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Results in Journal Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research: 31

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Amir Javidinejad
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jmer.v4i1.2889

Concepts of precision engineering design process for optimal design where engineering sciences contribute in the successful good design are elaborated in this paper. Scientific theory, numerical methods and practicality are discussed in this paper. Factors necessary for a complete product or systems design are detailed and application of mathematical design optimization in producing a good design are shown. Many applicable engineering design examples are itemized to show relevancy of the optimal design theory to engineering design. Future trends of optimal design with respect to the 4th industrial revolution of digitization is presented. Paper sets to elaborate that most of the engineering and scientific design problems can be optimized to a good design based on many new/advanced optimization techniques.
Siqin Chen, Xiaomin Li
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jmer.v4i1.2643

In this study, two dimensional unsteady flow of cylinder and cylinder with additional fairing close to a free surface was numerically investigated. The governing momentum equations were solved by using the Semi Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations(SIMPLE). The Volume of Fluid(VOF) method applied to simulate a free surface. Non- uniform grid structures were used in the simulation with denser grids near the cylinder. Under the conditions of Reynolds number 150624, 210874, 210874 and 331373, the cylinders were simulated with different depths of invasion. It was shown that the flow characteristics were influenced by submergence depth and Reynolds numbers. When the cylinder close to the free surface, the drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Strouhal numbers will increase due to the effect of free liquid surface on vortex shedding. With additional fairing, can effectively reduce the influence of the free surface on the drag coefficient. Fairing will reduce lift coefficient at high Reynolds numbers, but increase lift coefficient when Reynolds numbers is small. Fairing can effectively reduce Strouhal numbers, thus can well suppress the vortex induced vibration.
Odonel González-Cabrera, Carlos R. Gómez-Pérez, Héctor A. Kairús-Hernández-Díaz, Félix A. Díaz-Rosell
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jmer.v4i1.2890

The aim of this work is to establish the influence of the relative position of the alloy charge C-Cr-Mn in the structure of the coating of rutile electrodes for hardfacing, on the operational behavior (arc stability). For this, three variants of electrodes with similar chemical composition are elaborated in the metallic core and the coating, differentiating only in the relative position that occupies the alloy charge (C-Cr-Mn) in the structure of the coating: internal, external and homogeneous. For the development of the research a completely random design is used. The operative characterization of the electrodes is performed in terms of the arc stability. In conclusion, it can be seen that the position of the alloy load influences the operation behavior (stability of the arch). The variant of internal alloy charge in the coating presents the better arc stability performance.
Ziad Shakeeb Al Sarraf
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jmer.v4i1.2940

Today ultrasonic power technique is consider a mandatory technique which is always entered in many processes such as in metal and plastic welding to overcomes many issues, with aided of applying force (pressure) and supplied high frequency vibration, a solid-state weld can be generated by ultrasonic metal welding technique. That give a technique the ability to join not only a small components, whereas also to join thicker specimens, depend on a proper control of matching welding conditions. Therefore a welding performance can be study and compared after designed welding horn to resonance at frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz. The analyses of the designed horn are completed through use a vibration mathematical expressions, modal and harmonic analyses to ensure the weldability due to applying ultrasonic power to the working area and also to compare the performance of joint at using two resonance frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz. The dimensions of the horns were determined to match the selected resonance frequencies, which the lengths were calculated as 132 mm and 66 mm respectively. The analysis of the exciting modal indicates that the axial vibration modes of 19,584Hz and 39,794Hz are obtained in 10th mode, while the two frequency values are recorded 19,600 Hz and 39,800 Hz from the frequency response of the two horns. The weld strength between Al and Cu specimens with a thickness 0.5 mm were evaluated using tensile test, which the analyses were obtained under using different welding pressure and varied amplitudes. The results were recorded within exciting a horn with two different resonance frequencies, show the enhancement of weld strength and quality through control of stepping amplitude, the enhancement means obtain good strength of the weld, reduce sticking horn to specimen, and lower specimen marking.
Run Xu
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i2.1774

According to formula we can simulate their driven force and acceleration. The mechanical formula is used to obtain dynamics is used to simulate. The driven force increases when torque increases and tire diameter decreases. We need torque to increase so this is our plan. Acceleration raises when torque raises and it reduces when its weight raises. With the decreasing of radius of road the centripetal acceleration is increasing in the condition of light vehicle. It is that it decreases sluggishly before 0.35m/s2 then it maintains a steep decline to 0.62m/s2 and at last becomes sluggish again. It is valued that the economical efficiency about consumed fuel under different power. In the time of 0.2hr the fuel inflamer inclines sharply first then turns stable. It is the smallest value. Beyond it the fuel maintains a high value all the time. The discharged pollution gas decreases with the decreasing initial temperature. The low initial temperature is good to fuel gas. Meantime the smallest incline range is 300~350K which explains that it is the most save one.
Run Xu, Boyong Hur
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i2.1800

According to formula we can simulate their driven force and acceleration on the slope. The mechanical formula is used to obtain force and theoretical dynamics in the slope. The driven force decreases when rotation increases. When power increases the acceleration increases. it reduces when its weight raises. It is found that the a will decrease as slope becomes high from 5 to 11° to 22°, which fit the formula too. Meantime as the radius is high from 0.3m to 0.4m to 0.47m a will be low. The needed force will increase as the slope decline becomes big at the same power.
Zinan Zhao, Shijie Li, Shuaikang Li
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i2.1903

As the market competition of steel mills is severe, deoxidization alloying is an important link in the metallurgical process. To solve this problem, principal component regression analysis is adopted to reduce the dimension of influencing factors, and a reasonable and reliable prediction model of element yield is established. Based on the constraint conditions such as target cost function constraint, yield constraint and non-negative constraint, linear programming is adopted to design the lowest cost batting scheme that meets the national standards and production requirements. The research results provide a reliable optimization model for the deoxidization and alloying process of steel mills, which is of positive significance for improving the market competitiveness of steel mills, reducing waste discharge and protecting the environment.
Shashikant Kushnoore, Nitin Kamitkar, Vinay Atgur, Mallikarjun S Uppin, M. Satishkumar
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i2.1737

Fly Ash Cenospheres (FACs) are obtained from the coal power plants in the form of hollow spherical particles by burning the coal. FAC was started to use in early 1980-1985 as lightweight filler material in producing composites of cementitious and at present many researchers are focusing on use of FAC as filler in polymer and metals. In this paper, the systematic review on research activities and application of FAC in manufacturing light weight products are done. The FAC influence on the mechanical and physical properties of incorporated polymer and alloy based composites were summarized. Prospects of future for its use were also suggested and summarized in this paper.
Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Sivasenapathy Chellamuthu, Samir Kumar Pal
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i1.1716

It is well-known that suspension systems plays a major role in automotive technology. Most of the today’s vehicle applies a passive suspension systems consisting of a spring and damper. The design of automotive suspension have been a compromise between passenger comfort, suspension travel and road holding ability. This work aims in reducing the suspension travel alone by developing a quarter car model suspension for a passenger car to improve its performance by introducing shape memory alloy spring (Nitinol) instead of traditional spring. A two way shape memory alloy spring possesses two different stiffness in its two different phases (martensite and austenite). In this study, road profile is considered as a simple harmonic profile and vibration analysis of aminiature quarter car model suspension system has been carried out experimentally. Using theoretical method, the displacement of the sprung mass is also studied and discussed. The vibration analysis have been carried out for the suspension system at both phases of the spring and the results gives a significant improvement in reducing the displacement of sprung mass for various excitation frequencies.
Na Huang
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i1.1663

In some data centers, cold air is required to act on the cabinet to achieve cooling requirements, and the mixing of cold air and hot air reduces the utilization efficiency of cold air. In order to solve this problem, a jet cooling model is established to solve the optimal position of the outlet through the movement of cold air.
Mayank Prajapati, Sandeep Rimza
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i1.1681

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most adaptable additive manufacturing method owing to the cost-effectiveness and environment-friendly nature. However, FDM technique still possesses major difficulties in terms of poor surface quality because of adding layer by layer manufacturing process for the prototypes. It is desirable to explore an efficient technique for FDM parts to enhance the poor surface quality and dimensions precision. In the present paper, an effort has been made to enhance the surface quality and optimize the critical processing parameter of FDM based benchmark using vapor smoothing process (VSP). A comparative experimental study has been performed by design of experiments (DOE), Taguchi technique to find the influence of input design parameters on the surface finish of benchmark FDM parts. The results of the present investigation show that VSP treatment improves the surface quality of FDM parts to micro level with negligible dimensional variation. It is observed that improved surface quality is found in the 1,2, -Dichloroethane chemical at 90° part build orientation, 0.25 mm layer thickness, 10% fill density and 90 second exposure times.
Arash Behaeen, Mohammad Nimafar
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jmer.v3i1.1568

One of the innovative ways to improve heat transfer properties of heat exchangers, is using nanofluids instead of traditional fluids. Due to presence of metal and oxides of metal particles in nanofluids structure, they have better potential in different environments and conditions than conventional fluids and having higher thermal conductivity causes improvements in heat transfer properties. In this research flow of two different nanofluids through a rectangular microchannel consisting of different number of longitudinal vortex generators (lvgs), has been investigated. Simulations conducted under laminar flow boundary condition and for different Reynolds numbers from 100 to 250. Considered volumetric concentration in this paper is 1, 1/6 and 2/3 %. Results showed, nanofluids and the LVGs remarkably enhance the heat transfer rates inside the microchannel. havg improved with increasing the nanoparticles volume concentrations and Reynolds number, whereas the opposite trends observed for pressure drop. havg improved for 4 to 12 and 9 to 18% for TiO2 and CuO nanofluids, respectively for different volume concentrations in simple microchannel. For lvg-enhanced microchannel the amount of improvements is about 9-14 and 5-10% for CuO and TiO2, respectively. Also using vortex generators alone improved havg for 15-25% for different number of lvgs.
Jianguo Feng
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i2.1123

This paper analyzes the origin, status, changes and characteristics of the automotive electromechanical maintenance skills competition in China, and presents the developing trend in the future.
Mirsolikh Agzamov, Rakhmatov Mashkhur Bakhtiyarovich, Mirkhosil Mirsalikhovich Agzamov
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i2.1574

The article provides substantiation of the choice of the quenching parameters for the working zone of gin and linter grates and the quenching parameters. The results of bench and industrial tests of the grate with a hardened working zone are also given.
Peixiang Xu
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i2.725

The thermal balance state of high-speed and heavy-load gear transmission system has an important influence on the performance and failure of gear transmission and the design of gear lubrication system. Excessive surface temperature of gear teeth is the main cause of gluing failure of gear contact surface. To investigate the gear heat distribution in meshing process and discuss the effect of thermal conduction on heat distribution,a finite element model of spur gear is presented in the paper which can represent general involute spur gears. And a simulation approach is use to calculate gear heat distribution in meshing process. By comparing with theoretical calculation, the correctness of the simulation method is verified, and the heat distribution of spur gear under the condition of heat conduction is further analyzed. The difference between the calculation results with heat conduction and without heat conduction is compared. The research has certain reference significance for dry gear hobbing and the same type of thermal-structural coupling analysis.
Peipei Chao, Yisong Chen, Yanping Yang
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i2.1363

The rapid development of China's automobile industry has brought ever-increasing impact on resources, energy and environment, the energy-saving and new energy vehicles come into being accordingly. This article firstly systematically introduces the technical route of energy-saving and new energy vehicles of China, focusing on the key bottleneck problems arising from the construction process of current assessment system of the technical route for energy-saving and new energy vehicles, establishes the energy-saving and new energy vehicle business model assessment index system afterward based on the comparative analysis on energy-saving and new energy vehicle business assessment model and the full life cycle theory, and finally makes prospects and forecasts on vital problems of system boundary, dynamic optimization, simulation system of full life cycle assessment of energy-saving and new energy vehicle.
Farshad Abbasi
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i1.578

Corrosion Fatigue is the mechanical degradation of a material under the joint action of damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue. Corrosive nature of the seawater puts severe durability requirements on materials of which are often exposed to corrosion fatigue and abrasive conditions simultaneously. Therefore, identification of the combined effects of both corrosion and fatigue damage mechanisms is necessary to improve predictive models for the corrosion fatigue phenomenon. Present article is the result of a desktop study (scientific literature and standards) with the aim of study the feasibility of designing and manufacturing of a corrosion fatigue testing set-up that would allow the designer to compare the performance of different materials exposed to corrosion fatigue, permitting also the comparison with results from dry fatigue testing. The corrosion fatigue mechanism is described in more detail and a short presentation of some typical lab-scale corrosion fatigue test setups is given. This is followed by illustration of international standards and guidelines which will be used to design a new corrosion fatigue test set-up for evaluating the fatigue behavior of material in seawater environment. Finally the experimental techniques for corrosion fatigue crack detection and propagation along with the fundamental basic of corrosion fatigue modeling are illustrated.
Lyudmila Ivanovna Gracheva
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i1.763

A fundamental understanding of the mechanism of material interaction with a medium is based on correspondence between experimental studies and actual operating conditions of a given model or a structure. We estimated performance of thermal shield structures based on computations brought about considering physical properties of materials obtained under conditions simulating re-entry of a spacecraft into the atmosphere.A thermal shield is considered of a layered type shell, made of fiber glass with phenol-phormaldehide matrix. Both elastic and thermo-physical characteristics are varied depending on the temperature change.A thermal-stressed state of a cylindrical shield subjected to action of a high-temperature gas flow, is defined based on solving a 3D problem simultaneously using equations of theory of elasticity, thermal conductivity, and numerical analysis. Results are given as dependencies of stress distributions through the thermal coating, taking into account such parameters of atmosphere in re-entry as temperature, heating rate, pressure of a gaseous medium.
Abdelkader Doudou
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i1.508

Heating swimming pools in an efficient and ecological way has become mandatory for the protection of the environment, but also for technological development and energy saving. The heating must maintain the quality of bathing water, avoiding temperature variations between the different depths and locations of the pool. There are currently several types of heating systems for swimming pool water among which we can mention; heat pumps, gas heating and electrical resistance, etc. All of these systems are very expensive and voracious in energy consumption. However, solar thermal heaters can be a good solution because they are inexpensive and environmentally friendly. The purpose of this work is to use the COMSOL MultiPhysics software to model the distribution of the flow field velocity and the temperature distribution according to the design of the pool and the inflow and outflow of water and climatic conditions in the province of Nador, in northeastern Morocco.
Dounia Alihellal, Lemnouer Chibane, Mohamed El-Amine Slimani
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i1.277

In the present work, the deactivation by sintering of cobalt-based catalyst during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at low temperature was studied by numerical simulation. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed. The obtained simulation results allowed us to highlight and improve the understanding of the deactivation phenomena of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts by sintering. The main results also show that the sintering phenomenon is strongly dependent on the operating conditions, in particular, the temperature, the pressure, and the H2/CO molar ratio, as well as the reaction by-products such as water. The results obtained can, therefore, be used to understand more the sintering mechanism which may be linked to the change in the concentration of the active sites and the reaction rates.
Zichen Deng
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 2; doi:10.30564/jmer.v2i1.914

Dielectric elastomer (DE) balloons are intensively developed as sensors, actuators, and generators. To ensure electrical safety, a DE balloon can be covered by an external passive layer. In this paper, the dynamic behaviours and active control for the DE balloon coupled with the passive layer are investigated. Based on the Hamilton’s principle, the dynamic model of the DE balloon covered by the passive layer is derived. With this coupled model, we demonstrate that three typical dynamic responses can appear and the transition among these dynamic behaviours can be achieved by altering the properties of the passive layer. The introduction of the passive layer is able to induce undesirable dynamic behaviours, which require to be controlled. Thus, we present two methods of control including proportional-derivative (PD) control and iterative learning control (ILC). We demonstrate that the undesirable dynamic responses can be effectively eliminated by the proposed methods of control. Particularly, control errors can be reduced by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude using the latter control method. We hope that the present analysis can improve the understanding of dynamic behaviours of a DE balloon covered by a passive layer and promote the control of undesirable dynamic responses.
Paweł Grzegorz Kossakowski, Wiktor Wciślik, Michał Bakalarz
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.486

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) technology is increasingly used in aerospace, automotive, construction and other industries. It allows for safe, secure and long-lasting joining of materials that are difficult to weld or non-weldable with traditional methods. In engineering practice, these are primarily aluminium alloys.
, G. H. Majzoobi
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.186

Fretting fatigue has been studied mainly under constant normal loading, as it requires simple equipment which can be assembled on a universal fatigue testing machine. Recently, we [1] have introduced an innovative fretting fatigue apparatus in which the contact pressure can independently be varied during the test. In a recent publication [2] we have investigated the effect of normal load frequency on fretting fatigue life of Al7075-T6 under cyclic normal load condition. It was found that the low frequency of normal load has drastic effect on fretting fatigue life. The effect, however, gradually diminishes with the frequency increase and vanishes at the frequency of around 80Hz. In another publication [3] we have compared the results of constant normal loading with those of in phase, 90° and 180° degrees out-of-phase loadings. It was found that the constant normal loading has the least fretting damage, while the maximum fretting damage occurs by in-phase loading. The results also showed that the out-of-phase loading had improving effect on fretting fatigue life with respect to the in-phase condition. Recently, Ciaverella [4] has published a discussion on our publications [2, 3]. He believes that some of our experimental results needs further discussion. Therefore, the objective of this article is to answer three main points he has raised in his article [4]. We hope that this discussion could lead to some progress.
Khalil Ur Rehman
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.465

The short communication is devoted to validate the reliability and convergence of Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (O-HAM). Owing the importance of present validation of O-HAM one can implement this method towards nanofluid flow narrating differential equations at larger scale for better description. To be more specific, the fractional order differential equation due to vertically moving non-spherical nano particle in a purely viscous liquid and an advection PDE is take into account. The corresponding homotopy for both cases are constructed and solutions are proposed by means of O-HAM. The obtained values are compared with numerical benchmarks. We observed an excellent match which confirms the O-HAM conjecture. Therefore, it can be directed that the utilization of O-HAM towards nanofluid flow regime may provide relief against some non-attempted problems.
Kaoutar Bahoum
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.139

The principal rule for the stuffing-box packings is to ensure the stem valve sealing. The behavior of these systems is affected by the operating conditions, which are the gland axial stress, the temperature, and the fluid pressure, as well as the mechanical and geometrical properties of the various components. In this paper, a numerical study using finite element method is presented to evaluate the radial contact stresses, the axial stresses, and the lateral pressure coefficients in a stuffing box system under the tightening gland load and the temperature field.
Wei Cao, Yaqiang Shen, Shixun Zhang, Tao Wang, Yakun Wu, Changyu Shen
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.252

To overcome the weakness of conventional models in describing compressing flow especially in start and end stages the shear rate derivative was added to the right side of PTT constitutive equation. The ability of describing the well-known ‘shear shinning’ and ‘stretch harden’ phenomena was first illustrated by theoretical analysis. Then the governing equations for compressing flow were established in terms of incompressible and isothermal fluid, and the numerical method was constructed to discretize the equations and get the compressing flow solutions. The experiments with four melt temperatures were conducted and the corresponding simulations were performed. The better agreements with experimental data indicates the modified PPT model is superior to the original PTT model in prediction of compressing flow. In addition, the proposed model is also validated with low and high compressing speed experiments.
Yucong Ma
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.119

With the rapid development of economy and technology, there are moreand more types of construction engineering materials, and more and more inputs. In order to ensure the overall quality of construction projects, we must pay attention to the quality inspection of construction materials. Because the inspection is affected by many factors, resulting in inaccurate test results, it is necessary to continuously increase the supervision of the construction materials inspection work, improve the comprehensive quality of the inspection personnel, and thus improve the accuracy of the quality inspection of construction materials and promote the healthy and long-term development of China's construction industry. The article mainly analyzes the importance of building engineering material testing and proposes several optimization strategies for building engineering material testing technology.
Nan Miao, Donglu Ren
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.120

In order to meet the country's demand for energy, the coal industry must improve its production efficiency and production quality. Therefore, most coal companies in coal production have introduced mechatronics technology. Based on the introduction of the concepts related to coal mine mechatronics technology, this paper analyzes the significance of the application of mechatronics technology to coal production.
Zhibin Zeng
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.117

The continuous development of robotics technology has put forward higher engineering capability requirements for industrial robotics. This paper analyzesthe status quo and existing problems of industrial robot technology practice teaching, and introduces the CDIO engineering education concept in professional teaching to enhance the engineering innovation ability and team cooperation ability of robot professional teachers and students; the progressive industrial robot practice teaching system has built a support system for robot professional practice teaching.
Zhaohua Lin, Tianliang Xu
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.116

Aiming at the application of robot technology in logistics operation, firstly, the development of robot technology at home and abroad and its application status in logistics operations are analyzed. Then the problems encountered in the promotion and application of robot technology in logistics industry is discussed. The corresponding solutions and suggestions are put forward. Finally, the application prospects of robot technology in logistics operations are prospected.
Zhenli Yang
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, Volume 1; doi:10.30564/jmer.v1i1.118

With the continuous development of urban construction projects in HebeiProvince, the rise and development of high-rise buildings and undergroundengineering, the design and research of foundation pit support structure has become more and more important. The design of the foundation pit support structure directly affects the settlement and position changes of the building itself and the surrounding stratum. In this paper, the characteristics of foundation pit support are analyzed, and the related theories of finite element analysis method are introduced. Combined with the actual situation of Hebei Province, the finite element analysis method is used to simulate the construction method of foundation pile anchor support structure system. The design was analyzed and studied.
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