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Results in Journal International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology: 360

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Rawad Khalaf Hameed
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 11-15; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.3

Abstract:
The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts of aqueous and alcoholic extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar well diffusion method. The study enrolled 100 wound and pus patients. The results showed that 44 isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa that equivalent to 44% total isolates. The Hibiscus sabdariffa extract concentrations used are (10, 25, 50,75 and 100 mg/ml). The bacterial isolates identified after been growing on blood agar and purified on MacConkey Agar using many biochemical tests. The bacterial identification was confirmed using Vitek-2 compact system technique. The results showed that the aqueous extracts were more active than alcoholic extract and no inhibition at the concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg/ml) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for aqueous and alcoholic extracts, the inhibition zones were (11 and 13) mm at the concentrations (75 and 100) mg/ml respectively for aqueous extract, and (10 and 11) mm at the concentrations (75 and 100) mg/ml respectively for alcoholic. Sensitivity test was conducted for Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Vitec compact test. FTIR and GC/MS tests conducted for the plant extracts and the results detailed in the study.
Mohammad Amin Sarwari
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 322-328; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.29

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the field of study and the employment of undergraduate graduates of the Faculty of Education of Parwan University during the academic years of 1394 - 1398. This research is descriptive-survey in terms of type and correlational in terms of method. The statistical population (936 people) included all graduates of the Faculty of Education of Parwan University in four disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics who were graduated during the years 1394 to 1398. The sample size was determined using Cochran's formula 127 people and were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instrument of this research was a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by professors and experts and its reliability was measured by test-retest (0.92). Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Human Whitney, Wilcoxon and t-tests. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between field of study, employment and job suitability; This means that in fields such as mathematics, biology, employment status and job fit is better than other fields. However, in fields such as alchemy and physics, the employment situation and job suitability are unfavorable. The relationship between educational average and type of employment with the field of study was not significant.
Amel Selimović, Fatima Djedović, Halid Junuzović, Ernad Kucalović, Amra Selimović, Tijana Brčina
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.13

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the content of total soluble substance (TSS), total acidity (TA), pH, ascorbic acid content (vitamin C) and total phenols in fresh strawberries, as well as in strawberries stored for 10 days by freezing. Chemical characterization of fresh and frozen strawberries was done on four different varieties: Clery, Maya, Asia, Joly grown in the area of Čelić, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The obtained results showed that frozen strawberries have slightly lower values of TSS, pH, vitamin C, while the content of TA and total phenols was slightly higher in frozen strawberries than in fresh ones, which can be attributed to increasing acidity.
Mohammad Maruf Seizgain
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 227-233; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.16

Abstract:
Electromagnetic force, despite its useful efficiency and achievements, if not controlled and managed, is very dangerous for humans and will have irreversible effects that will remain even after thousands of years. Telecommunication devices such as mobile phones, cordless phones, VHF and SSB wireless and radar .... emit electromagnetic waves that when these waves collide with the living tissue of the body, cause changes in them that They endanger life. Magnetic and electric fields are generated by power lines, electrical wires, and electrical equipment, and are the invisible power lines that exist around each device, and its power increases with increasing voltage. The electromagnetic field is generated by electrical appliances such as personal computers, televisions, refrigerators, etc., as well as high-voltage power lines. The electromagnetic field disrupts the nervous system and the growth and development and repair of cells, leading to unknown diseases such as cancers, brain tumors and infertility in humans. Therefore, people who are exposed to such fields frequently and for a long time, as well as people working in the electrical and telephone industries, TV repairmen and welders are more vulnerable. Therefore, we must create a suitable environment for work and activity by installing carcinogen control devices in the workplace and identifying the sources of electromagnetic radiation production, observing safety points in the workplace and, if possible, using equipment that has the least amount of electromagnetic waves.
Farah Haqqi Ezzat, Entisar Mahdi Hamad, Shahad Nazzar Mustafa, Israa Abdulqader Abdulwahab
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 251-264; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.19

Abstract:
The coronary virus family involves human pathogens of great importance, so that at the end of December 2019, the new CORONA virus was identified as the origin of a set of cases of pneumonia of unidentified causes in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei Province. The recent coronavirus quickly turned into widespread and challenging to deal with, leading to its transmission throughout China, followed by a rising number of cases in many communities around the world. COVID-19 is spread through large drops generated during coughing and sneezing by cases with symptoms of the disease, as well as individuals who do not show manifestations before their symptoms begin. Many research has reported that the incubation period for Coronara virus infection 2 (SARS-Cove-2) is 14 days after exposure to the virus four to five days. People of all ages may be infected with SARS-HIV-2, although people are common in middle-aged and older age groups. The clinical characteristics that accompany the patient include fever, dry cough, fatigue, sore throat, runny nose, conjunctivitis headaches, muscle pain, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. So, however, there are no particular clinical features that accurately differentiate COVID-19 from other viral infections in the upper/lower airway. In a subset of cases, however, by the end of the first week of infection, COVID-19 may progress into pneumonia and pulmonary failure followed by death. The aim here is to discuss COVID-19 in term of virology and epidemiology to continuing clinical demonstrations, diagnosis and complications, and to complete possible management options and conclusion.
Deepak Chandra Joshi, Harshita, Angana Naskar, Kunal Datta, Urmistha Sarkar, Mihir Kedarbhai Otia, Tania Khatoon
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.7

Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that affects the joints. Age, gender, genetics, and environmental exposure are all factors (cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and occupational). If untreated, felty syndrome, rheumatoid vasculitis, and irreversible joint damage might occur, necessitating splenectomy. Because there is no cure for RA, treatment seeks to reduce pain and prevent further damage. To develop effective RA treatments, researchers must first understand how the disease advances in people and how pathogenic pathways influence this progression. Modern pharmacologic therapy have made tremendous progress in obtaining illness remission without joint deformity (including conventional and biological treatments as well as novel potential small-molecule disease-modifying drugs). Despite this, many RA patients do not respond well to conventional treatments, necessitating the development of novel drugs. This comprehensive review of current advancements covers RA causation, disease-modifying drugs, and prospective RA therapeutics. This section summarises the various RA-related therapies available in the past and now.
Habibur Rahman Jawhari, Mohammad Ayoub Hanif, Farahuddin Larghani
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 290-297; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.24

Abstract:
Since the provision of clean and health water is one of the requirements of education and breeding of broiler chickens and the existence of salts and other sources of water resources, it can have an adverse effect on the production and breeding of poultry. On this issue, it is necessary to determine the effect of saline water on the fowl. Knowing the effects of salt in drinking water of broiler chickens, considering that most water resources are salty to different degrees, paves the way for determining the permissible and tolerable limit for broiler chickens and will prevent its side effects caused by salt accumulation in chicken organs. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different sizes of saltwater on food acquisition parameters and body weight gain of broiler chickens. This study was conducted in 5 treatments and each treatment with 12 repetitions for 29 days. first treatment had 0% salt and 2-5% salt and 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.5% and 2% salt content in their drinking water, respectively. The information and data obtained from this study indicate the significant effects on different percentages of saline water on the studied indices. Because, second, third and fourth treatments expressed 18%, 28%-64% reduction in food acquisition and also 11%, 30%79% reduction in body weight gain compared to control group, respectively. These effects were extremely dangerous at 2% and caused the death of included chickens in this department.
Saifullah Gharwal, Asmatullah Ziar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 56-62; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.7

Abstract:
The second rule of Amir Sher Ali Khan (1868-1878) has a special place in the contemporary history of Afghanistan. During this period, new features of the political, administrative, and cultural system were introduced, new institutions were established in the country, and efforts were made to flourish civilization. He is one of the most broad-minded kings in the modern history of Afghanistan who has done his best for the development of Afghanistan. This article discusses the political, social, and cultural reforms of the second sovereignty of Amir Sher Ali Khan to create a sequence of historical events and take a chronological form, therefore, before his rule and especially; during the reign of his father Amir Dost Mohammad Khan, several reform programs have been briefly discussed, which were the base for his reform’s strategy. In the conclusion of this article, we can reach to the significant political, social, a cultural reform of Amir Shir Ali Khan to the administration of new Afghanistan. During the period, he faced to a series of internal problems and a big game played between the Russian and British colonial circles and it didn’t allow him to carry out all his plans. The British invaded Afghanistan for the second time and ended its rule, and affected the designed programs for flourishing the new civilization. Afghanistan was left behind in the caravan of global progress.
Mukesh Kr. Singh, Ajay Kumar, Roshan Kumar, P. Satheesh Kumar, P. Selvakumar, Anurag Chourasia
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 28-31; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.6

Abstract:
Objectives: In preparation for deep frying, the peroxide values and refractive indices of palm, sesame, and sunflower oils were measured. The peroxide value and refractive indices of the vegetable oils used to fry white Indian potato chips in three batches were determined after each stage of deep frying. According to the findings, deep-frying significantly alters the refractive index and peroxide value of vegetable oils. Material & Method: Medical and scientific indexing sites like PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find relevant medical and scientific articles. Result & Discussion: Sesame palm and sunflower oil's refractive index and peroxide value do rise when fried, but not linearly. A rise in refractive index (RI) of palm oil and a rise in the RI of sunflower oil were observed following the frying of three consecutive batches. Sesame oil's refractive index remained essentially unchanged. After three deep fryings, the peroxide values of palm oil rose from 1.9948 mEq/kg to 9.3020 mEq/kg. Sunflower oil peroxide increased from 10.6359 mEq/kg to 19.3101 mEq/kg, while sesame oil peroxide increased from 3.9914 mEq/kg to 11.9555 mEq/kg after the second batch of Indian potato chips was fried and then decreased to 11.3095 mEq/kg after the third batch of Indian potato chips was fried in the oven.
Ahmad Khalid Sadid
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 7-10; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.2

Abstract:
Afghanistan is an agricultural country where most crops such as wheat, rice, corn, beans, chickpeas, mung bean, sorghum, bean, etc. are grown. Afghanistan's climate is favorable for the cultivation of these plants and the country's economy also depends on these plants. Field crops have played a major role in human history and throughout history have saved humans from hunger and famine, so knowing the origins of its production helps in the sustainability of human food and food security in the world. The world's population is growing, which is answered only by scientific agriculture and the use of technology. Field crops are very diverse and are consumed in different ways and there are many differences in agricultural operations. Field crops have many commonalities, so crops can be classified into different types such as plant characteristics, purpose of production and consumption, plant longevity, ‌ environmental needs and favorable development conditions, agricultural operations and so on. Because these classifications are based on the common characteristics of their members. Some agricultural decisions may apply to all members of a group, thus facilitating the production process for them. Note that these classifications are not absolute. Also, agricultural products with different characteristics and multi-purpose production may be in two or more different groups. Some categories are introduced below. The classification of field crops cooperates in introducing plants and identifying the relationships between them, and known plants are used for various purposes.
May K. Ismael
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 78-95; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.11

Abstract:
By March 2020, a pandemic had been emerged Corona Virus Infection in 2019 (COVID-19), which was triggered through the sensitive pulmonary syndrome (SARS disease corona virus- 2 (SARS COV-2). Overall precise path physiology of SARS COV-2 still unknown, as does the involvement of every element of the acute or adaptable immunity systems. Additionally, evidence from additional corona virus groups, including SARS COV as well as the Middle East pulmonary disease, besides that, fresh discoveries might help researchers fully comprehend SARS CoV-2. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve a critical part in both detection of viral particles as well as the stimulation of the body's immune response. When TLR systems are activated, pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin 1 (IL1), IL6, or nuclear factors, in addition to helpful interferon, are secreted. TLRs such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, or TLR9 might possibly have a role in COVID-19 infections. It's also important noting that while dealing with COVID-19 infections, researchers should consider both the good or detrimental impacts of TLR. TLRs might be a focus for reducing infections inside the initial phases of the illness or developing a SARS CoV-2 vaccine.
Puhanyar Najibullah Omari, Puhanyar Nematullah Asadi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 24-27; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.5

Abstract:
Pashto language has seven vowels and two of them, out of seven are (i , e) which these vowels have property and value of phonology and morphology. Because of being new issue and valuable, hereby I am going to inquire the vowels of (i , e) as a research paper in Pashto Language, till it is researched that what characteristics do they have in Pashto language? For obtaining of this goal this article includes an introduction, subject matter, conclusion, finding of research and sources, literature review, target and with entire of regulation and standards of research, which have been researched and also because of needs research in explaining and inquiring of it, it has been used from library method.
Roshan Kumar, Purabi Saha, Priya Lokare, Kunal Datta, P. Selvakumar, Anurag Chourasia
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 221-226; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.15

Abstract:
Plants have been used medicinally by humans for millennia. Tulsi is one of these drugs. A plant's perfume emanates from within. It is found all over India. It is harvested around Hindu temples or places of worship. Its leaves, seeds, and roots are employed in Ayurvedic treatment. Tulsi contains a variety of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Tulsi's key chemical components are Linalool, caryophyllyne, Oleanolic acid, and Rosmalinic acid. Tulsi standardisation has been used in modern science. Two active ingredients are eugenol (essential oil) and ursolic acid (acide). A diaphoretic, anti-periodic, and anti-bronchitis leaf. A decoction of the leaves can treat coughs, malaise, and colds. Not only is it moisturising. Flowers' oils can treat ringworm. Because of its antibacterial and antifungal characteristics, Ocimum sanctum has been used in numerous therapeutic trials. This page discusses the chemistry and pharmacology of Ocimum species.
Dhruti Bhalani, Madhavantee Kasundra, Dharmesh Sherathia
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 304-309; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.26

Abstract:
The varieties of synthetic azo dyes are widely used in textile industries to generate range of color tones in the textile and paper industries. Such textile dyes are toxic for the animals, birds and human along with environment. It is needful to remove those dyes from the effluent. The degradation of such dyes is accompanied by the involvement of dye degradating microorganisms. The purpose of this research is to isolate, identify, and screen bacterial species capable of decolorizing reactive pink, congo red, and malachite green. Soil and water samples were collected from the dye contaminated area of Jetpur, Gujarat, India. Dye degradating bacteria were isolated and selected through primary and secondary screening. The effect of yeast extract amount on the dye degradation properties of bacteria was examined using a visible spectrophotometer. After secondary screening MD2, MD8, MD20, MD31, MD33 and MD34 were selected for further analysis. All isolated are able to degrade reactive pink, congo red, and malachite green after 120hrs of incubation at a 4mgl-1 concentration of yeast extract. Dye degradation remains constant for 4 mgl-1 and 2 mgl-1 but gets reduced in 1 mgl-1 of yeast extract concentration. Wheat germination rate in control was 65% compared to 96%, 88%, and 85% in MD2, MD8, MD20 respectively. Sorghum germination rate in control was 62% while in isolates no MD31, MD33, MD34 were 96%, 87%, 83% and 65%.
Sanjay Kumar, Akshit Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Vishal Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, Abhishek Tyagi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 310-315; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.27

Abstract:
The nutritional and medicinal benefits of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) have long been known. Many traditional medical systems, such as Ayurveda, recognise papaya's medicinal potential. Traditional literature has used it to treat fever, swellings, bilious fever, gonorrhoea, eczema, rheumatism, headache, whooping cough, asthma, chickenpox, and bronchitis. A vital nutraceutical agent has been identified after four decades of remarkable research on its biological activity and medical applications. The leaf of Carica papaya Linn. has antibacterial, antipyretic, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antimolluscan effects. Phytoextraction of heavy metals, phytoremediation of particle pollution, and other modern approaches have been utilised to study leaves. Phytoconstituents and leaf composition have been studied for decades. Carica papaya is used to cure a variety of diseases including malaria, dengue fever, inflammation, and skin infections. The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of C. papaya flowers were first assessed using TLC screening and UV spectroscopy. The extracts were also analysed by TLC and UV-visible spectroscopy. The methanol extract included the greatest alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins, according to the screening results. Both chloroform and n-hexane extracts had saponins and tannins, while n-hexane also had steroids and flavonoids. It had flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and phenolic chemicals.
Tariq Amir Najar, Suchitra Banerjee, Rajendra Chauhan
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 96-106; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.12

Abstract:
Solanum nigrum belonging to the family Solanaceae, has been considered as a remedy for treating various ailments like epilepsy, gastric ulcers etc. and is believed to have hepatoprotective activities. In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts of Ethyl acetate and Methanol from the Solanum nigrum leaves and their antioxidant activity was carried out by using spectrophotometric methods. Methanol extract with high absorbance exhibited highest antioxidant activity containing highest quantity of phenolics and flavonoids followed by Ethyl Acetate. The presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds indicated that these compounds can contribute to the antioxidant activity. These active constituents alone or in combination with others may be responsible for the observed antioxidant activity. The findings indicated promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts of leaves needs further exploration for their effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines. The Solanum nigrum leaf can be regarded as promising candidate for natural plant sources of antioxidants with higher values. A comparative study of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents extracted by the solvents, and their in-vitro antioxidant activity that could be an effective remedy in hepatoprotection was carried out in the study.
Raju V. John
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 316-321; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.28

Abstract:
A major environmental problem is the risk of metal pollution of surface and groundwater due to leaching from polluted land-based solid wastes. The goal of this research is to figure out what happens when heavy metals interact with sandy and silty loam soils, and how that affects groundwater quality. As the sorption decreased in the order Mn> Fe> Ni > Cr> Zn> Cu> Pb> Cd. The leaching order should be reverse of it. As a result, Cd is less well held by soils than the other hazardous cations, and hence poses a greater risk of polluting groundwater due to its severe toxicity. The metals Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were shown to be significantly more mobile than the other four. The retention of metals became weaker as the concentration of metals increased. This points to the probability of groundwater contamination as a result of land infill. As a result, at all polluted sites in Agra, they should be properly monitored. Metals are more sorbed on silty loam than on sandy loans because the former has higher organic matter, clay, monmorillonite contents, CEC and surface area. Because the majority of the soil in Agra is sandy loam, it is recommended that all wastes containing heavy metals be treated before being disposed of in loamy formations.
Shalini Gupta, Sanket Shankar Mishra, Kavita Shah
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 271-278; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.21

Abstract:
Coal fired thermal power plant (TPP) serves as point source releasing hazardous heavy metals in the environment contributed from burning of coal for electricity generation. This causes altered physicochemical properties of soil. Arsenic (As) is highly toxic in nature which gets transferred to the soil environment by varied pathways. The present study attempts to measure the physicochemical properties and arsenic contamination in soil around a coal fired thermal power plant in India for two consecutive years (2017-19). The soil pH, moisture, conductivity, water holding capacity, nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, manganese, iron and arsenic were measured in six villages located within 0-10km around TPP. Results suggest soil from the villages to be slightly alkaline with good water holding capacity and soil moisture. The soil was manganese deficient however the levels of nitrate, phosphate and potassium were similar to that of agricultural soil suggesting negligible impact of TPP on soil quality in the region. Low arsenic contamination (though within permissible limits), at site 4 (Piyawali) located within 0-5 km and in windward direction from TPP was noted. Traces of as was also measured at site 2 (Jarcha) and site 3 (Khatana) which were within 5-10 km of TPP and in the windward direction. Results indicate that arsenic from the emissions migrate with the wind to Jarcha and Khatana whereas it directly falls and retains at Piyawali which is in the leeward direction. Thus, a significant relation between movement of arsenic and the position of the village, distance and direction of wind with respect to TPP is evident. The soil pollution index (Pi) for arsenic revealed the Pi values to be <1 in all seasons suggesting that though arsenic is present in the soils of the villages near the thermal power plant, it may not be contributing largely towards the pollution in the soil. Application of zinc to bind arsenic electrostatically in the soil matrix is therefore recommended to mitigate arsenic or growing of non-edible or energy rich crops will be helpful. Moreover, power plants be geared for arsenic containment measures to minimize input of arsenic in soil environment.
Sherpaw Ahmadi, Muhsenullah Irfan, Farhad Sultanzoy
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.9

Abstract:
This study aimed to find out the impact of social media on agricultural extension among farmers of Ahmad Aba district and the overall status of social media users in the study area. The area has been selected for its accessibility and familiarity with topography, culture, and languages. This study has been conducted through a structured questionnaire and focus group discussion methods. This study revealed that 56 % of the respondent were using the internet regularly, roughly 30 % were using some time while 9.5 % were not using ore rarely due to the high service charge, poor network connection, and lack of personal interest. Facebook was the leading platform among other social media platforms. Moreover, 71 % of the respondents were using social media on their smartphones, 23.5 5 on tablets and only 5.5 percent were using through the computer. Some Facebook pages which are sharing agricultural information have a huge audience compared to other platforms.
Zainulabdeen H. A. Al-Khafaji, Younis Saadi Saeed, Mohammed Arafat Mohammed, Bahaa Abdullah Lafttah Al-Rubaii
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 329-346; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.30

Abstract:
Due to various dwindling resources as well as the significance of such resources to the building of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, ongoing usage petroleum-based energies has also now generally regarded as irresponsible. For sustainable food production, alternative, dioxide transportation hydrocarbons were required. Gasoline made using oilseed crops has the ability to just be a sustainable or nitrogen biofuel. Consequently, gasoline fuel made using energy crops, leftover sunflower oil, including sunflower oil may provide a tiny portion of the current requirement for fuel sources. Organisms are often the primary basis of sustainable biofuels to provide the rising demands for fuel sources, as proven elsewhere. That research has carried out to determine the correct conversion, quantity of producing biofuels (ester), but also biofuel physical features. Cyanobacteria, like trees, absorb sunlight to produce lipids, but they do so extremely effectively. Many microalgae have oils efficiency that much surpasses those of the strongest seed oils. It really is explored how to make microalgae biomass biofuel financially viable against petroleum diesel.
Amna Karić, Amra Odobašić, Gordan Avdić, Edisa Papraćanin, Sanja Panić
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 234-242; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.17

Abstract:
In this research, the results of bentonite characterization (pH value of bentonite suspension, point of zero charge, cation exchange capacity, SEM, XRF, DTG) are presented. The results of lead (II) removal efficiency at initial lead (II) concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 mg/L, and biosorbent dosage of 1 gram in 50 ml of lead(II) solution, are also presented, as well as the values of the Freundlich and Langmuir constants from the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The obtained results showed that removal efficiency is high for all three examined initial lead (II) concentrations, and it is above 99%. The lead (II) removal efficiency slightly decreases with an increase in initial lead concentration. Experimental data obtained from adsorption experiment with contact time of 2.5 minutes, stirring rate 100 rpm, temperature 250C and pH value 5 are better fitted with the linearized Langmuir equation isotherm, giving an R2 value closest to unity (0.9994), than to linearized Freundlich equation (0.9886).
Pushpendra Narvariya,
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 51-55; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.6

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to predict the ball velocity on the basis of anthropometric variables of male division level cricket bowlers. Materials and methods: A total of 08 medium pace bowlers (mean ± standard deviation; age= 20.2±2.09 years; height= 172±3.65cms.) who participated in recent Gwalior division cricket competition were selected for the study. For anthropometric variables following measurements were conducted: standing height, upper arm length, lower arm length, palm length, upper leg length, lower leg length. Ball velocity was measured with a doppler radar gun. The stepwise multiple regression was conducted to predict the ball velocity of medium pace bowlers based on selected anthropometric variables. Results: The results suggest that lower arm length and ball velocity had a significant relationship (r = 0.780; p 0.001). In addition, a prediction model (Ball velocity = 76.601+1.507 [lower arm length]) with an R2 value of 0.608 was developed, with lower arm length being the only predictor. Conclusion: This also signifies that there may be other factors that contributes to the ball velocity such as strength of shoulders, run-up speed, kinematic variables, or kinetic variables. Therefore, future researches should focus on all those parameters that were not included in this study.
Shahryar Bahrooz
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.9

Abstract:
The trust of audiences in media comes from their trust in media news. Communication studies experts believe that the symbol of trust in the media should be seen in terms of increasing trust in news and media news programs. Since trust can influence general thoughts, it should be considered separately in each media organization based on the type of organization. The more citizens believe in the authenticity of a particular type of media, the more likely they are to be influenced by their thoughts. Numerous studies in the field of social psychology show that authentic sources have more persuasive power than the sources that are less trusted by their audiences. Since the media have a mediating role in the transmission of news and information, they are a kind of link between the government and the people and have a great impact on the convergence and divergence of the people and the government. The success of any program depends entirely on gaining the trust of the people, so the effects of the media should exist in a way that can increase the coefficient of trust and confidence among the people, and if the current situation is such that this coefficient works in the opposite direction, it should think of solutions and reform. Thus, the discussion of news engineering is analyzed based on recognizing the components of building trust, but it is necessary before recognizing the audience because it is the perception of the audience and the level of their trust that creates the media reputation and determines their position.
Ramzija Cvrk, Halid Junuzović, Arnela Smajić-Bećić, Amela Kusur, Tijana Brčina
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.1

Abstract:
In this original scientific paper, the content of crude fiber and total sugars in three different fruit products (cherry compote, rosehip marmalade and plum jam) in correlation with the production process and storage time was examined. All tests were conducted in the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Tuzla. The test results showed that in all fruit products a higher content of non-reducing sugars than reducing and sucrose was recorded. Also, the highest content of crude fiber was obtained in the S5 sample for rosehip marmalade and was 1.11%, while the lowest was recorded in the S1 sample for cherry compote and was 0.011%.
Surabhi Singh
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.3.8

Abstract:
The constructed wetland (CW) performance depends on constructed wetland, bed media, and vegetation variations. This study represents a descriptive review of wastewater methods for wetland construction. The wastewater generation includes dairy waste, textile waste, piggery waste, petrochemical waste, tannery waste, etc. This review summarizes constructed wetlands variations, including vegetation, efficiency removal, maintenance, and construction cost. The fundamental definition of CW is that it is an eco-friendly technique to remove the pollutants from the wastewater and is mostly used by petroleum refineries, municipalities, the drainage system of agriculture and so on. Earlier, multiple innovations in the microbiology field eventually correlated with wastewater contaminants removal techniques. This review provides a brief review of the CW key aspects, like the CW types, challenges, opportunities, applications, materials, the recent advances. It also covers the current-technical advancement evaluation report and frames the unsolved CW problems. The terminology on the performance metric demonstrates that the CW community is growing rapidly. This manuscript has also mentioned an outline of the future trends and research proposals.
Luciane Marlyse Moungang, Christophe Colombe Simo Fotso, Pantaleon Ambassa, Thomas Wieland Moifo Kuete, Idriss Tchoupou Tchoffo, Raphael Balock Um, Aurelie Dzenga Djeunkam, Xavier Siwe-Noundou, Charles Fokunang, Moïse Nola, et al.
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 112-120; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.14

Abstract:
Background: The germs of waterborne diseases are often associated with an increase in resistance, which contrasts with the discovery of new active molecules, thus complicating treatment. Research is therefore undertaken to discover new substances with therapeutic potential. Although plants are an important source for obtaining interesting compounds, methods based on synthetic chemistry make it possible to obtain compounds inspired by those found in nature and presenting equally important properties. One group of these compounds, called chalcone, is of great importance nowadays due to the diversity of biological activities it presents; therefore, many chalcone derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities evaluated. Methodology: The compounds were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation in a basic medium (potash 5%). The reaction was followed by thin layer chromatography. At the end of the reaction, filtration after cooling of the reaction medium allowed the collection of part of the product that precipitated, while liquid-liquid extraction (water-acetate) allowed to obtain the rest still dissolved. The products obtained were purified by column chromatography using the Hexane/Ethyl Acetate system. The characterization of the products was carried out on the physical properties and also the nuclear magnetic resonances of the proton and carbon 13. The use of isolation media for each of the 04 bacteria studied, namely ENDO, SS, TCBS and BEA agars, permitted the isolation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae and Streptococcus feacalis, respectively. The microbiological technique for counting bacterial colonies in solid medium, as well as the microdilution in liquid medium allowed the evaluation of the action of the different chalcones. Results: Four O-propargyl vanillinic chalcones 5a-5d were obtained by Claisen Schmidt condensation method with respective yields of 63.6%; 66.7%; 66.7% and 70.0%. The evaluation of their antibacterial activities was done on four strains of bacteria including E. coli, S. typhi, V. cholerae and S. feacalis isolated from wells in the city of Yaoundé. Statistical data from the results of the solid-state bacterial colony counting technique revealed a lack of significance (p > 0.05) with respect to the variation of the mean bacterial abundance as a function of the concentrations of each chalcone (except that of the S. feacalis with respect to compound 5b). The results of the microdilution test showed the lowest MIC values with compound 5d (250 µg/mL), against S. typhi. Chalcones 5c and 5d exhibited better activity on E. coli (MIC value of 500 µg/mL) compared to the reference antibiotic: ampicillin (MIC > 1000 µg/mL). Chalcones 5a and 5b were the least active on all bacteria studied, with MIC values greater than or equal to 1000. Conclusions: The microdilution tests showed an antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds, with a better activity for the chalcone 5d.
Nematullah Husainpoor
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 279-285; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.22

Abstract:
The aim of the international community in Afghanistan was to fight terrorism and ensure lasting stability. Now, more than a decade and a half after the military and political presence, the prospect of peace and security does not look very clear and promising. The mechanism for security and stability in Afghanistan now defined in bringing peace through the Taliban. Afghanistan's ambassador to the United States, Zalmai Khalilzad has met with Pakistani and Afghan officials for the first time. U.S. pressure on Pakistan and consultations with countries such as UAE and Saudi Arabia have helped accelerate peace efforts in Afghanistan.
Ghazi Jan Mohammadi, Khan Wazir Adil
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 286-289; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.23

Abstract:
Afghanistan‘s climate is suitable for agriculture, so majority of its people are busy with farming. One of the crops they cultivate is walnut. Walnut is a kind of fruit that contains important nutrients and is very important for our healthy diet. Therefore, consuming some amount of walnut per day can provide us with proteins, fat, antioxidants, some vitamins and minerals that people need daily. Also, walnut contains Omega3, useful for our regular health. Taking all these into account, we can conclude that walnut is a rich source of substances for health. If we are in searching for our healthy life, we have to consider daily intake of a handful of walnut.
Abenezer Abebe, Zelalem Tafa
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 243-250; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.18

Abstract:
Genetic engineering is recombinant DNA technology that involves artificial addition, deletion or rearrangement of sequences of bases in DNA to alter form and function of organism. It complement plant breeding efforts by increasing the diversity of genes and germplasm available for incorporation into crops and by shortening the time required for the production of new varieties and hybrids. As the conventional breeding is restricted to sexually compatible crop species, time intensive and random process the genetic engineering is an alternative method to develop promising varieties with higher resistance to biotic stresses. Genetic engineering facilitates development of biotic stress resistant crops by expressing bacterial δ-endotoxins and vegetative insecticidal proteins, plant genes like lectins, protease inhibitors, RNA interference and genome editing through CRISPR Cas9. Bt-crops (maize, cotton Tobacco, Soyabean and etc), Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) are insect-resistant crops and the most outstanding achievements through genetic engineering of insecticidal protein coding genes from soil bacterium B. thuringiensis. Several studies indicated that genetically modified crops have reduced pesticide quantity by 37% and pesticide cost by 39% and on average crop yields increased by 21%. Transgenic lines of banana and tomato have showed resistance to Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) and Fusarium wilt, respectively. In summary, Genetic engineering has played pivotal role in developing biotic resistance cultivars and cultivation area of these crops is growing fast each year, which indicates understanding and applying this new technologies offer more effective solutions against evolving biotic stress.
Abdul Latif Rahimi, Abdul Malik Himmat
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 298-303; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.25

Abstract:
Recently, the use of probiotics by human beings through different delivery routes is increased. These are those microorganisms that produce positive health benefits to the host. Different species of probiotics are used in human food matrices, but the commonly used probiotics are related to Bifido-bacteria and Lactobacillus genus. The health benefits attributed to probiotic consumption are investigated in numerous human and animal studies. These benefits are the improvement of metabolic disorders like control of diarrhea, improvement in lactose intolerance, prevention of colon cancer, treatment of H. pylori; decrement in blood cholesterol, alleviation in sensitivity and so forth. etc... The mentioned health benefits are species species-dependent. These microorganisms produce the benefits through several mechanisms such as competitive exclusion of pathogens and colonization resistance, normalization of altered microbiota, Anti Anti-proliferative effect, competition for nutrients, production of inhibitory substances, production of short chain fatty acids, and degradation of toxin receptors, immune effects, and regulation of intestinal transit. In this article, information and the results of recently conducted research concerning probiotics, its properties and mechanism of action, and health benefits of probiotics are gathered and discussed.
Abeer Wali Ahmed, Mohamed Muyaser, Rasha Nadeem Ahmed
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 33-50; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.5

Abstract:
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosi Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosis Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in early December 2019 in China, as an acute lower respiratory tract infection and spread rapidly worldwide being declared a pandemic in March 2020. Chest-computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in different clinical settings of COVID-19 patients; however, COVID-19 imaging appearance is highly variable and nonspecific. Indeed, many pulmonary infections and non-infectious diseases can show similar CT findings and mimic COVID-19 pneumonia. In this review, we discuss clinical conditions that share a similar imaging appearance with COVID-19 pneumonia, to identify imaging and clinical characteristics useful in the differential diagnosis Coronavirus epidemic 2019, known as (COVID-19) first appeared in China early December 2019 like an acute lower respiratory system illness as well as quickly expanded around the globe, eventually becoming a global in March 2020. COVID-19 individuals have undergone chest computed tomography (CT) in a variety of therapeutic settings; nonetheless, the look of COVID-19 scanning is very varied or vague. Several lung illnesses, such as bacterial pneumonia, A-typical bacterial pneumonias, viral pneumonia, fungal infection, and hypersensitivity pneumonia Super-infection/co-infection, might resemble COVID-19 pneumonia in CT. Inside this study, we detected or treated which have comparable visual appearances with COVID-19 pneumonia through order to obtain image and medical features that might help with diagnostic process.
Ghaneemah Malik Hamadi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 19-32; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.4

Abstract:
Immune markers are enzymes which influence human capacity to fight off dangerous agents like germs as well as various external invaders. This paper aims to determine the elements that have a role in the pathogenesis of Thyroid disease, an immunological disorder caused by a combination of hereditary predisposition and external conditions. Celiac disease (CD), also known as gluten sensitive enteropathy, is rather prevalent in western countries, with just a frequency of roughly 1%. Most people that are asymptomatic or have minor signs may now be diagnosed with CD because to the new advent of precise or precise serological tests. With this using vitro humanoid creature, investigate overall effects of hypothyroidism function in circulatory biomarkers for fibroblast immunological reaction. This pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) is inadequately known, as well as the relationship among immunological characteristics with AITD-related genetic variations is still unknown. Individuals' thyroid functioning progressed from asymptomatic or moderate hyperthyroidism at the first appointment to typical circulation amounts of unbound thyroid hormone or thyroid - stimulating hormone just at subsequent, eventually leading to hypothyroidism. Researchers recently explored that anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) concentrations were connected with global reduction in IgG central fucosylation and antennary fucosylation in periphery plasma mononuclear cells in AITD. Fucose reduction is known to enhance targeted antigen-expressing cell killing by potentiating robust antibiotic Killer cellular proliferation. It might lead to autoantibody-mediated immune cell mobilization or assault of self-antigen-expressing normal tissues in autoimmunity.
Sayed Shah Gul Weyar, Hassan Khan Darmal
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 63-66; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.8

Abstract:
Teachers who graduate from education programmes are well-prepared to be effective educators, and their influence on the whole educational system has the potential to be profound. Students from the education faculty are less likely than other students to pursue a career in teaching for a variety of reasons, particularly those who received excellent marks in their tests. In order to compensate for the lack of enthusiasm on the part of professional instructors, unskilled and unprofessional teachers, or, to put it another way, teachers with weak academic credentials, have taken over their position. Our youngsters would be unable to acquire a proper education because of the ruined education system that we had in our nation. The lack of interest on the part of education faculty students may be attributed to a variety of factors, which we must identify and then implement the most effective remedy feasible. Using SPSS as an analytical tool, I analysed the data gathered via a group discussion with the respondents. The structured questionnaire questioned 247 respondents about the study and they answered 20 different questions.
Zarwali Sedeqi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 73-77; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.10

Abstract:
The reign of Ahmad Khan Abdali, which lasted from (1747-1773 A.D.), was unique and newly established in his time because he had no legacy left before, but still, he was able to create a social system with his great initiative and talent. The economy itself worked in a way that inherently formed the basis of social and economic progress. In this regard, he made the necessary use of all social classes such as clerics, influential people, religious scholars, feudal lords and the military, and used all of them to strengthen his newly established system. He was also not indifferent to the economic situation and wanted to improve this main and fundamental factor of the government to have a prosperous system and a well-equipped and present military force. In order to strengthen the economic system, Ahmad Shah Baba paid special attention to agriculture, trade and tax regulation and was able to achieve a good result by regulating these matters. In this regard, he was able to build a strong economy and treasure. The treasury had its vast booty carried through many wars across the country, both of which provided the cost of the war and was good proof of the treasury's strength. The capital (material and cash) in Ahmad Shahi's treasures was unique both in the past and in his family, which came to power after Ahmad Shah Baba, and this was the reason that Timur Shah ruled him for twenty years and had no worries in this area. Thus, it can be stated that if the social and economic situation of Ahmad Shahi is compared to the governments that came after him one after another in this land, the later regimes have nothing in common with Ahmad Shahi's system and administration and will not have.
Azra Begam Afridi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 74-78; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.7

Abstract:
As nanotechnology developed, the chemical architecture of materials was modified. Our study aims to develop nanohybrid sol-gel processes comprising silica particles and a polymer resin, including functionalized carboxylic groups (typically epoxy or phenolic resins). A film of ceramic glass is formed when the metallic plate is coated. It is possible to obtain corrosion-resistant properties by incorporating these particles into polymeric matrixes. Researchers studied infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the structure of RF refers to phenolic resin, RFF refers to resin functionalized, and RF-SIO2 and RFF-SIO2 refers to their respective hybrids. As a result of polarization, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) appears to act like a mixed-type inhibitor. The charge transfer process is largely responsible for preventing corrosion of the C-steel. Using weight loss as a measure of inhibitory efficacy ranged from 56 to 83% while using electrochemical methods, it was 60 to 90%. PVP adheres to steel and prevents corrosion, according to different tests. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm is found to govern PVP adsorption on the C-steel surface. An explanation for PVP's inhibitory action is suggested. A thermodynamic parameter Eapp is determined by the adsorbed PVP on the C-steel surface, *H, and *S decrease. As inhibitor concentration and temperature increase, so does PVP's inhibition efficiency.
A. Sharma, S. Kumar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 152-159; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.17

Abstract:
Present work deals with the assessment of variations in physico-chemical parameters of Sagar Tal in Budaun, U.P., during July 2019 to June 2021. The location of this pond is at a distance of 2.5 km from Budaun Junction in the Nawada region at latitude 28.0512° N and longitude 79.1305° E. Analysis of various Physico-chemical parameters were performed using APHA standard methods for water analysis. The ranges of monthly mean values were obtained after analysis of water samples in triplicates, for air temperature (17.03-38.03°C), water temperature (18.03-38.97°C), transparency (10.00-26.00 cm), pH (8.00-9.80), dissolved oxygen (08.00-11.23 mg/l), free Carbon dioxide (0-8.0 mg/l), carbonate alkalinity (0-120 mg/l), bicarbonate alkalinity (29.48-117.93mg/l), chloride (9.98-16.66mg/l), calcium (44.11-107.47 mg/l), magnesium (21.95-67.71 mg/l) and total hardness (205.67-466 mg/l). The data were administered to various statistical analysis in order to explore the remarkable relationship among these parameters. A positive outcome of relationship of air temperature with water temperature (0.864), magnesium with both total hardness (0.915), dissolved oxygen was observed along with a negative relationship of water temperature and pH (-0.913).
Abdul Ghani Rahimi, Ramin Nazarian
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.8

Abstract:
The research focuses on barley output in the Injil District of Herat Province, Afghanistan, and the influence of climate change between the years 2008-2017. Over the previous 10 years, the study's findings imply a relative rise in both mean maximum and mean minimum temperature, as well as a relative drop in yearly precipitation. According to the farmers in the District, the prevalence of the pest and disease is quite low and has caused no harm to the area of barley production. Climate change (temperature and precipitation) has a somewhat positive impact on barley productivity, according to the research. The research also discovered a statistically negative association between temperature and barley productivity, finding that a comparatively higher temperature resulted in a considerable increase in barley yield when the best pest and disease-resistant variety was employed and the weather was favourable. Precipitation and barley yield were also shown to have a statistically negative association, according to the research. The consequence is that when precipitation drops, the area of barley production increases, since another factor impacting barley output is the use of stream water, wells, and kariz to remove water shortages for irrigation, as well as the use of disease and pest-resistant cultivars.
Mohammad Maruf Seizgain
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 188-190; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.23

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to provide a wealth of information on the history of the development of biology in the passage of history. Beginning with the wizarding era and ending with heart and neurosurgery and hundreds of other developments in Biological Science based on scientific methods. This means that biology is one of the oldest sciences and human beings with intellect, logic, thought and will have drawn many dark corners of ambiguities and are still trying to use chemical, physical, technical, computer and other sciences. Biology was born in ancient Greece in the 6th-7th centuries BC and was developed by the great philosophers of the world such as Hippocrates, Aristotle and other Greek philosophers. Famous Roman scientists have also done great service in the development of this science. With the advent of the holy religion of Islam, Islamic scholars in the field of medicine and other scientific sciences have done great service. The services of Abdul Malik Samael, Abul Hassan Ali bin Sahl Tabari and Abul Mohammad Zakaria Razi in the development of biology are unforgettable. The great scientists of the world of science have succeeded in discovering important biological problems since the seventeenth century.
Wahidullah Enayat, Sorgul Kashmiri, Mohammad Reza Mohammadizadeh
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 174-182; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.21

Abstract:
In this paper, the attic space of the building of the Faculty of Physics, University of Tehran has been simulated by Comsol Multiphysics software. Before the energy consumption optimization is applied in it, the building of the Faculty of Physics, University of Tehran has dimensions (80.5 × 17 × 3.2 m) and 50 years have passed since its construction, and so during the summer (July to October), the temperature reaches 50 0C. In these months, energy consumption is higher than in other months of the year. Previously, 18 automatic fans were installed on the roof to lower the attic temperature. But its installation was insignificant in reducing the temperature difference between the attic and the outside space. Now to reduce the temperature, can use a gentle airflow (fan). Before to install the fan on both sides of the gable, it was simulated by Comsol Multiphysics. The simulation of six hypothetical fans is considered reducing the temperature. After calculation by this software, the use of installing six fans at both ends of the attic shows a reduction of 10 degrees, which can be said to save energy.
Kamal Din Kamal, Sultan Mohammad Hanafi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 66-73; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.6

Abstract:
The aim this study is to investigate the lexical variations in Pashto spoken in Paktia and Nangrahar. The linguistic variations of age and region were considered to find out the lexical differences in Spoken Pashto both targeted provinces. However, to accomplish the aims of the investigation, two data sets were center of the information for this comparative study of the lexical variations. The main data were collected by open-ended questionnaire to get the secondary data. For getting the objectives of the study, a questionnaire was spread out among the randomly selected participants, the 50 participants were selected from both targeted places. Vocally managed questionnaire was also led in order to get the purpose of the study. Although, the observation of the speakers was another research tool. The examination of the collected data from both study tools showed that there are prominent differences in spoken Pashto in Paktia and Nangrahar from the view point of lexical variation. However, from the observation it was decided that there are certain expletives associated in both targeted places.
Rashmi Kumari, Manoj Kumar Upadhyay
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 171-173; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.20

Abstract:
Some societies can cope, at least temporarily, with pollution and availability constraints. In most of the world, however, population increases continue without significant reduction rates. Growth will continue to impose increasing demands upon freshwater supplies. Control and reversal of degradation requires a proper economic and social valuation of fresh water. Human impact on freshwater ecosystems will increase until industrial growth is stabilized. Emotionalism and alarmist reactions to the momentum of exploitation by the technological system accomplish little. Understanding the metabolic responses of aquatic ecosystems is essential in order to confront and offset the effects of human alterations. Many small ponds in different parts of the world have been drained or reclaimed to extend arable land. This has caused unusual fluctuations in water land, the impact of which is tremendous. The biodiversity and dynamics of different phytoplankton population are one of the least explored areas in aquatic biology. Ecological studies give humans a deep insight into principles of life, its forms and levels of existence. F.A forel may be considered as the founder of modern limnology for his original work on Swiss Lakes. The primary social need of every sustainable society is to protect and utilize all their natural resources wisely. In India, such studies on the pattern of energy flow in aquatic ecosystem by various organisms at different trophic levels are very few. Odum suggested to bring out a comparative picture by investigating the physical, chemical and biological characteristic of lentic water bodies. It is clear that no detailed bioecological investigations have been done so far in this area.
Arsalan Bigzad
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 191-195; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.24

Abstract:
The endocrine glands, the products which, are called hormones, located in parts of the body that are generally hidden from view. This system is closely related to the nervous system and the secretions are effective on top of each other and have direct interactions. Various secretions that are secreted in small amounts from cells, sacs and glands are able to affect large areas of membership in a short time. The endocrine glands, together with the nervous system, coordinate the actions and activities of different parts of the body. The endocrine glands are usually classified into three groups. The main endocrine glands, their role is to secrete hormones, including the epiphyseal, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, and pituitary glands. Mixed glands - where cells, sacs, and endocrine tissue are located within the exocrine tissue. Such as pancreas, ovaries, testicles, kidneys, thymus, and placenta. Diffuse endocrine system - in which hormone-producing cells are widely distributed in the digestive and respiratory systems. In terms of effectiveness, its amount is related to the anatomical and physiological needs of the body. Internal disorders of the body and the external environment can cause changes in the number of secretions, which appear as a result of irregularities in the body, which can often be treated by timely diagnosis of the complication; Because the endocrine glands control the body's metabolic rate; Participates in the metabolism of organ materials.
Nisveta Softić, Halid Makić, Nenad Stojanović, Jasmin Sefer, Husejin Keran
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 160-162; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.18

Abstract:
Providing the population with sufficient quantities of hygienically healthy food is the foundation of public health protection. According to the current BiH Law on Food, the main goal is to ensure a high level of human health protection, and the measures applied should be based on risk assessment. Regular food monitoring is one of the key public health problems, and this paper presents the quantitative risk of copper intake by consuming mint herbal tea infusions. The average copper concentration in the 20 analyzed samples of mint herbal tea infusions was 0.0028 ± 0.0125 mg / kg, while the value of the average daily intake was less than the oral reference dose for copper, so that the hazard coefficient itself was <1 , and consuming the analyzed infusions of herbal mint tea has no harmful effects on the health of the surveyed children.
Ahmed Ayad Alfaytouri Saeid
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 163-170; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.19

Abstract:
The quality of water ascertains the ‘integrity’ of water for specific purposes. Tests and quality of examination of water can provide sufficient information about the waterway health. If tests are conducted over a span of time period, the water quality changes can be realized. There are several testing parameters like pH value, temperature, salinity, turbidity, phosphates and nitrates, which can help assess the water quality. Also, aquatic macro-invertebrates can give a proper water quality indication. Surface water contaminated can pose a high risk to the entire human population and it remains a challenging task to investigate and resolve the problem for public health authority. Intensification of agricultural activities, change in climatic conditions, coastal area quick urban development, and resultant freshwater source declining have contributed considerably to the surface water contamination risk and the augmentation of waterborne disease incidences. The quality of surface water monitoring needs frequent problem detection to reduce any negative effect on public health. The epidemiology study applies geospatial and remote sensing technologies to distinguish the temporal and spatial environmental variability determinants to assess the epidemiology of certain diseases. By providing an integrated and systematic approach to risky water management for the public health and safety, a proper epidemiology method can be used and proved to be an efficient device to evaluate the quality of surface water and any related health risks. SWRMS- Spatial water resource monitoring system provides important and beneficial information to support water management. Requisite innovative features involve the explicit water redistribution description and use of river water and groundwater systems, to achieve more spatial details like key irrigated area features and wetlands, to improve hydrometer observation accuracy and assimilating the observations. A review of research and operational applications reveals that satellite view can enhance spatial detail and accuracy in estimating hydrological model. Every operating system uses land cover classification, dynamic forcing, and a parameterization priory of vegetation dynamics, which is partially or completely based on remote sensing, while satellite observations are utilized in varying stages for data assimilation and model evaluation. The satellite observation, utility by data assimilation varies as a dominant hydrological function. This review paper identifies the spatial and temporal precipitation products, including the application of a higher remote sensing product range, along with operational challenges while research satellite mission continuity with data services, finding computationally-efficient data assimilation techniques. The entire observations critically relies on the detailed information availability and understanding the remotely-sensed spatial and temporal scaling.
Rana Hazim Hamoode, Dalal A. Sattar, Mohanad A. K.
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 86-93; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.9

Abstract:
In the case of Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, patients are usually cured with Vasopressin (V2) receptor antagonists, which delay the ongoing growth of cyst formation and slow the pace of AD disease progression. Before we know more, it is uncertain if the increase in vasopressin amide levels that was detected during V2RAT treatment impacts the production of glucose in the intestines. Cell growth and fluid secretion are aided by high intracellular concentrations of adenosine 3',5;-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), which leads to cyst development. SST, a hormone implicated in a variety of cell activities, has the potential to block the generation of intracellular cAMP. Nevertheless, since Somatostatin is quickly removed in vivo, it has little therapeutic promise. As a result, analogues with a longer half-life have been established, which might be potential medicines in the therapy of ADPKD. This review covers the complicated physiological consequences of Somatostatin, especially on the kidneys, as well as the possible therapeutic use of SST analogues in ADPKD.
Deepak Chandra Joshi, Pooja Negi, R. Roopini, Harshita, Nirmal Joshi, Geetika Pant
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 98-104; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.11

Abstract:
Diet-related complications such as diabetic foot ulcers are the leading cause of death for diabetics. In clinical studies, a wide variety of medications from various pharmacological families are being used to treat diabetic foot ulcers, but only a few have received regulatory approval. Diabetic foot ulcers are caused by a variety of factors, including neuropathy, peripheral artery disease, infection, gender, smoking, and age. Bacterial resistance to present medications is a problem in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. For diabetic foot ulcers, this study focuses on the existing treatment, the current treatment method, and potential pharmaceutical targets. Rather of relying on a single medicine to cure a diabetic foot ulcer, a combination of therapy is the best option because several factors contribute to its development. These studies show that treating diabetic foot ulcers in the absence of routine access to laboratory or radiographic testing is possible despite the various challenges that practitioners confront around the world. DFUs are becoming a more important public health problem as they become more prevalent. Because of the difficulty in distinguishing between infection and colonisation in DFU, MDR bacteria have arisen as an issue. In addition, DFU develops biofilms on the skin's outer surface. Biofilm complicates the pathophysiology of DFU and can impede healing. Antibiotic-resistant conditions, such as those caused by biofilm-forming bacteria and MDR bacteria, can lead to chronic wounds, infection, and even lower-limb amputation. In this case, antibiotic alternatives would be very appreciated in the treatment of DFU. Antibiofilm approaches, which can prevent the production of microbial biofilms as well as wound chronicity, are among the creative alternative treatments for the management of DFU wounds that are discussed in this study. DFU can be treated more quickly and effectively if these cutting-edge therapeutic options are used instead of or in conjunction with more established methods.
Ahmad Jawid Halimi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 112-117; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.13

Abstract:
Nezami Ganjavi, one of the greatest romantic poets in Persian literature was born in 1141 in Ganja, modern – day Azerbaijan and lived at a time of intense intellectual activity. Since he was not a court poet, his name does not appear in the records of the dynasties. A prominent poet acquainted with Arabic and Persian literature, he was also learned in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, botany and the Quran. Nezami was one of the biggest Persian poets and the Haft Paykar perhaps his greatest work that translated twice before into English during the 20th century. In this article, with a brief reference to the Haft Paykar of Nezami, and its counterparts are introduced, which have been made by imitating, following and adapting from it. In addition to identifying the Haft Paykar idols, the stories of each idol will also be discussed and analyzed. The purpose, product and result of this research work is; the study of Nezami’s academic life and explanation of the Haft Paykar with its details, such as (Hasht Golgasht, Haft Akhtar, Haft Paykar, Haft Keshwar, Haft Delbar, Noh Manzar, Haft Aurang Maraghi, Haft Orang Jamali, Hasht Behesht, Haft Manzar, Haft Naghsh, Asmane Hashtom, Haft Akhtar, Reshtaye Gawhar), in the area of Persian language and literature; which has added to the richness of this scientific article. Purpose of research: Brief introduction of Haft Paykar Nezami Ganjavi and description of its peers in the field of Dari – Persian language and literature, with their modal and examples in details.
Ashish Kumar, Anubhav Dubey, Raghuvendra Singh
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 105-111; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.12

Abstract:
To present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of Ethanolic extract of Momordica dioica fruits in pylorus ligatated and Cold stress induced ulceration in the wistar rats. Pylorus ligation induced ulcer is one of the most widely used methods for studying the effect of drug on gastric secretion. Effect of distilled water in pylorus ligation has caused the accumulation of gastric sectretion and decreased the pH. Ranitidine and Ethanolic extracts of Momordica dioica significantly decreased the gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity, ulcer score, number of ulcer and ulcer index and raise the pH (shown in graph. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,).Similar studies support our results. Ethanolic extract of Momordica dioica at a dose of (400mg/kg. p.o) showed significant inhibition of ulcerative lesion by 46.33% and 54.66%, respectively, as compared to the control value The Ethanol extract of Momordica dioica fruits possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner.
Ashwak I. Al-Obaedi, Adnan F. Al- Azzawie Al- Azzawie, Noor Maath Ahmed
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 15-20; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.2

Abstract:
Lipid disorder is one of the main causes of essential hypertension. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polymorphism is known to be associated with changes in lipid profile. Therefore, this study designed to detect the CETP Taq1 B polymorphism (rs708272) and evaluate its relationship with lipid profile levels among some hypertensive Iraqi patients. One hundred and seventy blood samples were collected from two groups, the first group included a hundred hypertensive patients and the second group included seventy healthy individuals as control group. For both groups, lipid profile was estimated, genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to detect CETP gene Taq1 B polymorphism. Results indicated that levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) had increased, while the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was decreased in hypertensive patients in comparison to control group. The study also showed that the frequency of B1B1 genotype and (B1) allele was higher in hypertensive patients in compare with control group (p ≤ 0.01). Lipid profile concentrations according to CETP gene Taq1 B genotypes showed non-significant differences. This study concluded that the CETP gene Taq1B polymorphism may associated with associated with lipid disorder and CETP (B1) allele which could be used as a genetic marker for increasing hypertensive susceptibility in Iraqi population.
Frédéric Ayant, Prvindra Kumar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.1

Abstract:
In the present paper, we evaluate the general finite integral involving the exponential function, generalized Hurwitz’s-Lerch zeta function of two variables and the modified of generalized I-function of two variables. At the end, we shall see several corollaries and remarks.
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