Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies: 71

(searched for: journal_id:(4141217))
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Joseph Mutei
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2856

Abstract:
Looking at the concept of superstitions you realize that for lack of a better term, in the African context these are beliefs captured for deterrence and for guidance to the community. These beliefs are not enforced by laws and regulations but they seem to be binding and not embodying them may have dire consequences. The paper gives examples of these age-old wisdom statements and seeks to explain them. The final part is looking at their relevance and applicability in contemporary society in the context of Africa where they are freely shared and exchanged.
Preeti Oza
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 38-47; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.710

Abstract:
Religion is a force under which we understand the framework of social exclusion or integration across the world. The growing impact of religion on peoples’ lives globally has seen a massive resurgence of newly imposed guidelines, rules, and regulations in societies. It has been a great impact on social conditioning, both demographically and psychographically. For an increasing majority of the global population, religion has powerfully anchored forms of identity, meaning, community, and purpose. And the same religion, through cultural roots, has created newer forms of marginalization across the societies and nations. All over the world nowadays people are discussing the problems of marginalized groups -their social, ethnic, economic, and cultural problems. Marginality with all aspects is indeed a major problem to be reckoned with in the world. By and large, most of the marginalized groups constitute minorities religious, ethnic, linguistic, or otherwise- in different countries. There are sub-cultures in mainstream cultures or religions. Invariably they are impoverished people constituting o minority groups. They suffer from economic, social, or political impoverishment and find themselves estranged from this mainstream. Their marginality may vary in degree, extent, or intensity. Most countries and cultures have empowered groups at one pole and impoverished groups at the other and between the two, there are graded levels of power and poverty. This paper discusses the correlation between religion, culture, and the process of marginalization.
Hendrikus Paulus Kaunang, Leonard Chrysostomos Epafras
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 48-63; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1480

Abstract:
Comics culture has a long precedence in Indonesian art tradition. Earlier visual art appeared in the Hindu-Buddhist temples and in the colonial period. Once, Indonesian comics enjoyed the golden age in the 1970s and 1980s in which the comics sought inspiration from local legends and wayang themes. However, the flood of Western and Japanese comics eroded the supremacy of Indonesian comics. For the latter, it is part of the Japanophile, which later followed by Koreaphile as two global cultural forces overwhelmed Indonesia presently. Manga comics, for example, has become a dominant visual art in the comics market in Indonesia and influencing the style of Indonesian visual art production. Religion is another socio-cultural terrain affected by this cultural development. The present article is an exploration of the comics as a visual art in the religious landscape of Indonesia, especially among the Christians. Comics as the locus of the technology of enchantment renders the trace of religious shift among the average religionists. Employing visual rhetoric criticism, the article will look at the ideological and rhetorical elements of the visual production, and the cultural shifting in the Indonesian Christianity. It further touches upon the notion of cuteness (chibi) and gender as examples of religious rhetoric maintaining a certain ideological position.
Jekonia Tarigan, Heddy Shri Ahimsa-Putra, Leonard Chrysostomos Epafras
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 75-97; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1989

Abstract:
This paper aims to examine the interreligious encounter experiences of patients and their families who have diverse religious backgrounds and come to religiously affiliated hospitals (different from their religion). The main question raised is how this experience strengthens their recognition and respect toward other religions, so they are enabled to build amicable interreligious relations. This study is necessary especially in the context of Yogyakarta, which claims itself as ‘City of Tolerance,’ but unfortunately, this claim and image have faded because of many cases of intolerance in multiple social settings, such as school, campus, worship place, religious event, boarding house, even also cemetery. Meanwhile, in Yogyakarta, three major religiously affiliated hospitals have served Yogyakarta residents for tens to hundreds of years, namely Bethesda, Panti Rapih, and PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. Following Peter L. Berger, this paper argues that hospital can be seen as a unique social setting, in which pluralism as empirical experience truly happens because, in terms of attitude, the hospital is an institution that is in its service should practice no discrimination toward people from a different background (ethnicity or religiosity) related to service for humanity. Therefore hospital will be a place of encounter for people from various backgrounds and identities. Within the religiously affiliated hospital, pluralism is not only a formal philosophical concept but a social situation in which people with different ethnicities, religions, worldviews, and moralities live together peacefully and interact with each other amicably.
Maksimilianus Jemali, Jb Banawiratma, Wening Udasmoro
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 117-141; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2226

Abstract:
This article explores the practice of Hambor tradition as little narrative in managing conflict and peace situations in Manggarai, Eastern Indonesia. Hambor, which means peace, is a component of local wisdom and a strategy for resolving conflict based on local culture. There are several issues to address, including the following: what is the meaning, impact, and manifestation of Hambor for Manggarai people on a personal and social level? What is the role of Hambor tradition in managing conflict and peace in Manggarai? This research used the ethnographic method through the genetic structuralism approach developed by the French philosopher and sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to understand the meaning, impact, and implementation of the Hambor process in daily life by the Manggaraian speech community. The research result shows that Hambor is the leading force in creating peace and harmony for the Manggarai people. Hambor is the substance of harmony between humans, the world (tana lino), the ancestors (wura agu ceki), and the God (Mori Kraéng). Hambor process in Manggarai will be useful if it is based on a mutual commitment to overcoming disputes, transformative option (post-conflict), and the involvement and willingness of perpetrator and victim to forgive one another.
Thowhidul Islam
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 22-37; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.755

Abstract:
Shaikh Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Habashi Al-Harari of Ethiopia is a controversial Islamic scholar and founder of Al-Ahbash in Lebanon. He was involved in the struggle mainly with the Islamic fundamentalist Wahhabis there and was expelled from Ethiopia in 1947. After living in different cities, he settled down at Beirut, Lebanon in 1950. He was declared leader of the Jam’iyyat al-mashari’ al-khayriyya al-islamiyya (Association of Islamic Charitable Projects) in 1983 after the death of its founder Shiakh Muhiyy al-Din al-Ajuz. Since then, it has been known as ‘Al-Ahbash’ (the Ethiopians) after his title Al-Habashi. Al-Ahbash became one of the most controversial Muslim associations in the contemporary spectrum of Islamic groups because of its religious philosophy and doctrines.Al-Ahbash philosophy blended Sunni and Shi’a theology with Sufi spiritualism into a doctrinal eclecticism. Its ideological discourses mainly follow Shafi’i, Ash’ari and Maturidi doctrines. Al-Ahbash’s doctrine has also been influenced by some Sufi orders (tariqas) like Rifa’iyya and Qadiriyya. It emphasized Islam’s innate pluralism and determines the religious and political program, which do not fit with the conventional Islamists idea. It advocated for opposition to Islamic political activism and the use of violence against the ruling order. These attributes opposed to the political thoughts of many Islamic thinkers like Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, Sayyid Qutb. The most controversial issue in Al-Ahbash doctrine is the question of the relation among religion, politics, and the state in Islam. Al-Ahbash advocated the separation of religion and state and thereby rejected the idea of an Islamic state. Its views on education, women and science also contradict many of the above named writers opinions. Thus, Al-Ahbash represents a new but controversial view in Islam. This paper is aimed at understanding the philosophy and political doctrines of al-Ahbash.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2224

Abstract:
This article points to some of the ethical short-comings of global capitalism in historical and contemporary contexts. Comparison of late eighteenth/early nineteenth century capitalist enterprises including the British and Dutch East India Companies and contemporary investment banking houses including Goldman Sachs indicates that ethical problems inherent in global capitalism have not changed significantly over the centuries. The analysis presented here builds on explicit critiques of capitalism by the eighteenth-century economist Adam Smith and contemporary critiques by linguist and social critic Noam Chomsky and implicit ones Reggae star Jimmy Cliff. Islamic finance is often described as an alternative to capitalisms that avoid greed based ethnical problems. This is not necessarily the case if Islamic finance is merely fiqh compliant. The fact that Goldman Sachs and other Western banks have entered the Islamic finance business buttresses this position. The economic ethics of the eleventh/twelfth century Muslim theologian and philosopher Hamid al-Ghazali and the contempory Muslim legal scholar Khaled Abou el Fadl offer possible correctives. If, however, Evolutionary biologist Lynn Margulis is correct and greed is a basic component of human nature, the full realization of any ethical economics is unlikely.
I Gusti Putu Anindya Putra
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 98-116; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2021.1733

Abstract:
Bali capital city of Denpasar supposed to reflect a strong Balinese cultural identities, but in reality that cultural identities has declined along of the historical changes and process of development. This study examines the decline of Balinese cultural identities in spatial planning, by focusing it on how to revitalize it and its implications for modern society. Designed has qualitative research, this study collected data through observation, interview, and documentation studies. Data collected analysed by theories geographic and structural functional theories supported by ethnography, semiotics and acculturation theories applied them ecliticly. The results of this study indicate a decline in Balinese cultural identity in spatial planning which has been caused by multicultural community factors, spatial functions that do not exist in the Balinese cultural concept, two forms of traditional village governance and village/kelurahan, as well as changes in the use of the basic dimensions of sikut/gegulak becomes a metric. This study propose strategy of revitalization by reestablishing the values of Balinese cultural identity, cultural literacy, classification and zoning of new functions, synchronizing the authority of traditional villages and villages, and converting basic dimensions into development guidelines. This study offers two findings, that is (1) practical finding relate to the fact that Balinese culture in spatial planning has been applied in the preparation of spatial plans for the city of Denpasar but has not yet been properly implemented; (2) theoretical findings show that Balinese cultural identity in spatial planning is universal, has the ability to absorb elements of external cultures while it is able to maintain its unique cultural identities.
Dina S. Zaman
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 66-74; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss2.2002.2225

Abstract:
This article seeks to explain briefly to the reader about far right nationalist movements in Malaysia. While this is not a recent occurrence, it spiked during the time of Pakatan Harapan, the Opposition bloc that won the 13th Malaysia General Elections. Seeing non Malay/Muslim faces in the new government frightened many, even those who were against the former Barisan Nasional government. The paper is based on my current research on Malay youth identity of both genders, who are pushing the Malay narrative to the fore, as they demand their rights as Malays; Covid 19 has shown that economic opportunities are getting more scarce. The people I am studying and have spoken to feel that they have low social capital, and their uneasiness at seeing minority communities ‘thrive’ in Malaysia. What is causing this fear? This article posits economic reasons.
Cokorda Gde Bayu Putra, Ni Komang Sumadi, Ni Ketut Muliati
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 59-73; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2850

Abstract:
The main objective of this paper is to explain The Value of Pancasila in Foundation Financial Accountability Practices. Financial accountability is a demand that attempts tonot only ensure that fiancial governance is well effiient, but also to create public trust. The compilation and submission of fiancial reports is one approach of applying fiancialaccountability procedures in a non-profi organization that engages with the public. Through the phenomenological approach, it is found that applications of the teaching of God, Human Value, Spirit of Unity, Spirit of Collaborative, and Justice that constitute Pancasila’s spirit also inspire the Foundation’s spirit of accountability implementation.
Judith Schlehe
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2845

Abstract:
The cosmovisions of the so-called world religions are based on assumed divides between nature and culture, nonhuman and human, man and God, and these divisions have long been reproduced by the social sciences. Only recently, a radical interrelatedness has been thematized and acknowledged by certain scholars, and indeed, the current pandemic reminds us of zoonoses and the manifold relationships that humans have with other forms of life. At the same time, local or folk religions offer alternative ontologies including transgressions between humans and animals or spirits. Thus, they indicate that there is no “above” or “outside of” nature. Perhaps future multispecies practices will be shaped by a new awareness of such relatedness and symbiosis, as offered by the Planetary Health approach: a relational health concept that will prepare for future challenges by focusing on the interrelationships between human health, political, economic, and social contexts as well as the biodiversity of our planet.
Nestor T. Castro
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2841

Abstract:
Since March 2020, Metro Manila and other places in the Philippines has been on lockdownbecause of the surge of Covid-19 cases in the country. Even churches and other places ofworship have been off-limits to church goers during strict lockdown measures called “EnhancedCommunity Quarantine.” This paper looks at how Filipino Catholics practice their religiousobligations during the pandemic. Since majority (81%) of Filipinos are Roman Catholics, thefocus of this paper is how Filipino Catholics view the Covid-19 pandemic and how they copewith it. The data for this study comes from two sources: 1) interviews with church leaders andlay members; and 2) online and offlne ethnographic observation of religious practices duringthe pandemic. Through an anthropological description of Filipino Catholic attitudes on andresponses to the Covid-19 pandemic, we have a better understanding about Filipino resiliencyin times of crises.
Wening Udasmoro, Setiadi Setiadi, Aprillia Firmonasari
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 74-87; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2851

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to explore the memory and the trajectory of the Javanese diaspora on the novels written by two female authors of Javanese descent in New Caledonia using a gender perspective. The Javanese diaspora in New Caledonia is a community that has left their homeland (Java) to start a new life in their destination land (New Caledonia) since 1896. They are descendants of the contract coolies (laborers) sent by the Dutch colonial government who controlled the Dutch Indies, including Java, at the request of French colonial government. The delivery of contract coolies was based on an agreement called the “Koeli Ordonatie” which had become a legal regulation and was implemented since the 1880s. It was a regulation signed by the Governor-General of the Netherlands Number 138 whose purpose was to fid unskilled laborers willing to work in the Dutch colonies, especially in the plantations and mining. The coolies, especially from Java, were mostly used as manual laborers in various parts of Dutch colonies, such as in Suriname. Seeing that this Dutch policy brought positive results for the exploitation of natural resources in the Dutch colonies, the French colonial government asked the help from the Dutch colonial government to recruit the laborers to be sent to French colonial region, New Caledonia.
Joseph Mutei
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2154

Abstract:
Looking at the concept of superstitions you realise that for lack of a better term, in the African context these are beliefs captured for deterrence and for guidance to the community. These beliefs are not enforced by laws and regulations but they seem to be binding and not embodying them may have dire consequences. The paper gives examples of these age-old wisdom statements and seeks to explain them. The final part is looking at their relevance and applicability in contemporary society with the context of Africa where they are freely shared and exchanged.
Vanesia Amelia Sebayang, Asmyta Surbakti, Torang Naiborhu
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2849

Abstract:
Erpangir ku lau is a ritual of the Karo people based on old religion called Pemena, as a medium for self-cleaning to maintain the sanctity of the body and spirit of a human being. Humans who have been physically and spiritually clean are having been kept away from evil inflences so that they are worthy of getting closer to their ancestors, the universe’s spirit, andalso God. However, while Christianity zending is carried out by the Dutch missionary unionin Tanah Karo in 1890-1904, all of the traditional customary and cultural practices towards ancestor and God were prohibited to be done. The Dutch aiming to change the Karo people’s perception of their own cultural identity. Nowadays, The Karo people divided into several groups, each with their understanding of the cultural customs of their ancestors, including the erpangir ku lau. This research uses a qualitative descriptive research method. The theories used are deconstruction and postcolonial theory. The results of this research were erpangir ku lau is a human ways to communicate with their God while maintaining a harmonious relationship between humans, the universe, and their ancestors. It has been proven that erpangir ku lau ritual is black magic worship was fully a colonial construction. Erpangir ku lau is a root that shapes the identity of the Karo people, known as metami, melias, mehamat, perkuah, and perkeleng. Even though they were no longer adhere to ancestral beliefs, the Karo people should reinterpret the identity-forming moral values contained in the erpangir ku lau ritual and then attach them side by side with whatever beliefs they currently hold.
R. Budidarmo Pramudji Kuntjoro-Jakti
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 88-94; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2852

Abstract:
This paper serves as a narration of Indonesia’s contribution in concretising the ASEAN Declaration on Culture of Prevention (CoP) for a Peaceful, Inclusive, Resilient, Healthy, and Harmonious Society through the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Pillar. To that end, Indonesia assigns the ASEAN Senior Offiials Meeting on Youth (SOMY) as the appropriate lead sectoral body to advance the ASEAN CoP and its practical platform for the ASEAN youths to play a signifiant proactive role in propagating tolerance on religious diversity towards social harmony. With this in mind, it is hoped that the ASEAN Youth Interfaith Camp (AYIC) can give a meaningful contribution in supporting the regional efforts to enhance religious tolerance and the value of moderation at all levels. Furthermore, AYIC may contribute towards alleviating the emergence of new geopolitical, geoeconomics, and geostrategic challenges through its post-event initiatives that have a direct impact towards building community characteristics that is ingrained with tolerance and deference towards religious diversity. In light of the incoming Indonesia’s Chairmanship of ASEAN in 2023, this paper attempts to chart the policy prospect that Indonesia should take in fostering interfaith tolerance and harmony amongst youth across ASEAN so as to support the regional efforts to enhance peaceful co-existence in Southeast Asia.
I Wayan Suka Yasa, W. A. Sindhu Gitananda, I Nyoman Sridana
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2846

Abstract:
According to Hinduism, especially the Samkhya-Yoga system, viruses, bacteria and other microscopic creatures are classifid as external diseases (adibhautika duhka) which cause such severe illness as Covid-19 so as found in the Usadha in different terms. This paper aims at understanding the discourse of imunity maintenance in Hindu tradition, especially those implied by the Samkhya-Yoga sistem of philosophy and Usadha Bali. Within the concept of both systems, it is found that the life and health means having knowledge (pramana) with the peak of viveka‘discriminative knoledge of dualism’, siddhi, and sakti. The life is not due to being into death, yet rather meaning having been the process of returning to the root cause of life. Having elaborated the data, the discourse of the imunity maintenance may be implied within the concept of sadhana telu: jnana bhyudreka ‘knowledge of tattwa’, indriya yoga marga ‘mistical sense practice of yoga’ and trsna dosa ksaya ‘diminishing all the will or dosa’. Therefore, the Samkhya-Yoga and Usadha serves to harmonize the physical, mental and spiritual through certain practices of yoga.
Sri Sunarti Purwaningsih, Haning Romdiati, Ade Latifa
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 5, pp 37-52; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol5.iss1.2022.2848

Abstract:
Around 60,5% of workers in Indonesia rely on the informal sector, and in mid of 2020 almost half of them were in urban areas. The urban informal sector workers commonly are in small enterprises with low productivity, low liquidity, and negligible capital accumulation. They engage in street vending, home-based work, waste picking, domestic jobs, and other short-term contracts, and they do not enjoy workers’ benefis and social protection programs, thus they are vulnerable to shock, including Covid-19 pandemic. The pandemic does not only bring negative impact on the health sector, but it has also triggered an economic downturn. In terms of urban informal sector activities, various social policies (PSBB, Java-Bali PPKM, Emergency PPKM and Micro PPKM) sharply reduce the economic opportunities for informal economy workers who rely to a large extent on the personal contact with customers. Job losses and decreased income have been experienced by the majority of informal sector workers. This condition has to be overcome with various strategies to be able to maintain the continuity of their economic activities. This article discusses the strategies of urban informal sector workers to maintain sustainable livelihoods during the COVID-19 pandemic. The strategy carried out is focused on the use of social networks. The data used for writing this article is sourced from primary data. Data was collected using a qualitative approach in Bekasi Timur sub-district, Bekasi City, West Java Province. In addition, the article also uses the existing data related to the issued being studied.
I Ketut Ardhana
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 109-120; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1712

Abstract:
This article was originally a paper when the author was asked to discuss Peer Holm Jorgensen’s work, The Missing History: Based on the True Story of Dewa Soeradjana, which was organized by the Bali Study Center-Udayana University in collaboration with Bentara Budaya. The title given by the author in connection with the discussion of the contents of the book is assesing the Witness of a Person in History Before the Events of September 30, 1965. It should be noted that until now, the development of Indonesian historiography is still far from the expectation of writing a complete and comprehensive history. This is because in addition to the limited historical sources available relating to the periods made in the writing of Indonesian history itself, such as between the classical historical period, modern history and contemporary history which entered into the realm of cultural studies as the post-modern era. The existence of gaps between these periods, especially in the post-revolutionary period, seems to be caused by the spirit of the times that developed after the end of the New Order era, where there was a demand for a forward total history writing. This means that there is now a demand for an open history writing, without any cover-up, so that Indonesian society in general and historians (professional historians), history enthusiasts, amateur historians, and students will be able to fully understand the history of their nation. The hope that this demand will get a chance, now that the New Order regime which ruled for more than 32 years in a centralized and authoritarian manner has ended. The hopes include the need to represent studies related to the demands of the reform era which want transparency, accountability, openness and provide defense to minority groups, and marginalized people as a result of policies that benefit the majority group. This condition gave the majority group an opportunity to legitimize its power, various strategies are carried out so that it was hoped that it would not provide opportunities for political groups or opponents to defend themselves.
Neneng Sobibatu Rohmah
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 96-108; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1076

Abstract:
This research attempts to examine the identity politics conflicts that occur between Sunni-Shia in Sampang. This conflict was based on religious identity that is used as a force in exerting pressure on different groups. On the other hand, national integration is needed as a form of acknowledging and accommodating differences through policies issued. Integration must be a two-way adaptation process involving changes in values, norms and behaviors. This study aims is also to determine whether the Sunni-Shia conflict in Sampang which is motivated by identity politics has now reached the direction of national integration or not. David Miller's theory of identity politics and Chantal Lacroix's national integration was used in this study. The methodology used is qualitative specifically with a case study approach. The findings showed that the Sunni-Shia conflict in Sampang has been seen towards integration of Tajul Muluk attitude and his followers’ decision to leave their faith and return to the doctrines of the majority community, Sunni. This makes the absence of a two-way adaptation process appears by abandoning their beliefs and following the wishes of the majority. The role of the state in fighting for freedom of religion and belief in Indonesia was very weak even though the constitution in Indonesia guarantees freedom of religion is strong enough. Therefore, the application of their efforts should have some supervisions.
Syamsul Asri, Heddy Shry Ahimsa Putra, Albertus Bagus Laksana
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 78-95; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1269

Abstract:
Imam Husain`s martyrdom regains its global importance thanks to arbain walk, an annual inter-religious ziyarah event done by walking from Najaf to Karbala, along the route of which epic hospitality is being practiced for the comfort of Imam Husain`s devotee that coming from around the world. If Imam Husain`s martyrdom previously exist in revolutionary and spiritual imaginary of world leaders and mystics, arbain walk opens up a new path to convey Imam Husain`s legacy, in the sense that arbain walk reenact nonshi`i involvements in Karbala event thus make it as an arena for interreligious encounters. Those nonshi`i participated in 3 days walking from Najaf to Karbala are comprising of what I call global Husaini, emerge as the result of dynamic encounter in shrinescape of Imam Husain. Without this dynamics of shrinescape, global Husaini will be only a scattered presence of nonShi`is in communal pockets of Shi`i adherents around the world commemorating Imam Husain`s martyrdom.
Grace R. Dyrness
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1709

Abstract:
We are living in unprecedented times of migration flows. There are over 271.6 million international migrants globally, most of them women and children under the age of 19, most of whom move to cities causing fast growth in urban areas, particularly in the informal settlements and slums, places of poverty, densely populated with inadequate household water and sanitation, little or no waste management, overcrowded public transport and limited access to formal health care facilities. As they seek to establish themselves in the city, many migrants turn to religion for support. Faith communities become places where they can find 1) a source of community; 2) where resources are available to meet their needs; 3) for support in times of trouble; and 4) where praying becomes a resource for survival. As the Covid-19 pandemic began spreading throughout the world and cities were locked down, people were requested to stay in their homes, but yet they had no income or food, causing hunger, anxiety, fear and violence. But once again faith communities, already on the ground, have responded, and from these responses are lessons to be learned on how to support bottom-up approaches that build resiliency and strengthen informal communities in times of crisis. 5 principal ways that religious communities are helping to build resilient cities: data collection, developing partnerships and networks, providing information and communication, inclusive and diverse engagement, and spiritual comfort and guidance. These types of responses create resilient communities than can withstand future pandemics.
Yekti Maunati
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1710

Abstract:
A city usually has its own identity and cultural uniqueness with the markers of identity perhaps varying among museums, monuments, temples, theatre buildings, handcraft and traditional shops/markets and night bazaars and historical heritage sites, to mention a few. It is very common for cities in mainland Southeast Asia, like Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Luang Prabang and Hanoi to have handcraft markets/shops as well as night bazaars selling various handcrafts attributed to one ethnic group or another. Those handcraft shops/markets and night bazaars are often at least partly related to the promotion of tourism. However, they do not only exist for the sake of tourism, since the promotion of cultural uniqueness as the identity of a city is related to the feeling of pride and the very soul of the city. This paper will discuss the existing handcraft markets/shops and night bazaar in Chiang Mai (Thailand) as important elements of the city’ s icons and the Hanoi Old Quarter, a historical heritage area in Hanoi, where handcraft shops, night market, cafés and many more venues are integral to the identity of Hanoi. The fieldwork was conducted in Chiang Mai in 2004, 2005, 2009 and 2016 for a few days and in Hanoi in 2006, 2017, 2018 for a few days, especially using qualitative research. The discussion is divided into three parts: the First, giving a brief review of the identity of a city; the Second, touching on the issue of how the handcraft shops and the Night Bazaar in Chiang Mai are seen as the city icons; and Finally, the shaping of the Hanoi Old Quarter as Hanoi’s cultural icon/identity.
Ngoc Bich Ly Le
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1207

Abstract:
Truth telling has been recognized as important in the process of trauma healing and reconciliation according to modern peacebuilding theories. Studies have shown that truth telling is not a simple issue but involves problems and challenges that need research and solutions. This study contributes to this problem-solution or the question “How should difficult and painful truth be told in a way that minimizes harm and maximizes benefit for all?” by offering an alternative knowledge and method rooted in the Buddhist tradition. Based on textual study of the Majjhima Nikaya and Anguttara Nikaya, the paper argues that the Buddha’s teachings can widen the understanding and minimize potential problems with the work of truth telling whether in the collective or interpersonal context by providing a concrete systematic framework and criteria for reflection, making decision and communication of truth.
Purnamawati Purnamawati
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1711

Abstract:
This research explains the importance of approach and coordination from the Osaki Town government on waste recycling management of Osaki System to the community residents and companies, for changing their mindset on responsibilities and duties. This was done since the beginning when Osaki system was created until it becomes a sustainable system in daily life. The important key aspects on implementing the Osaki system are good cooperation and bond of trust shared among the government, community residents and companies. Osaki Town has achieved no.1 in the highest rate of waste resource recycling for 12 consecutive years in all of Japan. The system has made Osaki Town to become a SDGs system model in Japan, after receiving SDGs award from the Japanese government in December 2019. The Osaki System has succeeded to solve problems on reducing the volume of waste in landfill site. Being a sustainable waste resource recycling system and a model not only in Japan but also abroad, Osaki Town then disseminates the Osaki System in Indonesia which has the same problems, such as approach and cooperation between the government and the residents, reduce the waste volume in landfill areas by separate waste method for recycling and low cost management.
Suryaningsi Mila
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 4, pp 57-77; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol4.iss1.2021.1192

Abstract:
This paper examines the application of cross-textual reading on the story of women around Moses in the Qur'an and the Bible by grassroots Muslim and Christian women in the village of Wendewa Utara, Central Sumba. Due to the involvement of women, then I apply the feminist approach to analyze the dynamics of cross-textual reading. During several focus group discussions, cross-textual reading was run smoothly because the participants are bound by kinship ties. They are also rooted in Sumbanese cultural values that reflect Marapu religious values. In other words, Muslim and Christian women are living in a context of socio-religious-cultural hybridity in which their religious identity intermingles with their cultural identity. For this reason, this paper describes a project bringing these women into another space of dialogue through cross-textual reading. In the cross-textual reading, both grassroots Muslim and Christian women are crossing their religious borders by finding resonant commonalities between the two texts, as they explore the affirmative, enriched, and irreconcilable difference as well. Cross-textual reading is a new adventure for both Muslim and Christian women in Wendewa Utara. The participants were enthusiastic because the material readings encourage them to share their problems, joys, hopes, and dreams. By reflecting on the struggle of women around Moses, the participants are committed to supporting one another in their daily life. Accordingly, this model of reading creates a safe space for grassroots Muslim and Christian women to learn from one another for mutual enrichment.
Jenn Lindsay
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.691

Abstract:
Humanization is a frequently invoked goal of interfaith dialogue—but what does it mean to dialoguers to be “human,” let alone to make each person more human? This article takes a close look at the common discourses of interfaith dialoguers, and how those discourses are translated into action. Drawing on observed vignettes and reflections from ethnographic interviews across geopolitical contexts, the article conceptualizes humanization as a discursive object of the interfaith society that dialoguers invoke to enhance group solidarity and express collective identity in the form of their sacred values. By frequently invoking the concept of humanization, interfaith dialogues signal to each other that they are uniting around a common goal. Specifically, the article investigates normative discourses regarding “humanization” of the religious other and how the practice of exchanging narratives facilitates humanization and the cultivation of empathy. Through this data we can see that “humanization” is a common discursive goal of dialoguers. In Italy, humanization is a matter of disconfirming stereotypes and alleviating ignorance across social divides, whereas in the Middle East humanization intensifies into a commitment to not physically harm the other, who is recognized through the course of intergroup engagement as sharing a common ground of experience and complexity with the other. Dialoguers say humanization can be achieved through non-discursive relational practices such as artistic collaboration, shared silence, humor or cognitive re-framing, but most often through narrative storytelling.
Indria Hartika Rukmana
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 101-109; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1094

Abstract:
This paper focuses on Muslim initiatives on saving the environment. It examines various attempts, commitments, statements, and declarations by Muslims around the world to see how these have affected two mass Muslim organizations in Indonesia, namely Nahdhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyyah. This paper describes initiatives that have been proposed by international and national Muslim organizations on the environment and analyzes how these initiatives have been implemented by Nahdhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah organizations in Indonesia based on their two publications about plastic waste. In addition, this paper explores various initiatives in the world that commit to protect nature, carried out in numerous ways ranging from theological to practical. In particular the efforts to overcome plastic waste in An-Nur mosque in Bantul by reducing the use of plastic waste in several mosque events as well as conducting training on organic and non-organic waste sorting. In addition, practical paths are carried out by several environmental activists in Yogyakarta who make several environmentally friendly products and trash banks as an alternative to advocating for waste. Various commitments were built to lead to a clean environment free of garbage. It is important to see aspects of the faith that play a strong role in the awareness of the importance of protecting the earth in the future.
I Putu Gede Suyoga, , Ni Ketut Ayu Juliasih
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1090

Abstract:
This study aims to reveal the sustainability of Balinese traditional residential architectural practices which are based on the provisions of traditional ethnic Balinese social stratification and refers to the capital ownership in Generative Structural Theory from Pierre Bourdieu (economic, cultural, social and symbolic). At present, there are dynamics ownership and capital conversion in the traditional social strata which affect the sustainability of traditional residential architecture practices. The traditional Balinese residential architecture in this study is understood to be the spatial layout and traditional residential buildings of the Middle Bali era. Its sustainability today is seen from the concept of capital in the perspective of Bourdieu’s theory. The basic assumption of Bourdieu’s theory is basically that humans are in the field of social struggle to emerge victorious by competing with one another. This study is a qualitative research with interpretative descriptive method. Primary data were obtained from selected informants (purposive) and from field observations, as well as secondary data from the literature. The study findings show that traditional residential architecture practices in the Middle Bali era were strongly influenced by capital ownership (economic, cultural, social, and symbolic) with various forms of conversion to traditional Balinese aristocratic (triwangsa). Development at this time has opened the opportunity to control various capital for ordinary community (jabawangsa), so that the realm of Balinese traditional housing becomes a medium of struggle as well as a symbol of success in social struggle. On the other hand, the contestation of Balinese traditional residential architectural practices is a sustainability in the arena of social struggle within Balinese society today.
I Putu Sarjana, I Putu Gelgel, I Wayan Budi Utama
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1091

Abstract:
This article aims to analyze the dynamicity of Tri Hita Karana implementation in South Denpasar regarding the causing factors, the dynamic forms, as well the implication on the Hindus community life. This research was conducted using qualitative methods. The data were collected through document study, observation, and in-depth interviews with 25 informants. The collected data were analyzed by the theories of hegemony, social change, socio-cultural system critical, and adaptation. The results showed: First, the factors causing the dynamicity of Tri Hita Karana in the residential area of Hindus are urban modernization, population growth, spatial planning policies and settlement development, and rationalization in building construction. Second, the dynamics of Tri Hita Karana in these residentials are: (a) In the palemahan area, land conversion has displaced the subak and Ulun Suwi temple, violation of the principles of Balinese Traditional Architecture (ATB), displacing the existence of the open space; b) The pawongan area is characterized by increasingly heterogeneous, multi-ethnic and multi-cultural citizens.; (c) In the parahyangan area where the building layout was not reconstructed, the holy place Merajan was built on the upper floor of the residence. Third, the implications of the dynamics of Tri Hita Karana in the residential area of Hindus in the South Denpasar, include: (a) The palemahan area implies the use of land space based on the principles of effective, efficient, and economical, but the concept of ulu teben and kaja-kangin as the Balinese sacred orientations is still maintained; (b) The pawongan area is characterized by the behavior of city dwellers looking for Social space and spiritual recreation; (c) The Parahyangan area is characterized by praying activities at Merajan and Padmasana on the upper floor of the residence. To enforce the Tri Hita Karana, the misuse (disorientation) of spatial planning needs to be anticipated.
Michael D Crane
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 25-37; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.708

Abstract:
The majority of the world’s refugees do not live in refugee camps, but in cities around the world. Realities for urban refugees are vastly different from the conditions of a refugee camp. Urban refugees lack the institutional supports of official refugee camps and often have minimal legal covering in their host cities. Without government support and the limited capacity of UNHCR to provide adequate help, it is left to citizens of the host cities to provide help. Kuala Lumpur (KL) is home to more than 150,000 refugees and even more asylum seekers. These population numbers could be overwhelming to a city without help from its citizenry. This paper will examine ways in which Christian churches have welcomed and helped this large refugee population when few others would help. Guided by a biblical command to welcome “the stranger”, churches have sacrificed greatly to impact the lives of refugees in several key areas: education, employment, health care, and spiritual vitality. Because faith communities operate outside of governmental and non-governmental bureaucratic structures, their work often goes unnoticed. The work of these faith communities in KL is not an isolated event but serves as one case study of similar work happening in cities all over the world.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.711

Abstract:
“Better is to live one day virtuous and meditative than to live a hundred years immoral and uncontrolled” (The Buddha) Bhakti movement in India has been a path-breaking phenomenon that provided a solid shape and an identifiable face to the abstractions with the help of vernacular language. As a religious movement, it emphasized a strong personal and emotional bond between devotees and a personal God. It has come from the Sanskrit word Bhaj- ‘to share’. It began as a tradition of devotional songs, hagiographical or philosophical – religious texts which have generated a common ground for people of all the sects in the society to come together. As counterculture, it embraced into its fold all sections of people breaking the barriers of caste, class, community, and gender. It added an inclusive dimension to the hitherto privileged, exclusivist, Upanishadic tradition. It has provided a very critical outlook on contemporary Brahminical orthodoxy and played a crucial role in the emergence of modern poetry in India. This paper elaborates on the positioning of the Bhakti Movement in the context of Protest narratives in India.
I Wayan Rai, I Gusti Made Sunartha, Ida Ayu Made Purnamaningsih, Ni Made Ruastiti, Yunus Wafom
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 69-85; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1092

Abstract:
Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana in Jayapura is the eastern part of Padma Buana temple. Its establishment was initiated by Balinese Hindus and has become the center of Balinese Hindu socio-cultural activities and an important icon of Jayapura. This article discusses the establishment of Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana from the beginning and its development into the center of Balinese Hindus’ social and cultural-religious activities in Jayapura of Papua. This article based on qualitative research, in which all data was collected through observation, document studies, interviews, and FGD with several members of the pengempon (the temple’s servants) as informants and observers of Papuan culture. Data analyzed descriptively by applying symbol theory and structural-functional theory. The results showed that Hindus established the Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana at Jayapura in 1962. Before, the Hindus of Papua, whose dominantly Balinese migrant, carried out religious activities at Matra’s house. I Made Matra was a civil servant at the Papua Province government office. Over time, the number of Hindus who migrate to the city of Jayapura continues to increase. Therefore in 1979, Hindu leaders in Jayapura built the Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana for the needs of Hindus. Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana was built on Skyline hill in 1982 and it was inaugurated in 1990. In 2012, the Pura Agung Surya Bhuvana was renovated to be more majestic than before, and later on became a center of Hindu worship, the center of Balinese socio-cultural activities, arts center, Hindu religious education centers, and tourist attractions in Papua.
Dundin Zaenuddin
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 86-100; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1093

Abstract:
Democratization is a globalized agenda of development that needs to be developed by the Indonesian society to achieve a just and prosperous country that is referred to as ‘baldatun toyyibatun wa robbun ghofur’ (Arabic, literally, “good country under God forgiveness”). Within this framework, Islamic community (Islamic social organization) and other religious organizations are expected to behave kindly as an equal citizen that observe humanistic, pluralistic and tolerant religious social life. In this context, the situation of reciprocal trust, social solidarity, tolerance, equality, social networking even intra and extra-collective cooperation among socio-religious religious communities are expected to be more natural and sustainable. However, citizenship social capital still need to be develop through internalization and socialization. This research is based on the theories of Habitus of Bourdieu and Gellner’s Typology of Social Organization and Kymlicka’s Multicultural Citizenship. This research also use other sociological theory namely the social capital theory of citizenship from Putnam, Coleman, Uphof, and religion-state relations theory from Boland, Menchik and Riaz Hassan. This research is qualitative with a multidisciplinary approaches of Sociology, Political Science, and History. The research findings show (1) the cosmopolitanism of the Bogor society is the factor that the various Islamic social organizations are accepted; (2) The social capital type of citizenship of Islamic social organizations is formed due to differences in religious and political orientation which are the resultant understanding of the texts and its religious culture; (3) Nahdhatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah with a moderate religious orientation (washitiyyah) have citizenship social capital that is persistent with democracy, while Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia and Front Pembela Islam with a fundamentalist religious style (ushuliyyah) have civic social capital that is resistant to Pancasila democracy.
Almunawar Bin Rusli, Nasruddin Yusuf
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 110-121; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss2.2020.1097

Abstract:
This article look at how to become a Balinese in Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi. As a trans-migrant group from the eruption of Mountain Agung Karangasem 1963, they left the Island of Gods since March 11, 1964, anchored in Makassar later arrived in Bolaang Mongondow March 26, 1964 through Inobonto port and build of Pakraman Kembang Mertha Village November 1, 1965 with permission of Dumoga indigenous peoples. The Balinese expression of faith shaping of intersubjective relation. In contrast to Geertz’s thesis about the absolute monism of Hinduism, the Balinese in Bolaang Mongondow instead used of religious pluralism perspective. They convert to Muslim and Christian without conflict. In 1970, the Bali farmers start to planting corn, soybean, cassava and rice based on family ties. They have a trade networks with Chinese ethnic descendants. In presidential election 2019, Joko Widodo-Ma’ruf Amin became the winner in Kembang Mertha (84.56%) in comparison to Prabowo-Sandi (15.44%). The loyalty of Balinese to PDIP can be survived from money politics and identity politics because of the cross-blood and ideology. Thus, Balinese migrants can be classified as one of the strongest civil society in contemporary Bolaang Mongondow.
Emma Lo
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 27-34; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.682

Abstract:
The influence and spread of traditional Balinese music over time and across regions has been conducted through a number of different channels. In addition to locally-focused efforts, cultural transfer has also contributed to the preservation of traditional Balinese arts. From the self-interested, strategic support of gamelan music by Japanese occupational forces to the global experimental music scene today, Balinese arts have been shared, supported, translated, and appropriated in various ways by a number of different actors to political, artistic, and commercial ends. Building on Michel Espagne’s definition of cultural transfer and Stephen Greenblatt’s concept of cultural mobility, this paper aims to outline different modes of cultural transfer (or “bridges,” as Espagne would say), with explicit attention to power dynamics and multi-way flows of influence. Several key historical and contemporary examples of the transfer of traditional Balinese music will be discussed in an effort to better understand the relationship between cultural transfer and preservation.
Samuel Kofi Boateng Nkrumah-Pobi, Sandra Owusu-Afriyie
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 73-82; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.690

Abstract:
This article deploys the accommodative nature of African Indigenous Religion (AIR) as a reflective tool in Ghana’s religious pluralistic context. This paper argues that the accommodative nature of AIR which has made scholars argue for its singularity can serve as a tool which would promote religious tolerance and peaceful coexistence in Ghana. The findings of the research demonstrated that though there is a level of religious tolerance and peaceful coexistence among various religious groups in Ghana, there is still more room for improvement, thus the proposal of this model as a response.
Latifah Latifah, Ary Budiyanto
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.684

Abstract:
Religious views of a community group are very influential in determining their attitudes and behavior towards nature and the environment. On the one hand, there is a worldview correlation that affects attitudes that are less friendly to nature as well as human superiority among other creatures that makes it feel entitled to exploit nature. On the other hand, religious views are also a motivation for caring for and loving nature, as is the will of Buddhists to create happiness for all living things. Reflections on choosing a moderate way of life prevent greed that can cause damage to nature so that sustainable development can be realized. The media, especially digital media, represents the implementation of Buddhist environmental ethics in a variety of writing frames. This study aims to look at Fangshen (放生) ritual in critical discourse on environmental ethics perspective as represented in Indonesian Buddhist media such as Buddhazine, Kompasiana, Tionghoa.info, and etcetera. This research shows that the discourse on environmental ethics in Buddhist media is at the point of intersection between natural disasters as a result of karma (kamma), paramita funds to change karma, responsibility for protecting nature, and compassion for all beings.
Michael S. Northcoot
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.680

Abstract:
Indonesia is the second largest global source of marine plastic after China. Plastic waste, together with toxic smoke from extensive unregulated rubbish burning in homes and businesses, are grave public health threats in Indonesia. This paper presents a case study in Ubud, Bali of a community-based recycling and waste sorting project - Rumah Kompos –which demonstrates the potential of religious wisdom and belief to contribute to help solve Indonesia’s waste problem. The cultural role of religions in the case study is part of a larger Indonesian, and world religions, phenomenon in which churches, mosques and temples, and faith-based schools (and in Indonesia Islamic boarding schools or pesantren) have made efforts to sponsor pro-environmental behaviours at local community level. The paper also recalls the relevance of anthropological studies of religion, especially Mary Douglas’ classic study Purity and Danger, in understanding the connected genealogies of waste and religion. Douglas theorises that identification and regulation of hazardous and ‘polluting’ practices, concerning bodily fluids, food, clothing, housing, habitable land, potable water and sexual relationships was central to the social role of traditional religions. The disturbance to this long-established function of religion occasioned by the speed and scale of adoption of modern technological innovations, and of a modern ‘consumer lifestyle’, points to an under-studied dialectic between religion and waste which, in a nation as religiously active as Indonesia, ought to be included in both the conceptualisation of, and policy-making concerning, plastic and waste management.
I Putu Sastra Wibawa
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 57-65; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.687

Abstract:
Religious diversity contributes to nation building positively. However, it can also be a potential source of conflict. The multi-religious communities in Indonesia face many conflicts that triggered by religion. This problem demands a strategic anticipation, especially in juridical view. Juridical anticipation means the state frames legal policies that regulate the relations between religious communities in Indonesia in order to achieve a harmonious life. The political law of interreligious harmony established by the government in Indonesia will unable to implement properly if indirectly intervene by the community. The public must keep discussing and seeking to maintain inclusive relations between religious communities to achieve religious harmony in Indonesia which is based on tolerance and cooperation in the life of society, nation and state.
I Ketut Ardhana
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 20-26; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.681

Abstract:
Due to the increased tourism development in Bali, there have been significant changes in Balinese views in the practices of their ritual and religious lives. Previously populated almost exclusively by Hindu Balinese, Bali has evolved to be a multicultural society resulting from the increased migration of people, ethnicities and ideas. In the past, any ritual and religious activities in accordance with the humanistic religious management had been carried out in the traditional kingdoms. However, the downfall of those traditional kingdoms has affected the emergence of significant issues in relation to who will be in charge in the ritual and religious activities that demand much financial outlay. This has brought about important issues in relation to the decrease in the Balinese who adhere to Hinduism, since most of them have no time to arrange these kinds of activities as most work in the tourist sector that demands effectiveness and efficiency. There are many questions to be discussed in this paper, namely, Firstly: What is the role of the state and society in the management of the ritual and religious activities in Bali? Secondly: What kinds of alternative solutions can solve the problems? And, Thirdly: How can these issues faced by the Balinese, be managed, since the Balinese do not only consist of followers of the Hindu religion but also other religions such as Islam, Christianity (Protestant and Catholic), Buddhism and Confucianism as well as the local beliefs that have been recognized by the state in the Reform period since 1998? Through answering these questions, it is expected to have a better understanding of the role of the state and society in the context of indigenous practices in Ritual and Religious Activities of Bali Hinduism in Indonesia.
Bipin Kumar Jha,
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.689

Abstract:
Abhijñāna Śākuntalam, as Sanskrit play by the renowned poet Kālidāsa offers the utmost importance to nature and the environment. It is the responsibility of all and everyone, irrespective of their social strata; king, sages, their sons and daughter and their disciples’ given equal responsibility and accountability to care for the environment. The king is advised not to kill the animals roaming inside a guarded territory of the Āśrama (cottage) of the sages. Śakuntalā was advised by her father Kaṇva to look after the plants and animals. The reciprocal nature of mutual dependence between Human and Environment vividly delved in Abhijñāna Śākuntalam. The King’s major responsibility includes preserving environment, one such example; the text eludes King Duṣyanta, taming a mad elephant, destroying the plants, while the king introduces himself to the Śakuntalā the very first time, another example is, the opening statement in Abhijñāna Śākuntalam reflects the concern of environment protection, the very importance of the people who care and nurture environment and have describes as: Yāsṛṣṭiḥsraṣṭurādyā vahatividhihutaṃ yāhaviryā ca hotrī, Ye Dvekālaṃ vidhattaḥ śrūtiviṣaya guṇā yā sthitā vyāpyaviśvam, Yām āhuḥ sarvabīja-prakṛtiriti yayā prāṇinaḥ prāṇavantaḥ, Pratyakṣābhiḥ prapannastanubhiravatuvastābhiraṣṭābhirīśaḥ [A.S 1.1]. Eight forms has Shiva, Lord of all and king: And these are water, first created thing; And fire, which speeds the sacrifice begun; those who care for nature; and time’s dividers, moon and sun; The all-embracing ether, path of sound; The earth, wherein all seeds of life are found; And air, the breath of life: may he draws near, Revealed in these, and bless those gathered here (Ryder,1999). The eight elements described in Abhijñāna Śākuntalam viz; the five gross elements along with time and space, and the people in general who care for nature are considered to be the constituents of god or Shiva. The environment and nature treated here as one entity represented here as, Lord Shiva, one of the trinities of Hindu god, shows the reflection of faith in relation to the care for the environment
Muhammad Nur Prabowo Setyabudi
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.683

Abstract:
This paper elaborates the meaning of eco-tolerance in the context of ecological community between human and environment. Tolerance is often discussed as theological conception related to the relationship between religion (religious virtue) or socio-political conception related to the relationship between community or identity (political virtue). But how to build a tolerant relationship between human and their environment? What kind of wisdom that we need? I discuss about tolerance as an ecological wisdom or, “ecological virtue”, and a need for human to become a moral subject who has an ecological insight. I will elaborate ethical arguments from the perspective of virtue ethics, one of important disciplines in normative ethics, and environmental ethics, the most important branch in applied ethics, which describe that humans really need to have a mindset of ecocentric oriented, be wise and respectful toward the nature and the environment, build a mutual respect relationship, tolerance is not only a main value in political community, but also a main value in ecological community in a mutual respect ecosystem atmosphere and the existence of mutual recognition between human and nature.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 3, pp 48-56; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol3.iss1.2020.686

Abstract:
Global citizens of the world are entering a new era, the era of disruption. Terminologically, disruption means the era of chaos or the era of the disturbance. In the Indonesian dictionary, disruption is interpreted as being uprooted from the root. In the era of disruption, nothing is certain and established. The rapid development of information technology has a big influence on this era. This causes the level of local and global competition and competition among individuals or even countries becomes a necessity. Recently the situation of the Americans and Iran has heated up. Indonesia and China also. In a competition, superior-inferior relations become necessary. In such situations, the preservation of nature becomes the most easily ignored, or even sacrificed. For a moment, in competition between individuals or between countries to prove their superiority, nature became the most powerless and inferior. If the balance of nature is disturbed, the most disadvantaged are humans as well as animals. Forest and land fires in Australia are conclusive evidence. When nature is disturbed, humans and animals are the first victims to feel the loss. This issue is the background of the writing of this research. This research seeks to elaborate on the Christian eco-theology notion and to dialogue it with the Hindu cosmology notion. The method used is qualitative research with a comparative study approach. This research is expected to contribute ideas and also enriching the Christian eco-theological dialogue with Hindu cosmology in the era of disruption, in particular concerning the environment.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 25-41; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.449

Abstract:
Studies on Islam and Muslims in Vietnam are indeed very interesting to be understood and shared with other Muslims in the region. Historically, the Cham communities in Vietnam have converted over many years from Hinduism to Buddhism and to Islam. Today, the Cham communities are often associated with Islam, but this does not mean that they are all practicing the same rituals. However, even though they have different beliefs and orientations, the interactions among the Cham in their own community are still in harmony. I will argue that the differences between ethnic identities and religious orientations among the Cham in Vietnam have been influenced by their interactions with outsiders and their transnational networks. This study tries to capture the religious orientations among the Cham in Vietnam and how they maintain their harmonious livelihood and social interaction in the community. Furthermore, it takes a qualitative approach through observations, in-depth interviews and review literature. The observations and in-depth interviews occurred in May-June 2014 in Ho Chi Minh City and Phan Rang Province in Central Vietnam.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.455

Abstract:
This study sets out to establish conceptual demarcations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisition with regard to the knowledge society. The knowledge society is a form of society in which members are examining ideas constantly. In Knowledge society there ought to be communicative rationality, wherein, arguments and receptive audiences are very important. The communicative phenomena in the knowledge society, knowledge should be participatory. This will occur only when society is knowledgeable and should have the potency to think, participate and respond critically. This type of knowledge domain will go beyond information because mere information is not knowledge, it requires Understanding and perception, imaginative framework, communicative and creative framework than only knowledge society would function and humanities (Human approach- when men are at the center of inquiry and inquiry must be human-centric) must be its hardcore. A society having equalitarian justice, the question of empowerment will not arise; this will create equal potency of freedom and capacity to respond. and can have healthy communication. It would be a dialoguing society, wherein negotiation will never seize.A society without a Motivational crisis, the Rationality crisis and the Legitimacy crisis can become knowledge society provided they have a sharable life world, which would respect alternative ways of thinking and it would be communicative. Virtues like empathy, compassion, etc must be at the center of the knowledge society. There should be the absence of dark emotions (sadness, suffering, anxiety, envy, boredom, loneliness, guilt, anger) in the knowledge society. Moreover, this entire phenomenon is not possible without nudging by the authority keeping libertarian paternalism and choice architecture.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 75-85; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.394

Abstract:
The collapse of New Order regime was caused by the Asian financial crisis with the crisis of confidence by Suharto and his political cronies. The origin of the Indonesian crisis situated in the effort to maintain foreign financial capital could not restore the deficit of the national market, while they also tried to keep the stability of fixed exchange rate. Under Suharto, Indonesia was ruled by the military dual-function system and authoritarianism. Popular uprising, pillages, and demonstrations arose in the breakdown of New Order. The aim of this paper is to analyze the rational choice theory of New Order regime and the social solidarity of the popular uprising in the Indonesian people. By the attempt to scrutinize the New Order regime, there are some questions need to be asked. Firstly, how was the emergence and his political scheme in the history of Indonesia? Secondly, why the Asian Financial Crisis brought Suharto and New Order regime into its downfall? and thirdly, what was the effect of mob violence that appeared in 1998? Through these questions, rational choice institutionalism and social solidarity will be the approaches to delve the analysis of New Order regime by differentiate the governmental, national and international scale of the study.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 68-74; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.452

Abstract:
The refugee crisis in Germany is a part of the European migrant crisis in connection with the immigration of high numbers of people arriving in the European Union (EU) from across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe. This period reached its’ summit in 2015/2016 with over a million protection seekers arriving in Germany.The high influx of protection seekers in such a short time has caused a social debate in Germany on how to handle the high numbers of immigrants and arrange the political asylum. There are different views on the reception of migrants that range from the culture of welcome to xenophobia. This can be observed in the society, where a part of the population gets involved with the refugees’ integration, whereas another (increasing) part foments anti-immigrant sentiments. Between those beliefs, many different attitudes and behaviors towards refugees can be found.This article discusses the situation of refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, concerning the divided opinions reaching from a culture of welcome to xenophobia. It addresses the transformation that Germany is currently undergoing and gives several examples of incidents of and against refugees that affect the mindset of the German population.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.448

Abstract:
Higher education in India is always a socio-political way and a powerful engine of social mobility. It adds to the benefits to society as more people earning Higher Education credentials. It is proven that college graduates earn more. They are less likely to be unemployed. They are more likely to vote, more likely to volunteer, and more likely to maintain good health. India as a Globalised and developing nation has been little systematically progressing on the educational front since its independence. The government is making progress in reaching out to all the classes of its society. The improvement in the country’s economic front has resulted in the upscaling of communication technology. The advent of the internet, have vastly leveraged the promotion of education across all verticals. But at the same time, the idea of Equity and Equality needs to be redefined in the present context of the newly established notion of ‘Inclusivity’. This paper deliberates on the various ideas and approaches of Higher Education in India on ‘Inclusivity’ in general and Equity and Equality in particular.
International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies, Volume 2, pp 100-107; https://doi.org/10.32795/ijiis.vol2.iss2.2019.454

Abstract:
The Philippines held its national elections last May 2019. During the election campaign, several religious groups organized electoral slates or supported particular political candidates. Among these groups were the Iglesia ni Cristo (INC) with its Alagad Party, the Jesus is Lord (JIL) Movement with its CIBAC Party, the El Shaddai with its Buhay Party, and the Kingdom of Jesus Christ which supported all of the candidates backed by the Duterte government. On the other hand, the dominant Roman Catholic Church did not support any political party or candidate as a bloc but emphasized the need for the electorate to use their conscience and vote wisely. Some Roman Catholic priests, however, openly supported the opposition Otso Diretso slate for the Senate.This paper looks at the interesting link between religion and politics in the Philippines, especially in its recent political history, i.e. from 1986 up to the present. In particular, this paper will attempt to answer the following questions: What role do the various religious groups in the Philippines play in the field of the political arena? Do Filipinos vote based on their religious affiliation?
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top