are common in obese, especially those women with upper obesity of body, as are hyperandrogenemia, increased peripheral aromatization of androgens to oestrogens, altered secretion of gonadotrophin, and reduced (SHBG), decreased growth hormone (GH) , insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), elevated level of leptin and changed neuroregulation of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐gonadal axis.
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 202-212; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.26

Abstract:
Plumbago zeylanica is also known as chitraka, doctor bush, or leadwort. It is the most popular herbal plant that belongs to the family Plumbaginaceae or leadwort. Plumbagin is the most important chemical constituent present in the roots, leaves and stem of the plant that is responsible for various pharmacological actions including anti-malarial, anti-obese, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer. Traditionally it is used to treat variety of diseases such as dysmenorrhea, leprosy, anemia, rheumatic pain, cold, cough, arthritis and many more. It is considered as the most significant herbal plant in the ayurveda medicinal system of India and is widely accepted as a rejuvenator because of the presence of bioactive compounds. Various formulations of chitraka plant have made this plant more effective in the field of medicine. The plant carries various therapeutic properties and acts as a cardiotonic, neuroprotective and cns stimulant. The review aim is to provide data or information related to chitraka plant its usage in traditional and ayurveda medicinal system, its pharmacological properties and toxicity when taken in excessive amount. From the collected data, it is clear that the plant has great potential to cure various diseases and needs more research and development to explore its more pharmacological properties and socio-economic impact.
Isha Kumari, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 213-224; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.27

Abstract:
The tradition of using herbal drugs and herbal remedies for treating human ailments is very old. From last few years, the demand of herbal remedies has been increased. Myristica fragrans Houtt, commonly known as nutmeg, is a very common spice, which is used around the world. It is described in almost each medicine system such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and folk system. It has wide range of fixed oils and essential oils in it for example myristicin, safrole, myristic acid, trimyristicin, eugenol, elimicin and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid. Myristica fragrans Houttis well considered medicinal plant for its extraordinary properties like aphrodisiac, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer etc. The review aim is to provide data/information related to medicinal herbal plant called Myristica fragrans such as its phytomedicinal value in traditional medicine systems like Ayurveda and folk system, its therapeutic uses and associated toxicity.
James Ronald Bayoï, François-Xavier Etoa
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 52-62; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.7

Abstract:
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of three commercially available traditional acidic beverages on spore germination. “Foléré”, red “té” and white “mpedli” sorghum beers have been produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimented producers, and pH of samples were adjusted at 2.01, 2.63 and 2.8 respectively, then they were pasteurized. The samples produced were tested on four spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megapterium, Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and germination was assessed both on culture plate media and by loss of optical density (OD) methods. The results obtained showed that “foléré” at pH 2.01, and both indigenous sorghum red beer at pH 2.63 and white beer at pH 2.8 were effective on spore germination, and efficacy significantly increase (p < 0.05) with the incubation time. The presence of alcohol in the pasteurized white (2.43 %) and red (4.7 %) sorghum beers has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the anti-germinating activity compared to the non-alcoholic “foléré” beverage. The sensitivity of B. cereus and B. subtilis was positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.880; p < 0.01) likewise the sensitivity of B. megapterium and G. stearothermophilus (r = 0.725; p < 0.05), and the activity of traditional white and red sorghum beers was found to be very significant (p < 0.05) for each couple respectively. The loss of OD showed an inhibitory effect of indigenous beverages germination and exhibited a microcycle on all tested spore-forming bacteria. It was concluded that if the good hygiene and manufacturing practices were applied for production of indigenous beverages, they might easily be used as natural preservatives and for prevention of gastroenteritis induced by germination and outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria like B. cereus.
Rathan Kumar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 72-87; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.10

Abstract:
The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become one of the most significant pandemics in modern human history, affecting more than 70 million people worldwide. Currently, only a few fda-approved drugs have suggested fighting the infection, in the absence of a specific antiviral treatment. Thus, repurposing the presently available drugs or using plant-based bioactive compounds can be the fastest possible solution. In this study, the computational methodology of molecular docking techniques was performed to screen and identify the viable potent inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from a library of 200 active phytochemicals, based on their highest binding affinity towards the target protein. Later, the binding affinities of these phytochemicals were compared with that of the fda-approved drug fluvoxamine, which is currently in use against the mild COVID-19 patients. Out of these, 86 phytochemicals that exhibited better binding energy of value ≤-7.00kcal/mol, is selected for adme (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis and drug likeliness studies to check the feasibility of these compounds. Wherein, 79 out of 86 phytochemicals showed a better theoretical affinity with sufficiently bearable adme properties. Thus, they can be the lead molecule for further investigation and validation processes towards developing natural inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Saifullah Saadat
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 63-68; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.8

Abstract:
This research was conducted to investigate the effects of factors (Identification of female cows, timely insemination of identified begging cows, diseases related to the reproductive system and nutrition) on the calving interval of dairy cows in Faryab province. Whereas, the long interval between two deliveries due to the identification of female cows, the increase in the number of inseminations (due to the failure of previous insemination), poor nutritional management and genital infections cause a long interval between calving to retrieval of cows. In that case, it will significantly reduce milk production and livestock income, because calving interval is one of the most important indicators of reproduction and economic characteristics of dairy cows, which is the interval between two calving intervals. Under the best of circumstances, one cow gives birth to only one calf per year. Calves born are important from both the point of view of meat production and replacement of old and low-producing cows. Identifying the effective factors and their effects on the calving interval between dairy cows and preventing the economic losses of dairy farmers due to increasing the calving interval between calves are the general purpose of this research. In this research, Andkhoy, Qurghan and other Faryab districts were randomly selected from three villages in each district and 10 owners from each village, which included three districts, 9 villages and nine livestock, respectively. The results of the present research showed that the interval between calving of dairy cows in the research area was due to the untimely identification of female cows by herders, increasing the number of inseminations due to the failure of previous inseminations of diseases related to the reproductive system and inadequate nutrition. The average time after delivery for the uterus to return to its previous state was 465 days.
Suman Sharma, Santosh Shrestha, Sudip Poudel, Ram Devi Timila
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 156-161; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.20

Abstract:
A case study was conducted at Nala, Kavre district to assess the present cultivation and disease management status in cole crops in the year 2019 with use of semi-structured questionnaire among the local farmers. It was found that majority of respondent cultivated cole crops seasonally and faced five major disease problem in it namely: stalk root (Sclerotina sclerotiorum), Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola), damping off (Pythium sp.), root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae). For management of those diseases, 83% respondent used conventional method of disease management i.e. chemical fungicides and insecticides. But the methods of management of disease was found significant with IPM training and awareness on biological approaches they have heard or related program attained. Almost 40% respondent had practices IPM packages of pest control based on training they have received and 33% has practiced based on the awareness program they have received. Also female guided farming has more probability to adapt IPM tools to minimize effect of pesticides and cooperatives had also played major role in mass communicating benefits of IPM. With 83% conventional management practicing farmers, they reported to face piles of immediate and chronic health issues due to continuous pesticidal use. Eye irritation (16.9%), skin problems (21.4%), headache (10.7%), respiratory problems (7.1%), and vomiting (5.3%), and chronically cancer (27.7%) was reported in the area due to prolonged and hazardous use of pesticides in conventional practices as per the respondents.
Bishwo Prakash Pokharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 184-195; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.24

Abstract:
In an operating system, disk scheduling is the process of managing the I/O request to the secondary storage devices such as hard disk. The speed of the processor and primary memory has increased in a rapid way than the secondary storage. Seek time is the important factor in an operating system to get the best access time. For the better performance, speedy servicing of I/O request for secondary memory is very important. The goal of the disk-scheduling algorithm is to minimize the response time and maximize throughput of the system. This work analyzed and compared various basic disk scheduling techniques like First Come First Serve (FCFS), Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF), SCAN, LOOK, Circular SCAN (C-SCAN) and Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) along with the corresponding seek time. From the comparative analysis, the result show that C-LOOK algorithm give the least head movement and seek time in different cases as compared to other algorithm. Therefore, it maximizes the throughput for the storage devices.
Sabita Ghimire, Hariom Yadav, Prabesh Acharya, Raju Kharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 196-201; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.25

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effect of seed priming (on-farm, hydro, halo, osmo, vitamin c priming, and hardening) on the germination and seedling growth of spring rice varieties: hardinath-3, hardinath-1, and chaite-5 at ambient room temperature. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) was carried out with two factors: methods of priming and varieties at agriculture knowledge center (AKC), kapilbastu during march 2020. There were, in total, 21 treatment combinations and four replications. Parameters observed were germination percentage, speed of germination, vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of rice seedlings. Hardinath-3 had superior performance in terms of germination percentage (95.35 %), vigor index (183.86), root length (11.51 cm) and shoot length (7.39 cm) compared to hardinath-1 and chaite-5; the speed of germination, however, was greater in hardinath-1. Seed hardening - alternate soaking (tap water for 24 hours) and drying - induced higher germination percentage (94.91 %), speed of germination (96.00), and vigor index (197.43) than did other priming methods; germination percentage of vitamin c primed seeds (94.75 %), nevertheless, were at statistical par with hardened seeds. Hardened hardinath-3 seeds were better in regards to germination percentage (97.50 %) and root length (12.92 cm), while the speed of germination (97.50) and vigor index (210.50) was greater in hardened hardinath-1. Vitamin c primed seeds of hardinath-3 and hardinath-1 were finer with dry weight, shoot length, and vigor index. In conclusion, farmers' are suggested to hardened seeds of hardinath-3 before sowing to promote uniform germination and growth.
Nagham H. Ali, Amir A. Majeed
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 38-44; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.5

Abstract:
Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a "genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients. The aim of this study: Study correlation between some immune markers in patients with lichen planus. Methods: 'Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral Lichen planus (OLP), were included in the sample of this report. Results: Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-1protein Immunohistochemistry Conclusion: The marker p53 expression is high in the patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed markersyndecan-1 protein is less than marker p53.
Marwa Abbas Abdulrazzak Kubba
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 29-37; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.4

Abstract:
SMA (Spinal muscular atrophies) are category of hereditary inflammation in the funiculars and lower brain stem, tissue fatigue, and degeneration characterized by motor neuron failure. The analytic and genetic phenotypes incorporate a diverse continuum distinguished depending on age of onset, tissue participation arrangement, and inheritance arrangement. Rapid advancements in genetic science have expedite the discovery of causative genes over the past few years, and provide significant access in awareness the biochemical and neurological basis of Spinal muscular atrophies and insights into the motor neurons' selective deficiency. Popular path physiological topics include Ribonucleic Acid metabolism and splicing abnormalities, axonal transmission, and motor neurons' advancement and communication. These also collectively revealed possible innovative prevention methods and comprehensive attempts are what benefits does the company offer? Although a range of promising therapeutic therapies for Spinal muscular atrophies is emerging, it is essential to identify therapeutic windows and establish responsive and appropriate biomarkers to promote future analytic trial success. This research offers a description of Spinal muscular atrophies' logical manifestations and genetics. It discusses recent advancements in learning—mechanisms for the pathogenesis of inflammation and new treatment methods.
Maan Hasan Salih, Adnan F Al-Azzawie, Akeel Hussain Ali Al-Assie
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 267-274; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.36

Abstract:
Introns qualify as Noncoding nucleotide sequences. In splicing, some segments of the RNA transcript (introns) are eliminated, the other segments (exons) are joining together in the formation of the coding RNAs (mRNA, rRNA and tRNA). Also, Non-coding RNA genes are parts of the intronic. On average, there are 7.8 introns and 8.8 exons per human gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are existed in the various positions through the human gene, promoters, alternating regions of exons and introns, terminator, in addition to UTRs, untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-).Therefore, many diseases have been associated with SNPs through different mechanisms. In the current review, we will discuss the several genetic and epigenetic regulations included in identifying disease susceptibility linked to numerous SNPs existing in the intronic region.
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 237-243; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.31

Abstract:
Embelia ribes is commonly known as vaibidang or false black pepper is a significant medicinal plant that belongs to the family Myrsinaceae. The ancient Ayurveda physician, Sushruta described that the fruit of E. ribes plant possesses anthelmintic property and is used as a tonic along with the licorice root, which prevents aging and helps in strengthening the body. The fruit of the plant is used in various ayurvedic formulations where it is used as a carminative, anthelmintic, alterative and as stimulant. Due to the overexploitation of the plant, it is considered a threatened medicinal plant. Traditionally, the plant is used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antifertility and anthelmintic agent. Various parts of the plant like roots, berries and leaves of E. ribes plant are used in different herbal formulations. In Ayurveda, it is used to cure skin diseases, abdominal pains, flatulence, worms, mental disorders, tumors, bronchitis, jaundice, cardio disorders and is used as a brain tonic. Embelin is considered as the major chemical constituent isolated from the Embelia ribes plant. In this review, a brief view of the plant is briefly described related to its ayurvedic and folk uses. The reported pharmacological properties of the plant are also defined.
Akshay Milind Patil, Pooja Prakash Gunjal, Sonali Das
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 244-253; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.32

Abstract:
The multiplication efficacy by bulb is low and the plantlets are more susceptible to disease, therefore, there is a need to develop a protocol for its propagation. Lilium candidum is listed in the saitma prefecture Red Data Book as a critically endangered plant and rescuing information regarding its micro-propagation is rather limited. On this regard, the application of in vitro micropropagtion procedure might help to obtain large numbers of uniform plants of endangered species of Lilium. Dried lilies are a rich source of fiber and also rich in sodium and carbs. Lily bulbs have proteins and starch and also small quantities of iron, calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin B1, B2, C. The health benefits of the lily for the heart are well known on account of the active cardiac glycosides as well as the flavonoids which tend to stimulate the arteries and can cause them to dilute. Another one of the therapeutic uses of the lily flower is in the case of treating burns and preventing the formation of scar tissue. One of the main health benefits of the lily flower is that it helps regulating the heart rate there by allowing the heart to function more efficiently and regular. Having multiple medicinal properties we decided to cultivate Lilium candidum using plant tissue culture so farming can be increased using this cost efficient techniques. In this research, we have studied various Effect of different concentration of BAP and NAA on the initiation of Lilium candidum from bulb and IBA, IAA and NAA on the rooting of shoots of Lilium Candidum.
Abhinav Kushwaha, Dharmender Kumar, Meenakshi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 254-258; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.33

Abstract:
Objective of study was to assess data the six factors composite physical fitness test on school going boy’s students. Methods for the study, 100 boys were randomly selected from govt. school of Delhi govt. at age ranging from 15 to 18 years. The study was conducted by using six factors composite physical test. Descriptive statistics was employed to find out the results of the study. Physical fitness was measured with the best timing was rated in seconds. Results the result depicted in Descriptive Statistics of boys at school level” indicates the mean, confidence interval, skewness, kurtosis, range and standard deviation. The lower bound shows the true significance and significance correction and through Q-Q plot the (graphical presentation) to values in normal distribution to evident in found the selected physical fitness test for 100 school going boys were Mean- 40.3072/39.0291, Std. Deviation-2.51278/2.78882, Std. Error Mean- 2.5128/2.7888 respectively. That paired correlation is .56. There is an average value of test score and Significant at 0.05 level of significance. The Table no.-5 to indicate paired differences of variable being tested and order the subtraction was found out. The standard error 0.24799 and computing both the test statistic and the upper and lower bounds of 95%confidence interval. The depicts value of the paired sample t- test of boys which was found to be statistically significantly at 0.05 level of significance. Objective of study was to assess data the six factors composite physical fitness test on school going boy’s students. Methods for the study, 100 boys were randomly selected from govt. school of Delhi govt. at age ranging from 15 to 18 years. The study was conducted by using six factors composite physical test. Descriptive statistics was employed to find out the results of the study. Physical fitness was measured with the best timing was rated in seconds. Results the result depicted in Descriptive Statistics of boys at school level” indicates the mean, confidence interval, skewness, kurtosis, range and standard deviation. The lower bound shows the true significance and significance correction and through Q-Q plot the (graphical presentation) to values in normal distribution to evident in found the selected physical fitness test for 100 school going boys were Mean- 40.3072/39.0291, Std. Deviation-2.51278/2.78882, Std. Error Mean- 2.5128/2.7888 respectively. That paired correlation is .56. There is an average value of test score and Significant at 0.05 level of significance. The Table no.-5 to indicate paired differences of variable being tested and order the subtraction was found out. The standard error 0.24799 and computing both the test statistic and the upper and lower bounds of 95%confidence interval. The depicts value of the paired sample t- test of boys which was found to be statistically significantly at 0.05 level of significance.
Harshal Wasnik, Rishi Gandhi, Niraj Patil, Rajendra Behera, Anand Golait, Tushar Patel, Tirthajit Baruah
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 11-20; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.2

Abstract:
Cataract is one of the oldest diseases. Even in the 21st century, the disease is often neglected and treated as an insignificant threat. Although the facts and figures account for the opposite, it is found that globally cataract holds for more than 50% of blindness. Cataract is also one of the first five immediate focus areas of a global Initiative called 'Vision 2020', which intends to eradicate preventable blindness by 2020. The disease is termed as multifactorial; has various extrinsic environmental and intrinsic cell biology factors determining its progress. Over the years, enormous progress has been made towards cataract including the identification of its risk factors. Yet the current scientific knowledge is far from developing a proven preventive or pharmacological strategy for it. The surgical method has been the only way to cure cataract by far. In this paper, we tried to give a comprehensive bird eye view for the disease; we have (a) reviewed briefly the recent progress in delineating the molecular biology and risk factors of cataract (b) delved into genetics of the cataract and overviewed crucial gene families related to the disease identified through single-gene mutations and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS).
Frédéric Ayant, Prvindra Kumar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 1-10; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.1

Abstract:
In the present paper, we evaluate the general finite integral involving the elliptic integrals of first species and the generalized modified Aleph- function of two variables. At the end, we shall see several corollaries and remarks.
Rajan Keshri, Harpreet Kaur, Dhanashri R. Patil, Nilesh N. Sonawane
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 175-200; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.21

Abstract:
Brucellosis is among the fast-spreading disease on Earth causing casualties in livestock as well as in humans. It’s an alarming situation to kick off the study of Brucellosis causing agent. Brucellosis is an infective sickness caused by Brucella abortus. Here, we have carried out the Insilco analysis of Brucella abortus strain 2308. This strain is mainly responsible for the disease. Here, we have tried to study the B. abortus strain 2308 by the means of bioinformatics methodology. We have run several Insilco tools to predict its structure and function. Moreover, we have carried out the methodology of protein homology modelling on this strain. Furthermore, we have also carried out several protein chain analyses, protein-protein interface, structure alignment, structure prediction and active site prediction. To make our study more productive we have also performed drug docking. These results will add on a little info in the emerging bioinformatics data regarding Brucella abortus.
Mazullah Karimi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 201-206; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.1.22

Abstract:
For light propagation purposes, the optical fibers that are known as waveguides can be applied. A glass or plastic film called cladding covers the central portion of the optical fiber, and is distinguished by a refractive index that is lower relative to the main refractive index. For the fine confines of the light inside the waveguide, the overall internal reflection phenomena are necessary. It is possible to categorize optical fibers according to shape, number of modes, refractive index profile, dispersion, signal processing power, and polarization. We are concentrating on the first three typical forms of optical fibers in this article. This may be used in fiber beams as a typical application of fibers to generate and intensify a small, powerful beam of coherent and monochromatic light. Optical fiber processing requires three steps, such as the development of performs. The process of adjusted chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) is a recognized technique that can be used to manufacture optical fibers. Optical fiber sensors are well known in optics and photonics for their large variety of applications. Optical biosensors can be developed as a sensing application focused on refractive index changes that are commonly utilized for the identification of biomolecules in their natural forms.
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