Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences: 89

(searched for: journal_id:(414323))
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Eka Herawati, Ardian Susanto, Christina Noventy Sihombing
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i2.8

Abstract:
Based on American Diabetes Association (ADA), diabetes can be classified into the following general categories: type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and specific types of diabetes due to other cause. Obesity is by far the main underlying factor causing T2D and its pathological potential lies in obesity-associated insulin resistance, activation of innate immunity and chronic low-grade inflammation. When tissue inflammation induced, tissue destruction occurs, 'self' antigens, which are generally not accessible to T cells, can be released from the affected tissues and promote autoimmune activation. The 4 major autoantibodies are islet-cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ICA), glutamid acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA), islet antigen-2 antibody (IA-2A) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA). In addition, ZnT8A has recently been found to predict T1D. ZnT8 is contained in the islets of Langerhans, with the highest expression is in β cells of the pancreas. ZnT8A measurements simultaneously with GADA, IA-2A and IAA achieve rates of 98% detection for onset level of autoimmune diabetes. Presence of antibodies in T2D also shows the potential serious complications compared with T2D without antibodies. The combination of GADA, IA-2A and ZnT8A can be suggested as the most powerful and cost-effective diagnostic approach in patients with T1D.Keywords: autoantibody, autoimmune, diabetes mellitus, ICA, GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ZnT8A
, Rita Lahirin
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i2.4

Abstract:
Background: Cytokines and growth factors were reported to play an important role in stimulating fibroblast proliferation. In vitro culture, fibroblast is mostly culture in medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) has been reported to have low immunogenic property and potential in wound healing, so therefore hUCB serum (hUCBS) could be potential and were investigated in current study.Materials and Methods: Five hUCBs were collected from healthy volunteers with normal delivering procedure. hUCB was ex utero immediately collected from umbilical vein in vacutainers and processed. NIH3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 10% FBS or 5-20% hUCBS for 48 hours. Cells were then quantified using MTT assay. Protein concentration of FBS and hUCBS were quantified using Bradford assay.Results: NIH3T3 cells density grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was the lowest. NIH3T3 cells densities were increased along with the increment of hUCBS concentrations. MTT results showed that average number of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 10% FBS was 6,185±1,243. Meanwhile average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5%, 10% and 20% hUCBS were 8,126±628, 9,685±313 and 12,200±304, respectively. Average numbers of NIH3T3 cells grown in DMEM with 5% hUCBS were significantly higher than the ones with 10% FBS (p=0.000). Bradford results showed that concentration of hUCBS was significantly higher than the one of FBS (p=0.000).Conclusion: hUCBS could induce higher proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells than FBS. Hence hUCBS could be suggested as an alternate of FBS in inducing fibroblast.Keywords: NIH3T3, fibroblast, UCB, serum, FBS, proliferation
Made Putra Semadhi, Stefanus Layli Prasojo, Anandani Widarini
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i2.10

Abstract:
Lung cancer is the most contributor of cancer cause death in the world. Lung cancer is related to cigarette consumption and genetic factor. Nicotine derived nitrosamine ketone is the most important inducer of lung cancer associated with DNA Mutations resulting in the activation of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral (KRAS) oncogenes. DNA Mutation in Lung cancer is mostly presence by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. There were seven potential biomarkers to detect early lung cancer, whereas carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), CA-199 and ferritin. The use of biomarkers in combination can improve the accuracy in diagnosing lung cancer. Other biomarkers include KRAS mutations, B-type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutation, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) amplification and Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) can be used to see whether there are any genetic mutations that lead to lung cancer. Treatment of lung cancer with chemotherapy can be done using tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies.Keywords: lung cancer, DNA mutation, EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, MET, tyrosine kinase
Rambu Beppy Hamuaty, Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i2.14

Abstract:
Background: Interaction between advanced glycation end product (AGE) and receptor for AGE (RAGE) triggers the escalation of inflammatory cytokine expressions. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an important inflammatory marker, has been reported to be modulated by soluble RAGE (sRAGE). However, the relationship between hsCRP and sRAGE in diabetes was not clearly described. Therefore present study was conducted to determine the relationship between sRAGE with hsCRP in men with central obese diabetic and non-diabetic. Materials and Methods: Adult men aged 25-60 years with central obese diabetes and non-diabetes, were recruited. Patient’s profiles were collected before the physical and blood examination. Physical examinations were conducted by measuring waist/abdomen, blood pressure, height, and weight. The routine blood test was performed to obtain concentrations of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, hsCRP and sRAGE level.Results: Fifty-seven subjects with central obese and waist size ≥90 cm were selected. It was found that hsCRP values were significantly different (p=0.000) in HbA1c 0.5).Conclusions: In the early stages of diabetes with hsCRP
Yohanna Feter, Nadhia Sari Afiana, Jessica Nathalia Chandra, Kharima Abdullah, Jasmine Shafira,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i2.15

Abstract:
Reciprocal interaction between oral ectodermal epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived from the cranial neural crest starts the teeth development. The role of dental MSCs continues throughout life. The dental MSCs do not only play a role in tooth development but also in tooth homeostasis and repair. There are many kinds of dental MSCs, such as dental pulp stem cell (DPSC), stem cell from apical papilla (SCAP), stem cell from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) and stem cell from dental follicle (DFSC). Aligned with the proposed criteria by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), dental MSCs are adherent cells and like other MSCs, dental tissue MSCs are capable of giving rise to cell lineages such as osteo/odontogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic. Various surface antigens of dental MSCs were reported, however, mostly typical antigens suggested by ISCT were fulfilled. Surface antigens from each dental MSCs (DPSC, SCAP, SHED, PDLSC and DFSC) are being described in the current report.Keywords: dental stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, tissue regeneration, DPSC, SCAP, SHED, PDLSC, DFSC
Siska Damayanti, Rina Triana, , Nurrani Mustika Dewi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i1.12

Abstract:
Introduction: Each cell in human body is assigned with a specialized function to perform. Before a cell becomes specialized, it is a stem cell. Stem cell research and therapy is progressing dramatically these days. Stem cell therapy holds enormous treatment potential for many diseases which currently have no or limited therapeutic options. Unfortunately, this potential also comes with side-effects. In this review, the positive and negative effects of regulation of stem cells will be explained.Content: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. The type of stem cells are embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, somatic stem cells, foetal stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell transplantation is one form of stem cell therapy, it comes with different sources, and those are autologous and allogenic transplantation stem cells. In an autologous transplant, a patient’s own blood-forming stem cells are collected, meanwhile in an allogeneic transplant, a person’s stem cells are replaced with new stem cells obtained from a donor or from donated umbilical cord blood.Summary: Its abilities to maintain undifferentiated phenotype, self-renewing and differentiate itself into specialized cells, give rise to stem cell as a new innovation for the treatment of various diseases. In the clinical setting, stem cells are being explored in various conditions, such as in tissue repair and regeneration and autoimmune diseases therapy. But along with its benefit, stem cell therapy also holds some harm. It is known that the treatment using stem cell for curing and rehabilitation has the risk in tumor formation.
Miftakh Nur Rahman, Chyntia Resti Wijaya, Maria Novalentina
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i1.9

Abstract:
Cervical cancer is the primary lethal malignancy for women worldwide, but because it develops over time, it would be one of the most preventable types of cancer. Dysregulation of apoptosis in cells plays a critical role in the malignancy development. Survivin is the smallest inhibitor apoptotic protein (IAP) which has an important part in regulating cell division and inhibitor of apoptosis. This review focused on survivin features in cervical cancer from mechanisms of malignancy relationship to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through E6 oncogenic protein, role as a biomarker in diagnosis, prognosis, staging and prediction of metastasis, and also as a target for therapy. Regulation of survivin divided into two main groups; cell cycle dependent and cell cycle independent pathway to maintain life and death balance. Survivin expression is upregulated by E6 protein simultaneously repressing p53. Thus cancerous cervical tissue developed. Survivin is also upregulated in hypoxia, a common condition in many tumors and increased angiogenesis. Survivin plays a major role in chemotherapy and radiation resistance in many cases of cervical cancer. As a target of therapy, survivin has a promising performance, suggested very specific and no issue of resistance and also reducing resistance to chemo and radiation therapy. The goal of treatment is to lower survivin expression through transcription inhibition, immunotherapy based on cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity and gene therapy. Keywords: cervical cancer, survivin, HPV E6 oncoprotein, therapy
Marisca Evalina Gondokesumo, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i1.3

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease, characterized by hyperglycemia due to disturbance in both insulin secretion and function. One of theurapeutic approaches is to reduce blood glucose levels by inhbiting α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase involved in carbohydrate digestion. Thus, inhibition of these enzymes play important role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has been known to have several medicinal properties and potency as an antidiabetics agents. This reseacrh aimed to observe antidiabetic properties of roselle ethanol extract (REE) towards α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and α-amylase.Materials and Methods: REE was done with maceration technique using diluent of 70% ethanol. Antidiabetic properties were measured by inhibitory activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase.Results: REE was able to inhibit α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase in the highest concentration with inhibition percentage of 72.68, 47.34 and 73.08% respectively, and were comparable with Acarbose of 81.49, 50.97, 73.08%. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase of REE were 15.81, 41.77, 18.09 μg/mL respectively, and Acarbose were 9.45, 22.57, 3.64 μg/mL respectively.Conclusions: REE inhibits α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase.Keywords: Roselle, Acarbose, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, antidiabeticBackground: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease, characterized by hyperglycemia due to disturbance in both insulin secretion and function. One of theurapeutic approaches is to reduce blood glucose levels by inhbiting α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase involved in carbohydrate digestion. Thus, inhibition of these enzymes play important role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has been known to have several medicinal properties and potency as an antidiabetics agents. This reseacrh aimed to observe antidiabetic properties of roselle ethanol extract (REE) towards α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and α-amylase.Materials and Methods: REE was done with maceration technique using diluent of 70% ethanol. Antidiabetic properties were measured by inhibitory activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase.Results: REE was able to inhibit α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase in the highest concentration with inhibition percentage of 72.68, 47.34 and 73.08% respectively, and were comparable with Acarbose of 81.49, 50.97, 73.08%. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase of REE were 15.81, 41.77, 18.09 μg/mL respectively, and Acarbose were 9.45, 22.57, 3.64 μg/mL respectively.Conclusions: REE inhibits α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase.Keywords: Roselle, Acarbose, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, antidiabetic
, Meta Ariyani Sidharta
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i1.6

Abstract:
Background: Caffeic acid has been reported that when it is combined with all-trans retinoic acid, it can inhibit proliferation activity of SaOS-2 or OSA-01 cells. In addition, caffeic acid merely could reduce cell viability of SaOS-2 cells. However, there is not any study in caffeic acid's possible effect to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell.Materials and Methods: MG-63 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells were treated with various concentrations of caffeic acid. Apoptosis were analyzed with Sub-G1 assay and activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 were analyzed with immunoblotting. Caffeic acid-induced percentage of apoptotic cells and cleaved-8, -9, -3 were then statistically analyzed.Results: Sub-G1 results showed that caffeic acid significantly induced apoptosis in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells in concentration dependent manner. Immunoblotting results showed that caffeic acid induced cleavage of caspase-8, -9 and -3. Cleaved-caspase-8 and -9 were increased at 1-hour treatment of caffeic acid, while cleaved-caspase 3 was increased markedly at 6-hours treatment of caffeic acid.Conclusions: Caffeic acid induces apoptosis significantly in concentration dependent manner through caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway.Keywords: caffeic acid, osteosarcoma, MG-63, apoptosis, caspase
Marshel Tendean, Yudi Her Oktaviono,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v1i1.5

Abstract:
Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Within decades a limited process of cardiac cell regeneration was under observation. Embryonic stem cell (ESC) shows great potential for cell and tissue regeneration. Studies indicate that ESC has the potential to enhance myocardial perfusion and/or contractile performance in ischemic myocardium. However there is still challenge to evaluate the issues of teratoma. Then induced pluripotent stem cell was invented by introducing four transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc). iPSC was created from murine fibroblast and then differentiated into cardiomyocyte. Reprogramming the adult cell could be performed in full, partial or direct reprogramming. Several studies add the significance by reprogramming the cells through more efficient techniques. However several limitations are still remained.Keywords: cardiomyocyte, reprogramming, iPSC, fibroblast
Syed Saqib Ali, Haseeb Ahsan, Sana Ansari, Khan M Abdullah, Fahim Halim Khan
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 35-42; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.223

Abstract:
Background: Glutathione (GSH) is a principle thiol-containing tripeptide (cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine) antioxidant against free radicals and other harmful oxidants in cellular defence. The alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) is large tetrameric zinc-binding glycoprotein which inhibits proteinases regardless of their specificity and catalytic mechanism. Materials and Methods: The interaction of GSH was analyzed with α2M including the structural and functional alterations in α2M using various biochemical and biophysical methods. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the binding of α2M with GSH and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was explored to study the structural change induced in α2M. Results: The results suggest that exposure of α2M to GSH decreases the antiproteolytic potential as suggested by the amidase assay. The UV-spectroscopic study showed the formation of α2M-GSH complex and fluorescence analysis showed significant quenching in fluorescence intensity of α2M suggesting GSH binding and structural alteration in the protein. FT-IR spectroscopy was explored to study the structural change induced in α2M which suggest that the secondary structure of α2M changes upon complex formation. Conclusion: Our studies show that interaction of α2M with photoilluminated GSH results in functional and conformational changes of the protein. Keywords: glutathione, GSH, alpha-2-macroglobulin, photo-illumination, ITC, FTIR
Alaa Aldin Alsafi Alalwiy, Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 50-4; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.230

Abstract:
Background: Thelison, the adhesive synthetic material that bind surface together, is widely used in industry and domestic purpose along with epoxy, glue and putty. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of thelison use in the etiology of lung disorders among homeless people in Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials and method: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in homeless people in Khartoum State.Sputum smears samples from 80 alcohol fixed homeless thelison user were collected. After the collection of the sample, Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Region (AgNOR) technique and papanicolaou (PAP) stains were applied to each sample. A questionnaire to obtain essential data about respondents was also provided for each participant. Results: Participant’s ages range was 10-37, while the mean age was 17. The range of participants duration of use per years was 1-10, while the mean was 3 years. Number of thelesion dose use per day was ranged between 1-10, while the mean was 5 years. The majority of participants (80%) showed no cellular change and 20 % showed chronic inflammation. Results showed that 31 of the study population were males (77.5%), while the female population of the study was 9 (22.5%). The mean of AgNoR score was ranged between 1-4, while the mean AgNOR score was 1. AgNoR showed insignificant association with gender, duration and number of thelesion dose used per day (p>0.05), but showed significant association with cytomorhpological and age (p<0.05). Conclusion: AgNoR score showed insignificant association with gender, duration and number of thelesion dose used per day (p>0.05), but showed significant association with cytomorhpological and age (p<0.05). Keywords: AgNoRs score, cytological changes, sputum, homeless thelison users
Sari Eka Pratiwi, Sri Nuryani Wahyuningrum, Rachmagreta Perdana Putri, Danarto Danarto, Didik Setyo Heriyanto, Nur Arfian, Sofia Mubarika Haryana, Indwiani Astuti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 28-34; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.220

Abstract:
Background: Prostatic anomalies are common in tumor or infection condition. The enlargement of prostate gland affects the epithelial cell polarity that involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transition into mesenchymal is mediated by transcription factor ZEB1 and E-cadherin protein. Upregulation of ZEB1 and loss of E-Cadherin expression were associated to proliferation and metastasis of malignancy cells. This study aims to describe the correlation of ZEB1 and E-cadherin expression in prostatic anomaly. Materials and method: Samples were Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) block consist of 8 block Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), 6 blocks High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HGPIN) and 6 blocks Prostate Carcinoma (PCA). The blocks then sliced into 5 sections to be prepared for RNA extraction procedures. ZEB1 and E-Cadherin expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative procedures using PCR and electrophoresis. Correlation between ZEB1 and E-Cadherin espression was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation. Results: Relative expression of ZEB1 and E-cadherin mRNA in each group of prostatic anomaly were not significantly different (p>0.05). ZEB1 and E-Cadherin mRNA expression showed a significant and moderate level of negative correlation (p<0.05; 0.40 < r < 0.59). Increasing of ZEB1 mRNA expression will be followed by decreasing of E-Cadherin mRNA expression. Conclusion: ZEB1 negatively correlates with E-cadherin due to EMT process in prostatic anomaly. High expression of ZEB1 induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and vise versa. Various studies can be developed, especially the development of targeted therapy against ZEB1 to suppress the EMT process by increasing the expression of E-cadherin. Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ZEB1, E-Cadherin, BPH, HGPIN, PCA
Dinda Dwi Purwati, Arifa Mustika, Lukman Hakim, Mochammad Thaha
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 43-9; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.226

Abstract:
Background: In 2017, about 1.2 million people died because of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Patients with CKD are known to have increased levels of oxidative stress which leads to decrease in NO production. NO is a highly reactive signaling molecule and a major determinant of vascular homeostasis. Thus, the decreased NO can be a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Meanwhile, Malondialdehyde (MDA) is known as excellent biomarker for oxidative stress. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum total nitric oxide (NO) and urine MDA levels in non-hemodialysis CKD patients. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational clinical study with a cross sectional design. Fourty-nine CKD subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. The samples for laboratory tests were collected from urine. MDA concentration was measured using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) kit. NO concentration was measured with Griess reaction method and Total Nitric Oxide Parameter kit. The data were analyzed using the Statistic Package for Social Science (SPPS) software version 16. Results: The data showed significant negative correlations between MDA with NO (r=-0.294; p=0.041). Conclusion: There was a correlation between serum total NO and urine MDA levels in non-hemodialysis CKD patients. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, non-hemodialysis
Hartiyowidi Yuliawuri, Jeanne Elvia Christian, Nathanael Steven
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 20-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.221

Abstract:
Background: The report of mutation sites ORF3a SARS CoV-2 in Indonesia is still limited. Some research showed that mutations in ORF3a protein might alter SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Observation of new variants should be conducted as a risk monitoring framework. Materials and method: We assessed the impact of mutations in ORF3a protein by analyzing 3,751 SARS-CoV-2 DNA sequences from the GISAID database from March 2020 until July 2021. The whole-genome sequences were aligned using Clustal Omega Multiple Sequence Alignment from EMBL-EBI and analyzed using BioEdit version 7.2.5 software. The reference whole genome sequence was taken from the Genbank database with accession number NC045512. We excluded the samples containing N letters due to inaccurate reading. Effect of point mutations on protein structure was analyzed using PredictProtein (https://predictprotein.org) and Protein Variation Effect Analyzer (PROVEAN) v1.1.3. online software. Results: We identified five most frequent non-synonymous mutations in ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV-2 which were Q57H (58.04%), S26L (27.25%), S220I (10.37%), D155H (8.98%), and P104S (5.47%). Conclusion: These mutation data showed the phenomenon of amino acid changes in ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia until July 2021. The implication of this mutation needs to be determined in further studies. Keywords: Indonesia, mutations, non-synonymous, SARS-CoV-2, whole genome
Ziske Maritska, Rani Iswara, Ignatius Aldo Winardi, Yuni Dwi Marantika, Irfan Ferdinand Tambunan, Lovina Lovina, Mgs. A. Rifqi Murtadho, Sendy Aditya Nugraha, Cendy Legowo, Victor Pulpa Seda, et al.
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 12-9; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.229

Abstract:
One thing that differentiates one person from another is one’s genetic make-up. Genetic plays a role in every branch of medicine, including anesthesiology. An anesthesiologist must be well familiarized with hereditary (genetic) conditions, chromosomal traits, heredity-familial disorders, and even recessive variants because particular conditions might demand a different anesthetic and perioperative pharmacological management. These circumstances may lead to an opening of a rapidly expanding state of pharmacogenetics/genomics and its relevancy in anesthesia nowadays. This narrative review provides insight into the role of genetics in the field of anesthesiology.
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v6i1.224

Abstract:
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are immune components found in a variety of pathological states. It has been shown to have either beneficial or harmful implications, depending on how it is controlled and has been particularly observed in three major scenarios: infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In this article, we compiled some of the roles of NETs in pathological conditions, as well as the benefits of targeting them for improved patient outcomes. The role of NETs were primarily positive in infectious disease, whether caused by bacteria, virus, or fungal infection. In non-infectious inflammatory scenarios, on the other hand, it's the complete opposite, with the effects being mainly deleterious and even worse than the original disease states. Targeting NETs directly or indirectly may help to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes. A plethora of compounds, including immunomodulators, anti-thrombosis, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, nuclease, and other compounds, may be used to accomplish the therapeutic goals.
Tubagus Djumhana Atmakusuma, Andhika Rachman, Ni Ken Ritchie
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 145-52; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.209

Abstract:
Background: Evaluation and identification of HLA antibodies in the recipient’s serum is of utmost importance prior to transplantation and transfusion. HLA typing is a steppingstone in proposing a donor panel. In order to obtain the HLA typing, Polymerase Chain Reaction-Sequence Specific Primers (PCR-SSP) can be performed.Materials and method: This is a preliminary study to determine HLA polymorphism by HLA genotyping in 43 blood donors. DNA from the samples was isolated using commercial kits according to the standard protocol. The DNA then was amplified using PCR-SSP methods and analyzed using the provided set in the kit.Results: This study found that the most frequent HLA-A alleles was HLA-A*24 (41.9%). For HLA-B alleles, the most common was HLA-B*15 (28%). Most frequent HLA-A-B haplotypes was HLA-A*24-B*15 (11.3%). The results from this study concurs with that of previous study. However, some alleles might vary due to difference in study population. Determining HLA-typing is of paramount importance in an ethnically diverse country such as Indonesia. In contrast to homogenous caucassian country, difference in ethnicity might cause platelet refractoriness due to incompatibility. HLA-typing would also guide the diagnostic workup and required treatment strategy for platelet refractoriness.Conclusion: From the HLA typing using PCR-SSP in blood donors in Jakarta, we found that the most frequent alleles were HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*15; and the most frequent haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*15. This study should be upscaled to include larger population and ethnic groups to obtain complete profile of Indonesian population.Keywords: platelet refractoriness, HLA, donor, PCR-SSP, transfusion medicine
Dwiyanti Puspitasari, Edward Adijaya Rusli, Dominicus Husada, Leny Kartina
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 121-6; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.218

Abstract:
Background: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are the result of a reaction between taint agents that infected the patient when the patient is hospitalized. A Study from The Center for Disease Control and Prevention shows that most HAIs in hospital are urinary tract infection, most of the infection incident in patient are caused by catheter. Catheter indwelling is notable in medical sphere. This study aimed to inquire case number of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, the feature of CAUTI patients, the type of bacteria that cause CAUTI, and what is the relation among sex and bacteria colony.Materials and Methods: An analytic observational study with the population of pediatric hospitalized patients of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital was conducted in January-December 2017. Samples collected were positive urine culture from pediatric hospitalized patients. Information regarding the bacteria that cause CAUTI, gender, and length of catheter usage were collected.Results: There were total 140 samples of positive urine culture in pediatric patient, and 38.5% was diagnosed as CAUTI. Overall CAUTI was often found in male subjects (51.9 %), and similar with ≤1-year old patients which also often found in male subjects (60.8%). The highest length of catheter usage was 3-5 days (42.5%). All subjects had fever as a clinical sign and 83.3% had suprapubic pain. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae infections were highly discovered. There was an association between gender and urine culture colony count (p=0.02).Conclusion: CAUTI is commonnly found in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, and two bacteria that cause the most infection were E. coli and K. pneumoniae.Keywords: catheter, urinary tract infection, healthcare associated infection
Anthony Tjajaindra, Anna Karmila Sari, , Kris Herawan Timotius
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 115-20; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.211

Abstract:
Background: Infusate of the whole plant of Physalis angulata is used traditionally for the remedy of various diseases including diabetes and gout. This study focused on the stem of P. angulata. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential of the stem infusate (INPA) and ethanol extract (EEPA) of P. angulata as inhibitors of α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase.Materials and Methods: INPA and EEPA were determined for their α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities in vitro, whereas antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Reference inhibitors were used for comparison. The total phenolic compounds were also estimated.Results: EEPA had more concentrated phenolic than INPA which were 7.96 and 0.08 mgGAE/g dried biomass, respectively. INPA and EEPA inhibited α-glucosidase considerably, with IC50 of 149.11 and 409.86 µg/mL, respectively (acarbose was 130.66 µg/mL). However, they inhibited xanthine oxidase weakly, with IC50 of 0.546 and 2.643 mg/mL, respectively, compared with allopurinol 0.005 mg/mL. EEPA scavenged DPPH radicals very weakly (16.04 mg/mL) compared to BHT (0.021 mg/mL), whereas no activity was observed for INPA.Conclusion: The stem infusate and ethanol extract of P. angulata are able to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, thus can be further explored for sources of bioactive compounds with α-glucosidase inhibition activity.Keywords: α-glucosidase, infusate, ethanol extract, Physalis angulata, stem, xanthine oxidase
Winna Soleha, Febriana Catur Iswanti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 104-14; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.217

Abstract:
Asthma is a major health problem and one of the leading causes of death in the world. The prevalence of asthma in Indonesia is high, with a recurrence >50%. Allergic sensitization in asthma is mainly caused by house dust mite (HDM) allergens, both from the mite’s body and its contaminants (e.g., lipopolysaccharides). HDM allergens stimulate several pathways in the innate immune response based on the HDM allergen groups that sensitize them. The innate immune response to HDM allergen exposure occurs when pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizes the allergen, thereby stimulating respiratory epithelial cells to release cytokines, namely, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin-25 (IL -25), and IL-33. The release of IL-25 and IL-33 activates group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to release Th2-type cytokines (i.e., IL-5 and IL-13), resulting in allergic airway inflammation via IgE secretion by B cells, recruitment of eosinophils, and respiratory tract remodeling. Dendritic cells induce an adaptive immune response through Th2 activation in the sensitization and effector phases. Other mediators that contributed to the innate immune response include C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL-20) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A deeper understanding of the components and mechanisms involved in innate immunity against HDM allergens creates the potential to develop alternative therapeutic targets for allergic asthma treatment.Keywords: house dust mite allergens, innate immunity, allergic asthma, respiratory epithelium, inflammatory cytokines
Dona Arlinda, Intan Sari Oktoberia, Muhammad Karyana
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 127-36; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.194

Abstract:
Background: Insufficient plasma level of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) can select resistance and will further hinder malaria elimination program. We investigated clinical applicability of a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to quantify plasma concentration of DHA in healthy subjects from a single oral administration of fixed dose combination of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.Materials and Methods: Micro-elution solid-phase extraction in a 96-well plate format was used to prepare the samples. DHA separation happened in Acquity UPLCTM BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). Mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate 10 mM pH 3.5 (50:50, v/v) at 0.3 mL/minute flow rate. Waters Acquity UPLC™ H-Class system coupled with triple quadruple mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for detection. The internal standard was a stable isotope labelled DHA.Results: Calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient >0.995 over a concentration range of 1–1,000 ng/mL. Bias and variation for accuracy and precision were in the range of 15% (20% at the lower limit of quantification). Using 5 µL sample, lower limit of quantification was 1 ng. Matrix effect was less than 15%. The method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of DHA from five healthy subjects, although carry over and the role of anticoagulants were not tested.Conclusion: The LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of plasma DHA was validated for selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, matrix effect and stability. Although clinical applicability was demonstrated, this method was to be improved to address the not-tested validation parameters.Keywords: dihydroartemisinin, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay (LC-MS/MS), malaria, Indonesia
Louis Fabio Jonathan Jusni, Patricia Patricia, Brigitte Leonie Rosadi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 98-103; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.214

Abstract:
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) incidence in Indonesia ranks in the top 10 of the highest in Asia. It is the main perinatal death cause. IUGR also impairs fetal neurodevelopment, which can affect the development of children until later ages. Lack of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11β-HSD2) enzyme is influenced by changes in the coding gene, HSD11B2, one of IUGR's causes. The main diagnostic method of IUGR at this time is by using Doppler ultrasound. However, Doppler ultrasound has several limitations as many cases are not detected. Its clinical predictive value in various women is poor, as Doppler ultrasound is not recommended for use in the first trimester, detection of abnormalities in the second trimester seems to be too late for helpful interventions. The study aim is to present an overview concerning HSD11B2 gene alteration in an non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a possible diagnostic parameter for early detection in IUGR infants. This literature review is based on selected articles and studies taken from the Pubmed, Proquest, and EBSCO databases. A total of 4 studies reported the tendency for DNA methylation and decreased expression of the HSD11B2 gene in IUGR cases. Changes in the HSD11B2 gene have the potential to become a diagnostic parameter in the early detection of infants with IUGR. Further study and investigation of this possibility are needed.Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction, HSD11B2, early detection, diagnostic, non-invasive prenatal testing
Rizka Ramadhanti, Helda Helda
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 137-44; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i3.219

Abstract:
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, due to the increasing prevalence and incidence of kidney failure, poor prognosis, and required high costs for its treatment. Hypertension as the dominant risk factor for CKD also has a high prevalence which keep increasing in DKI Jakarta. This study aimed to determine the association between hypertension and the incidence of CKD in people aged ≥18 years old in DKI Jakarta Province.Materials and method: This was a quantitative research with an analytic cross-sectional study design. The data source used was secondary data obtained from Basic Health Research (Riset Kesehatan Dasar/Riskesdas) 2018. There were 7,141 samples that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria.Results: The proportion of CKD and hypertension in people aged ≥18 years old in DKI Jakarta Province were 0.5% and 16.6%, respectively. There was a significant association between hypertension and CKD with a prevalence odds ratio (POR) of 3.140 (95% CI: 1.527-6.453) after being adjusted by the age variable. Several other characteristics such as age (POR = 3.912; 95% CI: 1.932-7.918), diabetes mellitus (POR = 3.412; 95% CI: 1.405-8.285), heart disease (POR = 7.323; 95% CI: 3.158- 16.982), and physical activity (POR = 2.324; 95% CI: 1.148-4.703) were also significantly associated with the incidence of CKD.Conclusion: Someone who has hypertension has 3.14 times (95% CI: 1.527-6.453; p-value = 0.002) chance of suffering from CKD compared to someone who does not have hypertension after being controlled by the confounding variable, age.Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hypertension, DKI Jakarta, Basic Health Research 2018
Arsyi Adliah Anwar, Nusratuddin Abdullah, Andi Nursanty Padjalangi, Firdaus Hamid, Nasrudin Andi Mappeware, Efendi Lukas
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 93-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.203

Abstract:
Background: Leptin resistance which leads to excessive circulating leptin levels is thought to affect ovarian function. This study aimed to study the correlation between serum leptin levels with insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in several teaching hospitals in Makassar, Indonesia. We included patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) aged 18-40 years old. Serum leptin levels were examined in all eligible subjects using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results obtained were further analyzed statistically.Results: Approximately 53 PCOS subjects were included in this study, 25 subjects with insulin resistance and 28 subjects without insulin resistance. After examining serum leptin levels, we found that leptin is directly proportional to insulin resistance (p<0.001). We even found a strong positive correlation between serum leptin levels with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels (r=0.659; p<0.001). Leptin was found to be independent of HOMA-IR, not influenced by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI) (p=0.090).Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between serum leptin levels and HOMA-IR values in PCOS patients. This correlation was found to be significant regardless of patient's BMI, therefore is considered to have a direct effect on insulin resistance in PCOS.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, leptin, insulin resistance, HOMA-IR
Herman Yosef Limpat Wihastyoko, Erdo Puncak Sidarta
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 82-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.195

Abstract:
Background: Cleft lip is a congenital birth defect caused by many proteins. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-1 are proteins which regulate proliferation and apoptosis role during intrauterine period. This study aimed to observe the expression of these proteins in cleft affected tissue of the lip.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study by examining the TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, and ERK-1 immunohistochemical expression of cleft affected tissue of the lip was conducted. Subjects were patients that were participating for the social event held by Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Univesitas Brawijaya, on December 3-12, 2012 in Nusa Tenggara Timur. Excess lip mucosa (waste tissue) during the operation were stored in 10% formalin then stained by immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, and ERK-1. We counted the average protein expression under the light microscope with 1000x magnification for 20 different fields of view, randomly.Results: Paraffin blocks from 30 subjects were selected. The mean p38 MAPK expression was found to be highest, with the average of 8 per field of view; followed by the mean TGF-β1 expression, with the average of 5 per field of view; and the mean ERK-1 expression was found to be the lowest, with the average of 2 per field of view. Conclusion: Expression of p38 MAPK and TGF-β1 are higher than ERK-1, suggesting that p38 MAPK is in the same signalling pathway as TGF-β1, while ERK-1 is lower, as its role as anti-apoptotic. This is consistent with several previous studies showing that all proteins took part in the development of cleft lip or craniofacial development. Further study needs to be conducted to determine which protein plays the bigger role.Keywords: cleft lip, TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, ERK-1
Saut Horas Hatoguan Nababan, Seruni Tyas Khairunissa, Erni Erfan, Nafrialdi Nafrialdi, Ening Krisnuhoni, Irsan Hasan, Rino Alvani Gani
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 74-81; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.193

Abstract:
Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an expanding cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, including Indonesia, with higher risk progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Preclinical experiments using several mice models have been conducted to clarify its complex pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate whether BALB/c mice on a choline-deficient high-fat diet can be used as a model for NASH. Materials and Methods: BALB/c male mice were fed choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined high-fat diet (CDAHFD) or a standard diet for six weeks. The body and liver weights, liver histology, and plasma biochemistry were analyzed. The relative expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, collagen-1α1 (COL1α1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) genes in the livers were analyzed using a two-step real time-polymerase chain reaction. Liver fatty acids composition was analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Results: CDAHFD induced steatohepatitis in BALB/c mice with increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase. The liver of CDAHFD-fed BALB/c mice showed upregulated relative expression levels of TNFα, TGFβ1, COL1α1, GPx1, and UCP2 genes. The liver fatty acid analysis showed a significant accumulation of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and an increased ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the livers of CDAHFD-fed BALB/c mice. Conclusion: This study suggests that CDAHFD can induce steatohepatitis in BALB/c mice and therefore may be used as NASH mice model.Keywords: steatohepatitis, fatty liver, choline-deficient high fat diet, BALB/c
Bunga Anggreini Sari, Azalia Talitha Zahra, Ganda Purba Tasti, Ziske Maritska
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 62-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.202

Abstract:
The ability to make precise adjustments to the human genome has been a goal of healing in which gene also introduces as the fundamental unit of heredity, in biomolecular technology in genetic diseases have opened new knowledge such as gene therapy. Gene therapy is a technique to repair DNA where its usage is to treat the malignancy and inherited genetic diseases. Gene therapy is a choice to the genetic cloth that goals to remedy a sickness this is hard to deal with or perhaps has no treatment. Currently, gene remedy is done in approaches to patients, specifically embryonic cells and somatic cells, every in vivo and ex vivo. Moral considerations with modification of the difficulty's cells and oversight of regulation and reagents want to be taken into consideration within the gene therapy project. Applications for using gene remedies have begun to be widely used, which include in case of maximum cancers, coronary heart disorder, infectious sicknesses, and others. Gene therapy has spread to a wide range of applications then go beyond the modification of genetic disorders. Advances in genetic modification of cancer cells and immunity and the use of viruses and bacteria to control cancer cells have resulted in many clinical trials and product developments for cancer treatment. The miracles and blessings of gene therapy are might believe, but even though they are being studied and developed now and, in the future, so that the desire for gene therapy may be even better future.Keywords: gene therapy, genetic recombination, gene therapy application
Anna Meiliana, Nurrani Mustika Dewi, Andi Wijaya
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 41-61; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.198

Abstract:
Compared to the normal tissues, cancer cells tend to have higher proliferation rate and often lost their ability to undergo apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells can separate themselves from their original tissue thus causing metastasis in other part of body. While undergoing program cell death, disordered cellular programming can happen. The main causes of this cellular programming anomaly are epigenetic and genetic alterations, which have been known as two separate mechanisms in carcinogenetic. A recent outcome of whole exome sequencing of thousands of human cancers has been the unexpected discovery of many inactivating mutations in genes that control the epigenome. These mutations have the potential to disturb the DNA methylation patterns, histone modifications, and nucleosome positioning, hence, the causing gene expression alternation. Genetic alteration of the epigenome therefore contributes to cancer just as epigenetic process can cause point mutations and disable DNA repair functions. Epigenetic mechanisms changes could cause genetic mutations, and genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators could cause epigenome changes. Knowing that epigenome play a major role in the hierarchy of gene control mechanisms suggests that mutations might have impact on multiple pathways related to cancer phenotype. This pinpoint the fact that recently, the way the genes are organized and controlled are suggested to be a relevant factor for human carcinogenesis. Keywords: cancer genetic, cancer epigenetic, oncogens, tumor suppressor genes, driver mutation, passenger mutation
Dian Sulistya Ekaputri, I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ayu Putu Eka Pratiwi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.191

Abstract:
Background: Hospital Acquired Malnutrition (HAM) is characterized by inadequate nutritional therapy and the risk of developing malnutrition during the hospital stay. In clinical practice, there are many measurements to determine nutritional status. Total lymphocyte count (TLC) is associated with impaired function of immune system in malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of TLC to the occurrence of HAM in pediatric patients.Materials and Methods: This an observational study with a prospective cohort design. Subjects were assessed for weight at the first day of hospitalization, then the subjects were followed until they were discharged. Body weight was re-measured on discharge to determine the presence or absence of HAM. This research was conducted at Sanglah Hospital from May-December 2019. Subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study.Results: Among 120 subjects, 55 subjects or 45.8% were malnourished on admission. Subjects with a low TLC compared to a normal TLC had a 3.9-fold risk of experiencing hospital acquired malnutrition (95% Confidence Interval: 1.59 to 7.19, p=0.001). Subjects who had a low TLC had HAM of 61.8%, while subjects who had a normal TLC had HAM of 32.3%. In multivariate analysis, low TLC was the only risk factor for HAM in this research.Conclusion: This study proved that low TLC is the risk of HAM. Total lymphocyte count could be used as predictor of the risk of HAM in hospitalization children.Keywords: hospital malnutrition, total lymphocyte, children
, Ibnu Agus Ariyanto, Selita Agnes Tanudjaja, Ratna Sitompul, Silvia Lee, Patricia Price
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 88-92; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.197

Abstract:
Background: Retinal artery caliber (RAC) is narrower in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to assess associations between variations in genes encoding inflammatory mediators and natural killer receptors and retinal artery caliber (RAC) in HIV patients beginning ART.Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine HIV positive patients beginning ART with less than 200 cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 T-cells/μL were recruited. Examinations were performed before ART (V0) and at months 3, 6 and 12 (V3, V6, V12). The study was approved by ethics committees and informed consent was obtained from each subject.Results: Right and left RAC of the HIV patients were narrower than healthy controls (p=0.016 for right RAC) and narrowed further on ART, but demographic associations with the right and left RAC were not identical. Here we show that polymorphisms in genes encoding NK receptors or TNF activity had no significant impact, but right RAC was associated with carriage of allele 2 at IL1A+4845 (p=0.037 after 12 months on ART).Conclusion: Overall the paradoxical reduction in the RAC in HIV patients responding to ART was not modified by genotypes known to affect NK cell function or TNF responses, but IL1A genotype may modify the decline in the right RAC.Keywords: anti-retroviral therapy, CMV, HIV, IL1A, retinal artery caliber
Joserizal Serudji, Nuzulia Irawati, Johanes Cornelius Mose, Hirowati Ali, Yusrawati Yusrawati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 37-40; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.192

Abstract:
Background: Impaired trophoblast invasion is associated with early abortion. The calorie needed for the trophoblast cell (TC) invasion is mainly met by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced in the mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), byproduct of ATP synthesis, plays an important role in cellular physiology, but a high level of ROS may result in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage or cell dysfunction, thereby impaired TC invasion leading to early abortion. The study aims to determine elevated serum ROS level to predicts early abortion.Materials and method: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Fifty subjects with gestational age less than 12 weeks, consist of 25 early abortions and 25 normal pregnancies subjects, were included in this study. Clinical examination and diagnosis are carried out in 2 Hospitals and 5 Public Health Centers in Padang. Examination of ROS levels was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the Biomedical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the difference of serum ROS levels, with a significance level of 0.05.Results: The subjects of the two study groups were equivalent in terms of age, gestational age, and gravidity (p=0.051, p=0.453, and p=1.000). The median ROS levels were found to be 1.36 (1.02-26.30) ng/mL in the early abortion and 1.20 (0.43-2.75) ng/mL in the normal pregnancy (p=0.003).Conclusion: There is a significant difference between ROS levels in early abortion and normal pregnancy.Keywords: ROS, early abortion, normal pregnancy
Tijani Stephanie Abiola, Olori Ogaraya David, Farombi Ebenezer Olatunde
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.186

Abstract:
Background: Piroxicam is one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition and in arthritis. This study investigated the protective potential of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens (TRECDS) against piroxicam-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Thirty two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 received normal saline and served as the control group, group 2 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam only, while groups 3 and 4 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam with the addition of 200 and 400 mg/kg of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens, respectively. All rats were treated orally once daily for ten days.Results: Administration of piroxicam caused liver atrophy demonstrated by significant rise in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) levels of albumin (ALB), bilirubin (BIL), total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TRIGS) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Piroxicam also decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels significantly (p>0.05) with attendant increase in oxidative stress indices in the liver of rats compared with control group. Histological assessment reveled severe damaged to the liver of rats. However, co-administration with TRECDS reversed these observations as evidenced in the histological results.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that exposure of rats to piroxicam provoked damage to the liver via oxidative damage and TRECDS has the potential of ameliorating the damage.Keywords: hepatotoxicity, piroxicam, Chasmanthera dependens, oxidative stress
I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba, Dyah Kanya Wati, Ida Bagus Subanada
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 18-21; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.177

Abstract:
Background: Long-term use of valproic acid is associated with a high level of blood ammonia related to carnitine deficiency. This study investigates the effect of carnitine supplementation on blood ammonia levels in children with epilepsy who have been treated with valproic acid for more than six months.Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study where children with epilepsy who were treated with valproic acid were randomly allocated to the carnitine supplementation and control group. All children were followed for month, and then measured for blood ammonia level. Blood ammonia levels of both groups were compared using an Independent t-test with a significant of p
Rizaldy Pinzon, Vincent Ongko Wijaya, Dessy Paramitha
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 22-6; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.170

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) ranges from 20-80%. Some studies found that vitamin D deficiency was common in stroke patients, yet the relationship with cognitive performance remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of vitamin D and cognitive performance in post-stroke patients.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 20 post-ischemic stroke patients. Vitamin D levels were measured using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The cognitive performance was assessed by computerized mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test (CDT). The relationship between vitamin D levels and cognitive tests were performed using paired T-test.Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (
Sri Wahdaningsih, Subagus Wahyuono, Sugeng Riyanto, Retno Murwanti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.166

Abstract:
Background: Hylocereus polyrhizus has activities as antimicrobial agent, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-diabetic (diabetes mellitus), cardiovascular risk reduction, health supplement, and melanoma cell suppression. The extracts from the peels of H. polyrhizus were able to increase phagocytic ability, cell numbers and leukocytes and to influence relative spleen weights in the formation of body immune system in male rats. The fruit peels contained phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. This study investigated the active compounds of H. polyrhizus peels, which are able to increase immune system of human body.Materials and method: In vitro assay was applied to examine the active compounds, identified as lupeol, obtained from isolated extract of red dragon fruit for their lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide (NO)-producing activities. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed with 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The cell control was lymphocyte cell suspension in RPMI medium added with phytohaemaglutinine (PHA). The NO measurement was conducted with nitric solvent and Greiss reagent.Results: The ANOVA analysis of the average optical density (OD) of lymphocyte proliferation showed that the addition of isolated lupeol at the concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL were able to improve lymphocyte proliferation and activate the NO production in the rats with treatment of positive control. Conclusion: Isolated lupeol at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL revealed significant difference with medium control and cell control. It was able to increase effects on lymphocyte proliferation and NO production. Therefore, the lupeol which was isolated might have high potential to be an immunostimulant.Keywords: Hylocereus polyrhizus, lupeol, lymphocyte proliferation, nitric oxide production
Feriyandi Nauli, Nurhasanah Nurhasanah, Endang Mahati, Udin Bahrudin
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.165

Abstract:
Background: Central obesity stands for the corner-stone of cardio-metabolic health, while nitric oxide (NO) is a major regulator of cardiovascular function. To day, the correlation between serum NO metabolites nitrate/nitrite and the obesity components in young adults remains elusive. Thus, this current study was conducted to know the correlation between serum NO metabolites levels and body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC) as well as body mass index (BMI) in young adults with central obesity.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riau, Indonesia, involving 79 young adults aged 18-25 years, composing of 39 and 40 subjects with and without central obesity, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess WC and BMI. Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and serum NO metabolites levels were assessed using Griess methods.Results: Levels of serum NO metabolites were significant higher in the subjects with central obesity (168.41±12.64 μmol/L) than that of normal subjects (70.57±44.99 μmol/L, p
Innawati Jusup, Lusiana Batubara, Dwi Ngestiningsih, Faizah Fulyani, Devina Afraditya Paveta, Putri Theresia Lemmo Ate Bancin
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 13-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.157

Abstract:
Background: Osteoporosis is one of chronic degenerative diseases especially in postmenopausal women, characterized by a decreased bone mass due to imbalance activity between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Recently, oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is commonly considered as the consequence of an imbalance between pro and antioxidants species, which results in damage in the affected tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is frequently used as a biomarker of oxidative stress in many health problems since MDA is produced at high levels during lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, glutathione is well known as one of antioxidant which against oxidative stress by preserving its homeostasis in the reduced form of glutathione sulfhydryl (GSH) and the oxidized form of glutathione disulphide (GSSG). This study was aimed to determine the association between MDA, GSH/GSSG ratio and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women.Materials and method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 postmenopausal women. MDA and GSH/GSSG ratio were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained from secondary data. The statistical analysis was conducted using Spearman rho’s correlation test.Results: Based on the test, we didn’t found significant correlation between MDA and BMD (r=-0.054, p=0.741), but we found significant moderate correlation between GSH/GSSG ratio (r=0.436, p=0.005) and BMD in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There was no correlation between MDA and BMD in postmenopausal women. However, there was significant moderate correlation between GSH/GSSG ratio and BMD in postmenopausal women.Keywords: MDA, GSH/GSSG ratio, BMD, osteoporosis
Fitri Asymida, Yazid Dimyati, Bidasari Lubis, Aznan Lelo, Muhammad Ali, Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Syahril Pasaribu
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 140-5; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.147

Abstract:
Background: The antipyretic effect of intravenous versus oral paracetamol is not well known. This study was aimed to compare the antipyretic effect of intravenous and oral paracetamol therapy to reduce fever.Materials and Methods: This was an open-label randomized clinical trial study. The subjects were children who presented to Pediatric Ward and Emergency of Haji Adam Malik Hospital, aged from 2 months to 18 years old, with axillary temperature ≥38.0ºC. Subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 received 15 mg/kg paracetamol intravenous and group 2 received the same dose of paracetamol but given through intravenous. The temperature reduction was analyzed by ANOVA, and the change in temperature was recorded at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after drug administration.Results: In the first group, the mean temperature was decreased (p
Dicha Yuliadewi Rahmawati, Hernindya Dwifulqi,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 100-4; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.159

Abstract:
Cancer constitutes of complex heterogeneous organ-like structures with a hierarchical cell structure, and only minor phenotypic subpopulations with stem-like properties have a dual capacity to indefinitely self-renew and generate all heterogeneous cell phenotypes consisting of bulk tumor cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) has similar properties to ordinary stem cells. It is understood that CSC is responsible for the recurrence of metastasis and drug resistance. Thus, control of CSC can provide successful therapy intervention that inhibits cancer growth and aggressive behavior. Conventional cancer therapy is realized to be insufficient for oral cancer therapy. Meanwhile, accurate targeting of OCSC has proved to be a significant challenge due to the commonality of many markers between OCSC and healthy cells. This article discusses the current understanding of oral CSC, with focus on origin, stemness, marker and signalling pathway.Keywords: oral cancer stem cell, CSC, marker, origin, stemness, therapy
Dewi Krisna Yunda, Fiastuti Witjaksono, Fariz Nurwidya
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 128-34; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.144

Abstract:
Background: Malnutrition and tuberculosis (TB) have a bidirectional relationship, which interacts between each other. In chronic infection, there is an imbalance between protein degradation and protein synthesis which marked with the loss of fat-free mass (FFM). Malnutrition can cause the atrophy of the thymus gland resulted in the reduction of lymphocyte production. Malnutrition in TB patients will reduce the quality of life. On the other hand, a good quality of life will increase the treatment success rate and decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 primary health centers (PHC) chosen randomly from 23 PHC in Pekanbaru, Riau Province. The random selection was performed by using simple random sampling (random number generator). Data were collected from May until July 2019. Samples were selected using a consecutive sampling method and 72 subjects fulfilled all research criteria. The interview was used to collect basic characteristic data, dietary intake data, and quality of life score. Anthropometric measurement (body weight, body height, and FFM) and laboratory examination (total lymphocyte count) were done.Results: Research showed median age subjects was 33 years old (18-59 years old). Most of the subjects were male (56.9%), had a middle level of education, low income, were active smokers with underweight nutritional status. More than 50% of subjects had low protein intake, low fat-free mass, normal lymphocyte count and had a good quality of life.Conclusion: There was a statistically significant correlation between fat-free mass with PCS (r=0.239, p=0.044), but not for protein intake and total lymphocyte count.Keywords: fat-free mass, protein, quality of life, total lymphocyte count, tuberculosis
Ridwan Ridwan, Ami Febriza, Elmiana Bongga Linggi, Rosdiana Natzir, Nurpudji Astuti Tazlim
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 105-12; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.109

Abstract:
Background: Obesity contributes to the increased risk of chronic kidney and systemic inflammation. This condition can occur in obese adolescents. Most researches of cystatin-C (cys-C) and adiponectin have been carried out in adult and children subjects. The purpose of this research is to determine differences in serum cys-C and adiponectin levels between obese and normoweight adolescents and their correlation with blood pressure and obesity parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese adolescents and 22 normoweight adolescents aged 15-18 years old participated in this research. After the measurement of blood pressure and obesity parameters, we examined serum cys-C levels as a biomarker for decreased early stage renal function and adiponectin, an antiinflammatory adipokine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum cys-C is calculated using the eGFR-Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFR-CKD EPI cys-C equation formula). Results: Cys-C levels in obese adolescents were higher than normoweight adolescents. In contrast, serum adiponectin levels in obese adolescents were lower than for normoweight adolescents. Interestingly, eGFR based on serum cys-C showed no difference, although eGFR in obese adolescents was lower than normoweight adolescent. Serum cys-C was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Serum adiponectin was negatively correlated with SBP, DBP, BMI and WC. SBP is a predictor factor for the increase in serum cys-C and BMI is a predictor factor in the decrease in serum adiponectin levels. Conclusion: There is a decline in early stage kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents as evidenced by increased serum cyst-C levels and decreased serum adiponectin levels. These two biomarkers correlate with blood pressure, BMI and WC and play a role in the pathomechanism of early stage impairment of kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents.Keywords: adiponectin, body mass index, cystatin-C, early stage renal diseases, inflammation, systolic blood pressure
Arshad F. Jassem Al-Kaabi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 135-9; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.148

Abstract:
Background: Skin adhesive has been used for attaching certain medical application to the human skin for functional and/or esthetic purposes. Silicone adhesive is the most common type of skin adhesives that are recently used. This study aims to evaluate the possible effect of humidity on the performance of silicone skin adhesive.Materials and Methods: Twenty-four silicone samples were divided into 2 main groups based on relative humidity (RH) exposure, namely 43% RH and 98% RH. Six samples from each group were tested for adhesion strength after 1 hour of adhesion, and the other 6 samples were tested after 2 hours of adhesion by conducting 180 degree peel test. The data were statistically analyzed for significant difference. Results: The results showed that at 43% RH, the adhesion strength was higher than the 98% RH group. The results also showed that at both humidity settings the adhesion strength after the first hours of adhesion was lower than the adhesion strength after the second hour.Conclusion: The silicone skin adhesive performance can be affected by the increase of relative humidity which needs more time of application to skin to reach the best adhesion function.Keywords: adhesions strength, humidity effect on adhesion, silicone adhesive, skin adhesives
Ivanna Valentina, Achadiyani Achadiyani, Sunarjati Sudigdo Adi, Ronny Lesmana, Reni Farenia
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 113-20; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.95

Abstract:
Background: Chronic Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes oxidative stress that may induce damages to the collagen matrix and thus plays a role in the wrinkle formation. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that may exerts antioxidant effects, thus helping to reduce damages caused by UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male Balb/c mice were divided equally into control group, UVB radiation only group, oral L. reuteri supplementation only group, and UVB radiation with oral L. reuteri supplementation group. UVB irradiation was given 3 times a week (100 seconds/exposure, within 3 cm distance) for 10 weeks, with a total dose of 166 mJ/cm2. Oral L. reuteri supplementation (0.2 mL, 108 CFU) was provided every morning after meal via orogastric feeding tube for 10 weeks. Wrinkle formation on the dorsal skin of the mice was evaluated in accordance with the Bissett method and type I procollagen levels was evaluated by western blotting.Results: In comparison with the group receiving only UVB irradiation, the group receiving probiotic and UVB irradiation showed significantly lower wrinkle scores (Group 1 vs. Group 3, 2.50±0.55 vs. 1.00±0,00; p
Muhammad Al Al Azhar, Siti Nadliroh, Karisma Prameswari, Handoko Handoko, Demak Lumban Tobing, Cita Herawati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 121-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.143

Abstract:
Background: Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is associated with prognostic and respond to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitor in several solid malignancies. However, the prognostic roles of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are less clear. This study aims to investigate PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood of Indonesian NPC patients and its association with clinicopathological features.Materials and Methods: This study used blood samples of 21 NPC patients and 10 healthy volunteers as controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure mRNA expression of PD-1 and PD-L1.Results: PD-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in NPC patients (∆CT mean: 9.65±2.04) compared to healthy individuals (∆CT mean: 8.04±1.51) (p=0.031). In contrast, PD-L1 mRNA expression levels were higher in NPC patients (∆CT mean: 6.96±1.32) compared to healthy individuals (∆CT mean: 7.11±0.55), but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.554). The expression of PD-1 was associated with tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p=0.030) but not associated with age (p=1.000), sex (p=1.000), body mass index (p=0.350), tumor stage (p=0.338), nodal stage (p=0.579), metastasis stage (p=0.371), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status (p=0.228). Meanwhile PD-L1 expression was not associated with all clinicophatological features.Conclusion: The PD-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower, while PD-L1 expression levels were higher in NPC patients compared to healthy controls. PD-1 expression was correlated with TNM stage.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1, PD-L1
, Dusabimana Jean Damascene, Anwar Ma'aruf, Yoes Prijatna Dachlan, Anggraini Dwi Sensusiati, Ndayisaba Daniel, Eka Nora Vitaloka Aprilia Putri Winthoko
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 94-9; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.133

Abstract:
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) has reported the antimicrobial resistance as one among the ten threats to global health in 2019. The development of plant-derived antibiotics is currently considered as a modern medicine’s greatest success. Persea americana is a plant with high medicinal profile which allow its different parts to be used for therapeutic purposes. This study is aimed to determine the antibacterial potential of ethanol and chloroform extracts from epicarp of mature fruits of P. americana Mill against human pathogens.Materials and Methods: The epicarps of avocado were dried in oven and ground into powder using porcelain mortar and pestle. The powdered plant materials were extracted with both 96% ethanol and chloroform. Extracts were qualitatively screened to examine their bioactive contents and agar well diffusion method was used to analyze the antibacterial activity of extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Results: Both solvents showed the ability to dissolve the secondary metabolites from avocado epicarps. Phytochemical screening disclosed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts and absence of flavonoids and tannins in chloroform extracts. The extracts showed the inhibition zones ranging from 14±4.5 mm to 26±2.1 mm while streptomycin demonstrated high inhibition zones ranging from 20±3.1 mm to 30 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts fall in the range of 0.3125 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL while the MIC values for streptomycin vary from 0.25 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL.Conclusion: The ethanol and chloroform extracts proved to be potentially effective and to be used as natural alternative preventives to fight against various disease-causing bacteria.Keywords: antibacterial activity, ethanol extract, chloroform extract, Persea americana, Rwanda
Ermi Girsang, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, Maulidwina Bethasari, Annisa Amalia, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 68-75; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.90

Abstract:
Background: Skin-aging is a progressive changes in the skin combine with cumulative extrinsic factors which are mostly caused by free radicals caused by exposure to lots of free radicals molecules from pollutant, wrongly food intake, or too much sun bathing. These free radicals can be tackled by a treatment using antioxidants. Prevention of aging can be done by escalating antioxidant intake. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) and Ferulic acid (FA) have been known for their scavenging properties on free radicals and antiaging activity. Antioxidant and antiaging activity of both compounds have not been compared comprehensively before. Hence, current study was conducted to compare the potential of PCA and FA for their antioxidant and antiaging activities using various methods.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant analysis of PCA and FA was conducted using H2O2 scavenging assay, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Meanwhile, antiaging activities of PCA and FA were examined using inhibitory activities of tyrosinase, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase.Results: IC50 of scavenging activity of ABTS were 125.18 µg/mL (PCA) and 35.55 µg/mL (FA), inhibition activity of collagenase were 126.16 µg/mL (PCA) and 52.85 µg/mL (FA) and inhibition activity of tyrosinase were 246.42 µg/mL (PCA), 253.58 µg/mL (FA).Conclusion: In conclusion, FA has better ABTS scavenging and collagenase inhibition activities compared to PCA. Meanwhile, PCA has better activity of tyrosinase inhibition than FA.Keywords: antioxidant, antiaging, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid
Nurani Hayati, Caesary Cloudya Panjaitan,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.160

Abstract:
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is part of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma which is the ultimate cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer. The alteration of microbial community in the saliva might act as a helpful marker for the prediction, detection and prognosis oral cancer, particularly the transition of cancer precursor lesion. There are three mechanisms of action of oral microbiota in cancer pathogenesis; chronic inflammation from stimulation of the bacteria, cellular proliferation and apoptosis inhibition, and also carcinogenic substances that produced by microorganisms. Changes in the composition of microbiota could therefore have the potential to be used as a significant oral biomarker to predict the pathological transition from oral epithelial precursor lesion to cancer, especially for Indonesian people who have so many oral habits due to different cultures.Keywords: apoptosis inhibition, cellular proliferation, microorganism, oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma
Antonia Anna Lukito, Syakib Bakri, Peter Kabo, Andi Wijaya
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 88-93; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.104

Abstract:
Background: The calcium in the artery was thought to be the result of the imbalance or dysregulation of the promoter and inhibitor cytokines influenced by various subclinical and clinical conditions. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between central obesity, as an early subclinical condition, also known as a chronic low grade inflammation condition and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in non-diabetic population including the underlying pathomechanisms of a CAC in the early stage of atherosclerosis.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional pathway analysis study enrolling 60 central obesity non-diabetic men that underwent coronary calcium score scan, anthropometrics and biomarker assays.Results: There was a positive correlation between increasing free leptin index/adiponectin (FLI/A) ratio and CAC (r=0.297; p
Annisa Mulia Anasis, Anna Rozaliyani, Heri Wibowo
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.92

Abstract:
Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tree that emerges as a response to exogenous factors, such as allergens, irritants, and infections. Some asthmatic patients had been reported having symptoms of asthma due to house-dust mites (HDM) allergen exposure. It is associated with immune responses which were increased in the form of specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production against HDM allergens. This case-control study aimed to determine the HDM profiles in persistent asthmatic patients, including density of mites, as well as its relationship with specific IgE anti-HDM serum levels.Materials and Methods: A total of 13 patients with persistent asthma and 12 control patients had their specific anti-HDM IgE levels examined using Immulite 2000 xpi. The house dust samples were taken and analyzed with the Fain method.Results: The results have shown that 69% of patients in the persistent asthma group and 25% of normal patients were positive for IgE anti-HDM. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a predominant species with a total of 120 mites (83.9%) of 143 mites. Correlation analysis indicated a positive relationship between IgE anti-HDM levels within the serums of patients and the density of mites in the dust obtained from bedroom spaces (Spearmen Rho, R=0.35, p=0.04).Conclusion: Positive IgE anti-HDM patients in the persistent asthma group were higher (69%) than those in the clinically normal group (25%). The density of mites were dominated by D. Pteronyssinus. The bedroom-dust mites density revealed a positive correlation with serum IgE anti-HDM levels in persistent asthma patients.Keywords: asthma, density, Dermatophagoides spp.,IgE
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top