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Frida Carmina Caballero Rico
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
The current knowledge base of the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve (RBC), Tamaulipas, Mexico is identified from scientific publications between 1993 and 2019. Objective: Analyze, synthesize and categorize the studies published on El Cielo Biosphere Reserve (RBC), Tamaulipas. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology focused on the search, classification, and review of existing sources in the SCOPUS database from the perspective of the knowledge base. The study covered 37 publications that were analyzed considering scientific mapping in four dimensions: size, time, space, and composition. The analyses were performed using the Bibliometrix and Biblioshiny software tools. Results: It was found that the reviewed publications address biodiversity studies from a disciplinary approach and from an ecological perspective, which produces a fragmented knowledge of the territory and its problems. Limitations on study/implications: It is recognized that there may be publications that do not appear in the Scopus database Findings/conclusions: Knowledge about the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve is fragmented, with a disciplinary approach and from an ecological perspective. The lack of a critical mass of researchers to generate useful knowledge was observed. A weak intellectual structure was also found, which generates a reduced contribution to the conservation of biodiversity. The original contribution of this paper is the synthesis of the current state of knowledge about biodiversity conservation of the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, which had not been performed previously.
Luz Stella Henao-Díaz, Cristian Leonardo Cadena-Casanova, Gloria Ivette Bolio López, Lucien Veleva, José Antonio Azamar-Barrios, Manuel Mateo Hernández-Villegas, Samuel Córdova-Sánchez
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Obtaining films from a vegetable biopolymer from the peel (a by-product) of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) (BPM) and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution generated by the consumption of petroleum-derived plastics.Design / methodology / approach: By acid hydrolysis at four concentrations of citric acid (0, 1, 2, and 3 %), pectin was extracted of passion fruit peels, making a paste mixture with glycerol. The obtained biofilms with an approximate 1 mm thickness wereNcharacterized by transformed Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with coupled elemental analyzer (EDS).Results: XRD diffractograms revealed that passion fruit bioplastic had a semi-crystalline structure and a calculated crystallinity index of 74.6 %. Its value reduced by the half as the citric acid increased concentration, the samples with lower concentration with greater flexibility (1 %). FTIR analysis suggested alterations in the BMP structures and adecrease of methoxyl groups in the polymeric chains with the increasing in citric acid content. Limitations/implications: SEM micrographs showed homogeneity in the films, although with some granular irregularities and folding.Findings/conclusions: The increase in citric acid concentration decreased the degree of gelation in the writing of the obtained biofilms, suggested by EDS and FTIR results, with a consequent reduced flexibility of the GMP films.
, Cândida Pereira da Silva, Irais Dolores Pascual-Reyes, Aline Torquato Tavares, Edilson Nonato da Silva, Aurélio Vaz de Melo
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: The objective was to quantify the morphological diversity of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambes from four municipalities of the State of Tocantins employing morphological characteristics, to strengthen information on conservation and future breeding of the species. Methodology: Seeds were collected from four municipalities in the State of Tocantins and one in the State of São Paulo. The following were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, leaf area, root dry mass, shoot dry mass, total dry mass, and Dickson´s quality index. The data were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, Tocher grouping method, and UPGMA, obtaining a dendrogram through the generalized Mahalanobis distance. Results: The results showed a statistical difference of 1 and 5% probability. Dueré stood out in stem diameter(5.52 mm), Sandolandia in height (34.84 cm) and root length (42.13 cm). Formoso stood out in the number of leaves (34 leaves). Lagoa da Confusão in leaf area (856.28 cm 2 ) and São Paulo in root dry mass (16.20 g), shoot dry mass (12.38 g), total dry mass (16.20 g), and Dickson´s quality index (1.57). Implications: Variations in morphological characteristics can be used as a tool for genetic studies of guanandi progeny accordingto their similarity and/or differences. Conclusions: The morphological divergence evidenced that among the five studied areas it is possible to direct the collection of seeds to subsidize conservation strategies and future breeding of the species.
Cintya Valerio Cárdenas, Patricia De La Cruz Burelo, David Guerrero Zárate, Zaritma Yamilet Montejo García
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: to produce bioethanol from the alcoholic fermentation of agri-food waste.Design/methodology/approach: food waste was collected for one month and separated into fruit and fabaceous waste; its size was reduced and then washed with hot acetone. A batch of 100 g of residue underwent acid hydrolysis with 5 %H 2 SO 4 at 125 °C, the hydrolysate was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 30 °C for 48 h; the ferment was then distilled at 78 °C. The sugar content was determined following the phenol-sulfuric method. Brix degrees, density andpercentage w/w ethanol were measured with a densimeter.Results: from the fruit residues, an organic fraction was obtained with a total sugar content of 53.3 g/100 g of residue and 9.6 °Brix, generating 45 mL of distillate with 3.8 % w/w of bioethanol. From the fabaceae residues, an organic fraction was obtained with a total sugar content of 19.4 g and 4.140 °Brix, generating 30 mL of distillate with 2.54 % w/w of bioethanol.Study limitations/implications: Rapid decomposition of waste due to bacterial and fungal decomposition complicates long-term storage.Findings/conclusions: fermentable sugars can be obtained from the evaluated agri-food waste to obtain bioethanol. In this way, they can be integrated into the value chain as raw materials, reducing their accumulation and the environmental impact generated by their final disposal.
Andrés Flores, J. Méndez-González, H.J. Muñoz-Flores
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objectives: i) to determine the total degraded areas of EZ in the country, ii) estimate the priority degraded areas for restoration planting, and iii) assess the species and planted areas of the Pinus genus and whether these were within their natural distribution range.Design/methodology/approach: total EZ degradation surfaces and priority degraded areas for restoration plantings were determined with the Germplasm Movement Zones and Restoration Zones of the Comisión Nacional Forestal (NationalForestry Commission, CONAFOR), while planted surfaces were estimated from the CONAFOR records from 2016 to 2018.Results: on degradation, it was shown that three EZ had large areas, six EZ intermediate areas and 32 EZ small areas; two degradation types (III.C and III.D) were prioritized and viable for restoration plantings; four species (23 %) were established outside their natural distribution range while ten (59 %) were within it, three species were undefined.Study limitations/implications: for restoration of areas, it is necessary to avoid high initial plant mortality and poor growth.Findings/conclusions: the north of the country has larger areas with degradation,while the center, north and south have areas with medium and low degradation; planting species outside their distribution range leads to plant adaptation problems.
Ana Citlaly Zazueta Gutierrez, Ana Mireya Romo Valdez, Beatriz Isabel Castro Perez, Francisco Gerardo Ríos Ríncon
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Review the heat stress mitigation strategies in intensive cattle feedlots in the tropical region of México.Approach: Beef cattle production is one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector; therefore, to maintain the inventory in intensive finishing pens, a considerable number of cattle are moved to geographic areas where climatic conditions are not always favorable for most of the year. High environmental temperature combined with relative humidity create heat stress conditions andconsequently affecting the productive indicators by compromising the physiologicalstability of the cattle.Implications: The improvement of housing conditions to mitigate the effects of heat stress in beef cattle in intensive finishing involves considering living space, available shade area, feeding and watering space that assure the cattle welfare during their stay in livestock production units. Conclusions: Heat stress mitigation strategies in beef cattle during intensive finishing in practical conditions should contribute to animal welfare and them improvement of the productive indicators at the Mexican dry tropics.
Luis Ángel Barrera-Guzmán, Juan Porfirio Legaria-Solano, , ,
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: Determine current and potential distribution of S. tacaco in Costa Rica with seven Species Distribution Models (SDM), in order to optimize the management of S. tacaco genetic resources, aimed at identifying patterns of geographic distribution and possible climatic adaptations allowing to have perspectives on their conservation and genetic breeding. Design/Methodology/Approach: 21 points of occurrence together with 19 bioclimatic variables and altitude were used to evaluate seven machine learning models and an assembly of these. Open-source libraries running in Rstudio were used. Results: Distribution models were inferred by the variables bio1, bio2, bio3, bio4, bio12, bio13, bio14, bio18 y bio19. The generalized additive model obtained the highest values ??of area under the curve (0.96) and True skill statistic (0.90), however, the seven models tested and the assembly showed adequate performance (AUC> 0.5 and TSS> 0.4). Bioclimatic variables related to temperature were the ones with the greatest contribution to the models and the main limitations in the distribution of S. tacaco. Study limitations/implications: Possibly a greater number of occurrence points are required to evaluate distribution models. Findings/Conclusions. Areas with high potential distribution suitability for S. tacaco are found in central valleys of Costa Rica, covering regions of the provinces of Alajuela, Cartago, San José and Puntarenas. These areas can be sources of germplasm for future conservation and breeding studies.
Lorenzo Armando Aceves Navarro, Alberto Santillán Fernández, Benigno Rivera-Hernández, Rigoberto González Mancillas, Agrícola Arrieta-Rivera, Roberto Gutiérrez-Burón
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the monthly average global solar irradiance (Rg), using observed cloudiness data (% of cloudy days), as well as its spatial distribution for the state of Tabasco, Mexico.Design/Methodology/Approximation: The proposed model by Tejeda-Martínez et al. (1999) was adjusted to estimate the Rg of 35 meteorological stations in the state of Tabasco. The adjustment was performed with daily observed Rg data fromeight automated weather stations and cloudiness data from eight ordinary weather stations. Results: The proposed model reports a good fit, given that its prediction was optimal according to Willmotts comparison parameter (c = 0.89), and excellent based on the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (E = 0.99) and had a high corrected determination coefficient of Rc2 = 0.87.Study limitations/implications: It is necessary that in the state of Tabasco the number of automated stations increase, as well as technical maintenance to the existing stations.Findings/conclusions: The estimated Rg is statistically reliable. The highest Rg values occurred during the dry season, with a maximum of 22.99 MJ m -2 d -1 , distributed mainly in the northern part of the state. The lowest Rg values occurredduring the northeast season (12.52 MJ m -2 d -1 ), distributed in more than 80 % of the total state area.
, Alejandra Hernández-García, Jorge Montiel-Montoya, , Luis Germán López-Valdez, , Fabiola Zaragoza-Martínez, Gonzalo Guillermo Lucho Constantino, Hebert Jair Barrales-Cureño
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Objective: The identify and quantify, by high performance liquid chromatography,Nflavonoids from leaf and stem extracts of Acer negundo.Design/methodology/approach: Ethanolic extracts of Acer negundo were analysed with high performance liquid chromatography to quantify and identify their major antioxidant flavonoids.Results: Leaf extracts had high concentrations of rutin (34.19 µg/mL) and catechin (33.97 µg/mL), intermediate concentrations of apigenin (19.05 µg/mL), gallic acid (19.04 µg/mL), ferulic acid (17.2 µg/mL) and 2.5 dihydroxybenzoic acid (12.72 µg/mL), and low concentrations of caffeic acid (6.15 µg/mL), quercetin-3-β-glucoside (4.97 µg/mL) and isorhamnetin (4.68 µg/mL). In the stem´s extracts, the highest concentrations were of ferulic acid (7.96 µg/mL), rutin (5.61 µg/mL) and catechin (4.37 µg/mL); medium concentration were identified for isorhamnetin (3.31 µg/mL) and quercetin-3-β-glucoside (2.01 µg/mL) and apigenin (0.79 µg/mL) was identified at the low concentrations. Gallic acid, caffeic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were not detected.Limitations/implications: Some flavonoids have been identified in other Acer species but have not been identified and quantified in Acer negundo, a Mexicanspecies.Findings/conclusions: For the first time we report gentisic acid in Acer negundo leaf extracts. This analytical method can be standardized to serve as a qualityanalysis of maple tree products.
Miguel Á. Solís-Tejeda, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso, María Del R. Castañeda-Chávez, Laura C. Ruelas-Monjardin
Published: 22 July 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To identify and estimate waste production, water consumption and production practices of backyard swine farms at the municipality of Tepetlán; Veracruz, Mexico, to foresee the possible influences on the environment and generate information that promotes new public environmental policies adapted to small producers.Methodology: 36 backyard livestock production units were identified and studied in Vicente Guerrero and Alto Tío Diego by a census in which structured surveys were applied to obtain data; the results were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The maximum pollutant potential of the load with the installed infrastructure was estimated.Results: We registered 503 swine heads of diverse zootechnical functions, mainly from the Landrace breed, in 36 studied farms, 54.7% of idle infrastructure was identified. We found that about three tons of excreta are produced per day between the towns of Vicente Guerrero and Alto Tío Diego, from which 78% are dumped into the municipal drainage. The average water consumption per unit of livestock production was 132.2 Land for each unit of animal population 28.5 L, with a standard deviation of 32.2 L per animal population unit. This research also provides information on the feeding and production practices of the animals. It was possible to estimate the volume of swine excreta generated in the assessed localities. However, it is necessary to quantify organic matter, nitrogenous products, phosphorus, and total and fecal coliforms.Conclusions: It is important to quantify and regulate the generated waste by this livestock activity, to take corrective and regulatory decisions, to establish solutions that protect natural resources without harming the economy of the small producer.
Victor Fernando Torres-Aburto, Antonio Hernandez-Beltran, Patricia Cervantes-Acosta, Manuel Barrientos-Morales, Arrieta Gonzalez-Armando, Araceli Rodriguez-Andrade, Herminio Hernández-Flores, Belisario Dominguez-Mancera
Published: 22 July 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To correlate the Breeding Soundness Evaluation (BSE) of Charolais andCharbray bulls in the warm subhumid climate and its effect on the Pregnancy rate andCalving interval of herds to estimate differences between breeds.Design/methodology/approach: BSE was carried out on N = 90 Bulls; Charolais (n =33) and Charbray (n = 57), evaluated in situ during the period 2017 to 2019. Bull (age, body condition, libido, and scrotal circumference), Semen (concentration, motility, and volume), Herd (Pregnancy rate and Calving interval) and environment variables (Rainy and Dry season) were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, Factorial, Multiple regression, and Multivariate analysis.Results: Charolais and Charbray bulls show similar results in the BSE (p>0.05) in awarm subhumid climate.Limitations/implications: Year season (Rainy or Dry) do not affect (p<0.05) the BSErating. Libido is associated (p<0.05) with age (R=-0.42), sperm motility (R=0.67), spermconcentration (R=0.66) and pregnancy rate (R=0.63). Findings/conclusions: Variables with high association (p<0.05) with pregnancy ratewere libido (R=0.63), motility (R=0.60), sperm concentration (R=0.51) and age (R=-0.50); variables with high association (p<0.05) with calving interval were: age (R=0.74)and libido (R=-0.33). Charolais and Charbray bulls show similar reproductive efficiencyin herds under a warm subhumid climate in Veracruz.
Luciano Olivares-Sixto, Karla L. Silva-Martínez, Claudio Vite-Cristóbal, Oscar Del Ángel-Piña, Armando Arrieta González
Published: 22 July 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To identify the factors that affect the onset of ovarian activity in prepuberal heifers in the Huasteca Veracruzana of Mexico.Design/Methodology/Approach: Samples were taken from animal production units of the municipality of Tantoyuca, Veracruz. The onset of ovarian activity was determined by the presence of ovarian follicles andncorpus luteum by ultrasonography technique. Zoometric indices and body condition were calculated at them same time, and the zootechnical practices that were applied to the animals in the last six months before thesampling day were registered. A survey was applied to characterize the management of animal productionunits; the main topics in the survey were: health, reproduction, nutrition, and suckling. All animals available within selection criteria in the production units were sampled. A multiple linear regression (Statistical Analysis Software Version 9.4) and cluster analysis (R Studio Version 1.1.419) were used to identify the main categorical variables that affected the model.Results: The onset of ovarian activity depends mainly on the anatomical development of the heifers. The biostimulation (male effect) on the heifers has an important effect on reducing the age at puberty.Study Limitations/Implications: The study was developed during a long drought period in the region.Findings/Conclusions: The genetic mosaic of the evaluated animals in the production units did not affect the onset of ovarian activity of the heifers; however crossbred heifers (Bos taurus ? Bos indicus) begin the ovarian activity younger.
José Alfredo Martínez Aispuro, María Teresa Sánchez-Torres Esqueda, José Luis Figueroa Velasco, José Luis Cordero Mora
Published: 22 July 2021
Abstract:
Objective: To establish an inclusion recommendation for choline (herbal or synthetic) in fattening lambs’diet based on productive performance and blood metabolites.Design/Methodology/Approach: A literature review was carried out of herbal and synthetic choline supplementation in the diet of fattening lambs.Results: The addition of protected choline chloride (50% purity) in the lamb’s diet should be less than 2.5g/kg DM in order not to cause a detrimental effect on the productive performance. On the other hand, the inclusion of herbal choline in lambs’ diet should be greater than 6 g/kg DM to have positive effects on body gain and feed conversion.Study Limitations/Implications: It is necessary to establish the requirement for choline in fattening lambs because studies where choline is supplemented show that the contribution of conventional ingredients is insufficient.Findings/Conclusions: The inclusion of herbal (6 g/kg DM) and synthetic (2.5 g/kg DM) choline in lambs’ diet improves body weight gain and modifies energy metabolites
Héctor Humberto Corrales-Arévalo, Raymundo Rodríguez de Lara, Saúl Hernández-Aquino, Ernesto Avelar-Lozano,
Abstract:
Objective: To measure the effect of zin injection, during an estrus synchronization protocol, on pregnancy rate in sheep from the “Valle de Mexicali”.Design/methodology/approach: The experimental units were 157 ewes, which wereallocated in five farms (UP): UP1 (n=19), UP2 (n=27) UP3 (n=20) UP4 (n=71) and UP5(n=21). In each farm, the ewes were randomly assigned to one of three treatments:control, z-100 and z-200. The ewes from control groups were subcutaneously injectedwith 4 mL of olive oil as placebo. The ewes from groups z-100 and z-200 weresubcutaneously injected with 100 and 200 mg of zinc oxide. The response variableswere the preovulatory diameter of the largest follicle and pregnancy rate.Results: The differences between experimental groups on diameter of the largestpreovulatory follicle and pregnancy rates were not significant different (p>0.05). Limitations of the study/implications: The ewe’s reproductive response to zincinjection might be affected by the animal mineral status, it is recommended to carry onsupplementation with base on mineral blood concentrations.Conclusion: The subcutaneous injection with 100 or 200 mg of zinc oxide did not affectthe size of the largest preovulatory follicle and pregnancy rate in ewes.
David J. Palma-Cancino, , Fernando Vega-Villasante, Manuel Vargas-Ceballos, , Edith A. Castillo-Arias, Rafael Martinez Garcia
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2030

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the production cost and profitability of different feedingstrategies during the tropical gar larvicultureDesign/methodology/approach: Growth and survival obtained from the evaluationof an experimental diet with maize starch, comparing against the conventionalstrategy (commercial diet for rainbow trout and co-feeding with Artemia naupliii). Theexperimental diet was evaluated with co-feeding with Artemia and with no Artemia.The productions cost was estimated for each strategy and was calculated the unitcost by juvenile as well as the sale cost. We also determined the cost-benefit relationand the breakeven point for the economic analysis. Results: The direct feeding with no Artemia strategy during the larviculture is notprofitable. According to the relation cost-benefit, comparing the strategy with theexperimental diet in co-feeding with the conventional strategy, the profitability of thefirst was greater. The breakeven point between the profitable strategies was similar,but the greater survival with the experimental diet suggest a higher impact on theoptimization of the product system.Limitations on study/implications: the lack of economic analysis on the tropical garlarviculture affect indirectly the product system tropical gar as there is no accurate information on production costs.Findings/conclusions: From a financial point of view, the feeding strategy usingexperimental diet with co-feeding is the most profitable process of larviculture.
Hugo Andrés Rodríguez-Álvarez, José Alfonso Hinojosa-Cuéllar, Roberto González-Garduño, Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez, Moisés Rubio-Rubio, Emilio Manuel Aranda-Ibáñez, Jorge Oliva-Hernández, Glafiro Torres-Hernández
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1850

Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the lactation curve and milk production of Pelibuey ewes andthe relationship with preweaning growth rate of the lambs.Design/methodology/approach: Forty five Pelibuey ewes were milked during 70days in Montecillo, México, in 2018, to estimate daily and total milk production. Thelactation curve was fitted with the incomplete gamma function. In addition, the effectsof type of birth and ewe weight at milking on milk production were analyzed, andcorrelations were calculated between ewe milk production and growth rate of thelambs, per week and for the entire lactation Results: A “typical” lactation curve was found, average ewe milk production for theentire lactation, weighted for the number of lambs suckling, was 131±8 L, with444±24 g d -1 . Ewe weight at milking had an effect (p<0.01) on milk production.Positive correlations were found (p<0.05) between ewe milk production andpreweaning growth rate of the lambs.Limitations on study/implications: There is a strong dependency of the lambs forthe milk production of the Pelibuey ewe, a factor of great relevance so that lambs cangain body weight and survive during lactation.Findings/conclusions: Pelibuey ewes produce less milk than dairy ewes. Therefore,lambs should be weaned at a maximum of 10 weeks of lactation.
Fernando Isaac Gastelum-Mendoza, Luis Antonio Tarango-Arámbula, Genaro Olmos-Oropeza, Jorge Palacio-Núñez, Diego Valdez-Zamudio, Roberto Noriega-Valdez
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2043

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the diet of the desert bighorn sheep and to identify differencesin its composition between sexes during the reproductive and sexual segregation periods.Design/methodology/approach: The study was carried in the UMA Rancho NocheBuena, Hermosillo, Sonora. The microhistological technique and a cell catalog of plantsfrom the study area were used to identify plant species present in fecal samples ofbighorn sheep. The relative frequency, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index and theKulczynski similarity index were determined by sex and period (reproductive andsegregation)Results: The diet of bighorn sheep included 40 species, being herbaceous (36.1 ±4.4%) and grasses (26.8 ±8.9 %) the most common. The diet of males during thesegregation period was mainly composed of grasses (36.2%) and female diet byherbaceous (30%) and grasses (29.8%). No differences were found in the diversity ofthe diet of males and females in the segregation period (H '= 1.0) and in general, their diets were very similar (80%).Limitations/implications: To collect a greater number of fecal samples by sex andperiod (reproductive and segregation) and to analyze the nutritional content of plantsconsumed by bighorn sheep.Findings/conclusions: In this study, the sexual segregation exhibited by the bighornsheep in the Wildlife Management and Conservation Unit Rancho Noche Buena was notdue to food preferences.
Yessenia Cruz-Miranda, Luis A. Tarango-Arámbula, Jonathan G. Escobar-Flores, Genaro Olmos-Oropeza, Leonardo Chapa-Vargas
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2061

Abstract:
Objective: The objective was to infer the effect of the variables phenology (migration-non-migration), seasonal (rainfall-dry season), sex and forest condition on the abundances of birds (resident-migratory) in a semi-preserved and disturbed oak pine forest. Design/methodology/approach: It was carried out in Monte Tlaloc, State of Mexico, under two conditions of apparent disturbance, semi-preserved oak pine forest and disturbed oak pine forest. Ten bird samplings were carried out with "count on point" with a fixed radius of 25 m, covering the 4 seasons of the year and migratory periods. With the previous data, the Relative Abundance Index (RAI) was estimated. To infer the effect of the variables phenology, seasonality, sex and forest condition on the abundances of birds, generalized linear models were elaborated. Results: The IAR of the birds registered in the semi-considered pine forest indicates that the species with the lowest presence was Aphelocoma ultramarina (0.002) and with the highest frequency Empidonax sp. (0.13), unlike to that found in the disturbed pine forest where the lowest IAR corresponded to Colaptes auratus (0.003) and with the highest appearance was Ptiliogonys cinereus (0.23). The Generalized Linear Model suggested that forest condition and phenology are significantly related to the frequency of species. Limitations on study/implications: In this study it was found that the abundance of birds was affected by the condition of the forest and that the phenology (migration-non-migration), seasonal (rain-dry season), sex and condition of the forest were related to the abundance of birds. Four species classified as under Special Protection and two Threatened according to NOM-059 were registered as well as the presence of four endemic species which highlights the importance of conserving these ecosystems. Findings/conclusions: The fauna communities present in Monte Tláloc highlight the importance of conserving the pine-oak forests since this site is part of the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal.
Mario Enrique Macias-Fonseca, J.G. Herrera – Haro, A. Pro – Martínez, M.E. Ortega – Cerrilla, B. Ruíz – Sesma
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1916

Abstract:
Objective: Evaluate the growth performance and carcass characteristics as well as the individual and maternal heterosis effects of New Zealand White (NZB), California (CA) rabbits and their crosses.Design/methodology/approach: 450 offspring rabbits, from 48 females mated to 6 stud rabbits, were evaluated, recording the weight (PNC) and litter size at birth (TCN) and at weaning (TCD), as well as, and weight (PMS), weight gain (GMD), consumption (CMS), and feed conversion (CONV) for during 8 weeks post-weaning. The carcass live weight at slaughter, warm carcass weight with head, carcass yield, and carcass parts of the carcass were evaluated.Results: Showed differences (p <0.05) in TCN and TCD with values of 10.47 and 9.03 kits, respectively. When NZB was used as the paternal breed, obtaining an individual heterosis of 5.91% for litter size and 12.44% for weaning weight. In the productive performance and carcass characteristics, the superiority of the California breed as a paternal breed was evidenced, with average values of 36.05 g in GMD and 2.95 kg in CONV. The averageindividual weight at the end of the fattening, at 70 days of age, was 2.09 kg and the weight of the carcass 1.16 kg. Post-weaning heterosis for the characteristics evaluated during fattening was were positive and moderate.Limitations on study/implications: It is necessary to carry out genetic improvement studies, with different crossing systems and to evaluate results based on the productive and reproductive behavior.Findings/conclusions: in reproductive characteristics, when using NZB as apaternal breed, the offspring are superior to those obtained from CA; while inthe productive variables, the offspring from CA show superior results.
Fabio Napolitano, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Giuseppe De Rosa, Adolfo Guadalupe Alvarez Macias, Ada Braghieri, Aldo Bertoni, Karla Flores, Jocelyn Gómez, Gisela López, Isabel Guerrero-Legarreta, et al.
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1868

Abstract:
Objective: To conduct a bibliographic review of the inventory and distribution of the buffalo herd, leading dairy buffalo breeds, and to map the main research topics for dairy buffaloes, emphasizing feeding methods and their effects on milk and mozzarella cheese quality.Design/Methodology/Approach: Analysis of the main research topics on dairy buffalo, through a wide review of specialized journals.Results: The production and processing of buffalo milk has gained relevance in recent years along different latitudes thanks to its nutritional qualities and the international regard for products such as mozzarella cheese. The main studies are carried out in Asia, Italy, and Brazil, emphasizing that diets are a determining factor in yield and quality of milk and its derivatives, but that genetics, environment, and animal managementare what in the end model these characteristics.Study Limitations/Implications: To conduct further research on dairy buffalo, especially in Mexico, where it has important development opportunities.Findings/Conclusions: The bibliographic body of work presents practical restrictions, advances are recognized, and also the need to further research topics such as reproduction and animal welfare, management and valuation of buffalo milk and its derivatives, with the opportunity to explore organic production.
Irad Jared Reza-Solis, Aurelio León-Merino, Esteban Valtierra-Pacheco, Martín Hernández-Juárez, Vinicio Haracio Santoyo-Cortes
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1885

Abstract:
Objective: To identify the socioeconomic factors in Tepecoacuilco, Guerrero that favored food productionand family income that improves their food security via backyard poultry projects.Methodology: 31 families with backyard poultry projects for chicken meat and egg production were surveyedand their information complemented with two participatory workshops.Results: The average area of the backyards per family was 48.27 m2 and 25.3 m2 out ofthem were used for the supported projects. It was found that only 16.1% of the studiedprojects are in operation y families with active projects had improvements in their dietsince their consumption of eggs and healthy meats. Regarding egg production, anannual average of 187.2 kg was obtained in operating projects.Limitations: The conditions of local violence in the study region limited the possibility ofinterviewing all the beneficiaries selected in the sample. Conclusions: The beneficiaries improved their family diet with the financed projects,however, results indicate that family needs are not yet fully satisfied since thebeneficiaries still continue to buy eggs that they consider essential for their intake. Theprojects had null o little contribution to household income.
Dania M. Vega-Hernández, Fernando Clemente-Sánchez, María M. Crosby-Galván, Ricardo Bárcena-Gama, Genaro Olmos-Oropeza
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1987

Abstract:
Objective: To develop three models in order to estimate the defecation rate ofwhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) according to the season of the year,content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in feces.Design / methodology / approach: Nine captive adult deer were assigned tothree levels of dietary fiber. Fecal groups (defecation rate) were counted, forageconsumption was estimated, and feces were analyzed for NDF and ADF content. Arandomized block design was used, where the effect of the treatments was blockedby season, and a multiple regression analysis was used to define the predictionmodels of the defecation rates.Results: The rates were different for dietary fiber levels (p<0.0001), and for theyear season (p = 0.0007). For spring, the defecation rate model (DR) was DR = -4.84696 - [0.02159 (NDF)] + [0.58397 (ADF)]; for summer DR = -51.0272 +[0.26868 (NDF)] + [1.61121 (ADF)]; and for winter DR = 7.82939- [0.02667 (NDF)]+ [0.17309 (ADF)].Limitations / implications: Defecation rate or fecal group counting is a useful toolto estimate deer populations. Nevertheless, the definition of an adequatedefecation rate represents a hard task, since it depends on various factors such asthe environmental conditions, and the components of the diet the deer consumes.Findings / conclusions: The defecation rate varies depending on the year seasonand the fiber content in the diet.
Manuel Armando Salazar Borunda, Luis Antonio Tarango Arámbula, Pablito Marcelo López Serrano, Jorge Armando Chávez Simental, Genaro Olmos Oropeza, José Hugo Martínez Guerrero, Martin Emilio Pereda Solis
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2020

Abstract:
Objective: To characterize the realized niche of the Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) and compare the environmental values it uses within the Mexican physiographic provinces.Design/methodology/approach: The environmental temperature variables (n =7), precipitation (n = 7) and elevation (n = 1) were extracted from 79 unique occurrences sites of S. o. lucida. These values were grouped by physiographic provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental (n = 59), Sierra Madre Oriental (n = 13) and Transversal Neovolcanic Belt (n = 6). The climate and elevation of these sites were described and compared via non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-Dunn tests (P ? 0.05).Results: The presences of the spotted owls were both, dispersed and focallydistributed, over the geographic space in Mexico. The temperature and elevation variables have similar characteristics in the assessed physiographic provinces. To be noted, the precipitation variables showed significant differences among sites.Limitations on study/implications: This study describes the environmental characteristics of the realized niche of the Mexican spotted owl; however, it isnecessary to investigate other habitat variables at a smaller scale. Findings/conclusions: The temperature and elevation environmentalcharacteristics of the ecological niche of the Mexican spotted owl was similar between physiographic provinces.
Fernando Clemente-Sánchez, Octavio C. Rosas-Rosas, Luis A. Tarango-Arámbula
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1982

Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the population of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, mexicana) and its density in ecosystems of its distribution.Design / methodology / approach: A method based on random sampling with a population density estimator was designed. The design was based on the observation of wild turkeys that go to attraction sites (feedlots) of 2,500 m 2 (50 X 50 m) counted in 12 h a day, three consecutive days. For the total of random sites, the criterion of one site for every 300 ha of surface under study was used. The study was carried out on March 1, 2 and 3, 2019 in 3,000 ha of pine-oak forest, in Monte Escobedo, Zacatecas, Mexico. Observations were made from a fixed point 25 m from each site, from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. The attraction sites were located at a random distance within 10 systematically fixed transects in the study area.Results: The results showed a population of 66 turkeys in 3,000 ha, with a density of 0.022 turkeys ha -1 . Limitations / implications: The application of the method was useful for the monitoring of wild turkey in the pine-oak forest, showing that it is a method that does not affect the population, which does not require long sampling times, is reliable, low-cost, and easy to carry out. The method is not reliable in ecosystemsthat do not allow the location of high visibility sites.Findings / conclusions: Considering the distribution of wild turkey in Mexico, the method is a new alternative applicable to population studies of wild turkey.
Ruben Lecona-Garcia, Antonio Flores Naveda, Alejandro J. Lozano-Del-Rio, Norma Angélica Ruiz-Torres, Mario Ernesto Vázquez-Badillo
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1855

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate ten triticale genotypes to assess the quality of the seeds under two production systems, with cut and without cut, in the municipalities of Matamoros (L1) and Francisco I. Madero (L2), Coahuila,Mexico.Design/Methodology/Approach: The agronomic variables evaluated were: Grain yield (GY), number of seeds per spike (NSS), spike length (SL), number of spikelets per spike (SS) and plant height (PH). Variables in the laboratory were: normal seedlings (NS), abnormal seedlings (AS), seeds without germinating (SWG), dry seedling weight (DW), plumule length (PL) and radicle length (RL). Statistical analysis was performed with the PROC ANOVA procedure, of the SAS software.Results: A higher grain yield was found for Matamoros (L1) compared to Francisco I. Madero (L2); however,for the variable number of seeds per spike it was higher in the latter (L2). For the physiological quality of seeds in L2, the highest values were in the variables normal seedlings and radicle length. In the comparison of production systems, the best response was for the system without cut in both locations; therefore, good quality triticale seed can be produced with acceptable grain yield.Study Limitations/Implications: It is necessary to describe the performance of triticale in the springsummer agricultural cycle in the central region of the country.Findings/Conclusions: The productive performance of triticale genotypes was variable depending on the production system, and there was also a different effect on the physiological quality of the harvested seed
Carlos David Pérez Brígido, Dora Romero Salas, Anabel Cruz Romero, Ricardo Serna Lagunes, José Luis Bravo Ramos, Sokani Sánchez Montes, Sandra Cecilia Esparza González, Anabel Elisa Rodríguez
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1974

Abstract:
Objective: To estimate the hematological and biochemical reference values inMAteles geoffroyi individuals in captivity. Methodology: Eleven males and 23 females were captured. We collected blood,from the coccygian vein; conventional techniques were used to analyze thesamples.Results: mean corpuscular volume (MCV; P < 0.03), platelets (PLT; P < 0.04) were significantly higher in females than in males. In relation to biochemical blood values wasn’t significantly in male and female groups.Limitations/Implications: hematological and biochemical reference values of A. geoffroyi are within normal health parameters, are between the ranges reported for other species of neotropical primates and can be used as a reference in for the management of the health of this species in captivity.Conclusions: hematological and biochemical parameters of captive specimens of A. geoffroyi are described, which provide reference indicators for the management of the health of the species.
Ponciano Pérez-Hernández, Andea G. Estrella-García, Rodolfo Canseco-Sedano, Silvia Lopez-Ortiz, Concepción Ahuja-Del Carmen, Jonathan Guerrero-Hernández
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1930

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the testicular and semen characteristics in Criollo LecheroTropical (CLT) bulls in the subhumid Mexican tropics.Design/methodology/approach: Eight bulls were included in the study and distributedin two groups: G1 (n=5): young bulls and G2 (n=3): adult bulls. All bulls were managedunder grazing and were evaluated throughout one year. From each bull the followingmeasurements were taken once a month: live weight, body condition score, scrotalcircumference, and testicular width, length and volume. Semen was obtained every 3months via artificial vagina. Semen variables evaluated in each collection were: aspect,volume, mass and individual motility, and sperm concentration and morphology. Results: Live weight and testicular measurements increased linearly during the study inbulls from both groups. All bulls had scrotal circumference larger than the minimumthreshold value for cattle and semen of high quality.Study limitations/implications: The low availability of CLT bulls prevented theinclusion of a larger number of animals in the study. This low availability of animalsmakes it necessary to establish standard values for testicular measurements and semencharacteristics in the CLT breed in order to select the best individuals as sires andcontribute to its conservation.Findings/conclusions: The CLT bulls had good scrotal circumference and semenquality since a young age and into adulthood. These traits make the CLT bulls animportant alternative for livestock breeding in the tropics.
Gabriel Fernando Cardoza Martinez, Cristo A. Bojórquez-Moreno, Alexander Czaja, Jorge L. Becerra-López, Miguel A. Garza-Martínez, Josué R. Estrada-Arellano, Julián Cerano-Paredes, José L. Estrada-Rodríguez, Fernando Alonzo-Rojo
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.1931

Abstract:
Objective: Determine the main food components of the catfish, their seasonal variability and according to the sex of the organism. Methodology: In total, 143 stomachs of catfish were examined. In the analysis of the stomach content, the detected organisms were determined until the taxonomic order rank. It was analyzed the seasonal and sex feeding variability. Results: The total annual trophic spectrum for catfish consisted of 13 items, of which only the order Ephemeroptera reached the category as a frequent food. In the winter season the catfish consumed significantly more food compared to the other seasons and there was no difference in the amount consumed by females and males (p>0.05). Implications: This information is relevant to highlight the importance of the biological integrity of the terrestrial site surrounds the reservoir, which is a source of food for the catfish. Conclusions: Catfish channel in the Venustiano Carranza Dam is a generalist species (13 alimentary items). There was a difference in the amount of food consumed between the seasons of the year; however there was no difference between the sexes.
Gustavo Arnaud, , , Rigel Sansores Sánchez
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i6.2042

Abstract:
Objective: Analyze the topography of the island with a digital elevation model (DEM) at 30 m spatial resolution and generate the first distribution model for an endemic carnivore from the islands of the Gulf of California. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study employed the Maxent species distribution model to find the distribution of the ringtail in its habitat on Espíritu Santo Island. In 2015–2016, through four surveys, ringtails were trapped in eight glens on the west of the island. A total of 74 individuals were captured, with nine recaptures. Results: The variables with the greatest contributions to the models were elevation, contributing 71.6%; heat load index 15% and ruggedness 11.8%. The model predicts > 0.5 probabilities of presence of this carnivore in 3,018 hectares of the island. We obtained a high AUC value (0.928), which indicates that the model is accurate, and subsequently confirmed it with a value of pAUC = 1.917. Study Limitations/Implications: The habitat of the ringtail (Bassariscus astutus saxicola) was little known mainly because it is an endemic species. And there was not a published article that will show its distribution within the island. Conclusions: This model shows that topographic variables are useful to explain the potential distribution of the ringtail, mainly because the topography is related to sites that can offer thermal refuge, abundance of food, and escape routes from predators, among other features.
Elías Hernández-Castro, Héctor Sotelo-Nava, Flaviano Godínez-Jaimes, Yuridia Durán-Trujillo, Paul García-Escamilla, José Luis Valenzuela-Lagarda
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i2.1970

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate three proportions of alcohol in traps with one and three windows and two different colors to capture Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari in Coffea arabica L. plants. Design/methodology/approach: The experiment followed a completely randomized design with a complete factorial arrangement and four replications. From March to July 2007, three mixtures of ethyl: methyl alcohol were evaluated in different proportions (1: 0, 0: 1 and 1: 1). In addition, green and transparent traps were used, designed with a single or three windows. The number of captured coffee berry borers, water loss, attractant evaporation and damaged fruits percentage was evaluated. The data were analyzed through an analysis of variance and a test of means differences (Tukey, p ? 0.05). Results: The mixture of ethyl: methyl alcohol 1: 1 was the best, with an average catch of 980 trapped - insects week-1. The single window of transparent color traps was the most efficient to avoid water loss, with an average loss of 1,129.79 mL and 905 mL respectively. Limitations on study/implications: The design and color of the traps did not influence the capture efficiency and the evaporation of the attractant during the evaluated months. Therefore, it should be further evaluated during other important phenological stages for the crop. Findings/conclusions: Transparent color traps with a window and 1: 1 ethyl: methyl alcohol were efficient for capturing H. hampei and lowering their population.
Oscar Diego Estudillo, Erick M. López-Méndez, Erika Campos-Rodríguez
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.vi.1634

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the shelf life of sausage under the natural and smokedprocesses to standardize their manufacturing process, evaluate theirphysicochemical and microbiological quality using a mathematical model of orderzero chemical kinetics.Methodology: The sausage manufacturing process was standardized, and twocooking and preservation methods were applied: boiling and smoking in oak wood.For the shelf-life analysis, a partially staggered sampling was used. The productsamples were kept refrigerated (2 to 6 ºC, for 7 weeks), and physicochemical andmicrobiological analyses were carried out on them every week. A mathematicalmodel based on order zero chemical kinetics was used with the obtained results todetermine the shelf life of the processed products.Results: The shelf life of sausages depends on the applied preservation process;in the case of the traditional (hot water) process, the result was 33 d, andincreased to 56 d in the smoked and cooked with dry heat, due to the watercontent of each product, as well as the smoking antimicrobial action.
Juan M. Ruiz-Nieves, J. Jesús Magdaleno-Villar, Mariana G. Sánchez-Alonso, Victoria A. Delgado-Vargas, Hélène Gautier, Oscar Javier Ayala Garay
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1858

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the quality of the seeds of tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) produced in high temperture (HT) during different phases of development. Design/Methodology/Approach: Seeds of the Moneymaker variety were planted in a ventilated greenhouse (control treatment, CT) with maximum mean temperature (MMT) of 31.5 °C. A second greenhouse with artificial heating (MMT of 36.5 ºC) was used for the HT treatments. When anthesis began from the fourth floral cluster, seven treatments were established: T1) fruits growing permanently in the CT; T2) fruits transferred to HT between five and 12 days after anthesis (daa); T3) fruits growing in HT from 12 to 24 daa; T4) 24-36 daa in HT; T5) 36-48 daa in HT; T6) 48-60 daa in HT; T7) from 60 daa to maturity in HT. Results: The weight of one thousand seeds (SW) had a positive correlation with the length of seed (R=0.83*), indicating that the increase in SW was primarily determined by an increase in length. The vigor of the seed was measured by the germination after accelerated ageing (GAA); thus, germination and vigor are positively correlated with seed respiration during germination (0.62* and 0.81*, respectively). Study Limitations/Implications: HT impacting on the second phase of seed development could decrease both the physical and the physiological quality of tomato seeds. Findings/Conclusions: The seeds produced by T7 had lower SW (2.99 g). T5 caused lower amount of seeds per fruit (120), germination (79.4 %) and GAA (39.5 %).
, Emma Díaz-Torres, , Arturo García-Saldaña
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1925

Abstract:
The objective of the research was through key actors to identify the contamination by hydrocarbons and heavy metals in water and the main sources of contamination in the municipality of Macuspana, Tabasco. Methodology: A diagnosis was made, by applying questionnaires through interviews directed to the inhabitants of the municipality of Macuspana and workers in the oil sector. The data were processed with frequency analysis, Kruskal Wallis, analysis of variance, and multivariate with two factors. Results: It was shown that there has been historical contamination, for 30 years, there is evidence of dead organisms in the water bodies, and the presence of various diseases in the population due to exposure to contaminants from hydrocarbons and heavy metals that derive from the oil activity. There is evidence of a negative impact due to the presence of spills from disabled wells due to a lack of maintenance programs. Implications: The economy in most of the Gulf of Mexico is based on the extraction, processing, and distribution of hydrocarbons. This industry´s growth increased the number of exploration and production of oil wells, generating a direct impact on aquatic environments. The state of Tabasco is one of the largest oil producers, as well as fishing resources of commercial and environmental importance, which are directly affected by oil activity. Findings: The study found cases of diseases in the population correlated with exposure to hydrocarbons. Conclusions: There is little interest from the oil sector about public health problems in the population and environmental damage to the ecosystems in the municipality of Macuspana, Tabasco.
Cristian Santos Vazquez, Ramón Valdivia-Alcalá, Diana América Reyna-Izaguirre, Sergio Roberto Márquez-Berber, Domingo Montalvo-Hernández
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1866

Abstract:
Objective: To study the technological features of allspice pepper (Pimenta dioica L. Merr) production and to show potential areas of social intervention in the crop. Methodology: The study took place in five of 22 producing municipalities in Veracruz state, Mexico, selected by non-probabilistic sampling; n = 50 surveys were applied to producers selected following the snowball method. Data were collected on profile of the production unit and knowledge-practice for innovations. Descriptive statistics were applied; knowledge-practice rates and knowledge-practice indices were calculated. A classification of areas of opportunity was made based on the diffusion of innovations theory. Results: Allspice occupies small areas, its a complementary crop; knowledge and practice rates show that the categories for marketing, organization and nutrition are the lowest; in the opposite direction are the categories for harvesting, sustainable management and agronomic management. The categories show areas of opportunity for intervention, for the less known and practiced innovations; as well as opportunity for reinvention of known and practiced categories. Study limitations: Due to difficult access to producer databases, it was decided to conduct a snowball sampling method. Conclusions: The increase in knowledge and practice rates are determined by the areas of opportunity and the restructuring of the known innovations. The role played by allspice pepper, the occupied surface and the presence of other commercial crops can explain the state of production.
Ernesto Fernández-Herrera, Tania E. González-Soto,
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1924

Abstract:
Objective: To describe Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) as the causal agent of vascular withering in the watermelon crop (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai). Design/Methodology/Approach: A review of scientific literature (scientific books, notes and articles) was carried out about Fon as the causal agent of vascular withering in the watermelon crop; biology, symptoms, disease cycle, isolation and management alternatives. Results: Withering from Fusarium in watermelon is the main fungal disease of this crop worldwide. Necrosis of the vascular tissue and withering of the plant are the most characteristic symptoms of the disease. There are four races of this fungus (Fon race 0, 1, 2 and 3); the commercial varieties of watermelons have different degrees of resistance to these races. Practices such as the correct diagnosis, use of grafts, solarization, fungicides, biological products and genetic resistance can significantly reduce the impact of the disease on the production. Findings/Conclusions: In Mexico, knowledge about vascular withering of watermelon is scarce despite this disease being one of the factors that limits commercial production. The greatest knowledge about the symptoms, the fungus’s biology, presence and distribution of races, diagnosis and alternatives of Fon management, will allow integrating appropriate management practices that favor the commercial production of the crop.
Yanet Gómez-Martínez, José Alberto García-Salazar, José Saturnino Mora-Flores, , Silvia Xóchitl Almeraya-Quintero
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1859

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the impact that the Fertilizers Program for the Welfare would have on corn production and consumption in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Methodology: A spatial equilibrium model applied to the corn market in the state of Chiapas for 2018 was used. To assess the benefits of policy implementation, producer and consumer surpluses were calculated with and without the Fertilizers Program. Results: The results indicate that the implementation of the program increases production and consumption of corn by 171 and 115 thousand tons, which would represent an increase of 13 and 8.3%, compared to the base model with no program. The producer and consumer surpluses would increase by 6 and 4.5 million pesos (MXN), which would represent an increase of more than 10 million pesos in the welfare of society in the state. Study limitations/implications: The positive effects on corn producers and consumers imply that the policy should be extended to all those regions that have the potential to increase production via their yield. Conclusions: The program has positive effects on the corn market by increasing corn production, consumption and societal welfare. dad.
Gerardo Loera-Alvarado, Sergio Humberto Chávez-Franco, , Juan Manuel González-Camacho, Javier Suárez-Espinosa,
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1770

Abstract:
Objective: To develop a technique based on the partition method, to estimate the surface area and volume of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. “Ataulfo”) using two digital orthogonal images, obtained and processed on a mobile device with the Android® operating system, segmented by different discriminants. Design/Methodology/Approach: A technique was developed to estimate the surface area and volume of “Ataulfo” mango fruit based on digital images and was implemented directly on a smartphone with the Android® operating system. Three discriminants were evaluated for segmentation (red channel, green channel, and HIS intensity) and applied in n=30 fruits. The precision and accuracy of the technique was determined. Results: The surface area and volume of the fruit when estimated using the red channel presented a coefficient of variation of less than 2.0% in both variables and the estimation error was less than 3% for surface area and less than 5% for volume. Study Limitations/Implications: This technique was limited to fruit with an elliptical cross-section and smooth surface. Findings/Conclusions: The proposed technique is a non-destructive alternative to estimate the surface area and volume of “Ataulfo” mango fruit with a reasonable margin of error and can be implemented directly on an Android® device using only the red channel as a segmentation discriminant.
Leodan Tadeo Rodríguez-Ortega, Filogonio de Jesús Hernández-Guzmán, Juan Noguez-Estrada, Arturo Pro-Martínez, Fernando González-Cerón, Alejandro Rodriguez Ortega
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1881

Abstract:
Objective: To describe the factors that affect the incubation of fertile eggs of Creole hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) at Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo, Mexico. Design/Methodology/Approach: 448 eggs of Creole hens were incubated in a Casser model 7622 incubator, in which the number of infertile and fertile eggs was evaluated; within the number of fertile eggs, the number of dead embryos was determined; due to dehydration or damage caused by fungi and bacteria. From the live hatched chickens, those that died due to omphalitis were recorded. Results: 272 of 448 incubated eggs were fertile; 119 of them hatched and 153 were dead embryos. While 176 were infertile. Among the dead embryos, 84 of dehydration, 69 due to fungal and bacterial infection and 11 live hatched chicks due to omphalitis. Limitations/implications: The literature review found little information on factors affecting the hatching of fertile Creole chicken eggs in backyard flocks. Findings/conclusions: Infection by fungi and bacteria increase embryonic mortality, while omphalitis increases mortality during the first days of life of the backyard Creole chickens. High storage temperature in the nest or incubator causes embryo dehydration.
Libia F. Gómez-Trejo, Elizabeth Hernández-Acosta, Ma. Guadalupe Peralta-Sánchez
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.2050

Abstract:
Objective: To document and analyze relevant results reported on the relationships kept by the essential elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) with biotic stress factors in higher plants. Design/methodology/approach: A bibliographic analysis was carried out using keywords related to the concepts of nutrient relationship with phytopathogens, plant fertilization and nutrition and biotic stress. Subsequently, the most relevant articles on N, P, and K and their relationship with pests and diseases were selected and analyzed. Results: The elements N, P, and K affect the development of pests on plants. Fertilization with N tend to increase the presence of pests, while fertilization with P and K decreases it. However, this cannot be generalized for all crops or pests. Limitations/implications of the study: Research on the effects of N, P, and K on the incidence of phytopathogens is limited and in most cases the mechanisms that determine such relashionship are not described. Findings/conclusions: Fertilization with N causes a higher incidence of pests and diseases in plants, while fertilization with P and K can contribute to reduce their incidence. However, due to the great diversity of responses, these statements are not applicable to all cases and depend on other factors such as the crop and the pest present in the agroecosystem. It is required to carry out studies that make it possible to clarify exactly how these essential elements influence the development of diseases in different crops, and thus be able to make nutrition recommendations in which limiting biotic factors are taken into account.
Miguel J. Escalona Maurice, Juan Carlos Espinosa Morales, Claudia Ivon Ortega Méndez, Yolanda Margarita Fernández Ordoñez
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1860

Abstract:
Objective: To characterize the Ejido agricultural producers relating to their environment and socioeconomic structure in Ejido San Luis Huexotla, Texcoco, state of México, Mexico. Design / Methodology / Approach: This research joined qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Also, a survey was used and applied to Ejido producers (ejidatarios) of Ejido San Luis Huexotla. To obtain the sample size, total universe of 181 ejidatarios was used; and survey was applied to 50 of them, representing 30% of the population. Results: The main problems were identified that have changed land uses and ownership in the Ejido. Variables were found, as aging and primary economic activities that are decisive in order to know the current status of the Ejido area; its spatial transformation, and general conditions of Ejido San Luis Huexotla. Limitations of the study: Although we are referring to an agricultural area with irrigation systems, diverse causes and socioeconomic factors or even external factors have conditioned the agricultural activity of the Ejido system. Findings / Conclusions: Applying a survey to ejidatarios was decisive to observe the conditions in which the Ejido is being managed; and to assess vulnerability to external events that have transformed the actions at the Ejido; as well as their socioeconomic relationships facing the inevitable de-peasant process (less owners are rural farmers by the day) in current Mexican agricultural lands.
Adrián Gómez Gonzalez, J.G. Reyes-Contreras, Eduviges Javier García, I. Hernández-Ríos, A. Amante-Orozco, S. De J. Méndez-Gallegos, H. Silos-Espino
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1845

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the influence of fertilization on the growth and yield of five accessions of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) cultivated in a hydroponic system. Design/Methodology/Approach: Five outstanding accessions of the castor bean collection at COLPOS-Campus SLP were established: El Orito (EO), Encarnación de Díaz (ED), Salinas (SA), Ranchería de Guadalupe (RG) and San Luis (SL). The NPK (ppm) fertilization levels tested were: low (LL; 140, 50, 150), medium (ML; 210, 80, 250); high (HL; 280, 110, 350) and a control (NF; No fertilizer). The experimental design was a randomized blocks, with a 5x4 factorial arrangement (accession x fertilizer level). Results: The differences in grain production were only significant (?=0.05) between the NF control (31 g plant-1) and the three levels of fertilization (1103, 973 and 967 g plant-1, for LL, ML, and HL, respectively, with no differences among them). Regarding accessions, no differences were observed among them, having ED the highest yield (681 g plant-1). In the case of plant height, NF treatment reached 60 cm, while the other levels had an average height of 170 cm, with HL being the highest (180 cm). The highest oil content (38.4%) was obtained with the ML fertilization. Study Limitations/Implications: The present study had no obvious limitations. Findings/Conclusions: For seed yield, significant differences were found only between not fertilizing and fertilizing at any level. Between fertilized levels, however, the differences were not significant, as well as among accessions.
Eleazar Lugo-Cruz, Leopoldo E. Mendoza-Onofre, Amalio Santacruz-Varela, Ma. Alejandra Gutiérrez-Espinosa, Juan M Hernández-Casillas, Francisco Zavala-García, Víctor A. González Hernández
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1693

Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the race diversity and geographic distribution of the native maize landraces currently cropped at southern Nuevo León, México. Design/Methodology/Approach: Data was obtained from 41 accessions which represent the commercial production in the dry land area, where fertilization and pest control are scarcely used. Landraces were classified according to the CONABIO guidelines for ear traits. Results: The measured accessions correspond to seven maize races and to seven interracial crosses. The two most frequent maize races were Ratón and Cónico Norteño, mostly located in the dry areas with less rain. Study Limitations/Implications: Three races, Celaya, Tablilla de Ocho and Elotes Cónicos, had not been previously reported; while two formerly reported races Tabloncillo and Olotillo, were no longer found. This study did not include the grain-colored accessions. Findings/Conclusions: Three collections stood out for producing large ears with large kernels, thus showing a high yield potential. The maize landraces harvested in dryland areas might offer advantages to be grown under harsh environments or be used as gene donors for drought tolerance.
Alejandra Valdes Zamora, Roberto García-Mata, Miguel A. Martínez-Damián, Roberto C. García-Sánchez
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1755

Abstract:
Objective: To identify the factors affecting the demand for berries in Mexican households, as well as the behavior in face of variations in economic income. Design/Methodology/Approach: In order to analyze the demand, microdata were used from the National Income-Expenditure Survey of Households 2018 (Encuesta Nacional Ingreso Gasto de los Hogares, ENIGH) from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, INEGI), and for its modelling the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model was used. Results: Because of their Marshallian elasticity, berries are an elastic good (-1.0316), and because of their expenditure elasticity they are a luxury good (1.0691). In terms of crossed Marshallian elasticities, sweet fruits and sugary beverages were identified as substitute goods with elasticity of 0.0013 and 0.0380, respectively, while semi-acid fruits and melons would be complementary goods, with elasticities of -0.0191 and -0.0184, respectively. Study Limitations/Implications: Given that most of the time series of the berries lack disaggregation and sufficient information, it is difficult to analyze each component of the group separately; therefore, it was decided to analyze the group of berries and its relationship with other goods; in addition, the ENIGH database was selected, which provides more information. Conclusions: There are state differences in the response to changes in prices and income with regard to the demand for berries, so that facing a generalized increase in household income consumption would increase much more in the center of the country than in the south-southeast.
Arely Hernández Beltrán, J. Jaime Arana Coronado
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1906

Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the traceability system required by the Phytosanitary Protocol signed between Mexico and China for the export of fresh cranberries. Design/Methodology/Approach: The case study approach is used to analyze the Global Value Chain of Cranberry between Mexico and China (GVCCMC). The information is obtained through semi-structured interviews and bibliographical analysis. Results: The traceability system of cranberry is influenced by the differentiation of attributes of innocuousness and plant health that comply with the regulations established by the Chinese government to allow the influx of fresh cranberry to their market. The traceability system provides and recovers information through the use of codes in labels. Study Limitations/Implications: The traceability system of the Global Value Chain of a single product destined to a specific market was analyzed, so it cannot be generalized. Findings/Conclusions: The companies that are part of the Global Value Chain of Cranberry between Mexico and China use the traceability system along with other tools that allow the management of quality, innocuousness, plant health and logistics, to provide information about the product, to make decisions about payments and to comply with regulations.
V. García-Reyes, J. Silvano-Sánchez, J. Zavala-Ruiz, L. Meraz-Huescas, Obdulia Baltazar-Bernal
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1765

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the process of sunflower production (Helianthus annuus L.) for fresh cutting flowers, considering two sowing dates, growing degree-days, and commercialization. Design/Methodology/Approach: A completely randomized experimental design with subsampling was used, with five repetitions per treatment (sowing date), in order to analyze the variables: number of leaves, height, and flower diameter. Vincent Choice Dark Eye Ball™ sunflowers were sown in black plastic boxes with 8 cm of soil on January 31 and February 11, 2020, at 153 plants per m-2 in a greenhouse. Later, the seedlings were grown in the open field until harvesting, after which they were given added value and then locally traded. In addition, the growing degree-days (GDD) were calculated. Results: The sunflowers registered a height of 55 cm, 13 leaves per stalk, and a flower diameter of 6.88 cm. Late sowing favored the height and diameter of the flower. The sunflower hybrid required more GDD to reach commercial flower maturity in the first sowing date. The cost-benefit ratio was 1.38. Study Limitations/Implications: Seeds were sown on only two dates. Findings/Conclusions: The production process involved planning, management, and commercialization. The sunflower hybrid required on average 499 GDD to reach the cutting point. The added value increased the price fivefold.
Enrique Hernandez-Leal, Aurelio Hernández-Bautista, Olga Bonilla-Barrientos, Ricardo Lobato-Ortiz, Iván Franco-Gaytán, José De Jesús García-Zavala, Martha Hernández-Rodríguez
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1837

Abstract:
Objective: To measure the efficiency of using advanced generations of some commercial tomato hybrids for small farmers and to identify the most important yield components associated with yield. Design/Methodology/Approach: Seven saladette-type hybrids of indeterminate growth were evaluated, as well as their respective generations F2s and F3s under greenhouse conditions. The evaluation of the three generations was carried out during the 2013 agricultural cycle. Three harvests were made at 82, 94 and 136 days after transplanting. The experiment was a randomized complete block design, with 4 replications and 10 plants per replication. Results: Results indicated that there were significant differences for a few traits in F2 and F3. Path analysis showed that the total number of fruits had the highest direct and indirect effects on yield through generations. Limitations of the study/implications: The usefulness of advanced generations of tomato commercial hybrids would depend on the genetic background of the parental lines that take part in such as hybrids, as some hybrids would present high inbreeding depression depending on the genetic composition of their progenitors. Findings/Conclusions: Advanced generations of ‘LORETO’, ‘CUAUHTÉMOC’ and ‘ESPARTACO’ could be used by the small growers since low values of inbreeding depression were observed in F2 and F3 families
Mauro V. Vásquez-Velázquez, Joaquín S. López-Vázquez, , Kati Beatríz Medina-Dzul, Luis Latournerie-Moreno
Published: 23 June 2021
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i05.1909

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the effect of pruning on the agronomic variables and fruit quality of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Methodology: Habanero peppers were pruned with two intensities, two shoots and three shoots. The control plants were not pruned. The experiment had a randomized block design with four replications. The experimental plots consisted of 50 plants established in rows at a distance of 1.2 m and 0.3 m among plants within a row. The evaluated variables were fruit yield, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter. Data were obtained from 10 harvests. For the analysis, the fruit quality, ash content, moisture, protein and crude fiber were determined. Results: Plants with two and three shoots produced fruits of 4 and 3.99 cm in length. Plants with two and three shoots produced 42 and 48 % first quality fruits, whereas control plants produced only 10 % first quality fruits. The highest protein content in fruits at physiological ripeness (14 %) and commercial maturity (12 %) was observed in plants pruned to two shoots. Implications: These results show the importance of crop management on the fruit quality of habanero peppers. Further studies are needed to have more information on the effects of crop management on the nutritional content of fruits. Conclusion: The pruning of habanero pepper plants significantly influenced the fruit size, crude fiber and protein content in their fruits
Sonia Carrillo-Llanos, M. J. Escalona-Maurice, M. J. Jiménez-Moreno
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i4.1780

Abstract:
Objective: The objective was to study the territorial organization strategy of local actors;church, government and population that influenced the evolution and currentorganization of the town of Santa Ana de Guadalupe after the canonization of the priestToribio Romo.Design / Methodology / Approach: The local development methodology was applied,through specific interviews with representatives of social partners; local church,government, and population.Results: It was found that the infrastructure and equipment of the Saint’s Temple, whichreceives more than 700 thousand visitors a year, shows potentialities, strengths andlimitations at the locality. Analyzing the territory, through its economic, political, socio-cultural, and environmental axes, it was noted that local development is a process ofgrowth and structural change in which the main interest of the town is to increaseemployment and meeting the needs and demands of religious pilgrims. As well as favorthe appropriate use of the resources, and over-all potential of the locality in order toimprove the standard of living of the population.Limitations of the study / Implications: The strategies of cooperation and knowledgeof the ecclesiastical agents in conjunction with the government and local populationthrough joint organization contribute to the transformation of Santa Ana de Guadalupe. Findings / Conclusions: It was observed that social partners (church, government and population) collaborate actively. Particularly in ecclesiastical activities to develop strategies (as organization and cooperation) to promote the local development.
Diego Esteban Platas-Rosado, Luis González-Reynoso, Juan Cristobal Hernández-Arzaba, Cesar Mauricio Torres-Tadeo
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i4.2015

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the productive behavior of Pangasius hypophthalmus in actual rural aquaculture farming conditions for the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Methodology: The study had a duration of 331 days in a circular pond of 135 m3, with no aeration. 2000 juveniles were bred upon attaining 7.9 g; they were fed once a day, four days a week. Their weight and length were assessed every 15 days. Results: The growth of P. hypophthalmus reached 900 g in 150 days at temperatures between 26 y 34 °C, with growths of 100 g in 150 days at temperatures between 22 and 26 °C. An average final weight of 1254 kg and a survival of 87.8% were attained for a total production of 2.2 t. These organisms may attain 2 kg per year at 26 to 35 °C-1. Study limitations: For a period of 153 days, water temperatures greater than 26°C limited the growth of this fish. Conclusions: The Pangasius hypophthalmus species represents an aquaculture alternative with high potential for tropical areas of Mexico, mainly where electric power availability is limited.
Carlos M. Becerril-Pérez, Adrián Sánchez-Gómez, Fredy Morales-Trejo, Juan M. Vargas-Romero, Diego E. Platas-Rosado, Adalberto Rosendo-Ponce
Agro Productividad, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32854/agrop.v14i4.2013

Abstract:
Objective: Tropical Milking Calf (LT) growth and milk consumption and chemical composition were analyzed in two shepherding systems. Methodology: 26 LT cows were used in rotational shepherding in monoculture (PRM) and intensive silvopastoral system (SSPi). Cows were milked by hand once per day in the morning with the presence of the calf, which consumed milk from one nipple. Live weight (PV), daily weight gain (GDP), milk consumption (CL) by the calf and the chemical composition of the milk were studied. Results: PV was greater at 198 days in SSPi (p ? 0.05) with 142.6 ± 3.31 kg, and one GDP that outweighed the PRM (p ? 0.05) in 80 g per day-1. There were no differences in CL (p > 0.05). Non-fatty solids, protein, lactose and total solids were greater (p ? 0.05) for SSPi with 8.1 ± 0.07, 3.0 ± 0.02, 4.5 ± 0.04 and 12.1 ± 0.21 %, respectively; although fat was similar (3.7 and 3.3 %, p > 0.05) in both systems. Implication: The chemical composition of milk should be assessed from the nutritional perspective for the calf and the more appropriate techniques for its measurement should be implemented. Conclusions: PV and GDP were greater in SSPi than in PRM due to the chemical composition and not the amount of ingested milk. The chemical composition of milk affected the pre-weaning growth of calves. The tropical milking race and SSPi are an alternative for tropical livestock raising in warm weathers.
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