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Results in Journal The Indonesian Journal of Public Health: 118

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Zhafira Faruhasa
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 276-285; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.276-285

Abstract:
Injuries can occur as a result of various activities, which of them is a sport. In 2017, basketball was a sport that produced the highest prevalence of injury incidence in the United States at 15.77%. Athletes who have ankle sprain are 20-40% more likely to experience chronic ankle instability. This study analyzed the relationship between gender, history of ankle sprain, and ankle stability with ankle sprain status in basketball athletes of Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. This study was analytical-observational research using a cross-sectional design. The research population was basketball athletes who were members of the basketball club of Universitas Airlangga, and finally there were 23 respondents selected as the research samples. The sample selection used the accidental sampling technique. The results of chi-square test (α = 0.05) indicate that there was a relationship between the previous history of ankle sprain (p = 0.002; RR = 9.1) and ankle stability with ankle sprain status (p = 0.013; RR = 6.), but gender had no relationship with ankle sprain status (p = 0.435; RR = 1.6). It concludes that the history of ankle sprain injury and ankle stability were related to ankle sprain status, but gender was not related to it. Keywords: gender, history of ankle sprain, ankle stability, ankle sprain
Yuyun Tri Wulansari, Chatarina Umbul W
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 304-314; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.304-314

Abstract:
Chronic kidney disease is decreasing glomerular filtration rate of less than 15mL/minute which causes someone to undergo a hemodialysis therapy that replaces kidney function. The course of chronic kidney disease is progressive and irreversible and may cause psychological problems in hemodialysis patients such as depression. This study aimed to describe to what extent patients under hemodialysis treatment at Jemursari Hospital, Surabaya experience depression symptoms in patients. This study was descriptive research with a cross-sectional approach. The simple random sampling technique was performed to select 72 patients who had scheduled hemodialysis treatment and been qualified for the inclusion criteria. Data were then analyed using a univariate analysis in variable frequency distribution. The results show that patients with depression symptoms were mostly men as many as 31 people (43.1%), and the majority were aged 46-65 years as many as 24 people (49%). The latest formal education in most respondents was high school (23.6%). There were 38 respondents (77.5%) who got married, and most respondents were unemployed (77.5%) and had undergone hemodialysis for more than 12 months (77.5%). This study concludes that the patients under hemodialysis treatment at the hospital experienced mild depression symptoms. Keyword: hemodialysis, depression, Beck Depression Inventory.
Iftitah Shofiyati
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 339-347; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.339-347

Abstract:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs due to insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance in the human body. Type 2 DM also causes physical weakness, vision problems, risk of death, and depression. This study aimed to describe depression tendencies in patients with type 2 DM under treatment in Kebonsari Primary Healthcare Center, Surabaya city. This study was a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. The research samples were 74 people with type 2 DM in the Kebonsari Primary Healthcare Center, Surabaya city. These respondents selected using simple random sampling had met the inclusion criteria. These repsondents were aged more than 25 years old, did not experience psychological disorders, and had suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus for 5 years. The data analysis was done using a univariate analysis by looking at the frequency distribution of variables. The results indicate that the prevalence of patients with type 2 DM who tended to experience depression was at 50%. The majority of patients with type 2 DM who experienced depression were women (47.4%) and elderly (aged 46-65 years) (41.9%). Most of them had low education levels (62.2%), and some respondents had complications (37.8%) and poor family support (62.2%). Support from closest people such as family support can improve the adaptation of patients with the disease and can prevent psychological disorders, especially depression in patients with type 2 DM. Keyword: type 2 diabetes mellitus, family support, depression tendencies.
Vidya Tri Huttami, Atik Choirul Hidajah
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 258-265; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.258-265

Abstract:
The 2007 Basic Health Survey shows the highest number of deaths in Indonesia rural and urban areas was caused by stroke. In 2007-2013, the stroke prevalence in productive age increased up to 22‰. Stroke that attacks productive age can impair individual’s ability to do activities, and thus they might have family financial constraint. Disabilities can be prevented and minimized if patients utilize a golden period of an ischemic stroke. This study identified the utilization of golden period of ischemic stroke in patients and analyzed causes of delayed patient admission to the Neurology Clinic of Sidoarjo Hospital. This study was a descriptive study conducted to 39 post-stroke ischemic patients in productive ages under further therapy at the Neurology Clinic of Sidoarjo Hospital in 2016. The data were collected through interview from January-February 2017. The results present 62% of stroke ischemic patients utilized the golden period of a ischemic stroke. The average respondents' admission took 29.87±47.46 hours after patients experienced first stroke ischemic attacks (ranging from 1-168 hours). The respondents were admitted to the hospital late or >4.5 hours after the stroke attacks because most of them did not know stroke signs and symptoms. Therefore, hospitals or health care providers have to provide counseling service to patients and family members about stroke signs and symptoms, as well as the importance of early admission for treatment as soon as patient gets the first stroke attack. Keywords: utilization of the golden period, ischemic stroke, productive age.
Ismianti Lifia Bestari
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 286-294; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.286-294

Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease due to impaired blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes mellitus dominantly causes most deaths in the world. The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was ranked the second highest at the Surabaya Haji General Hospital. Purpose: This study described characteristics of patients with type 2 DM at the Surabaya Haji General Hospital. Methods: This study was descriptive and used a cross-sectional research design. This study’s population were patients with type 2 DM who visited Diabetes Unit at Surabaya Haji General Hospital. This study was conducted in the Diabetes Unit at the Surabaya Haji General Hospital by involving 114 respondents as the samples. These respondents were interviewed using questionnaires from 11 March to 11 April 2019. The study’s variables were patients’ characteristics including age, gender, family history, and disease duration. Data were analyzed using a univariate analysis with a frequency table. Results: Almost all of patients with type 2 DM at Surabaya Haji General Hospital were aged ≥40 years (94.7%) and female (71.9%). The majority of patients had a family medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus disease (60.5%) and long disease duration of >5 years (5.,4%). Conclusion: Almost patients with type 2 DM in Surabaya Haji General Hospital were elderly who had a family medical history of diabetes mellitus and had suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus for >5 years.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, characteristics, hospital, descriptions.
Ragilia Indah Lutfiana
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 348-355; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.348-355

Abstract:
Fitness center / gymnasium is one of the sports favored by the public because in the fitness center has a range of tools and facilities that have been designed so that it can be used as a tool for physical exercise that right. So the longer the gymnasium has also become a necessity for people, Necessity (need) here are divided into two categories, felt or perceived (subject assessment) and evaluated (clinical diagnosis).This study uses a quantitative approach. While the survey research techniques are activities taking samples from a population and using questionnaires as the main data collection tool to understand the needs of students related Airlangga University gymnasium. The results of the study that students need a gymnasium facilities are only accessible by only academy person and in which there is a pool and a cafeteria. This may indicate that students are given follow the advice of doctors to perform the sport swim and is in accordance with the desired exercise by students.
Dian Anita Nilawati, Lailatul Muniroh
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 266-275; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.266-275

Abstract:
Infant is one of vulnerable groups that have nutritional problems. High prevalence of nutritional problems could affect nutritional status that become an important concern. The determining factor of nutritional status includes nutritional intake and maternal occupation. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal occupation and nutritional intake, with nutritional status of infants aged 6-12 months. This study used cross-sectional design, with nutrional status of infants as dependent variable; intake of the food energy sufficiency level and protein sufficiency level. Subject was selected by simple random sampling technique. The interview was conducted on 88 mothers of infants aged 6-12 months, which used questionnaire, form food recall 2x24 hours (breastfeeding and complementary feeeding), and anthropometric measurements (W/L index). Data analyzed used Spearman-Rank test and Coefficient Contingency. The results of this study showed that most of the infants had normal nutritional status (76,1%). Maternal occupation (p=0,025) had correlation with nutritional status. The food energy sufficiency level (p=0,047) had correlation with nutritional status and protein sufficiency level (p=0,016) had correlation with nutritional status. The conclusion of this study is infant who get the sufficiency level of energy and protein sufficiency level adequate has normal nutritional status. Wasting infant tend to have inadequate energy and protein intake. This study suggest mothers to give complementary feeding appropriately the quantity and according to the stage of giving food to infant. Keywords: maternal occupation, nutritional status of infant, the sufficiency level of energy, protein sufficiency level
Prakash Ghimire, Alisha Khadka, Amornrat Anuwatnonthakate, Supaporn Trongsakul
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 325-338; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.325-338

Abstract:
Hypertension is a significant public health issue considered as the world's biggest killer among the working-age group. Health workers are one of the working groups who are facing several factors in their lives that could induce hypertension among them. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about hypertension among Nepalese health workers. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among health workers of central hospitals in Nepal. A total of 422 health workers aged ≥30 years from seven central hospitals of Nepal were selected using a proportionate stratified systematic random sampling method. Information regarding characteristics (socio-demographic, clinical, behavioral, occupational, and perceived stress) of participants were obtained by face to face interviews using a questionnaire after getting informed written consent. Participant's blood pressure and body mass index were measured based on the World Health Organization STEP Surveillance Manual. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify the associated factors of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 35.31% (95% CI: 30.70%-40.10%). After controlling potential confounding factors through multivariate analysis, seven factors (increasing age, low educational level, being married, low fruit & vegetable consumption, low physical activity, alcohol use, and increased perceived stress) were found as significant independent predictors of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension is highly prevalent among Nepalese health workers. Effective behavioral change interventions and routine health screening programs focusing on hypertension should be implemented to control hypertension among this neglected group, Nepalese health workers. Keywords: Health Workers, Hypertension, Perceived stress, Physical activity, Prevalence, Nepal
Munif Arifin
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 356-368; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.356-368

Abstract:
The number of diphtheria suspects in Lumajang district was the second highest in East Java province during the diphtheria outbreaks in 2018. The number of diphtheria cases was more than 500% in 2018 compared to 2017. To give diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the provincial diphtheria expert team consider various suspects’ characteristics for DAT recommendation as DAT supplies are limited. This case report aimed to explore and describe the relationship between diphtheria suspects’ characteristics, including age, gender, symptoms, immunization status, duration of disease, and contact status with other suspects according to the DAT recommendations from the expert team. This case report was descriptive and used a cross-sectional approach. It was conductedduring the diphtheria outbreaks and involved total samples of all suspects. Based on age, the majority of the suspects (92%)were under 19 years old. Suspects at this age were the target of an outbreak response immunization (ORI) program. Those who were not targetted to receive ORI (aged over 19 years) began to appear in November and mostly in December. The trend of non-ORI targetted age increased after the third round of ORI implementation. According to the report form parents, most suspects (46.7%) had complete immunization status, and only 6.7% of their immunization records were reported on growth chart cards. All suspects with positive diphtheria never had and know routine immunization records. The laboratory tests show only 5% were suspected with positive diphtheria with a cultural type of mitis toxigenic. As many as 32% of the total suspects were recommended for DAT treatment. The use of controlled DAT could save 1,640,000 iU. Keywords: Diphtheria, outbreak response immunization, diphtheria antitoxin.
Erliza Anggraini Firdaus, Bambang Wirjatmadi
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 252-257; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.252-257

Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a bone disease causing decreased bone density. It often occurs to elderly women. At the age of 50-80 years, 23% Indonesian women were at risk of osteoporosis, and this number would increase to 53% at the age of 70-80 years. This study aimed to identify the relationship of knowledge, calcium intake and exposure to sunlight habits with the risk of osteoporosis. This study used a cross-sectional design involed 26 members of the osteoporosis gymnastic group who had a low and high risk of osteoporosis. Data of food consumption were retrieved from 24-hour food recall. The chi-square analysis shows knowledge level had a relationship with risk of osteoporosis (p=0.047). Exposure to sunlight (p=0.437) and calcium intake (p = 0.187) had a relationship with the risk of osteoporosis. It can be concluded that the level of knowledge had a significant relationship with risk of osteoporosis. Knowledge variable is important to show the community mindset about the dangers and risks of osteoporosis. Therefore, education about osteoporosis is required. Keywords: osteoporosis, knowledge, calcium intake, exposure to sunlight habits.
Luluk Lady Laily, Santi Martini, Kurnia Dwi Artanti, Sri Widati
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 295-303; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.295-303

Abstract:
Lung adenocarcinoma is one type of lung cancers that increases in number every year globally. Smoking is one of the risk factors for lung adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the risk factors of lung adenocarcinoma in patients. The risk factors observed in this study included age, gender, smoking history, number of cigarettes, types of cigarettes, and smoking duration. This study was descriptive and performed a cross sectional design. The study’s population was all lung cancer patients who were treated at Dr. Soetomo District General Hospital Surabaya. The samples were drawn using the accidental sampling technique from the population that met the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria for this respondents were patients who were diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and were willing to be interviewed. While the exclusion criteria involved patients with incomplete medical record data and patients who were not willing to be interviewed. The results indicate that the majority of lung adenocarcinoma patients at Dr. Soetomo District General Hospital Surabaya were male who were light smokers, diagnosed at more than 50 years old. Most of them used filter cigarettes and had smoked for more than 30 years. Keywords: Lung adenocarcinoma, risk factors, cross-sectional.
Novrin Senselia Putri Ziliwu, Lina Dewi Anggraeni, Rosa Nora Lina
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 315-324; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i3.2020.315-324

Abstract:
The number of children under five years of age suffering from underweight was 28.0% in Gunungsitoli district. Out of six primary Healthcare centers in the district, Gunungsitoli Idanoi Primary Healthcare Center Healthcarewas one of the six primary healthcare centers with the highest malnutrition prevalence. Sixty-four children under five years of age there Healthcaresuffered from malnutrition. This study aimed to identify factors associated with the nutritional status of children under five in Gunungsitoli Idanoi Primary Healthcare Center, Gunungsitoli district. It was an analytical survey with a cross-sectional approach conducted in Gunungsitoli Idanoi Primary Healthcare Center in February 2019. Data were collected using a questionnaire. This study had samples as many as 246 mothers of children under five years of age selected using a purposive random sampling technique. The bivariate analysis indicates the nutritional status of children under five was significantly associated with mother’s employment status (p=0.043) and family size (p=0.015). While the nutritional status of children under five had no significant association with mother’s knowledge of nutrition (p=0.485), mother’s education (p=0.616), family income (p=0.511), infectious disease (p=0.913), and history of breastfeeding (p=0.847). Mother’s employment status and family size affected the nutritional status of children under five. The primary Healthcare center should cooperate with stakeholders across sectors, especially conduct training for improving economic business skills of the people in the village, and promote family planning program for couples of childbearing age. Keywords: Breastfeeding, children under five years of age, underweight, mother’s knowledge, mother’s employment.
Ade Intan Puspita Sari, M.Kes Mulyono S.Km.
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 212-223; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.212-223

Abstract:
Fabrication Unit is a work area which there are processes of production activities of various kinds of work. Many types of work carried out in fabrication unit have risk that can lead to accidents. One of the types job in fabrication unit is grinding. Process in grinding can not be separated from potential hazards and risks that must be controlled to minimize the occurrence of accidents. This study intend to assess the risk on grinding in fabrication unit of PT. Ometraco Arya Samnta Surabaya. This was an observational descriptive study with cross-sectional design. Primary data obtained through interviews and observations whereas secondaray data collected from the company. Based on the result of the study, there were 21 hazards in grinding job that can be classified into 13 low risks, 5 medium risks, and 3 high risks. The high risks were the wheel rotation of grinding machine, grinding sparks, and falling material.Keywords: grinding, hazard identification, risk assessment
Triani Kholilatun Romsi, Mustakim Mustakim
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 181-189; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.181-189

Abstract:
Job satisfaction is one of the important factors to be considered by the organization. The satisfaction felt by employees in their work will minimize the high number of turnover and absenteeism of employees and can increase productivity and employee loyalty to the organization. Research method is an analytical study with a quantitative approach and a cross sectional study design. Data collection is done by questionnaire. The population in this study is all employees who worked in the Hospital of Mother and Child X Ciputat. Sample in this study were 50 respondents. Data analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate. The results of the study showed that employees who felt dissatisfied worked at the Hospital of Mother and Child X Ciputat by 36.0%. The results also show that there are four variables that have a significant relationship with employee’s job satisfaction at the X Ciputat Mother and Child Hospital including salary, organizational policy, job security, and working conditions. Therefore the hospital is advised to conduct employee performance surveys periodically and continuously to evaluate employee performanceKey Words : Job satisfaction, employee, hospital
Finda Muthia Hanum
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 133-145; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.133-145

Abstract:
The mission of Undaan Eye Hospital is to provide high quality and affordable eye health service. However, some problems which indicate customer’s dissatisfaction are still found, including the amount of customer complaints which hasn’t reached the target set by hospital which is zero complaint. Based on Customer Complaint Report of Undaan Eye Hospital, most complaints are caused by communication problem. The aim of this study is to analyze the interpersonal quality of Polyclinic of Outpatient Clinic of Undaan Eye Hospital which consists of respect, confidentiality, courtesy, responsiveness, dan empathy. This study is using descriptive and cross-sectional design and conducted to 82 people who are representing the outpatients and proceeded using simple random sampling method. The data were obtained by interviewing respondents using questionnaire. The data is analyzed using quantitative method and presented in tables. The result of the study shows that most of the respondents which includes 63,41% respondents feeling a little satisfied with interpersonal quality in Polyclinic of Outpatient Clinic of Undaan Eye Hospital. The result of the study shows that most of respondents feeling satisfied with respect, courtesy, confidentiality, and empathy of the service, however they are feeling a little satisfied with responsiveness of the service. Therefore, the hospital needs to improve their quality especially in responsiveness aspect by reducing patient wait times, and maintaining the quality of the aspects which have good ratings of patient satisfaction.Keywords: interpersonal quality, outpatient clinic, patient satisfaction
Evi Martha, Nindy Audia Nadira, Trini Sudiarti, Aisyah Putri Mayangsari, Embun Ferdina Enjaini, Tika Puspa Ryanthi, Dina Evariyana Bangun
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 153-161; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.153-161

Abstract:
Stunting associated to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality, reduced physical capacity, impaired development and function of children’s motor and mental condition. Efforts have been made by the Government through Integrated Healthcare Center (IHC), however it is less optimal as it didn’t involved all aspects of the community. Cadres and TBAs are important parts of the community that are strategic enough to be involved in this activity, because they are very close to mothers and the community.This program aims to improve the knowledge and practice of 31 cadres and traditional birth attendants (TBA) in early detection and prevention of stunting and implement their knowledge to the community by using lecture, discussion, practice, and film screening methods. There is a significant difference in the knowledge level of cadres and TBA between pre and post training (p value = 0.0005) with knowledge improvement of 30.68%. Furthermore, cadre and TBA did a Follow-Up Plan (FUP) in the form of stunting socialization and education, particularly to the expectants and mothers, with the results of about 124 people exposed to stunting. To monitor FUP, team formed a total of 3 Whatsapp Groups for each village as a forum of communication and discussion between fellow participants to PHC and Research Team. As the result, almost all trainees informed the FUP through Whatsapp group, in the form of socialization and education to other cadres and mothers during IHC, recitations, village activities, sports activities, as well as family or neighbors individually, etc. Through the empowerment of cadres and TBA, education on early detection and prevention of stunting goes according to expectations and is quite effective to the role of cadres and TBA in the community.Keywords: stunting, cadre, traditional birth attendant, empowerment
Mizanur Rahman, Deburra Peak Ngadan, Mohd Taha Arif
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 201-211; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.201-211

Abstract:
The improvement of quality in maternity care services is an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The utilisation of the maternity services and its satisfaction indirectly measure the quality of services. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction with delivery care and also to identify the factors influencing the satisfaction among women on the quality of delivery care services in Sarawak. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the three main zones of Sarawak, Malaysia. A total of 1236 completed data were analysed. Data was collected using the validated Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18, Short Form) by face to face interview. Data entry and analysis was done by SPSS version 22.0 software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that Bidayuh ethnics were 28.6% less likely to have good satisfaction with delivery care than the other ethnic groups. The respondents were 1.806 times more likely to have the average satisfaction and 1.972 times more likely to have good satisfaction on delivery care if a doctor attended the latter. Similarly, the respondents were 2.29 times highly satisfied if the out of pocket expenses were less than MYR 91.50 (US $ 21.73) compared to 2.10 times in average satisfaction. Overall, the women were satisfied with the delivery care services. However, assessment of satisfaction with the services provided from the different level of health care professionals needs to be explored to gain a deeper understanding of maternal care.Keywords: Delivery Care, Level of satisfaction, Maternal Health Services, Sarawak.
Denok Pitra Rhena
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 236-244; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.236-244

Abstract:
The phenomenon of child marriage still causes controversy in the society. According to the child protection law, someone who is less than 18 years old has not been allowed to marry because he / she is considered underage. The marriage law states that it is legal for women who are married at the age of 16 as long as they get permission from their parents. The role of parents is very important in their child's marriage decisions. Parents are the key in an efort to reduce the prevalence of child age marriages. The study design used an observational design with a casecontrol design analytical approach.This research aims to analyze the relationship between parental factors and the incidence of child marriage in Wonosari, Malang.This research was conducted in Wonosari, Malang with samples that included 44 people as cases and 44 people as controls. The method of sampling was a simple random sampling technique. Variables in this research include the child marriage, the family income and the educational background of the head of the family. Data analysis was performed using the chi square test (α=0,05). The results shows that there is a relationship between educational background (p = 0.000) and family income (p = 0.000) with the incidence of child marriage. In conclusion, the educational background of the head of the family and family income are related to the incidence of child marriage. There should be an agreement between the marriage law and the child protection law regarding the marriage age limit that is in accordance with the physical, mental, and reproductive health of the child.Keywords: child marriage, educational background, family income, parent's role, rural area
Ardhini Nugrahaeni
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 224-235; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.224-235

Abstract:
Health Risk Assessment (HRA) is one part of risk assessment. In the utility area at PT Pertamina Lubricant Production Unit of Gresik use a machines that have impact on health noise and temperature hazards. The aim of this study was to identify health risk assessment in the utility area at PT Pertamina Lubricant Production Unit Gresik. This was an observational descriptive study with cross sectional design. This study uses total population of 9 people consist of 1 supervisors Health Safety Enviroment (HSE), 3 HSE officer, and 5 workers. Primary data obtained from interviews, observations, noise and temperature measurements. Secondary data were got in the documents from the company. The collected data were assessed as likelihood and severity to count the risk. Afterward risk control assessed and residual risk is calculated. The results of this study showed that there were 3 steps of work with 6 potential hazard noise and temperature. The risk assessment has levels of risk medium risk and low risk. Medium risk was found in the boiler monitoring and compressor. Low risk was found in the stage of preparing CNG gas and turning on the machines. Control effectiveness is 75%. Residual risk has a low risk and no risk. It can be concluded that the potential hazard in the utility area was noise. Most of the risk found in this area was categorized as low risk. Risk control was properly implemented. If the recommendation of control properly implemented there will be no residual risk. The suggestions given are monitoring the implementation of controls, fit to work, use of PPE, socialization of the use of PPE, giving reward and punishment to motivate workers to safe behavior at workKeyword: health risk assessment, utility area, PT Pertamina Lubricant Production Unit Gresik
Nur Eka Vutrianingsih, Ikrimatuz Zulfa, Jojok Mukono
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 190-200; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.190-200

Abstract:
In the efforts to increase product of rice plant crops, the use of pesticides to excerminate pest can not be avoided. However rice plant farmers incline carry out spray of pestisides which abused impact can increase poison inciden of farmers. The objective of this research was to know about risk factors related to pesticide poison incidence because use carbamates pesticides and organophosphates pesticides in Masangan Kulon Village Subdistrict Sukodono District Sidoarjo. The type of this research is analytic observational with cross sectional approach. Sample of this research is 28 farmers. The collected data were analyzed analytically using Fisher Exact Test. The variable in this research were age, sex, educational level, length of work,the using Personal Protection Equipment, length of exposure, knowledge, total of kind pesticides, and management practices of pesticides. Checking cholinesterase enzyme value in the blood with Kinetic Photometric DGKC by BBLK of Surabaya.The result of this research showed as 2 farmers (7,1%) has pesticides’s poisoning. The result of statistic test showed there was no significant relationship between sex (p = 0,091), educational level (p = 0,553),length of work (p = 0,288), the using Personal Protection Equipment (p = 0,622), total of kind pesticides (p = 1,000), knowledge (p = 0,549), and management practices of pesticides (p = 1,000) with pesticides poisoning. There was significant relationship between age (p = 0,001) and length of exposure (p = 0,001) with pesticides poisoning. Conclution of this research counseling from relevant agencies about pesticides, periodic checking cholinesterase enzyme of farmers and observe pesticide sale distribution in village.Keywords : Pesticides, Carbamate and Organophosphate, Cholinesterase
Burhanuddin Lazuwardi
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 146-152; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.146-152

Abstract:
Infant Mortality Rate was death that occurs between the time after the baby was born until the baby not exactly one year old. Broadly speaked, from the side of the caused of infant mortality there are two kinds of endogenous infant death and exogenous infant mortality. Estimated about 8.8 million children whose age less than 5 years passed away. Based on previous data IDHs indicated that infant mortality has fallen by half, from 68 deaths per 1,000 live births for the 1987-1991 period to 32 deaths per 1,000 births for the 2008-2012 period. The purposed of this researched was to examine which factor most dominant influenced on infant mortality in East Java Province.This research used secondary data with a large sample of total population that consists of parents whose children (infants) died at the age
Fina Aprilia
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 245-251; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.245-251

Abstract:
Patient visitation is one of the hospital performance indicators. There are several factors which influence the decrease of patient visitation in a hospital. This study aims to identify the factors that caused the decrease of outpatient visitations at Surabaya Surgical Hospital based on the internal business process perspective. This study used a quantitative research method which used a cross-sectional design and descriptive approach. The participants of the checklist sheet-based interview involved health assurance, marketing, human resources, outpatients, and emergency room, while the questionnaire-based interview involved 79 outpatients and 23 employees at Surabaya Surgical Hospital. The research variables included innovation development, operational process, and customer management processes (marketing). The results showed that there was one variable that had a lesser average value, i.e., the customer management processes variable (marketing) with a poor average value (2.49). Particularly, the indicators which had the lowest score from the others on average were promotion and communication. In conclusion, the decrease of outpatient visitation at Surabaya Surgical Hospital was caused by one variable with lesser average value, i.e., the customer management processes (marketing) on the promotion and communication indicator. This is because the promotions advertised by the hospitals are not much known by the society.Keywords: internal business process, outpatients, Surabaya Surgical Hospital
Miki Kurnia Fitrizah, Ardini S. Raksanagara, Ridad Agoes
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 173-180; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.173-180

Abstract:
Increased knowledge and attitude on students can be done by using interesting, convenient, and simple health promotion method or media such as snake and ladder game. This study is aimed to measure and analyze the effectivenes of snake and ladder game and Triggering stop BABS on elementary school students’ knowledge and attitude. The research method used is true experiment approach to the design of two group pre-test post-test design. The samples were 62 respondents, 31 for triggering group and 31 for snake and ladder game group. The research instrument was questionnaire. Analyzing data used R Commander program. The result indicated that There were significant differences improvement of knowledge and attitude of students before and after snake and ladder game stop BABS (p=0.0001 for knowledge, P=0.0001 for attitude). There were significant differences in knowledge and attitude level of students before and after the triggering (p=0.0001 for knowledge, p=0.0001 for attitude). There were no Effectiveness difference between triggering and snake ladder game (p=0,556) (p=0,226).The result of analysis also indicated that provision health education through both snake and ladder game and Triggering Method have impact to improvement knowledge and attitude of elementary schools students. Snake and ladder game can be used as alternative health education media in school.Keywords: Snack and Ladder Game, Triggering, Knowledge, Attitude
Faiznur Ridho, Bambang B. Soebyakto, Haerawati Idris
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 162-172; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i2.2020.162-172

Abstract:
Primary dentists at the era of the National Health Insurance are only paid IDR2,000 each patient. The Capitation funds can not cover the cost of services that must be spent. The payment system must be improved because it is related to the quality of service. The aims of this study to analyze the management and utilization of dental capitation funds including the bottlenecks and to generate solutions in the implementation of JKN. This research was descriptive with qualitative approach. The informants of the study were 16 (sixteen) dentists as an independent practitioners and pratama clinics in Palembang and Lubuklinggau with highest and lowest capitation coverage. Data were analyzed by data reduction, data presentation, conclusion drawing and verification. The result showed that there was a disparity in capitation fund income received by dentists both as an independent practitioners and pratama clinic. Not all dentists get the ideal number of participants 1: 10,000. Dentists with low capitation norms have difficulty to set their operational funds. The budget for operational cost is bigger than services cost. Revenues compared to capitation funds are still lacking. Most capitation funds for primary dentists are insufficient and still rely on fee for service patients. The government should set dental capitation norm and regulation for National Health Insurance era.Key words: dentist, capitation, clinic, utilization, regulation
Zulfa Auliyati Agustina, Yunita Fitrianti
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 93-102; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.93-102

Abstract:
Indonesian people used to consume herbal medicines called "jamu", which is as a hereditary alternative medicine, to heal or fresh the body. Furthermore, the postpartum mother, who needs recovery after birth, also drinks the herbs. This essay employed a literature review of 14 ethnographic books conducted by National Institute of Health Research and Development, which focused on the herbal medicines for puerperal mothers. The results of the literature review revealed that the majority of mothers in Java and Sumatera using jamu during the postpartum period to heal and recover the mother's health. Not only do the mother drink jamu, but she also applies certain herbs on her body. Clinical trials have proved the efficacy of ingredients for herbal medicines. Therefore, people prefer to use the herbs because it is easy to find and inexpensive, and it also has a long-term effect on the mother's health and fitness. However, herbal medicine, which is usually employed by the people, needs further research, in particular, the dose of jamu. So, herbal medicine based on local wisdom can be one of consideration in the health development program. Keyword: Jamu, Pueperal, Traditional
Rike Dwi Anggraini, R Azizah
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 71-80; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.71-80

Abstract:
ABSTRACKMalaria remains a health problem in the world. In Indonesia, malaria is one of the causes of the outbreak in the province of East Java. Pandean is a public health center thatcounted for large numbers in cases of malaria in Trenggalek. Although Pandean public health center has conducted treatment of imported malaria, the cases are still high. The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of officers in the implementation of discovery and treatment program of imported malaria, including the availability of human resources, training, knowledge and understanding of the auth. This research is a descriptive observational research. Respondents in the study were 8 people, including Program Managers Of Malaria, 2 Microscopic and 5 JMD in Pandean public health center area. Data retrieval was implemented with interviews against the respondents and secondary data searches in Pandean. The results showed they have the good availability of human resources, but there is no the head of JMD yet. Officer of the discovery and treatment of malaria have had a good knowledge, they have received training, and also have a good working understanding of auth, malaria program officer Role has been good, but they need to keep the improvements including recruitment of the head of JMD to avoid duplicate tasks so that the control of imported malaria can run optimally. Keywords: Malaria import control, The role of officers, Public Health Center
Sara Wijimulyati, Erfan Andrianto Aritonang, Eka Rista Efrem Burga
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 112-121; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.112-121

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze characteristic and calculate the number of bacterial contamination of fresh nila fish from Sawiyoh pond Sidoarjo, East Java. A total of 30 fresh nila fish were taken and examined at the Microbiology Laboratory Faculty of Medicine Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya University. This research is a descriptive study with observational methods. The step of bacterial enrichment was carried out on BPW (Buffered Pepton Water) media. The bacterial identification procedure uses selective media SSA (Salmonella-Shigella Agar), Gram staining, and tests on TSIA media (Triple Sugar Iron Agar). The procedure for calculating the total bacteria using TPC (Total Plate Count) on NA (Nutrient Agar) media. The results on selective SSA media in 30 samples showed suspect Salmonella sp. with the characteristics of colorless colonies with black dots in the middle. The results of Gram staining in 30 samples showed that the bacteria were Gram negative in the form of rods. Test results on TSIA media identified one positive sample of Salmonella sp. (sample 09) with characteristics of the red slope of the media, the base of the media is yellow, and H2S is formed. The results of the calculation of total bacteria by the TPC method showed that the total bacterial total was 15.8 x 105 CFU / gram. The limit of microbial contamination according to the 2009 SNI for fresh fish is 5 x 105 CFU / gram so that fresh nila fish from Sawiyoh Sidoarjo pond has a number of bacterial contamination above the stipulated threshold.Keywords: Nila Fish, Gram Staining, Salmonella sp., Salmonella-Shigella Agar, Total Plate Count, Triple Sugar Iron Agar
Rina Dwi Novita, Nyoman Anita Damayanti
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 81-92; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.81-92

Abstract:
Surabaya Islamic Hospital Foundation is preparing Jemursari Islamic Hospital to become an educational hospital bacause University of Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya as a medical institution is required to have at least one primary educational hospital. Jemursari Islamic Hospital has conducted self assessment related to the readiness to become educational hospital in 2017 and resulted in a total value of 88.34%. This research aims to describe the readiness to change at the Islamic Hospital Jemursari in the change into an educational hospital. This research was conducted at Islamic Hospital of Jemursari in period of October 2017-July 2018. This research is descriptive research because it describes readiness to change at Jemursari Islamic Hospital in the change to become educational hospital without any statistical calculation. This research is a quantitative research using cross-sectional method. Sampling method with proportional random sampling technique to get sample of 88 people spread in all work units at Jemursari Islamic Hospital. Data collection using questionnaires readiness guide for readiness assessment consisting of five indicators namely communication, sponsorship, stakeholder, readiness, and training. The results showed that the indicator of communication at Jemusari Islamic Hospital has the lowest average value (4.32) and has a slightly ready level. The stakeholder indicator has the highest average score (5.06) and has a ready level. In addition, indicators of sponsorship, readiness, and training have a ready level. In conclusion, based on these five indicators, most respondents (87,23%) at Jemursari Islamic Hospital are ready to change from non-educational hospital to educational hospital. The advice given is to improve communication related to the change into an educational hospital, so that all indicators become ready. Keywords: hospital, educational hospital, readiness to change
Nandella Larasati,
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 37-48; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.37-48

Abstract:
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is influenced by the environmental factors; climate and population mobility. The DHF incident mapping is conducted to know its distribution and the areas belong to high-risk of DHF. This study aims to know the DHF incident mapping, climate conditions, and population mobility at Putat Jaya in 2015-2017.This study is an observation analysis by using the ecology time series study. There were 110 samples population. This study used a correlation test to know the strength and weakness of climate variable, population mobility number towards the DHF incident. The data used a primary and secondary data. Most cases of DHF incident are found in community areas (RW) where the distance between citizen’s house is narrow. The mapping showed the distribution pattern of DHF in each RW was grouping and spreading. Based on the correlation test, if the rainfall is higher, the DHF incident increases (r = 0,278). If the air temperature is higher, the DHF incident decreases (r = -0.480). If the humidity is higher, the DHF incident increases (r = 0.282). If the duration of solar radiation is higher, the DHF incident decreases (r = -0,150). If the population mobility rate is higher, the DHF incident increases (r = 0,413). There was an environmental factor that support the DHF incident at Putat Jaya. It causes a high-risk exposure to DHF, thus the case was grouping and spreading. In addition, it still need a cooperation between the Health Center and the society to control the DHF incident. Keywords: Mobility Rate, Climate, Larva Density, Mapping
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 49-59; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.49-59

Abstract:
Furniture industry is one of growing industry in Indonesia which has rapid growth. The process of its production brings one complex problem; wood dust. Workers who engage in the production process will have problem with their lung which can lead problem into their respiratory system. It is caused by the wood dust that mixed into oxygen they breath. Furthermore, if this condition happens in long period, it become a serious problem; impairment of vital pulmonary capacity. Besides, the impairment of vital pulmonary capacity can occur due to workers characteristics or conditions such as age, working history, working period, shelf period, illness history, smoking habit, diet, exercise, and the wearing of APD. The purpose of this research was to find out the relation between workers characteristics and personal dust level within vital capacity of lung. This research used cross sectional design with 17 respondents which was took by simple random sampling technique. This research took place at furniture industry X in Tubanan, Tandes, Surabaya, started from April to May 2018. Data was analysed using chi-square test and independent t-test with accuracy up to 95%. Data was collected through interview, observation, and measurement. The result of this research showed that there was correlation between working period, shelf period, and smoking habit within vital pulmonary capacity. The conclusion of this research was that working period, shelf period, smoking habit had important role to workers vital pulmonary capacity in furniture industry.Keywords: worker characteristics, wood dust, vital capacity of lung, furniture industry
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 103-111; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.103-111

Abstract:
Youth and technology in the millennial era are inseparable. The need for technology makes smartphones the main needs that cannot be separated from the daily lives of youth. The use of smartphones has many benefits but not a few of its users experience addiction. Addiction on smartphones has different characteristics compared to other types of addiction. The aim of this study was to determine the description of smartphone addiction and the impact of physical, mental and sosial health in adolescents aged 10-24 years in Jabodetabek area. The research methodology used cross-sectional study with online survey of 118 respondents and focus on the characteristics of respondents, average usage time, time spent playing smartphones when they wake up, the purpose of using smartphones, the most frequently applications used, the impact of smartphone use. The results showed that almost half of the respondents experienced smartphone addiction at a moderate level (40.7%) and there were 16.9% who experienced severe addiction. The effects of smartphone addiction include problems with mild anxiety (45.8%) and complaints of hands, neck and eyes. Most complaints were on eye health problems such as watery eyes (73.7%), itching (70.3%) and blurred vision (66.1%). In addition, other complaints that many feel are in the hands such as tingling (67.8%) and wrist pain (31.4%). Excessive smartphone use has been shown to have an impact on physical health. For this reason, further research is needed to find out other health impacts both physically, mentally and sosially.Keywords: Smartphone Addiction, Addiction, Musculosceletal Disorder
, Lilis Sulistyorini
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 60-70; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.60-70

Abstract:
The use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene is a factor that affects the occurrence of contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of workers, use of PPE, personal hygiene, and contact dermatitis in workers. This research is descriptive research with cross sectional design. This research used total populated sampling with 20 respondents in metal household coating industry of Waru and Candi Subdistrict, Sidoarjo. The results showed that the majority of workers 55% were 26-35 years old, 50% with 2-3 years working years, 50% with contact frequency 150 times, 30% with exposure time 3.25 hours/day, 5 hours/day, and 8 hours/day. The highest percentage of APD frequency glove use is often 66% of industry Y, frequency is sometimes 58% industry Z, and frequency is never 17% industry Y. The highest percentage of APD frequency boot APD often 50% in industry X and Y, frequency is sometimes 50% industry X, and the frequency is never 50% industry Y. Personal hygiene is done by 50% of industrial workers X, 17% of industrial workers Y, 58% of industrial workers Z and personal hygiene is not good done by 50% of industrial workers X, 83% Y, 42% of industrial workers Z. Contact dermatitis experienced 100% industrial workers X, 83% of industrial workers Y, and 83% of industrial workers Z in the form of skin irritation of hands and feet. The advice given is to provide counseling on matters that can cause contact dermatitis in workers. Key word : characteristics of workers, use of PPE, personal hygiene, contact dermatitis
Nur Aisiyah Widjaja, Rendi Aji Prihaningtyas
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 122-132; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.122-132

Abstract:
The prevalence of obesity is increasing at all ages in Indonesia. Obesity does not only cause health complications, such as dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoarthritis but also has a negative effect on a countr’s socioeconomic conditions. Previous studies have explained that food choices affect the incidence of obesity. This literature review aims to explain the factors that influence the food choice related to obesity. Genetic and environmental factors affect the food choice in individuals that can cause obesity. Environmental factors play a major influence on food choice, including peers, family, economic status education environmental conditions, stress, and sedentary behavior. Detection of environmental factors that influence food choice can be one of the strategies to prevent obesity. Key words : Obesity, Diet, Food Preference, Food Choice, Adolescents
Randy Ian Ferenal Gallego
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 13-24; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.13-24

Abstract:
ABSTRACKPsychiatric nursing care is an indispensable aspect of the total health care services provided by nurses in both the acute and chronic care settings. This study investigated the extent of preliminary clinical nursing care provided by registered nurses in dealing with clients who have unique psycho-behavioral needs. It further looked into the relationship between the nurses’ socio-economic profile including their ethnic affiliation and the acute care services offered to patients admitted in the regular hospital, non-psychiatric healthcare settings. It used a descriptive-correlational design through a validated and reliability-tested instrument responded by 113 staff nurses from six hospitals around Lanao del Sur. It involved the statistical analysis of data using frequency, weighted mean, and Pearson correlation. The findings show that the nurse-respondents of the selected hospitals in Lanao del Sur generally considers the extent of implementation of the six nursing care areas (counseling, milieu therapy, self-care activities, psychobiologic interventions & health-teachings, case management, health promotion and maintenance) as frequently done or as generally emphasized in about 75% of the time in their respective clinical areas. When tested at 0.05 level of significance, the p-value obtained was less than the critical value (p=0.00-0.006) revealing that the ethnic affiliation of nurses was significantly correlated to the health promotion and maintenance care that they provide to clients with psycho-behavioral pathologies. Therefore, nurses serving in acute clinical settings need to possess a significant amount of competency in psychiatric care to be able to render preliminary interventions despite non-specialist background. Nurses also have to be cognizant of the cultural history and background of the clients being served even at the preliminary phase of the nurse-patient interaction and accommodate them with nursing interventions based on transcultural competence.Keywords: Culturally-sensitive psychiatric care, psycho-behavioral pathologies, preliminary psychiatric interventions, psychiatric care in acute settings
, Syarif Hidayat, Ika Setianingsih
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 1-12; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.1-12

Abstract:
Diarrhea has been long a public health concern in the world especially to infants and children. Diarrhea can be caused by many factors including sanitation, clean and healthy behavior, and access to clean water, consumption of drinking water and food, and so on. The results of the research in Tanah Bumbu Regency stated that some of the main causes related to the incidence of diarrhea in Tanah Bumbu Regency included Sanitation, Healthy and clean behavior, clean water access, and drinking water access. Secondary data analysis held to define the scheme of drinking water consumption in families with diarrhea patients in Tanah Bumbu Regency. The result showed that the most families with diarrhea consumed refill drinking water (67.06%) with most of them did not do any pre-treatment to the water (81.55%). The water consuming pattern has been changed to community of Tanah Bumbu Regency by consuming refilling water. Processing (boiling) refilling water before drinking can reduce the risk of diarrhea.Keywords: refilling drinking water, diarrhea, drinking water consumption patterns
, Corie Indria Prasasti
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 15, pp 25-36; doi:10.20473/ijph.v15i1.2020.25-36

Abstract:
One type of air pollution that has the potential to harm human health is particulate dust. Particulate dust causes pulmonary damage when inhaled during work continuously. The purpose of this study was to see the description of the condition of the lung physiology ,workers' actions,worker smoking habits,use of respiratory tract,and physical quality of the environment. This was descriptive research, using design cross-sectional. The sample size used total population as 14 people. physical environmental quality includes PM2.5 concentration,air temperature and humidity. The action variable was measured using an observation sheet, while smoking habits and respiratory tract measured using a questionnaire. Lung function disorder was measured using spirometry. Based on the results,50% of workers had a bad action, 64.3% of workers had a smoking habit, and 28.6% of workers didn’t use continuous respiratory protection during working hours. The measurement of physical environmental quality at PM2.5 still meets the quality standard, while for the temperature and humidity do not meet quality standards. A total of 5 workers in the final rub section have lung function disorders. The conclusion that can be taken is more lung function disorder is experienced by workers who have smoking habits, not using continuous respiratory protection during working hours. The advice that can be given is that the use of the respiratory protector of masks should always be used continuously while workin. For workers with lung function disorders, should immediately conduct further medical examination and reduce smoking habits so that the lung physiological condition doesn’t decrease.Keywords: PM2.5 concentration, lung function disorders, workers' actions,worker smoking habits,use of respiratory protection
Dina Fahmawati
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 243-251; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.246-255

Abstract:
Cigarette smoke contains nicotine which disturbs health. Nicotine is capable of reducing the taste of food, so there is appetite suppressant. The ability of nicotine in increasing blood liposuction process can affect the increase in blood cholesterol level. The research aims to study the difference between food intake and blood cholesterol level between smokers and non-smokers. This study was a comparative observational analytic study using cross-sectional design. The data of particular subjects and smoking habit were obtained from the questionnaire. The food intake was obtained by interview using 2x24 hours food recall form while the blood cholesterol level was obtained by blood sampling which was then analyzed using laboratory test. The subjects were 13 smokers and 13 non-smokers, taken by simple random sampling. The data were analyzed by Independent t-Test. The results have suggested that the difference in the average food intake and blood cholesterol level between smokers and non-smokers were not significant. The substantial average difference was found in the level of cholesterol intake, so the statistical test has showed a significant difference, p-value = 0.005 < α(0.05). Smoking has a harmful effect for health so people must decrease its consumption or stay abstinent from it. The longer human get exposed to cigarette, the more susceptible they get the illness from it.
Sonya Hayu Indraswari
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 210-220; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.211-222

Abstract:
The prevalence of childhood obesity in Indonesia increase from year to year. This circumstance is believed to be associated with the high consumption of fatty foods and lack of knowledge of a balanced diet. Conducting the nutrition education of balance diet (nutrition counseling) is one of the ways to improve knowledge and attitude towards nutrition and to reduce nutritional problems. The study aims to analyze the effect of nutrition education by utilizing the poster and nutrition card on elementary students at SDN Ploso I-172 Surabaya. This study was Quasi-experimental research with pre-post test design involving 29 samples of elementary students at SDN Ploso I-172 Surabaya. The samples were chosen through a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by interview using the questionnaire. The statistical test utilized the Paired Sample T-Test. The nutrition education with posters media increased the students’ knowledge (p=0.005) and attitude (p
Lisa Fitria Ningrum, Lilis Sulistyorini
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 186-198; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.187-199

Abstract:
Food stall is one of catering services that provide food/beverages for the public. The handling of utensils and selecting good food and beveragesarethe efforts to prevent the presence of Escherichia coli on food and beverages in thefood stalls. The studyaims to describe the process of handling the utensils, selecting food ingredients, and testing the presence of Escherichia coli in iced tea. The method of this research was cross-sectional with 34 unit samples of food stalls in Mulyorejo Urban Village. The samples were inserted in plastic and tested in the laboratory with the Escherichia coli parameter. The interviews were conducted with the food vendorsregarding the sources of clean water, the washing process, handling the utensils, and the iced tea ingredients, such as drinking water, tea, sugar, and ice cubes. The analysis was conductedin a descriptive approach. The results showed that 24% of the samples were positive containing Escherichia coli. The sellers’ primary source of clean water was derived from the the Water Company (PDAM)by 82.3%. Furthermore, 67.6% of the samples used detergent/soap in the washing processwith two buckets,used to dip the utensils repeatedly. In terms of storing the utensils, 94.1% of the the utensils were glassware stored face down. The ingredients of iced tea consisted of boiled water (50%), obtained from the well and the Water Company (PDAM), the tea ingredients which had been registered in food control agency, the sugar which was not spoiled or smelled, and the ice cubes which were bought from the neighborhood area (88.2%). It isproven that Escherichia coli existed inthe iced tea due to the sanitary components of utensils and the hygiene of beverage ingredients did not meet the requirements. It is recommended that the guidance can be given to the vendors, especially in washing the utensils correctly and selectingthe beverage ingredients, such as water and ice cubes.
Hanum Kholida Zia
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 150-159; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.150-160

Abstract:
Family Planning Program has some indicators of success; one of the indicators is unmet needs of family planning services. The success of the unmet need indicator services is the decrease of unmet need to 9.9% in 2019. In 2012, the number of unmet need for family planning amounted to 11.4%. This study aims to identify whether there is a correlation of the education level, residence, and information of family planning field officers with unmet needs for family planning in East Java. This research was conducted with a cross-sectional design with the data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey. There is a correlation of the education level (p=0.000), residence (p=0.010), and information of family planning field officer (p = 0.048) with the unmet needs for family planning. The research cocludes that education level, residence, and information from health centre affect the unmet need for family planning.
Atika Binti Utari, Thinni Nurul Rochmah
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 138-149; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.138-149

Abstract:
The incidence of hypertension is the highest non-communicable disease in Kediri in 2016. The prevalence of hypertension in Kediri reaches 27.9. This situation even exceeds the prevalence rate in East Java (26.2). This study aims to calculate the value of economic losses caused by hypertension sufferers in Kediri. This research is a quantitative research with the cross-sectional method. The primary data collection was done by interviewing 100 hypertension sufferers. The results show that the direct medical cost incurred by patients due to hypertension is IDR 563,360 per capita. Meanwhile, the indirect costs to be incurred by patients during suffering hypertension reach IDR 789,272 per capita. Disability-Adjusted Life Years or years lost due to premature death and disability caused by hypertension disease in Kediri regency amount to 189,915 years. Consequently, the Burden of disease value obtained due to hypertension in Kediri District is IDR 330,882,930,485. It can be concluded that the economic burden caused by hypertension is significantly high. The indirect costs incurred by the patients are greater than the direct costs. Therefore, it is recommended to intensify the dissemination and preventive efforts to decrease the incidence of hypertension.
Amelia Lorensia, Rivan Virlando Suryadinata, Richa Ratnasari
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 263-271; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.267-277

Abstract:
Asthma could affect quality of life and decrease productivity. The worsening of asthma symptoms also affected lung function. Symptoms of asthma could be control by self-management. The patient's behavior in self-management influenced by his perception of asthma. This research aims to determine effect of perception of disease on health function of parents in asma patients in surabaya. Research using observational methods with cross sectional design. Research Subjects were outpatient asthma patients aged 17-25 years. Data collection was conducted from June 2015 to January 2016 in Surabaya, to 27 people. Assessment of asthma perception use Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) and health condition of lung function with peak flow meter to assess PEF (peak expiratory flow). The results of this study indicate that both groups have a PEF value 0.05) between disease perceptions based on the number of asthma-related symptoms with lung function (PEF), with the greatest answer as the cause of asthma that is genetic. Therefore, the perception of asthma does not affect lung function (PEF) in adult asthma patients in Surabaya.
Vida Indira Puspita, Setya Haksama
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 221-231; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.223-233

Abstract:
The trend of Gross Death Rate (GDR) Surabaya Hajj Hospital had tended to increase from 2012 to 2015.However, it eventually decreased in 2016. This research aims to analyze the constraints in the service performance at the inpatient unit of Surabaya Hajj Hospital. The researchutilizedthe theory of constraint to minimize the constraints and to prevent the trend of increased GDR over the years. The research employed observational descriptive and cross-sectional design. The primary data were directly collected from the nurses as respondents through questionnaires. The results of the research indicated that the resource constraints were the workload, lack of facilities, lack of medical and non-medical equipment, and lack of nurse workforce. In conclusion, with all the foregoing constraints, such as the workload, lack of facilities, medical, and non-medical equipment, and lack of nurse's workforce, do not directly affect the service performance of the nurses.Accordingly, improvement efforts are recommended for the existing obstacles.
Yelly Atiefsa Narmala, R. Azizah
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 199-209; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.200-210

Abstract:
Dengue fever remains a public health problem. Environmental factors influence the mosquito Aedes aegypti’s growth, especially if there are many containers in the neighborhood. The community of Nanggungan Village have a habit of storing water in containers, therefore, they risk to become breeding sites for mosquitoes. This study aims to identify the Maya Index status of Aedes aegypti between Tegalrejo and Krajan Kidul Village. The research was observational with a cross-sectional design. Total samples were 200 homes, which 100 homes from Tegalrejo and 100 homes from Krajan Kidul Village, taken by simple random sampling. The measurement of variables employed observation sheet and analyzed in a descriptive approach. The number of containers observed in the Tegalrejo Village was 394 units, and Karajan Kidul Village was 391 units. Maya Index statuses in Tegalrejo (92%) and Krajan Kidul Village (88%) were low. Maya Index status in Krajan Kidul (13%) was higher than Tegalrejo Village (8%). House Index (HI) in the Tegalrejo (18.0%) was lower than Krajan Kidul Village (25.0%), Container Index in Tegalrejo (5.30%) was lower than in Krajan Kidul Village (8.95%), Breteau Index in Tegalrejo (21.0%) was lower than in Krajan Kidul Village (35.0%), Density Figure in Tegalrejo and Krajan Kidul Village indicated a scale of 3 and 4. Based on the MI’s status, Tegalrejo and Krajan Kidul Village were included as a low-risk category of mosquito breeding sites. Based on the density number of larvae, two villages have a moderate risk of Dengue Fever transmission. The community should implement the Mosquitoes Breeding Sites Eradication Program (PSN 3M Plus) and minimize the presence of the containers.
Kidhung Piranti
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.161-174

Abstract:
Community Satisfaction Index (CSI) in Inpatient Installation of Surabaya Hajj Hospital increased during 2012-2016, but it has not reached the standard determined by the hospital, that is 85%. This study aims to analyze the patient satisfaction in the Inpatient Installation of Surabaya Hajj Hospital based on Dabholkar Dimension. This study is descriptive observational analysis by using cross-sectional approach with systematic random sampling technique. The samples obtained were 142 respondents. This research analyzes patientsatisfaction in the Inpatient Installation by categorizing patient satisfaction in each element based on Dabholkar Dimension. The element with a compositemean ≥ the aggregate of composite average means satisfied and not becoming an issue, while the element with composite mean< the aggregate of composite average means unsatisfied and becomming an issue. Quality service issue can be a problem hence it needs to be resolved as soon as possible. The results of this study can be used to prepare the recommendationof health service improvementto increase patient satisfaction.
Larassita Rakhmanindra, Nunik Puspitasari
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 174-185; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.175-186

Abstract:
Immunization is one of the main activities implemented by the Ministry of Health in order to decrease the number of child pain and mortality caused by diseases that can be prevented by immunization (PD3I). This research aims to analyze the correlation between the mother characteristics and complete basic immunization on infants at Wonokusumo Community Health Service, Semampir District, Surabaya. The research is analytical study by employing cross-sectional design. The research samples were 86 mothers taken by using simple random sampling techniques. The data collection was carried out by conducting interview based on the existing questionnaire to mothers with 1-2 years children in Wonokusumo area. The analyzed variables were mother’s age, knowledge, employment status, income level, antinatal maternal status, and motivation. The data analysis was carried out by Chi-Square.The results show that there is a correlation of the mothers’ formal education (p=0.005), mothers’ knowledge about immunization (p=0.000), income level (p=0.018), antenatal maternal status (p=0.000), and the mother’s motivation (p=0.000) and complete basic immunization. Meanwhile, the mothers’ age (p=0.849) and mothers’ employment status (p=0.059) have no correlation with the complete basic immunization. In conclusion, the mother’s formal education, knowledge about immunization, income level, antenatal maternal status, and motivation are crucial matters in conducting complete basic immunization.
Diky Novariyanto, Arief Wibowo
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 232-242; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.234-245

Abstract:
The case of pesticide contamination in Batu City in 2017 wasrelatively high, with the percentage of 82.7%. The case of pesticide contamination could be detected by examining the cholinesterase enzyme activity in blood.The Bumiaji villagers (Batu City) mostly work as a pesticide spray farmers. The study aims to analyze the factors that affect cholinesterase enzyme’s activities on the blood of the farmers who spray pesticide. The study was observational with cross-sectional design and used ordinal regression method. The research sampleswere 81 farmers selected through accidental sampling method. The independent variables of this study were the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and farmers’work duration. The dependent variable of this study was the cholinesterase enzyme’s activities in the farmers’ blood. The results of the study were that most farmers experienced cholinesterase enzyme activity changes, misused PPE (80.2%), and worked for less than 8 hours each day (92.6%). Based on the ordinal regression analysis, the variables which affected to the cholinesterase enzyme activity of the farmers’ blood was the use of PPE with a p-value of 0.00 <α (0.05). Based on the regression model, the farmers who properly used PPE had 0.12 higher chance to avoid the change of cholinesterase enzyme activity in the blood. It is necessary to held a disseminationabout the use of personal protective equipment to the farmers, as a preventive effort by the district health office, local village office, and the management of farmer groups in Binangun sub-village, Bumiaji Village, Bumiaji Subdistrict, Batu City.
Dita Rahmatika
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 252-262; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i2.2019.256-266

Abstract:
Hypertension is a condition where a person's blood pressure reaches 140/90 mmHg. Hypertension is the silent disease that causes death in Indonesia. Elderly people mostly suffer from hypertension. This study aims to investigate the correlationof emotional support and dietary compliance of elderly patients with hypertension around the area of Sukomulyo Community Health Center, Manyar subdistrict, Gresik. This study was an observational analytical research, based on the data collection.This research employed a cross sectional method. The samples used simple random sampling with a sample size of 37 respondents who were elderly patients with hypertension. The respondents’ characteristicswere mostly female with the age criteria of 60- 70 years old, and working as housewives. Meanwhile, the characteristics based on education level suggested that more than half of the respondents were high school graduates. Almost all respondents got emotional support with good category (83.8%), and most respondents were quite obedient in doing diet reaching 67.6%. The result of statistical test of the correlation between emotional support andthe adherence of elderly diet of hypertension show a p-value of 0.552.There is no correlation between family emotional support and the compliance of elderly diet in hypertensive patients in the integrated health postof elderly in the working area of Sukomulyo Community Health Center. The elderly’s family is expected to provide more attention to the elderly to be obedient in having the hypretensive diet.
Athalla Permana, R. Bambang W
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 24-36; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i1.2019.25-37

Abstract:
Hygiene and sanitation practices in chicken influenced Eschericia coli bacterial contamination in food. A Study conducted by Sasmita and Juwita mentioned that there was positively E.coli content in chicken meat in supermarket. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the difference of E.Coli content in chicken meat and personal hygiene of food handler. It was an observational study with cross sectional approach. The population of this study included traditional market sellers and supermarkets. The sample of this study consisted of 14 samples of chicken meat in which 7 samples came from the South Keputran traditional market and other 7 samples came from Supermarket ‘X’. Moreover, 7 traditional market sellers and 2 supermarkets were involved to be examined. Variables of the study were E.coli content in chicken meat from Traditional Market of South Keputran and Supermarket ‘X’ and personal hygiene. Samples of chicken meat was done by accidental sampling. Data were collected through interview and observation, whereas the difference of E-Coli content was analyzed using statistical test. The results of this study indicated that one of chicken meat samples positively contained E.Coli bacteria, and no significant differences of the E.coli content were found on the chicken meat samples from both the Traditional Market of South Keputran and Supermarket ‘X’. The suggestion that can be given to Supermarket ‘X’ seller is to control and pay close attention to the sanitation process from suppliers to retails
Rena Ratri Anggoro, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin
The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, Volume 14, pp 127-137; doi:10.20473/ijph.v14i1.2019.130-140

Abstract:
Ex-leprosy patients still got stigma and discrimination from community although they had been cured. The stigma from community has been raising psychological and social problems that can affect their social interaction. This study aimed to describe associative social interactions of ex-leprosy patients in Sumberglagah Village of Mojokerto Regency based on the concept of social health aspect. The study employed descriptive qualitative method with the data collection techniques including observation, interview, and documentation. The instrument used in this study was interview guidelines. In this case, interview was conducted with 11 informants consisting of 8 ex leprosy patients as informants and 3 public figures as key informants. Informants were chosen based on characteristics that had been determined by the researcher. Besides, aspects examined in this study included cooperation, accommodation, and assimilation between ex-leprosy patients and other communities. Data were analyzed through several phases including reduction, data presentation, and drawing the conclusion. The results showed that first, the form of coorporation occurring between ex-leprosy patients and other communities was a bargaining process. Second, accomodation that occurred between ex-leprosy patients and other communities was tolerance. In this circumstance, ex-leprosy patients served the other communities with wrapped drinks and foods. Third, the assimilation aspect was marriage. It could be concluded from the study that the associative interactions that occurred couldrealize the patterns of good social interaction to support the realization of goodsocial health conditions for ex-leprosy patients in Sumberglagah Village.
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