Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal Journal of Atmospheric Science Research: 85

(searched for: journal_id:(4140860))
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Aditi Singh, R. S. Maheskumar, Gopal R. Iyengar
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i4.5068

Abstract:
An attempt has been made in the present study to forecast fog with adiagnostic method using the outputs of global NWP model. The diagnosticmethod is based on the combination of thresholds of meteorologicalvariables involved in fog formation. The thresholds are computed usingthe observations during fog. These thresholds are applied to the output of aglobal NWP model for forecasting fog. The occurrence of fog is a commonphenomenon during winter season over the northern plains of India. Thediagnostic method is used to predict fog occurrences over three stations innorth India. The proposed method is able to predict both occurrences andnon-occurrences of fog at all the three stations. It is found that 94% of thefog events forecasted by the model using the diagnostic method have beenactually observed at the selected stations. The performance of method inpredicting fog is found best over Delhi with the highest accuracy (0.61) andprobability of detection (0.60). The study signifies that diagnostic approachbased on the output of a global model is a useful tool for predicting fogover a single location.
Jully Odhiambo Ouma, Dereje Wakjira, Ahmed Amdihun, Eva Nyaga, Franklin Opijah, John Muthama, Viola Otieno, Eugene Kayijamahe, Solomon Munywa, Guleid Artan
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i4.4809

Abstract:
Rangelands dominate arid and semi-arid lands of the Greater Horn ofAfrica (GHA) region, whereby pastoralism being the primary source oflivelihood. The pastoral livelihood is affected by the seasonal variabilityof pasture and water resources. This research sought to design a grid-basedforage monitoring and prediction model for the cross-border areas of theGHA region. A technique known as Geographically Weighted Regressionwas used in developing the model with monthly rainfall, temperature,soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI).Rainfall and soil moisture had a high correlation with NDVI, and thusformed the model development parameters. The model performed wellin predicting the available forage biomass at each grid-cell with March-May and October-December seasons depicting a similar pattern but witha different magnitude in ton/ha. The output is critical for actionable earlywarning over the GHA region’s rangeland areas. It is expected that thismode can be used operationally for forage monitoring and prediction overthe eastern Africa region and further guide the regional, national, sub-national actors and policymakers on issuing advisories before the season.
Elena S. Andreeva, Sergey S. Andreev, Anna A. Parshina
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i3.4845

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the discussion of the advantages of assessing the environmental comfort of the climate, based on the natural features of the climate and the bioclimatic conditions of the territory. The study assessed the ecological comfort of the climate in the city of Taganrog on the basis of the developed original sequence of performing three stages of assessing the totality of bioclimatic indicators with the final calculation of the values of the integral indicator of the bioclimatic comfort of the climate. The results of the assessment showed, according to the average long-term climatic data, the presence of sub-comfortable climates with a tendency to transition to comfortable climate conditions in the warm period of the year. The cold season was distinguished by uncomfortable conditions according to long-term average climatic data. Modeling calculations of the possible risk to the health of city residents in the presence of concentrations of suspended solids in the surface air layer, together with carbon monoxide, exceeding the maximum one-time values by more than 7 times, showed that the development of possible resorptive or carcinogenic effects in these circumstances will occur in 1/3 the population of the city. The prospects for the assessment of the ecological comfort of the climate, which allow in the future to adequately calculate the magnitude of environmental risks to public health caused by pollution of the surface air layer, are shown.
, Nikita Vinogradov, Evgenii Baksht, Dmitry Sorokin
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i3.4858

Abstract:
Over the past three decades, research of high-altitude atmospheric discharges has received a lot of attention. This paper presents the results of experimental modeling of red sprites during a discharge in low-pressure air. To initiate ionization waves in a quartz tube, an electrodeless pulseperiodic discharge fed by microsecond voltage pulses with an amplitude of a few kilovolts and a repetition rate of tens of kHz were formed. In this case ionization waves (streamers) have a length of tens of centimeters. The main plasma parameters were measured at various distances along the tube. The measurements confirm the fact that ionization waves propagate in opposite directions from the zone of the main electrodeless discharge, just as it happens during the formation of red sprites.
Victor Adjei, Elijah Foh Amaning, Isaac Tettey Adjokatse
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i3.4778

Abstract:
For the past few decades, illegal mining sector in Ghana popularly known as galamsey has received public outcry due to its negative impacts on quantity and quality of water resources. The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effects of mining in water bodies and climate change on water resources in Ghana. The methodology explored in the study was quantitative approach. The quality and quantity of most water bodies in Ghana had been compromised due to extraction of minerals, and such contaminants (heavy metals) include mercury, zinc, cyanide, sulphur etc. This phenomenon had made most water resources (e.g. River Fena, River Pra) unwholesome or inhabitable. Apart from this, climate change had also dried up some streams and rivers such as Anyinam, Offin and Goa. These unfortunate events had made water resources precarious which could spike water scarcity in the country in the near future. This paper, therefore, commends that stringent measures are to be taken to protect water bodies in the country as a menace of climate will continue to get worse.
Kuldeep Srivastava
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i3.4769

Abstract:
Regional Weather Forecasting Centre (RWFC) New Delhi has the responsibility to issue and disseminate rainfall forecast for Delhi. So it is very important to scientifically verify the rainfall forecast issued by RWFC. In this study rainfall forecast verification of Delhi has been carried out annually and season wise for the period 2011 to 2021. Various statistical parameters such as Percentage Correct (PC), Probability of Detection (POD), Missing Ratio (MR), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), True Skill Statistics (TSS) and Heidke Skill Score (HSS) have been calculated for season wise and annually. A forecast is considered to be improved if PC, POD, CSI, TSS and HSS increase and FAR and MR decrease over a period of time. The author can conclude that annual accuracy of forecast has increased significantly over the period of time from 2011 to 2021, as PC, POD, CSI, TSS and HSS increase and FAR and MR decrease over a period of time. Maximum contribution in the improved forecast has observed in transition season (pre-monsoon season followed by post-monsoon, having rainfall activity mainly in association with thunderstorms), when FAR and MR have decreased drastically.
Peter Mazurkin
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i3.4674

Abstract:
The regularities of the dynamics of the average annual temperature of Berlin from 1701 to 2021 are revealed. A total of 65 wavelets were received. The temperature has a high quantum certainty, and the change in the average annual temperature of Berlin was identified by a model that contains only two components for prediction. The basis of the forecast at 320 years makes it possible to look into the future until the year 2340. The forecast confirms the conclusions made in the CMIP5 report on global warming. With an increase in the number of components in the model up to five, the forecast is possible only until 2060. Therefore, the model with only two components is workable. The trend is characterized by a modified Mandelbrot equation showing exponential growth with a high growth rate of 1.47421. The wave equation also has an amplitude in the form of the Mandelbrot law (in mathematics, the Laplace law, in biology, the Zipf-Pearl law, in econometrics, the Pareto law), when the exponential growth activity is equal to 1. For 1701, the period of oscillation was 2× 60.33333 ≈ 120.7 years. By 2021, the period decreased and became equal to 87.6 years. The trend is such that by 2340 the period of oscillation will decrease to 30.2 years. Such an increase in fluctuations indicates an imbalance in climate disturbances in temperature in Berlin. For Berlin, the last three years are characterized by sharp decreases in the average annual temperature from 11.8 °C to 10.5 °C, i.e. by 12.4% in 2021. Therefore, the forecast is still unstable, as a further decrease in the average annual temperature of Berlin in the near future may change the picture of the forecast.
Sofia Borrego, Alian Molina, Yuneisis Bonne, Anyilena González, Lidiersy Méndez
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i2.4536

Abstract:
Environmental fungi can damage the documentary heritage conserved in archives and affect the personnel’s health if their concentrations, thermohygrometric parameters and ventilation conditions are not adequate, problems that can be accentuated by Climate Change. The aims of this work were to identify and to characterize the airborne fungal pollution of naturally ventilated repositories in the Provincial Historical Archive of Santiago de Cuba and predict the risk that these fungi pose to the staff’s health. Indoor air of three repositories of this archive and the outdoor air were sampled in an occasion every time in 2015, 2016 and 2017 using a SAS sampler. The obtained fungal concentrations varied from 135.6 CFU/m3 to 421.1 CFU/m3 and the indoor/outdoor ratios fluctuated from 0.7 to 4.2, evidencing a variable environmental quality over time, but in the third sampling the repositories environments showed good quality. Aspergillus and Cladosporium were the predominant genera in these environments. A. flavus was a prevailed species in indoor air, while A. niger and Cl. cladosporioides were the species that showed the greatest similarities with the outdoor air. Coremiella and Talaromyces genera as well as the species Aspergillus uvarum, Alternaria ricini and Cladosporium staurophorum were the first findings for environments of Cuban archives. Xerophilic species (A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. ustus) indicators of moisture problems in the repositories were detected; they are also opportunistic pathogens and toxigenic species but their concentrations were higher than the recommended, demonstrating the potential risk to which the archive personnel is exposed in a circumstantial way.
Yarou Halissou, Alamou Adéchina Eric, Biao Iboukoun Eliézer, Obada Ezéchiel, Tore Daniel Bio, Afouda Abel
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i2.4602

Abstract:
In the context of a changing climate, the Beninese Niger River basin has been the focus of several research studies for the quantification, planning, and modeling of water and related resources for sustainable use. This research aims to characterize the historical (1976-2019) and projected (2021- 2050) hydrological drought of the Beninese Niger River basin. The study used daily observations of rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, runoff rates and simulations of HIRHAM and REMO RCMs from fifteen (15) rainfall stations installed around the basin. It uses standardized streamflow indices (SDI) at 12-month and 36-month time steps. The results show that the calculated SDI indices show, on average, for all the model scenarios used, chronological trends of increase. These increases are not significant (are of the order of 0.00001 per year). The analysis of the SDI indices shows that, on average, the hydrological droughts in the Beninese basin of the Niger River will increase at 36 months and decrease at 12 months of the SDI. In fact, these small variations of hydrological droughts will be accompanied by the increase of their duration and the decrease of their magnitudes. The droughts detected in the Benin basin of the Niger River during the historical period will continue until 2050 in the same range but with more extended drought lengths. It should be noted that most of the changes observed in the calculated and analyzed indices are not significant.
Peter Matveevich
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i2.4639

Abstract:
The identification method revealed asymmetric fluctuations in the dynamics of the average annual temperature in New Delhi from 1931 to 2021, that is, for 90 years. An analysis of the wave patterns of climate until 2110 was carried out. Geotechnology of the Himalayan passage was proposed to reduce heat waves in India and China. Formulas containing four and 18 fluctuations were adopted for forecasting. Models give an increase in the heat wave from 2021, which is the fourth component. As a result, the landscape of the Himalayan mountains and the deserts of Thar and Takla Makan create a regional climate system that is original for the land of the Earth. In this system, oscillatory temperature adaptation in the future will be several times greater than the global warming rate predicted in the IPCC CMIP5 report. Between 2001 and 2019 the largest temperature increase wave maximum was observed in New Delhi at 0.65 °C in 2012-2013. In the sixth phase from 2036 to 2049, an ecological catastrophe will break out in New Delhi. According to calculations, the maximum value of the average annual temperature in New Delhi was 25.82 °C in 2017. Since then, the cooling has continued for four years, which will continue until 2028. The temperature will drop to 22.54 °C due to a change in solar activity by 3.28 °C. Then by 2044, the average annual temperature in New Delhi will increase to 31.03 °C, or the increment will be 31.03 – 22.54 = 8.49 °C. In 2035, the climate in New Delhi will become hotter compared to 2021. The increase in the heat wave is noticeable. From 1931 to 2049 there will be six half-periods of cooling and warming: 1) 23; 2) 23; 3) 20; 4) 18; 5) 15; 6) 13 years old. The most dangerous is the sixth stage. It is proposed at the fifth stage for 15 years until 2037 in northern India to the Takla Makan desert in China to build a passage up to 350 km long, 10 km-20 km wide and at least 4.5 km high.
Budnik Svetlana Vasilivna
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i2.4396

Abstract:
In work features of a hydrological regime of catchments of the river of the Pripyat in climate change are considered. Researches of meteorological characteristics of the given territory show the tendency to growth, both temperatures of air, and precipitation, evaporation from a surface of water and ground also show the tendency to increase. That is not unequivocally reflected in change of a course of hydrological characteristics waters objects of territory. On a part of pools of the rivers the mid-annual runoff of water in the rivers in time tends to growth, and Change of levels of subsoil waters decreases for parts - on a turn - here, as a rule, tends a course in time opposite to a mid-annual runoff of water in the rivers. Change of the maximal temperature of water in the rivers in time repeats the tendency of a course of a runoff of water in them, i.e. at increase in a runoff of water in the rivers - the maximal temperature increases, and at reduction - decreases. The increase in temperature of a superficial component of a runoff of the rivers occurs because of the general increase in temperature of air in considered territory. Silt charge waters in all territory decreases, despite of increase in quantity of atmospheric precipitation and increases or reduction of a runoff of water in the rivers. The relationship between the water runoff layer and precipitation and soil moisture has a certain time delay. The average annual water temperature over time shows a tendency to increase at almost all stations, while the change in the maximum water temperature in rivers over time has a multidirectional tendency and to a greater extent depends on the change in water depth in the river, a decrease in high water maximums and frequent thaws, etc. The studies carried out show that the preservation of moisture in thick layers of soil (0 cm-100 cm) contributes to an increase in water flow in rivers and in the modern conditions of Polesie of Ukraine this will solve a number of problems with the provision of high-quality water resources for various industries and the population.
V. Spiridonov, N. Sladić, B. Jakimovski, M. Ćurić
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i1.4375

Abstract:
Hurricane Ida ferociously affected many south-eastern and eastern parts of the United States, making it one of the strongest hurricanes in recent years. Advanced forecast and warning tool has been used to track the path of the ex-Hurricane, Ida, as it left New Orleans on its way towards the northeast, accurately predicting significant supercell development above New York City on September 01, 2021. This advanced method accurately detected the area with the highest possible level of convective instability with 24-h lead time and even Level 5, devised in the categorical outlooks legend of the system. Therefore, an extreme level implied a very high probability of the local-scale hazard occurring above the NYC. Cloud model output fields (updrafts and downdrafts, wind shear, near-surface convergence, the vertical component of relative vorticity) show the rapid development of a strong supercell storm with rotating updrafts and a mesocyclone. The characteristic hook-shaped echo signature visible in the reflectivity patterns indicates a signal for a highly precipitable (HP) supercell with the possibility of tornado initiation. Open boundary conditions represent a good basis for simulating a tornado that evolved from a supercell storm, initialized with initial data obtained from a real-time simulation in the period when the bow echo and tornado-like signature occurred. Тhe modeled results agree well with the observations.
Nyong Princely Awazi
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i1.4303

Abstract:
The adverse impacts of climate variability and change are felt mostly by smallholder farmers and smallholder farming systems where rainfed agriculture is predominant. Continuous dependence on rain-fed agriculture has led to declining crop productivity and crop failure in most cases as weather patterns shift which is very problematic for crop growth. Agroforestry which is one of the climate-smart, environmentally benign and agroecological practices has been found to mitigate climate change adversities while fostering adaptation, enhancing resilience and attenuating vulnerability especially in smallholder farming systems. However, in Cameroon, limited empirical research has been done to ascertain the role played by agroforestry in climate change adaptation, resilience enhancement and vulnerability attenuation. This paper which is based on an in-depth review of literature was undertaken to uncover what has been done so far in terms of empirical studies tackling the role played by agroforestry in climate change adaptation, resilience and vulnerability attenuation in Cameroon. It was found that most of the empirical studies have been carried out in one agroecological zone – the western highlands of Cameroon, showing that smallholder farmers adopt different agroforestry practices in the face of climate change with the most common being home gardens with livestock, home gardens without livestock, scattered trees on croplands, improved fallows, live fences/hedges and windbreaks, coffeebased agroforestry, cocoa-based agroforestry, apiculture-based agroforestry, fodder banks, and plantation crop-based agroforestry practices. These agroforestry practices provide a plethora of ecosystem services categorized into provisioning, supporting, regulating and cultural which play an important role towards fostering climate change adaptation, enhancing resilience and attenuating vulnerability in smallholder farming systems. From the findings uncovered by this study, it is imperative for more empirical studies to be carried out in the other four agroecological zones of Cameroon where there is a paucity of information regarding the role played by agroforestry towards fostering climate change adaptation, enhancing resilience and attenuating vulnerability in smallholder farming systems.
Nikolai Nikolaevich Zavalishin
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i1.4080

Abstract:
Two hypotheses of modern warming are considered: natural and anthropogenic. The probabilities of each of them are compared. It is proved that the hypothesis of natural warming is much more likely than the hypothesis of anthropogenic warming. It is shown that the displacement of the Sun from the center of mass of the solar system directly affects the temperature of the surface atmosphere in the synoptic regions of Eurasia. This result corresponds to the model of E. P. Borysenkov with variations of the solar constant or, equivalently, with variations of the Bond albedo.
Guona Luo, Xiancan Li, Shuang Liu, Muhang Li, Shuya Zhang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i1.4086

Abstract:
Using the principles and methods of eco-economics as the research object, Aral City comprehensively expounds the ecological service functions such as ecosystem regulation of climate, carbon sequestration, soil conservation, water conservation and purification environment, and evaluates its economic value.The total value of the estimated 2021 is 1303.65 million yuan. At the same time, the importance of ecological service functions of urban ecosystems, from large to small, is to sequester carbon and release oxygen, purify the environment, maintain soil, conserd water sources, regulate the climate. The ecosystem service function which needs to be paid attention to in the concept of ecological construction and restoration of the next stage of ecological construction in Aral City.
Desmond Eteh, Edirin Akpofure, Solomon Otobo
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v5i1.3873

Abstract:
In watershed hydrology, the morphometric features of a river basin are vital to examine the lower Orashi River basin morphological and hydrological aspects, as well as its flood potential, based on their morphometric characteristics using remotely sensed SRTM data that was analyzed with ArcGIS software. The areal, linear, and relief aspects of the Orashi River basin were examined as morphometric parameters. The lower Orashi river basin, according to the findings, has a total size of 625.61 km2 and a perimeter of 307.98 km, with a 5th order river network based on Strahler categorization and a dendritic drainage pattern. Because of low drainage density, the drainage texture is very fine, the relief is low, and the slope is very low. Bifurcation ratio, circularity ratio, drainage density aspect ratio, form factor, and stream frequency values indicate that the basin is less elongated and would produce surface runoff for a longer period, while topographic changes show that the river is decreasing with depth in the land area at about the same elevation as a result of sand deposited due to lack of maintenance by dredging, which implies that the basin is morphometrically elevated and sensitive to erosion and flooding. To understand geohydrological features and to plan and manage watersheds, morphometric analysis based on geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques is beneficial.
Okorie Fidelis Chinazor
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3843

Abstract:
This study analyzed rainfall variability in Southeast region of Nigeria using graphical models, as well as using statistical approach to investigate any significant relationship between the global North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index and the regional rainfall variability in region. The study was conducted in three States of Southeastern Nigeria namely, Abia, Ebonyi and Imo States that lie between Latitudes 40 40’ and 80 50’N and Longitudes 60 20’ and 80 50’E. Data for the study included 30 years (1988 - 2017) archival time-series monthly rainfall values for the three study States, acquired from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), offices in the states, and Standardized values of NAOI (North Atlantic Oscillation Index) for the same period, which were collected from a website, on the NOAA Data Center, USA. In the data analyses, the first method was adopted by using graphs to illustrate mean annual rainfall values for thirty years. Coefficient of variability was employed in evaluating the degree of variability of values from the mean rate. The second analysis was accomplished using correlation models to ascertain any relationship between NAOI and rainfall in Southeast Nigeria. The results showed a significant variability of rainfall in the region from January to December (mean monthly) within the study period. A negative correlation value of 0.7525 was obtained from the correlation analysis, showing that the global NAO index and rainfall variability deviate in the opposite direction. Coefficient of multiple determinations (CMD) subsequently showed value of 0.031%, being the variation in rainfall as influenced by the global teleconnectivity, and this means that the NAO index has zero or no influence on rainfall variability in Southeast region of Nigeria.
Romdhane Ben Slama
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3502

Abstract:
This paper contributes to explain the global warming instead of "giving up" and thinking about passively adapting to climate change or global warming. It makes more sense to tackle what creates the greenhouse effect and contributes to global warming. The greenhouse effect is not only due to GHGs emissions, but also to the excess IR radiation emitted during the day, by artificial surfaces, following the absorption of solar radiation. The phenomenon should be compared to that of radiative forcing well known by climatologists and which makes the link between atmospheric pollution and the density of heat fluxes stopped by the atmosphere inducing global warming. It becomes clear that type an equation here. The surplus CO2 and IR radiation emissions influence global warming, not to mention the direct part of the heat released by the combustion of fossil fuels and even renewable (wood fires, biogas, friction of wind turbine propellers with the air).
Victor Adjei, Elijah Foh Amaning
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3723

Abstract:
The changing climate is unequivocal, and it is generally recognised as a threat to the terrestrial environment due to its cross-sectoral and irreversible impacts. Since the inception of industrial revolution (1750), the concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere has been compromised. Until the past two centuries, the quantity of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere had never surpassed about 280 part per million (ppm) and 790 part per billion (ppb), respectively. Rise in greenhouse gases (GHGs) has impacted almost every biotic component on the surface of the earth, and regions which have low adaptive capacity and greatly depend on agriculture and biodiversity for livelihood are hard hit. This phenomenon has resulted in global warming, extinction of some fora and fauna species, precipitation variability, extreme weather conditions, migration of biotic creatures from one geographical area to another, melting of icecap, sea level rise, coral breach and so on during the last century. The contribution of emission of greenhouse gases of Africa is insignificant, however, the repercussion of the changing climate is crucial in the region due to the presence of other stressors such as poverty, corruption, diseases, geographical position of the continent, low adaptive capacity, rain-fed agriculture etc., and this has led to conflict over resources usage, food insecurity, forced migration, ill-health and many more.
Givanildo De Gois, José Francisco De Oliveira-Júnior
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3603

Abstract:
The goal was to perform the filling, consistency and processing of the rainfall time series data from 1943 to 2013 in five regions of the state. Data were obtained from several sources (ANA, CPRM, INMET, SERLA and LIGHT), totaling 23 stations. The time series (raw data) showed failures that were filled with data from TRMM satellite via 3B43 product, and with the climatological normal from INMET. The 3B43 product was used from 1998 to 2013 and the climatological normal over the 1947- 1997 period. Data were submitted to descriptive and exploratory analysis, parametric tests (Shapiro-Wilks and Bartlett), cluster analysis (CA), and data processing (Box Cox) in the 23 stations. Descriptive analysis of the raw data consistency showed a probability of occurrence above 75% (high time variability). Through the CA, two homogeneous rainfall groups (G1 and G2) were defined. The group G1 and G2 represent 77.01% and 22.99% of the rainfall occurring in SRJ, respectively. Box Cox Processing was effective in stabilizing the normality of the residuals and homogeneity of variance of the monthly rainfall time series of the five regions of the state. Data from 3B43 product and the climatological normal can be used as an alternative source of quality data for gap filling.
Tiga Neya, Galine Yanon, Mouhamadou Bamba Sylla, Oble Neya, Julien W. Sawadogo
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3758

Abstract:
Transport sector is cited among the key emitted sector. In Burkina Faso, road transport occupies more than 60% of the emissions of the entire transport sector. However, there is no model equation for greenhouse gases modelling in transport sector. A methodology combining literature review and survey has been adopted to develop the simplified model equation in transport sector. The vehicle type survey allowed the identification of the type of vehicle and the literature review allowed the identification of the key parameters used for greenhouses gases modelling. The results revealed 10 vehicle types for road transport in Burkina Faso such as: Private cars, Public Transport/Buses, Special Vehicle (Ambulances, Fire bus, Funeral vehicles), other vehicle, Motorcycles, Wheeler, Rail, Van, Lorries and Truck Tractor. The keys parameters for greenhouse gases modelling are Fleet availability, Average annual distance travelled, Fuel Economy and Fuel emission factor. For all vehicle type identified simplified model equation was developed to support Burkina Faso, assessing greenhouse gases emission in the sector of transport. This approach could be replicated in other countries in the sub-Saharan Region.
Jiaqi Zhao, Chenggang Wang
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3256

Abstract:
Using the 2015-2018 Hangzhou city PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3 mass concentration data, ERA5 reanalysis data and ground observation data, through the PCT classification method, the objective analysis of the winter air pollution weather situation in Hangzhou was obtained. The results showed that the winter air quality concentration in Hangzhou continued to be high from 2015 to 2018, and the air pollution was the most significant. Through objective classification, it is concluded that the main weather conditions affecting the region in winter are divided into 6 types, namely high pressure control, high pressure bottom control equalizing field, L-shaped high pressure control, high pressure front control equalizing field, low pressure control, low pressure front control Equalizing field. Among them, when high pressure control, high pressure bottom control equalizing field, L high pressure control, low pressure control are affected by local sources, the impact of external sources has a greater impact on the air quality in Hangzhou, and air pollution is prone to occur; before low pressure When the pressure equalization field is controlled by the Ministry and the pressure equalization field is controlled by the high pressure front, the local wind and precipitation in Hangzhou are relatively high, which is not conducive to the accumulation of air pollutants. The probability of occurrence of air pollution is small, and air pollution is not easy to occur.
UmmulKhair Abdulkarim, Bello Tijjani
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3430

Abstract:
Atmospheric aerosol concentrations have been found to change constantly due to the influence of source, winds and human activities over short time periods. This has proved to be a constraint to the study of varied aerosol concentrations in urban atmosphere alongside changing relative humidity and how it affects visibility and aerosol particle size distribution. In this research simulation was carried out using Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC 4.0) average concentration setup for relative humidity (RH) 0-99% at visible wavelength 0.4-0.8 μm to vary the concentrations of three aerosol components: WASO (Water-soluble), INSO (Insoluble) and SOOT. The Angstrom exponents (α), the curvatures (α2) and atmospheric turbidities (β) were obtained from the regression analysis of Kaufman’s first and second order polynomial equations for visibility. The research determined the mean exponent of the aerosol size growth curve (µ) from the effective hygroscopic growth (geff) and the humidification factors (γ) from visibility enhancement f (RH, λ). The mean exponent of aerosol size distributions (υ) was determined from µ and γ. The results showed that with varied WASO, INSO and SOOT concentrations respectively at different RH, aerosol particle size distributions showed bimodal characteristics with dominance of fine mode particles. Hazy atmospheric conditions prevailed with increasing turbidity.
Deepak Singh Rathore, Vimlesh Kumar Meena, Chandra Pal Singh Chandel, Krishna Swarup Gupta
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3465

Abstract:
Hydrogen sulfide is an important acid rain precursor and this led us to investigate the kinetics of its oxidation in aqueous phase by atmospheric oxygen. The kinetics was followed by measuring the depletion of oxygen in a reactor. The reaction was studied under pseudo order conditions with [H2S] in excess. The kinetics followed the rate law: -d[O2]/dt = k[S][O2]t (A) Where [S] represents the total concentration of hydrogen sulfide, [O2]t is the concentration of oxygen at time t and k is the second order rate constant. The equilibria (B - C) govern the dissolution of H2S; the sulfide ion in water forms different species: H2S K1 HS- + H+ (B) HS- K2 S2- + H+ (C) Where K1 and K2 are first and second dissociation constants of H2S. Although, H2S is present as undissociated H2S, HS- and S2- ions, nature of [H+ ] dependence of reaction rate required only HS- to be reactive and dominant. The rate law (A) on including [H+ ] dependence became Equation (D). -d[O2]/dt = k1K1[H+ ][S][O2]t / ([H+ ] 2 + K1[H+ ] + K1K2) (D) Our results indicate anthropogenic VOCs such as acetanilide, benzene, ethanol, aniline, toluene, benzamide, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene and anisole to have no significant effect on the reaction rate and any observed small effect is within the uncertainty of the rate measurements.
Sheikh Nawaz Ali, Anil D. Shukla
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3556

Abstract:
Himalayan glaciers‒ the store house of fresh water outside the polar region contributes ~45% of the total river flow by glacial melt in the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra watersheds which supports the livelihood of ~500 million people . The sustainability of these rivers is being questioned because of the growing evidences of accelerated glacier retreat in the recent decades, which is expected to have cascading effects on the mountainous areas and their surrounding lowlands. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers reveals their sensitivity to ongoing changes in climate dynamics, and if the current trend continues, rivers that rely heavily on snow/ice melt are expected to suffer hydrological disruptions to the point where some of the most populous areas may ‘run out of water’ during the dry season. Therefore, efforts are being made to study the glacier mass balance trends in order to understand the patterns and causes of recent recessional trend. Despite their importance, the absence of long-term mass-balance and remote sensing data restricts our knowledge of the Himalayan glaciers’ sensitivity/ response to climate change. Furthermore, such studies may be insufficient unless are compared to long-term glacier fluctuations (millennial and multi-millennial time scales), which aid in better understanding the natural trends of and human impacts on climate change, as well as assessing the causes and possible future of contemporary shrinking glaciers. This will also improve our understanding of past glacier behaviour in the context of primary causes of glacier change, which is critical for water resource management and understanding climate variability in high alpine areas where alternative proxy climate archives are typically scarce. Therefore, it is pertinent to pool our scientific resources and energy (i) towards understanding the Himalayan glaciers’ feeders (precipitation sources) and how they changed over time (geological and historical), as well as the causes of glaciers recession, one of which has been identified as (ii) black soot (carbon) in aerosol pollution.
Pavan Kumar B, Bhavani Pinjarla, P K Joshi, P S Roy
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3475

Abstract:
A comprehensive analysis of climate data (1958-2018) is carried out at the national scale in India to assess spatiotemporal variation in aridity. The aridity is analyzed using UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Aridity Index (AI), which is the ratio between Precipitation (P) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET). Freely available Terra-Climate database, P and PET variables, offered an unprecedented opportunity for monitoring variations in AI and aridity index anomalies (AIA) at interseasonal and inter-decadal basis. The study also assesses longer term patterns of P and AI anomalies with vegetation anomalies. The results indicate that significant clustered areas with maximum dryness are located at west-central part of India, the state of Maharashtra. Overall, there is a gradual increase in the extent of arid zone during 60-year period and spatially maximum extent of percentage change in aridity area is observed. The change patterns of AI in India are largely driven by the changing patterns of precipitation. The maximum impact of decline in precipitation on AIA was observed during Kharif season frequently, for every 4-5 years during 1972-1992. The pattern repeated in the last few recent years (2013- 2018), the decline in precipitation resulted increased aridity. The study also reveals that the availability and usage of irrigation sources have increased from 2014 to 2018. Thus, despite of less precipitation positive vegetation has been resulted in this period. The findings are important to understand the impacts of climate change on land use pattern, and land and water resource management.
Kombo Hamad Kai, Sarah E Osima, Agnes Laurence Kijazi, Mohammed Khamis Ngwali, Asya Omar Hamad
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.3135

Abstract:
This article examines the off season rainfall in northern coast Tanzania (NCT) including Zanzibar which occurred in January and February 2020 (JF). Like the JF rainfalls of 2001, 2004, 2010, 2016 and 2018, the JF (2020) rainfall was more unique in damages including loss of lives, properties and infrastructures. The study used the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data to examine the cause of uniqueness of JF rainfall in 2001, 2004, 2010, 2016, 2018 and 2020 over NCT and Zanzibar. These datasets include monthly mean u, v wind at 850, 700, 500, and 200 mb; SSTs, mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies, Dipole Mode Index (DMI), and monthly rainfall from NCT and Zanzibar stations. Datasets were processed and calculated into long term, seasonal, and monthly averages, indeed, Precipitation Index (PI) was calculated. Correlation analysis between the rainfall (December to January), SST, DMI and 850 mb wind vectors; and long-term percentage contribution of investigated parameters was calculated. Results revealed significant positive and negative correlations between JF rainfall, SSTs and DMI. Moreover, JFs of 2004 and 2016 had higher rainfalls of 443 mm with percentage contribution of up to 406%, while January and February, 2020 had the highest of 269.1 and 101.1mm in Zanzibar and 295 and 146.1 mm over and NCT areas, with highest January long-term rainfall contribution of 356% in Zanzibar and 526% over NCT. The DJF (2019/20) had the highest rainfall record of 649.5 mm in Zanzibar contributing up to 286%, while JF 2000 rainfall had a good spatial and temporal distribution over most NCT areas. JF, 2020 rainfall had impacts of more than 20 people died in Lindi and several infrastructures including Kiyegeya Bridge in Morogoro were damaged. Conclusively, more research works on understanding the dynamics of wet and dry JF seasons should be conducted.
Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.3229

Abstract:
In the present review article human diseases caused by various groups of pathogens have been explained with its etiology, epidemiology and treatment. In addition, effect of climatic changes on parasites and pathogens has been demarcated with rising incidences of diseases. In response to environmental changes, mainly external and internal microenvironment of body and drug regimens taken by patients; virus is regularly changing its form and new mutant variants are coming out. These are circulating in many Indian states and cross border countries and causing high infectivity and mortality in human patients. These variants with new mutations are challenging existing drugs and other prophylactic measures and massively disrupting functions of a tissue, organ, or entire organism. Diseases caused by viruses are showing new trends in virulence, with high infectivity, morbidity and mortality. Due to climatic effect and drug resistance and new mutations in pathogens disease burden has been exacerbated enormously at global level. In all cases of helminthes, protozoan’s, fungi, bacteria, virus pathogens and parasites available drug structure seem to be failed or their usefulness has been much reduced due to evolution of new mutant variants with multiple drug resistance. There are serious failures at the level of operation, management and control of disease. The utmost failure is due to lack of appropriate vaccine, drug regimens, clinical care and awareness among people. These are major reasons that is why diseases become uncontrolled and unmanageable.
Zhiqing Yuan
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.2916

Abstract:
With the development of the times and the progress of economy, great changes have taken place in the environment. In recent years, it is common to see bad weather, such as hurricane, drought, lightning and so on. The emergence of these weather has the greatest impact on farmers and crops, especially the lightning weather, not only that, but also sometimes cause personal injury. In the face of the frequent occurrence of bad weather in recent years and its harm and threat to China's agriculture, rural areas, personnel, etc., the author makes a detailed study on the causes of rural lightning weather, analyzes the lightning protection measures in rural areas and their shortcomings, and summarizes the relevant improvement measures.
Habib Senghor, Alex J. Roberts, Abdou L. Dieng, Dahirou Wane, Cheikh Dione, Mouhamed Fall, Abdoulahat Diop, Amadou T. Gaye, John Marsham
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.3165

Abstract:
Haboob occurrence strongly impacts the annual variability of airborne desert dust in North Africa with more dust raised from erodible surfaces in the early summer (monsoon) season when deep convective storms are common but soil moisture and vegetation cover are low. On 27 June 2018, a large dust storm is initiated in North Africa associated with an intensive westward dust transport. Far away from emission sources, dust is transported over the Atlantic for the long distance. Dust plume is emitted by a strong surface wind and becomes a type of haboob when it merges with the southeastward deep convective system in central Mali at 0200 UTC (27 June). We use satellite observations to describe and estimate the dust mass concentration during the event. Approximately 93% of emitted dust is removed from the atmosphere between sources (10°N–25°N; 1°W–8°E) and the African coast (6°N–21°N; 16°W–10°W). The convective cold pool has induced large economic and healthy damages, and death of animals in the northeastern side of Senegal. ERA5 reanalysis have shown that the convective mesoscale impacts strongly the climatological location of the Saharan heat low (SHL).
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.2740

Abstract:
A review and phenomenology on the greatest lightning hotspots in the world, known as the Catatumbo Lightning, located southeast of Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela), is presented. A microphysical model is presented to explain the charging process through electrical displacement within the cells of the cloud, incorporating the role of the self-polarization of ice and methane molecules as pyroelectric aerosol, which accounts for the phenomenology and is consistent with the electrification in thunderstorm. It is concluded that the pyroelectric model allows to explain the phenomenology of the rapid discharges of the flashes in the Catatumbo lightning and could be applied in outer planetary lightning.
Chalachew Lingerew, U. Jaya Prakash Raju
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2539

Abstract:
The height profile of atmospheric temperature data between 12 km and 100 km was obtained from SABER/TIMED satellite instruments during the year 2016 and used to characterize the three atmospheric pauses temporal variability of height and temperature over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (11.60 N, 37.30 E). The daily, monthly, and frequency distributions of tropopause-stratopause-mesopause height and temperature are investigated. From the frequency distribution, we had found that of the tropopause-stratopause-mesopause height 17 km, 48 km, and 98 km with the corresponding temperature 192 K, 268 K, and 148 K. The decrement (cooling) trend lines of tropopause height 0.7 K/year and its corresponding tropopause increment temperature has been ~1.5 K/year. The stratopause and mesopause trend lines of height are insignificant and the corresponding decrement (cooling) temperatures are ~3 K/year and ~13 K/year respectively. The mean monthly maximum heights of tropopause 19 km in May with a corresponding maximum temperature of 201 K in September. The maximum stratopause height 49.5 km in February and July and its temperature 268 K and 267 K in February and April respectively. The maximum mesopause height 98 km, 95 km, 97 km in March, Jun, and November respectively, and its maximum temperature 196 K and 198 K in January and July respectively.
Wen-Yih Sun
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2704

Abstract:
In the terrain following coordinate, Gal-Chen and Somerville (1975) and other proposed a vertical coordinate z*=(z-zb)/(zt-zb) and constant spatial intervals of dx* and dy*along the other directions. Because the variation of and was ignored, their coordinate does not really follow the terrain. It fails to reproduce the divergence and curl over a complex terrain. Aligning the coordinate with real terrain, the divergence and curl we obtained from the curvilinear coordinate are consistent with the Cartesian coordinate. With a modification, the simulated total mass, energy, and momentum from the Navier-Stokes equations are conserved and in agreement with those calculated from Cartesian coordinate.
Mazurkin Peter Matveevich
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2521

Abstract:
The bioclimatic regularities between the average annual precipitation, average annual temperatures and the density of organic carbon in the soil layer of 0-30 cm of the steppes in the regions of the world are given. They are distinguished by a high certainty of quantization by asymmetric wave equations. It turned out that, due to the vibrational adaptation of organic carbon, precipitation and temperature are dependent on each other. For example, the model of the influence of precipitation on temperature includes the first term in the form of Laplace's law (in mathematics), Mandelbrot's law (in physics), Zipf-Perl (in biology), and Pareto (in econometrics). The second term is the biotechnical law of the author of the article, which gives the maximum change in the indicator. Both components form a trend that makes it possible to divide the precipitation interval into three stages: 1) with an increase in precipitation from 0 to 60 mm, the temperature decreases according to Mandelbrot's law from 23.25 to 0.5 0С; 2) from 60 to 2100 mm, the temperature rises to 24 ° C; 3) with a further increase in precipitation over 2100 mm, a slow decrease in temperature occurs. The third term is an asymmetric wavelet with a constant half-period of 367.8 mm. A positive sign shows that in the steppes there is a positive oscillatory adaptation of temperature to changes in precipitation. In the interval of precipitation 0-350 mm, an oscillatory decrease in temperature occurs. It turns out that the first oscillation at 0 mm precipitation begins with a very high temperature gradient of thermal energy. The first interval includes Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. In the second interval of 350-750 mm, an oscillatory increase in temperature occurs. Then, in the third interval 750-1050 mm, the temperature drops again. The second oscillation with a correlation coefficient of 0.9685 has clear precipitation boundaries in the range of 200-2000 mm. Due to the negative sign, the fluctuation is a crisis, inhibiting the rise in temperature. And the third fluctuation has a positive effect on the temperature. The mechanism of oscillatory adaptation in the steppe soil is so perfect that it changes for itself the conditions of the place where the grass grows. An amplitude-frequency analysis of each oscillation will make it possible to determine the specific particular effects of precipitation and temperature on each other and on the density of organic carbon. It was found that two-factor modeling of the change in the soil organic carbon density makes it possible to achieve an identification error even less than the absolute measurement error.
Asheesh Bhargawa, A.K. Singh
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2488

Abstract:
In past few decades, climate has manifested numerous shifts in its trend. Various natural and anthropogenic factors have influenced the dynamics and the trends of climate change at longer time scale. To understand the long term climate fluctuations, we have analyzed forty years (1978 - 2018) data of ten climatic parameters that are responsible to influence the climate dynamics. The parameters involved in the present study are total solar irradiance (TSI), ultra violet (UV) index, cloud cover, carbon dioxide (CO2) abundances, multivariate (ENSO) index, volcanic explosivity index (VEI), global surface temperature (GST) anomaly, global sea ice extent, global mean sea level and global precipitation anomaly. Using the above mentioned climate entities; we have constructed a proxy index to study the quantitative measure of the climate change. In this process these indicators were aggregated to a single proxy index as global climate index (GCI) that has measured the strength of present climate change in semblance with the past natural variability. To construct GCI, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been used on yearly based data for the period 1978 - 2018. Actually PCA is a statistical tool with which we can reduce the dimensionality of the data and it retains most of the variation in the new data set. Further, we have confined our study to natural climate drivers and anthropogenic climate drivers. Our result has indicated that the strongest climate change has been occurred globally by the end of the year 2018 in comparison to late 1970’s natural variability.
Mohammed Suabir Zubairu
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2703

Abstract:
As a developing country in Africa, the effect of climate change is one of the sufferings of Ghana. The effect is much felt in rainfall variability because of the country over reliance on rainfall for agriculture. Over the past forty years, historical analyses of the cropping systems in Ghana indicated that there has been a shift from cocoa based to maize based cropping system. The shift was as a result of decline in the yield of cocoa due to changing rainfall pattern, lack of agricultural diversification and reliance on the production of crops that are sensitive to climate change. Also, an area suitability analysis of cash crops shows that climate change also creates an avenue for the cultivation of crops in certain areas that are formerly not grown there. For instance, cashew cultivation will become more suitable in parts of the north and east. To ascertain the variability in the rainfall pattern due to climate change, rainfall time series from 1981 to 2018 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite for seven meteorological stations selected from the ecological zones of Ghana were analyzed. There are decreasing rate of rainfall in some months and increasing rate in others as estimated by the Sen’s Test which clearly depicts variability in the rainfall pattern. As an agrobased country, to adapt to the current climatic condition, cashew agroforestry is suggested by this study because its growth will be suitable in the current and future condition because larger portion of the country has been justified to be suitable for its cultivation.
Victor Tarasenko, Evgenii Baksht, Vladimir Kuznetsov, Victor Panarin, Victor Skakun, Eduard Sosnin, Dmitry Beloplotov
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2342

Abstract:
The paper presents research data on positive and negative coronas in atmospheric pressure air in a highly inhomogeneous electric field. The data show that irrespective of the polarity of pointed electrodes placed in a high electric field (>200 kV/cm), this type of discharge develops via spherical streamers even if the gap voltage rises slowly (£0.2 kV/ms). The start voltage of first positive streamers, compared to negative ones, is higher and the amplitude and the frequency of their current pulses are much lower: about two times and more than two orders of magnitude, respectively. The higher frequency of current pulses from negative spherical streamers provides higher average currents and larger luminous regions of negative coronas compared to positive ones. Positive and negative cylindrical streamers from a pointed to a plane electrode are detected and successive discharge transitions at both polarities are identified.
Asad Ullah, Sayyed Iftekhar Ahmad, Rafi Ullah, Atta Ullah Khan, Sikandar Khan, Waheed Ullah, Abdul Waris
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2275

Abstract:
Climatic changes and its impact are increasingly evident in Pakistan, especially in the mountainous regions. Mountain ecosystems are considered to be sensitive indicators of global warming; even slight variations in temperature can lead to significant shifts in local climate, which can in turn drastically affect the natural environment, subsequently altering people’s lifestyle and wildlife habitats. The targeted area for the present research was Lower Dir District, Pakistan. The study gathered the required information from primary and secondary sources. Secondary data on temperature and precipitation was obtained from various sources, i.e., local CBO, including WWF Pakistan. On the basis of information gathered on climate change and wildlife, a detailed questionnaire was designed. The data analysis procedure involved preliminary coding and sorting of data, mostly through data reduction and data reconstruction. The data was presented in a narrative report of findings with descriptive and interpretative details. Results showed that no regular pattern of increase was found in temperature from 2010 to 2018; the same was noticed in the case of rainfall decrease pattern. Results also showed that the main causes behind climatic changes are an increase in greenhouse gases due to pollution by industries, vehicles, crushing plants, deforestation as well as some natural phenomena such as floods. The study showed that more than 80% of the respondents agreed that climatic effects have a great impact on wildlife, i.e., the existence of wildlife falls in danger due to climatic changes as it may lead to habitat change making it difficult for the survival and adaptation of the wildlife. Hence, in consequence, it leads to migration, low growth rate, increase in morbidity and mortality rate, and finally leading to extinction of the species or population. It is concluded from the study that climatic change is being severely noticed by people and its main causes are greenhouse gases and deforestation. It is also concluded that there is no or less conservation tool applied in the targeted area; also there is a low budget for forest safety and wildlife conservation. To control climatic changes and wildlife extinction, we need an appropriate policy for forest conservation, wildlife conservation, prevent hunting, industrial pollution control, vehicle pollution control, increase in plantation, awareness of policy for control of climatic changes, and so on.
Naveen P Singh, Bhawna Anand, S K Srivastava, K V Rao, S K Bal, M Prabhakar
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2269

Abstract:
Thestudy attempts to estimateand predict climate impact on crop yieldsusing future temperature projections under two climate emissions scenarios of RCP 4.5 and 8.5 for threedifferent time periods (2030s, 2050s and 2080s) across Agro-climatic zones (ACZ) of India.During the period 1966-2011, a significant rise was observed in both the annual mean maximum and minimum temperature across ACZs. Rainfall recorded an annual decline in Himalayan Regions and Gangetic Plains and a rise in Coastal Regions, Plateau & Hills and Western Dry Region.Our results showedhigh heterogeneity in climate impact onkharif and rabi crop yields (with both negative and positive estimates) across ACZs.It was found that rainfall had a positive effect on most of crop yields, but was not sufficient enough to counterbalance the impact of temperature.Changes in crop yield were more pronounced forhigheremission scenario of RCP 8.5. Thus, it was evident that the relative impacts of climate change and the associated vulnerability varyby ACZs, hence comprehensive crop and region-specific adaptation measures should be emphasized that helps in enhancing resilience of agricultural system in short to medium term.
Tatiana L. Ananina, Alexander A. Ananin
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2255

Abstract:
Due to global climate change it is important to constantly monitor the current climate state, observed trends and timely detection of their changes. The change in the hydrothermal regime has to result into changes in natural ecosystems. The analysis of long-term changes of mean annual temperatures and annual precipitation in warm and cold seasons over 1955-2017 years was carried out using data of the Davsha meteorological station , 54, 35˚N., 109,5˚E. Significant warming in the Northern Baikal region has been observed since 1990 and continues to the present. The climate is subcontinental with cool and short summers, frosty and long winters. In the last decade, there has been a shift of the beginning some phenology seasons. This had an effect on the increase in the warm season of the year and the duration of the frost-free period (by 5 days from the long-term average date). Spring comes earlier - for 3 days, summer and the last frost - for 5 days, autumn comes later - for 2 days.
Joy Karmakar
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2231

Abstract:
In 2016 WHO reported that Kolkata is the second most polluted city in India behind Delhi. Albeit the number of registered vehicles in Kolkata is much less compare to Delhi. Kolkata has encountered a decade long battle against change of old vehicles and fuel types. So, this paper made an attempt to explore the dynamics of air pollution in the city specially pre and post period of vehicle and fuel change in the city. The objectives of the paper include looking at spatiotemporal change of air pollution the city. Besides, the paper additionally illuminates on the role of land use functions and pollution in the city. The analysis shows that after the implementation of regulatory measures air pollution in the city reduced to some extent but effects of the measure gradually diminished. It is found that land use function as well as dynamics of metropolitan area plays crucial role in the air pollution of the city.
Matilde Anaya, Sofia Flavia Borrego Alonso, Miguel Castro, Oderlaise Valdés, Alian Molina
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i3.2215

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of the magnetic field generated by the household appliances on the airborne microbial surrounding these equipment located on indoor environments with particular interest in the environmental fungi. A simultaneous environmental study was carried out in locals of three different geographical places of Havana, Cuba, which have televisions, computers and an electric generator. The air samples were made by a sedimentation method using Malt Extract Agar. The concentration of total aerobic mesophilic as well as fungi and yeasts were determined in rainy and little rainy seasons by applying as factors: exposure time of dishes (5 to 60 min) and distance to the wall (0 and 1 m) at a height of 1 m above the floor. The predominant fungal genera were Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. In the dishes that were placed at 0 and 0.5 m from the emitting sources were observed that some bacteria colonies formed inhibition halos, a great diversity of filamentous fungi and an increase in the mycelium pigmentation as well as the pigments excretion. In the rainy season, the highest amounts of fungi were obtained in all samples. In the little rain season the count of the Gram-negative bacilli increased three times the Gram-positive cocci.
Thomas F. Valone
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i3.2191

Abstract:
As the world’s population has tripled (3x) since 1950, with another 50% increase expected by 2100, global annual carbon dioxide emissions growth rate has quadrupled (4x) since 1950 and global energy demand has quintupled (5x), all in the same time period. This discontinuous combination can be called a “3-4-5 Triad” and the sudden acceleration in all three arenas is too stressful on the environment and the damaging effects will be felt globally for centuries to come unless drastic action is taken. More importantly, the energy demand at 5x is outstripping the other two. This clearly means that as the population explodes at 3x, the emerging middle class wants almost twice as much as their usual share as fossil-fueled generators spread around the globe and modern conveniences become more and more desirable. However, such energy demand at 5x is an artificial human need that is predicted by RMI.org to result in four to five billion new window-mounted air conditioners by 2050 that will add even more to the global warming caused by increasing atmospheric carbon. By an examination of paleoclimatology for the past 420,000 years, it is demonstrable that reducing the concentration of this single most prolific heat-trapping gas by geoengineering back to pre-industrial levels of less than 300 ppm can actually give humankind a collective control over the world’s rapidly rising average global temperature and once more, a temperate climate to live in.
Romdhane Ben Slama
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i2.2013

Abstract:
The global warming which preoccupies humanity, is still considered to be linked to a single cause which is the emission of greenhouse gases, CO2 in particular. In this article, we try to show that, on the one hand, the greenhouse effect (the radiative imprisonment to use the scientific term) took place in conjunction with the infrared radiation emitted by the earth. The surplus of CO2 due to the combustion of fossil fuels, but also the surplus of infrared emissions from artificialized soils contribute together or each separately, to the imbalance of the natural greenhouse effect and the trend of global warming. In addition, another actor acting directly and instantaneously on the warming of the ambient air is the heat released by fossil fuels estimated at 17415.1010 kWh / year inducing a rise in temperature of 0.122 ° C, or 12.2 ° C / century.
Ping Wang, Chao Han, Youzhi Zhao, Wenci Ding, Zengzeng Li
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i2.2134

Abstract:
Numbers of real-time data (E-BAM) of PM2.5 were collected in the period from Jan 8th 2012 to Jan 1st 2013 at the laboratory of Tropical Ocean University (Sanya, China). The average mass concentration was 19.7 μg/m³. The highest 40.5 μg/m³ in October compared to the lowest 14.1 μg/m³ in July. From a seasonal perspective, the average PM2.5 mass concentration in fall and winter are relatively higher than that in both spring and summer. On the basis of satellite map of fire points and backward trajectories of the air masses, we primarily deduced that the PM2.5 in Sanya may be caused by the biomass burning and industrial pollutants from the area of Pearl River Delta of China and the Indo-China peninsula (e.g. Vietnam, Laos).
H. I. Abdussamatov
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i3.2129

Abstract:
The energy of solar radiation absorbed by the Earth, as well as the thermal radiation of the Earth’s surface, which is released to the space through the atmospheric transparency window, depends on variations of the area of the cloud cover. Svensmark et al. suggest that the increase in the area of the cloud cover in the lower atmosphere, presumably caused by an increase in the flux of galactic cosmic rays during the quasi-bicentennial minimum of solar activity, results only in an increase in the fraction of the solar radiation reflected back to the space and weakens the flux of the solar radiation that reached the Earth surface. It is suggested, without any corresponding calculations of the variations of the average annual energy balance of the Earth Е, that the consequences will include only a deficit of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth and a cooling of the climate up to the onset of the Little Ice Age. These suggestions ignore simultaneous impact of the opposite aspects of the increase in the area of the cloud cover on the climate warming. The latter will result from a decrease in the power of thermal radiation of the Earth’s surface released to the space, and also in the power of the solar radiation reflected from the Earth’s surface, due to the increase in their absorption and reflection back to the surface. A substantial strengthening in the greenhouse effect and the narrowing of the atmospheric transparency window will also occur. Here, we estimate the impact of all aspects of possible long-term 2% growth of the cloud cover area in the lower atmosphere by Е. We found that an increase in the cloud cover area in the lower atmosphere will result simultaneously both in the decrease and in the increase in the temperature, which will virtually compensate each other, while the energy balance of the Earth E before and after the increase in the cloud cover area by 2% will stay essentially the same: E1 – Eо ≈ 0.
Geetha B, Balachandran S
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i3.2177

Abstract:
Tropical Cyclone OCKHI over the North Indian Ocean during 2017 underwent dramatic development and rapid intensification very close to the land - Sri Lanka, extreme South Indian coast and Lakshadweep area during its initial developmental stage and caused extensive damages over these areas. On examining the physical and structural mechanism involved in such development, it is observed that the initial development was associated with axi-symmetrisation of the vortex that could be associated with Vortex Rossby waves near the eyewall. Associated with the expulsion of high vorticity from the centre during asymmetry mixing, there was outward propagation of eddy angular momentum flux in the lower levels that strengthened a low level anticyclone to the northeast of the TC centre which in turn enhanced the cyclonic inflow near the TC centre. The rapid intensification phase was associated with vertical non-uniform heating with upper and lower tropospheric warming associated with latent heat release in convection. During the mature phase, the system sustained ‘very severe’ intensity even under increasing vertical shear and lower ocean heat flux under the influence of a break in the sub tropical ridge to the north of the system centre that enhanced the poleward outflow in the upper troposphere.
Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i3.2163

Abstract:
An “explosive extratropical cyclone” is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when there is a very rapid drop in central atmospheric pressure. This phenomenon, with its characteristic of rapidly lowering the pressure in its interior, generates very intense winds and for this reason it is called explosive cyclone, bomb cyclone. With gusts recorded of 116 km/h, atmospheric phenomenon – “cyclone bomb” (CB) hit southern Brazil on June 30, the beginning of winter 2020, causing destruction in its influence over. One of the cities most affected was Chapecó, west of the state of Santa Catarina. The satellite images show that the CB generated a low pressure (976 mbar) inside it, generating two atmospheric currents that moved at high speed. In a northwest-southeast direction, Bolivia and Paraguay, crossing the states of Parana and Santa Catarina, and this draft that hit the south of Brazil, which caused the destruction of the affected states. Another moving to Argentina, southwest-northeast direction, due to high area of high pressure (1022 mbar). Both enhanced the phenomenon.
Victor Adjei, Moses Ackah Anlimachie, Eunice Elorm Ativi
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v3i2.2010

Abstract:
This study summarises the findings from a study investigating rural small-holding farmers’ experiences on the shift from food crop to cashew in the forest/savanna transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana and its impact on rural food security. Using a mix method approach, the study sampled the views of 400 farmers from 9 farming communities in the Wenchi Municipality of Ghana via questionnaire and semi-structured interview and collated statistical data on crop production to trace the nexus between climate change, agrarian land-use decisions and food security. The study found evidence of increasing shift from food crop to cashew production. This was evidenced by increasing cashew cultivation and cashew output and decreasing total land acreage for food crops and increasing food insecurity of farmers. The findings revealed that about 71% of farmers had expanded their cashew farms and another 41.0% have turned their food crops’ lands to cashew production. Besides cashew production, (57.0%) has overtaken the traditional food crop -maize (25.5%) production in terms of output. Instructively, the study found that the main motivation for the shift from food crop to cashew production is not only to maximise income in bulk, but also climate change adaptability issues. The study found that the cashew crop is resilient in adapting to the changing climate and less prone to pests’ invasion compared to maize in the study District. The study found that food security among rural folks had been seriously compromised by the conversion of farmlands from food crop to cashew farming. Although, the study found that female farmers have higher consciousness to food security yet less motivated to shift from food crop to cashew crop production compared to men. Worryingly, females are the hardest hit group because of their low ownership of or access to farmlands and low voices of women in farmland use decision making in a men-dominant rural extended family setting of the study District. The study concludes that climate change adaptability concern has introduced a new set of risks including crop failure due to changing rainfall pattern and increasing incidence of pest invasions forcing the rural folks to compromise innovative indigenous farming focus and practices that have helped them to navigate extreme food poverty. This study, therefore, argues for improved food crop seeds tailored to the specific climatic context and innovative farming practices that beef-up small-holding farmers’ capacity to navigate climate change to continually produce food crop to ensure rural food security and sustainability.
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top