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Veri Junaidi
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 041-072; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk753

Abstract:
PendahuluanMahkamah Konstitusi (MK) memiliki kewenangan dalam penyelesaian perselisihan hasil pemilu kepala daerah (pemilukada)1. Kewenangan tersebut muncul setelah perubahan ketiga atas Undang-Undang Nomor. 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah (UU Pemda). Undang-Undang Nomor. 12 Tahun 2008 hasil perubahan UU Pemda secara eksplisit memberikan kewenangan kepada MK dalam penyelesaian perselisihan hasil pemilukada. Pasal 236 menyebutkan bahwa dengan diundangkannya UU No. 12 Tahun 2008 maka kewenangan Mahkamah Agung (MA) dalam menyelesaikan perselisihan hasil pemilukada diserahkan kepada MK. ...
Wahyudi Djafar
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 151-174; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk757

Abstract:
Bila dilacak akarnya, gagasan tentang negara hukum, adalah kelanjutan dari pemikiran tentang pembatasan kekuasaan, sebagai sealah satu prinsip dari konstitusionalisme-demokrasi. Inti dari pemikiran tentang negara hukum, adalah adanya pembatasan terhadap kekuasaan, melalui sebuah aturan yuridis—undang- undang. Seperti diungkapkan Andrew Heywood, menurutnya dalam ruang lingkup yang sempit, konstitusionalisme dapat ditafsirkan sebatas penyelenggaraan negara yang dibatasi oleh undang-undang dasar—inti negara hukum. Artinya, suatu negara dapat dikatakan menganut paham konstitusionalisme jikalau lembaga-lembaga negara dan proses politik dalam negara tersebut secara efektif dibatasasi oleh konstitusi. Sedangkan dalam pengertian yang luas, konstitusionalisme adalah perangkat nilai dan manifestasi dari aspirasi politik warganegara, yang merupakan cerminan dari keinginan untuk melindungi kebebasan, melalui sebuah mekanisme pengawasan, baik internal maupun eksternal terhadap kekuasaan pemerintahan (Heywood, 2002: 297). ...
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 225-290; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk767

Abstract:
The research concluded, first, The Constitutional Court decision number 22-24/PUU-VI/2008 give the positive implications of affirmative action policy of women representation in the provincial parliament and regency/town in Yogyakarta, because every legislative candidates have equal opportunity to fight to obtain a majority vote in 2009 legislative elections. Second, when Law no. 10 year 2008 still use a list of serial numbers, women’s position in the list of candidates a majority in the lowest sequence number, the result difficult for female candidates to gain seats as if his voice does not reach the number of automatic splitter sounds will be given to the serial number on it, but with a majority vote model , greater opportunities for female candidates was elected. Third, women representation in the provincial parliament Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) increased when compared with the results of the election of 2004, from 9 seats in 2009 elections to 12 seats, so there is an increase of 33%. in Gunung Kidul district legislature also increased the number of seats of women when compared with the acquisition of seats in the elections of 2004, from a seat in the 2009 election to 6 seats, so there is 500%. Sleman district legislature in the 2004 elections the number of women seats and as many as 6 seats in the 2009 election to 8 seats. So the increase of about 33%. in Yogyakarta city parliament also increased the number of seats in 2004 elections from 5 to 6 seats in 2009 elections. Thus, there is an increase of 20%. Kulonprogo parliament,the seats for women who gained in the 2004 elections and are 4 seats in the 2009 election into 4 seats so that there is an increase of 25%, and in Bantul Regency 2004 election results there are only 5 seats for women, in the 2009 election to 6 people or up 20%. Fourth, the concern that the ruling number 22-24/PUU-VI/2008 inhibit affirmative action policy has not been proven in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), because the acquisition of women’s seats in parliament and city districts in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY) even more increased when compared to the acquisition in 2004 election.
Maret Priyanta
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 113-130; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk746

Abstract:
Global environmental issue related to state responsibility in protection and management of environment is consider by a develop and development state earlier. The new concept related to it is regulate environment right in constitution. Green Constituion concept is on of solution for answering the concern by a people to environmental function degradation. Indonesia already regulate the environmental issues in constitution as human right. As a comparation study, a republic of Ecuador is one of the state famous as a first state which put the protection of environment in the constitution.Provision of protection and management of environment in Indonesia must regulate in clear in Indonesia Constitution, a lot of human activity cause the degradation and pollution that threat the human being and the next generation. The change of Indonesia Constituion is one of solution for praotection of environment in the future, so the law and other regulatin will be source to the constituion and oriented to the preservation of environment function.
Alek Karci Kurniawan
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 632-649; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1142

Abstract:
The many the petition judicial review of legislation, as legislation product Parliament and the President, at the Constitutional Court, indicates law making as any of the products of law in Indonesia is currently seen by many parties have not succeeded meet the expectations ofsociety. Contrasts, with a consequence has hundreds of articles that was canceled by Constitutional Courtsince its establishment it indicates so bad law making over the years.One of its causes weakness in order to scrutinize the drafts of the legislation in accordance with the constitution and people’s expectations. Therefore, in this research wants examine and develop a mechanism to check list to en sure that it each law making process in accordance with the constitution and people’s expectations. In this research, a method use disnormative juridical by using conceptual approach, historical and regulatory. From the research explores an extra mechanism for Constitutional Court to verify the value of constitutionality a draft law.
Irfan Nur Rachman
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 69-90; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk824

Abstract:
The Constitutional Court in its decision Number 23-26/PUU- VIII/2010 have been cancelled the applicability of article 184, paragraph (4), which regulates the amount of quorum and approval of quorum in the decision-making process in the Forum related to the plenary meeting house “our opinion the proposal on the right.” In its legal considerations, the Constitutional Court confirmed that the provisions of quorum and the number of quorum approval of 3 / 4 shall be replaced with provisions in decision making on the basis of “simple majority”. This has an impact on the strengthening of the system of checks and balances for the role of legislative control the Executive branch that the abuse of power by the Executive branch can prevent.
Abdul Latif
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 049-066; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk714

Abstract:
One of the principles of rule of law which guarantees by the constitution is regarding the due process of law. Legal acknowledgment, legal guarantee, legal protection, fair legal assurance and equality before the law cannot be separated from the principle of “presumption of innocence”. Both had becoming the absolute condition and its existences are acknowledged, protected, and guaranteed within the rule of law system in Indonesia. However, in a matter of fact there are numbers of regulations which are in contradiction with the 1945 Constitution. One regulation, which is the main discussion of this note, is the Article 32 (1) letter c Law No. 30/2002 on The Committee of the Eradications of Corruption (UU KPK). The implementation of temporary dismissal of Chief of the KPK by the President of the Republic and the unlawful act of Bibit-Chandra’s restraining are deemed to be an act of unlawful discretion and a violation of due process of law as guaranteed by the 1945 Constitution.Latif, Abdul. 2007. Fungsi Mahkamah Konstitusi dalam Upaya Mewujudkan Negara Hukum Demokrasi, Total Media, Yogyakarta. Kusumohamidjojo, Budiono, 2004. Filsaf Hukum: Problematik Ketertiban yang Adil, Grasindo, Jakarta. Kelsen, Hans, 1982. Reine Rechtslehre (Ajaran Hukum Murni), Wien: FranzDeuticke. Rawls, John, 1971. A Theory of Justice, Harvad. UP. Kompas, 2009. Mahkamah Konstitusi diminta Terbitkan Putusan Sela., Edisi Hari Selasa, 27 Oktober 2009, Jakarta. Suseno, Frans Magnis, 1987. Etika Politik. Gramedia. Jakarta. Majalah Konstitusi, 2009, Putusan Sela Bibit-Chandra Menunda Pemberhentian Pimpinan KPK, Edisi Oktober 2009, Nomor 33. Jakarta. Reksodiputro, Mardjono, Jaminan Konstitusi tentang Proses Hukum yang Adil, dalam Buku 70 Tahun Ismail Suny, Sinar Harapan, Jakarta.Tobias, Marc Weber dan R. David Petersen, Pretrial Procedure, A Survey of Constitutional Rights, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1978.
Abdul Ghoffar
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 3-92; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk814

Abstract:
This article discusses two decision of the Constitutional Court. First, the Constitutional Court Decision No. 57/PHPU.D-VI/2008 on Election Dispute of Regional Head of South Bengkulu, which disqualify the candidate elected, Dirwan Mahmud, because it proved to be dishonest if he had been sentenced 7 years in prison, to the detriment of the rights of citizens to choose obtain correct information about the future leaders will be chosen. Second, the Constitutional Court Decision No. 4/PUU-VII/2009 about the review of Article 12 sub-article g and Article 50 paragraph (1) sub-article g election law, and Article 58 sub-article f Local Government Act, which gives the right choosen to convict (common criminal) after five years sentence expired with the condition that he honestly convey to the public if he is a former convict. This paper focuses on the importance of honesty in the implementation of the right to vote and be elected citizens.
Winda Wijayanti
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 709-730; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1047

Abstract:
Marriage is something sacred, must be respected, the eternality of which must be protected and conducted jointly between a man and a woman as husband and wife so as to achieve a common goal. However, in reality, lots of marriages end with divorce and is considered as the best way for both partners. When a divorce occurs women is always in a weak position including in the divison of marital property if one party does not have a good faith. Bank as the depository institution maintains the confidentiality of depositors and their deposit which is on the one hand beneficial for depositors since information related to depositors and their deposit can be kept confidential, but on the other hand, it is disadvantageous to interested parties that is a wife who does not know the amount of funds deposited in her husband’s name in a bank which is a marital property of husband and wife acquired during their marriage. Thus, the wife’s constitutional rights to protection of property under his control and property rights in accordance with Article 28G paragraph (1) and Article 28H Paragraph (4) of the 1945 Constitution is not protected. The Constitutional Court as the guardian of the constitution has the authority to examine, try and decide the case of judicial review of Law No. 1 of 1974 on Marriage (Marriage Act) and declare the law conditionally constitutional in the case of bank confidentiality regarding information related to depositors and their deposit to the interests of justice in a civil case concerning the division of maritall property due to divorce.
Victor Imanuel Williamson Nalle
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 473-494; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk933

Abstract:
Mineral and coal is one of Indonesia’s natural resource potential. Natural resources can bring prosperity for the people of Indonesia. Therefore we need a pro-mining policies of national economic interests. The experience of Indonesia during the New Order show the mining policy in favor of the interests of foreign capital through the mechanism of the work contract that puts the state as the inferior party. State’s right to control the mineral and coal mining policy does not appear in the New Order. Since the enactment of Law Number 4 of 2009, it seemed right to control the state through the licensing system. Besides the role of national capital in the mining sector also raised through divestment mechanism.
Widodo Ekatjahjana
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 53-72; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk813

Abstract:
Decision of Constitutional Court of Number 41/PHPU.D-VI/2008 is a controversial judicial decison in practices of Constitutional Court in Indonesia. The decison had legal basis of Law of Number 18 of 2008 that against formally with the Constitutions of 1945. Nevertheless, in fact, inconstitutional practice of the court system has taken legitimacy source of convention. It is very important for development of constitutional law enforcement in Indonesia, that the decision was not only show how the Constitutional Court improves its constitutional authorities to handle disputes of regional head election result in Indonesia, but also that was first time how the Constitutional Court has brought its justice paradigm change toward process of substantial justice and law enforcement.
Danang Hardianto
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 315-332; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1126

Abstract:
Constitutional judges denote a piece of flesh i.e. heart in the body of the Constitutional Court. If it is good, the whole body is good, and if it is bad, or else if it is bad, the whole boy is bad. The good heart is filled by the judges who have impeccable integrity and personality; be fair-minded; and be statesman who have mastered constitution and constitutional law. They therefore have an obligation to make a responsive and prescriptive decision in order to enforce the law based on the morality and the truth. The decision becomes the sun which will continue to shine and illuminate the life of the country.
Yance Arizona
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 257-314; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk833

Abstract:
The economy is based on democratic economy, prosperity for everyone! Therefore, any types of production those are important for the state and mastering of many people must be controlled by the state. Otherwise, the reins of production fell into the hands of powerful parties and the people become oppressed. That is the original meaning of Article 33 of Indonesia Constitution based on formal explanation of the first Indonesia Constitution. But after the formal explanation was removed, the explanation of Article 33 no longer refers to the original meaning was set up by the framer constitution. This paper discusses the development of the interpretation of Article 33 in ‘new space’ as seen from decisions of the Constitutional Court in examining the laws over the constitution. To show how the interpretation of Article 33 by the Constitutional Court, particularly regard to the conception of state control over natural resources, this paper discuss eleven decisions of Constitutional Court dealing to review several natural resources laws.
Loura Hardjaloka, Varida Megawati Simarmata
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 579-604; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk847

Abstract:
Along with the success of e-voting in the election of leaders at the village in Jembrana District, Bali Province, the Chief Electoral Hamlet (Kelihan Banjar Dinas) in the Village Yehembang, Pohsanten Village, District and Village Mendoyo Perancak, Jembrana district by using the e-ID card, opening new opportunities for Indonesia to use these methods in the upcoming election. However, by retaining Article 88 of Law Number 32 Year 2004 regarding Regional Government provides the opportunity for areas not yet ready for e-voting to keep using conventional mencontreng election or vote.
Rakhmindyarto Rakhmindyarto
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 943-968; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk864

Abstract:
This paper provides a constitutional review of the extension of the Sunset Policy program. It tries to analyze whether or not the extension of the Sunset Policy program abuses the existing law. The paper argues that even though the extension of the program does not break the Indonesian constitutional law, the government should be more prudent to establish the next public policies based on the government regulation of the law substitute. This paper recommends to constituting a clear regulation in regard to the strict conditionals of the establishment of a government regulation of the law substitute.
Mukhlish Mukhlish, Mustafa Lutfi
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 161-206; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk831

Abstract:
This state is basically recognized as a rich state, either in term of ecological side or in term of cultural potency and ideological varieties, as the inheritance of motherland. However, this is so sad when we ironically saw a bunch of tragedies which are tragically occurred, start from tsunami, and other issues such as the scandal of century that seems to be unsolved! Moreover, nowadays, the environmental problem has occurred and reached its highest culmination point. The environmental destruction and pollution process have uncontrollably happened. Noting so many catastrophes happened anywhere in this state; such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, lapindo mud tragedy, roads vanishing, illegal logging, forest function shift, and many others, is so an ironic thing. These all catastrophes become such a sign of inharmonic relationship exist between the state, human and the environment. Then, should we always blame these disaster s for the governments’ fault that, in such this multidimensional crises and demoralization that full of utopia and ironical images, seems to be unaware of their main position? The law is neutered and naked from its constitutional essence. This terrible condition can be impossibly happened when our representatives in the government are loyally take taken a side of the important of their party through the political campaign appointments which seem to face stagnation in its implementation and not loyal to the true mandator. Perceiving this such phenomenon, we need not only a kind of law penetratin that progressifely and integratifally can become an elegant problem solving for achieving of the aims of ongoing developmnet that can fully protect the importance of the environment and human life intentions but a moral forces and people power that should be continuallly implemented. Hence, the urgency of law management, ecological tutorial awaraness and the success of environmetal living management in term of national law development, becomes a final destination of this writting. Moreover , this writing is a kcorrection of the unclear control and maintenanceof the law of environmental administration.
Rachmadi Usman
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 168-193; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1119

Abstract:
Every children should get law protection, also children who born from unmarried parent. If it is not, that children be a victim, whereas they was born in holy condition without any mistakes, even they was born as a adultery action. The children who born from unmarried parents often get discrimination and stereotype in society. Because that, toward give protection for children who born from unmarried parents and obligate the father to responsible, Constitutional Court decide provision Article 43 paragraph (1) Act Number 1 of 1974 concerning Marriage is against Constitution of 1945 conditionally, unconstitutional as long as that provision interpretation omit private/civil relation between the man who proved by science and technology and/or other evidence by Law have relationship with their father, and then every children who born from unmarried parents have private/ civil relation not only with their mother and her family, but also with their father and his family. This decision rise change of meaning and law definition concerning children who born from unmarried parent, include children from adultery couple, as long as can prove by law they have relationship with the man as father also have private/ civil relation with their father and his family. But in other side, Constitutional Court also rise parent (father) biologic principle against children, include children who born from unmarried parent.
Elli Ruslina
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 49-82; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk913

Abstract:
Article 33 of the 1945 Constitution serves as the basis for Indonesian Economy. It contains the principle of togetherness and brotherhood. Therefore, in the development of Indonesian Economic Law, Article 33 of the 1945 Constitution is imperative in nature that it is asserted in the laws and regulations concerning the economy, “...it is the prosperity of the society that should be prioritized...not the welfare of individuals”.
Dewi Bunga
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 453-478; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk842

Abstract:
The provisions concerning the prohibition of pornography are set in the national legal instruments and instruments of international law. Specifically regulated in Law no. 11 Year 2008 About Pornography whose existence was confirmed by the Constitutional Court Decision No. 10-17-23/PUU-VII/2009 who rejected the judicial review of Law no. 44 Year 2008 on Pornography seeing this legislation is still needed to protect public morality. Prohibition of pornography is also in line with the principle of the 2nd Pancasila who want a civilized human being. However, the existence of the rule is not effective in preventing pornography, especially with the internet presence that can expand and facilitate access to pornography. Therefore it is necessary efforts to control pornography in the human form of Pancasila.
Chrisdianto Eko Purnomo
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 159-182; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk727

Abstract:
This research effort to search the contents president power restriction in achieving constitutional governmant in Indonesia. The restriction power of president related to restriction of president authority. In other sides restriction of president power can be viewed thorought functional relation among president with House of representative council (DPR), representative people assembly (MPR), Local Representative Council (DPD), and functional relation among president with Supreme of court (MA) and Constitutional Court (MK).The result of research shown that the restriction content of president power can be viewed not only restriction the time of president’s office but also restriction of content presiden authority, i.e restriction to choose state officers and restriction in law making. And restriction of content president power can be viewed in functional president relation with legislative and constitutive institutions.
Malik Malik
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 579-604; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1042

Abstract:
Government Regulation in Lieu of Law (Perppu) No. 1 of 2013 about the Second Amendment to Act No. 24 of 2003 about Constitutional Court (MK) is an appropriate step to recover public trust to MK after the arrest of non-active Head of MK Akil Mochtar by Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK). Many crucial things are found in Perppu No.1 of 2013 about MK and these are considered as the problem roots but also the efficacious herbs to deter against the replicated corruption practice at MK. One of them is the supervision system of Constitutional Justices. Justices of MK have been once becoming the object of the supervision of Judicial Commission (KY), but the release of the Verdict of Constitutional Court No. 005/PUU-IV/2006 has made the authority of KY to supervise Constitutional Justices degraded into inconstitutional. The verdict of Constitutional Court is final and binding, but it cannot still escape from erga omnes principle, meaning that the verdict is binding in general term and also binding for the object of dispute.
Victor Imanuel W. Nalle
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 439-460; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1034

Abstract:
The quality of legislation in Indonesia is often questioned when the Constitutional Court cancels several chapters of a law or even the entire law. The poor quality of legislation is influenced by powerful political factor in the legislation process. These factors have an impact on unsynchronization of laws with the constitution or disharmony with other legislation. Ex ante review in this context becomes an alternative way to prevent bad legislation because every bill should be reviewed first. In Indonesian context, the ideal model of ex ante review is not only concerning with the constitutionality, but also harmony with other laws as well as other parameters necessary to produce good legislation.
Syaiful Bakhri
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 909-942; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk863

Abstract:
Statue no. 22/ 2001 on Oil and Gas. (Oil and Gas Law). Have reaped the problem, since the establishment, terms with the impact of globalization, as well as the world economic crisis. Therefore as new laws that regulate oil and gas, there has been a reform in the oil and gas law, as well as a variety of model settings. As is usually the administrative laws, tend to use the criminal provisions, in order to maintain, this thing is set, it can be done ideally, and improve the welfare of the people in business with the capital requirement migas.yang besar.Investasi multinational companies have long engaged in oil and gas, even since the colonial period, until today. Hence privatization of State-Owned Enterprises in the field of oil and gas business, must be strictly regulated, so that the model of economic democracy as provided for in the Constitution Article 33 of the Constitution of 1945, can be implemented with a high spirit of nationalism.
Wishnu Kurniawan
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 803-828; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk857

Abstract:
Democracy process of the Republic of Indonesia has changed over the collapse of the regime’s Suharto. Submission of opinion/ voting rights before the election form through representation in the Legislative votes, while the order of the reform party of Indonesia’s democracy changed the form with a direct election of the aspirations of the community through direct election of the executive (President, Governor, and Mayor / Regent)Democratic party face has changed get a hidrance and obstacle, the hidrance and thats obstacle shapes as money politic, black campaign, veiled campaign, inflate a number of vote, etc. But to canceled that fraud, indonesian civilans & the participants/incumbent has a place to uphold the justice throught the Constitutional Court..Based on the result data processing and analysis carried out performed within this scientific can be concluced that The Constitutional Court actually has authority to receive, examine, prosecute, decide land disputes election result. Constitution Court decision especially about the election result dispute regional head (Regent and Vice Regent) by the Conctitution Court election result with number 28/PHPU.D-VIII/2010 about Perselisihan Hasil Pemilihan Umum Kepala Daerah dan Wakil Kepala Daerah Kabupaten Gresik, Provinsi Jawa Timur Tahun 2010 can be operate well and has gained a place at Gresik Regency civilians.
Eddy Rifai
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 49-68; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1013

Abstract:
Thispaperexaminesthe decisionaboutthe null andvoidwithout anarrestwarrant (the decision of the Constitutional Court No. 69/PUU-X/2012). From the results of the discussion suggests that the Criminal Code does not provide an explanation of the term “null and void”. The term “null and void” in the sense of directing an action does not match the Criminal Procedure Code. Criminal Procedure Code provides limitatif limits on detention, both for conditions of detention, agency/law enforcement detain and duration of detention, where errors in detention may be submitted claim for compensation. Constitutional Court Decision No. 69/PUU-X/2012 dated 22 November 2012 stating that the court decision does not comply with Article 197 paragraph (1) Criminal Code specifically on the restraining order was not void is not appropriate, because the terms of the restraining order is necessary for the detention status of the accused, whether fixed detained or released or against the accused who were not arrested were ordered to be detained. Court decisions that do not comply with Article 197 paragraph (1) Criminal Code specifically about a restraining order is null and void. Against the decision of the void can be corrected by the court restraining order stating thereon.
Cut Asmaul Husna Tr
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 597-612; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk941

Abstract:
After the Constitutional Court ruling has implications for regulatory 36/ PUU-X/2012 production sharing contract. Relationship between BP Migas (state) with the Business Entity or Permanent Establishment has put the state’s position and business entities or permanent establishments that manage oil and gas in an equal position. As a result, the state lost discretion to make regulations for the benefit of the people, but the state, as a representation of the people in the control of natural resources should have the discretion to make rules that benefit the overall prosperity of the people. Some of the conditions are far from optimal, Indonesian oil and gas industry is still heavily dependent on foreign domination. Associated with the conditions present in Aceh, the amount of funding for oil and gas shares, did not show a decrease in the poverty rate
Puguh Windrawan
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 613-642; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk942

Abstract:
The Constitutional Court plays a central role in the democratic system governance. With a solid perspective of balancing state power, the court has been set up to interpret and review of conformity of every act and regulation. In Indonesia, a constitutional court presence has an important meaning amid power shifting processes. As the supremacy to some extent moving away from the executive authority, the constitutional court appears as the most prominence body instead of legislative board. In accordance with its duties and functions, the institution is able to give juridical interpretations to examine every regulation against The Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia 1945.
Bisariyadi Bisariyadi, Anna Triningsih, Meyrinda Rahmawaty H, Alia Harumdani W
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 531-562; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk936

Abstract:
Every country in the world, moreover in every country which has implemented the way of life of democcratic and nation, presume that election is one of the important element as a marker of democracy of the country and also has a practical function of government political as a succession’s tool between the government parties and the oposition parties. In every democratic constitutional state, the election process has a purpose to embody will of the people into pattern of power without violence.The election process will not only be assessed by sticking to the existing legal framework but the laws, codes of conduct of the election and its implementation needs to be tested and adjusted if it is in accordance with its primary purpose or not without ignoring the rights of individuals or people. In the process of the general election, the election process does not always run smoothly. Various obstacles in the implementation of good elections that occurred both during and previous election, is a problem that certainly would have widely spread impact if not immediately resolved. The existence of problems in the election related to dissatisfaction of decision of the election or criminal violations and administrative which can influence the result of election is commonly known by electoral disputes. In order the election dispute does not disturb the constitutional system or system of government of a country or region, it requires an electoral dispute resolution mechanisms that effective and can give a fair decision to the parties.The main problem is how the benchmark of an electoral dispute resolution mechanisms that are effective? Because, if traced further and reflect on democracies country in the world, not all democracies country, especially the democracies country which basing on the supremacy of the constitution, has the same electoral dispute resolution mechanisms between one country to another country. This is very important, because by knowing the measure or the benchmark of the effectiveness of an electoral dispute resolution mechanisms, we can consider to choose which electoral dispute resolution mechanisms that appropriate and give the fairness to the parties and society in general.
Abdul Latif
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 049-068; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk732

Abstract:
PENDAHULUANUnsur melawan hukum dalam perkara korupsi merupakan hal yang penting dan menentukan untuk adanya suatu tindak pidana korupsi yang harus dipertanggungjawabkan, baik tanggung jawab jabatan maupun tanggung jawab pribadi. Konsekuensi tanggung jawab peribadi berkaitan dengan tanggung jawab pidana. Menurut Philipus M. Hadjon,117 tanggung jawab jabatan, difokuskan pada legalitas tindakan dengan parameternya peraturan perundang- undangan dan asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik. Sedang tanggung jawab pribadi, difokuskan pada perlakuan atau perbuatan tercela dalam konteks tanggung jawab pidana, yakni tanggung jawab atas perbuatan yang tidak patut dilakukan dengan cara melawan hukum, karena itu bertentangan dengan rasa keadilan dan norma- norma sosial yang berlaku dalam kehidupan masyarakat.
Zaki 'Ulya
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 371-392; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1129

Abstract:
After the implementation of regional autonomy reforms focused on provincial autonomy in establishing their own households. According to the concept of autonomy is divided into three autonomous ordinary, special autonomy and autonomy, which is emphasized in Article 18, 18A and 18B of the 1945 Constitution. Reasons for granting the status of special autonomy in Aceh, one of which was to eliminate the GAM movement which aims to separate itself from the Homeland. Granting autonomy status is determined through of the Helsinki MoU is transformed in Law No. 11 of 2006. The method used is the juridical normative. This research approach statutory (statute approach), approach the case (case approach). Based on the analysis conducted found that the existence of the MoU are set forth in the Law. 11 The year 2006 is a manifestation lifting values into privilege in Aceh, as well as adding some other peculiarities such as local politics. Aceh has a specificity and privileges in Law No. 11 In 2006, the emblem and flag of determining the area.
M. Simanihuruk
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 183-198; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk728

Abstract:
Article 46 KPU Regulation No.16 of 2010 count the percentage of the gaining votes of each candidate pair from the total of valid ballot paper. The invalid ballot paper is totally neglected. Thus the democratic right of those people who has an invalid votes is neglected as well. More over a danger implication of this article is a hidden crime that can be planned systematically by increasing the percentage of the gaining votes through out the invalid ballot paper. The more the number of invalid ballot paper, the most the percentage of the gaining votes. If a total number of valid votes is a for a candidate pair A, a total number of valid votes is b for a candidat pair B, according to the survey for example, and a/ (a+b) < b/(a+b) then a candidate pair A can increase mathematically their gaining votes to at least 30,01 % by planning at least t + s total number of invalid ballot paper such that t and s satisfy the inequality s>b – 69.99(a-t)/30.01 where t is the number of invalid ballot papers that should be subtracted from the total gaining vote of the candidate pair A and s is the number of invalid ballot papers that should be subtracted form the total gaining vote of the candidate pair B. This type of a hidden crime some time can be detected by the statistic but some time can not. The detectable hidden crime can be analyzed by Chi-Square formula. This paper provide a simulation how to detect these type of hidden crime. We use the Chi-Square formula, with 0.05 level of significance, to detect these hidden crime. The paper begin with the simulation how to increase the gaining votes at least 30,01 %.
Ziffany Firdinal
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 649-674; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1045

Abstract:
This article examines the changes in the meaning of Article 6A paragraph (2) of the Indonesian 1945 Constitution, related to the requirements for nominating Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates by a political party or an alliance of parties contesting in the parliamentary election prior to the Presidential election. Further provisions termed more precisely in Article 9 of Law No. 42 of 2008 on Presidential and Vice Presidential Election; some additional requirement that political parties or alliance of parties gain valid votes of at least 20% of total votes nationally or a minimum 25% of seats in the House of Representatives, which is conceptually known as ‘presidential threshold’. Based on the Constitutional Court Verdict No. 51-52-59/PUU-VI/2008, provisions on the candidacy at the Act level were declared constitutional with some terms, that there are some dissenting opinions among judges who adjudicated the constitutional norms during the judicial review of the Act. Examination results obtained is that there have been change in meaning, in this case, the change takes a form of narrowing of meaning of the normative provisions of Article 6A paragraph (2) in a consequence to the provisions set in Article 9 of Law No. 42 of 2008. In order to provide legal certainty associated to the narrowing of this provision’s meaning, an ammendment is required to Article 6A paragraph (2) to reinforce the measures in the Presidential and Vice Presidential candidate nomination, in this case whether it is in line with the Constitutional Court verdict on judicial review of Article 9 of Law No. 42 of 2008 on Election of President and Vice-President or not.
Taufiqurrohman Syahuri
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 243-258; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk921

Abstract:
Article 33 of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia regulates on National Economy and Social Welfare. Thoughts and ideas of the founding fathers in drafting that article can be traced through the study of Political Law. The study was conducted by using historical approach to explore the ideas of the framers when drafting that article. Thoughts and ideas of the framers are the object of analysis in this essay. They are among other things: first, the seriousness of the state in protecting the entire nation and the homeland based on the concept of unity in a real effort to bring about social justice; second, the concept of “Social Welfare” is intended to guarantee the welfare to the state/government and all the people; third, the framers who are committed and convinced that the ideals of social justice in the economy can achieve equitable prosperity; fourth, the framers requires that the state only do the maintenance (bestuursdaad) and process (beheersdaad), instead of proprietary (eigensdaad).
Ahmad Fadlil Sumadi
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 849-880; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk861

Abstract:
One of the important substance of Amendment of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945 is the existence of the Constitutional Court as a state institution that functions to handle certain cases in the field of state administration, in order to maintain the constitution to be implemented in a responsible manner in accordance with the will of the people and democratic ideals. Constitutional Court’s constitutional authority to implement the principle of checks and balances which places all state agencies in the equivalent position so that there is a balance in the administration of state The existence of the Constitutional Court is a real step to correct each other’s performance among state institutions. The Constitutional Court in carrying out justice to examine, hear and decide a case still refers to the organizing principle of judicial power which, among others, is carried out simply and quickly.
Abdul Wahid
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk821

Abstract:
The verdict of Constitutional Court (MK) Number 4/PUU-VIII/2010 can be described as a verdict blocking chances for the civil servant (Pegawai Negeri Sipil) to represent himself/herself as the head of executive in the district such as governor, mayor, regent, and any others in the mayor general election (Pemilukada) because one of the prerequisites to be a civil servant must be followed by a resignation letter. This prerequisite cannot be considered as a form of discrimination and injustice for the civil servant, yet as a kind of protection through the strategic role of the civil servant. If the civil servant still keeps going on its track, as a bureaucracy devotee, then people’s civil rights must have been fulfilled.
Ibnu Sina Chandranegara
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 27-48; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk912

Abstract:
The existence of Constitutional Court after the amendment the 1945 Constitution of Republic Indonesia (1999-2002) brought a fundamental change in the constitutional review of norms. Constitutional review mechanism not just a “review” but the court is also required to search the essence of constitutional review itself and its relation to the constitutional rights. Therefore, the ultra petita decisions issued by the Court should not be viewed as absurd but as a way to uphold justice.
Mariyadi Faqih
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 427-452; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk841

Abstract:
The verdict of the Constututional Court (MK) regarding the rejection of Law Trial Number 1/PNPS/Year 1965 about the Prevention of Religion Violation and/or desecration through Indonesia’s Law of Constitution year 1945 can be read as reinforcement through the juridical existence which is related to the right of religion freedom. Any kinds of religion desecration and violation such as a violence in the name of religion or religion radicalism which happens in Indonesia is not caused by the juridical products in the era of the old orde or because of the emergency product, but it is more caused by the compilation of problems such as unfairness, disparity, and powerlessness.
Dudu Duswara Machmudin
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 33-48; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1012

Abstract:
Authority, protection, legal certainty and justice are absolute requirements for a country which is based on law. All judges should endeavor to harmonize justice based on the provisions of law (legal justice), justice based on morality (moral justice) and justice based on the will of the people (social justice). Supreme Court as the highest of all courts in the country should be filled with Justices who act as the reformer of law to realize clean court. The great authorities and duties the justices have require a high degree of responsibility in order that the decisions issued are for the sake of justice and in the Name of God Almighty. This denotes that law enforcement, truth and justice must be accounted for either to human or God. Supreme Court Justices are expected to integrate the three concept of justices in order that harmonization of legal responsibility and social satisfaction which is built on morality based on goodness and badness as the standard can be realized. As the Reformer of law, Supreme Court Justice should be able and have the courage to make breakthrough which is not against the law and social justice and the morality itself.
Syukri Asy’Ari, Meyrinda Rahmawaty Hilipito, Mohammad Mahrus Ali
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 675-708; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1046

Abstract:
Research concerning model and implementation of Constitutional Court Verdicts in Judicial Review of Law against the 1945 Constitution constitutes juridical normative research using secondary data which is primary legal material namely Constitutional Court verdicts issued from 2003 until 2012. This research aimed at identifying decisions of which the dictum say it granted the petition submitted at the Court so that a comprehensive and integrative description of the model and implementation of Constitutional Court verdict can be found out. Article 56 Paragraph (3) and Article 57 Paragraph (1) of Law No. 24 Of 2003 as amended with Law No. 8 of 2011 on the Amendment of Law on Constitutional Court stipulate that in case a petition is granted, the Court will, at the same time, declares that a law is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution either wholly or partially and legally null and void since declard in an open court. This research found out that there are other models of verdict with their own characteristics. Condititonally constitutional and conditionally unconstitutional verdict is basically a model of decisions which do not legally nullify and declare a norm null but these two models contain interpretation of a content of a paragraph, an article and/or part of a law or the whole part of a law which is basically declared contradictory or not contradictory to the Constitution and still have the force of law or do not have the force of law. A limited constitutional model of verdict which postpone an enforcement of a decision which basically aims at providing some time for transition of the provision which has been declared contradictory to the constitution to remain in force until a certain time in the future. Another model of verdict is a decision which formulate a new norm in order to cope with the unconstitutionality of implementation of a norm. This new norm is temporary in nature and will be included in the new law or revision of related law. The implementation of Constitutional Court decision can be inferred from the model of the decisions. A self-executing force can generally be applied to a legally null and void model of verdict and a model of verdict which formulates new norms. Conditionally constitutional, conditionally unconstitutional and limited constitutional model of verdict is non self-executing. This models must go through legislation process either with revision of laws or making of new laws and regulation process for the ordinances made under any acts.
Irfan Nur Rachman
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 311-332; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1026

Abstract:
The Constitutional Court in some award restored the right to vote (right to vote) and the right to choose (right to be candidate) for citizens. Some verdict related to the recovery of the political rights, namely the ruling Number 011-017/PUU-I/2003 on Return Political Rights For former members of the Illegal organization of the Communist Party of Indonesia and Other Illicit Organization and decision Number 102/PUU-VII/2009 on the use of ID card or passport in the elections. The ruling of the Constitutional Court have a legal binding force since spoken in plenary session. The nature of the ruling of the Constitutional Court are final and binding, it means there is no other remedy that can be reached by the parties and also the ruling of the Constitutional Court is not only binding on the parties but also binds all citizens of Indonesia (erga omnes). The ruling of the Constitutional Court was to be acted upon by the ruling of the Constitutional Court, addressad in this case is the President and DPR through a revision of the provisions that have been
Faiq Tobroni
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 381-402; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk927

Abstract:
This paper aims to criticize the contradictions of Rights of Coastal Management (HP-3) against the 1945 Constitution and the spirit of community empowerment. HP-3 became norm of the procedures for permitting management of Coastal and Small Islands Resources (SDP-PPK) as regulated in Law Number 27 Year 2007. The recent study collects data through literature approach and analyzes them through qualitative methods. The findings are as follows. HP-3 is contrary to the 1945 Constitution. Unconstitutionality of HP-3 is caused by changing SDP-PPK from being common property right to be property right and ignoring alignments to vulnerable populations (indigenous and traditional fisherman). The principle of empowerment that has significant power to revive the spirit of the constitution in HP-3 is improvement of capabilities and power for vulnerable people. These steps must be taken by creating articles that contain affirmative action for vulnerable people.
Dimas Prasidi
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 161-184; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk736

Abstract:
PenDahuluanKebebasan informasi telah menjadi salah satu isu yang seksi dalam proses reformasi peradilan. Isu ini ditingkahi dengan adanya Surat Keputusan Ketua Mahkamah Agung (SK KMA No.144/KMA/ SK/VII/2007) pada tahun 2007 dan pengesahan Undang-Undang Keterbukaan Informasi Publik pada tahun 2008. SK KMA tentang Keterbukaan Informasi di Pengadilan ini mengawali perubahan mendasar dalam perkembangan birokrasi di kekuasaan yudikatif. Sedangkan Undang-Undang No.14 Tahun 2008 diklaim sebagai kunci pembuka gerbang ke arah perubahan yang signifikan atas performa dari pelayanan-pelayanan publik dan bertujuan untuk mempermudah akses publik dan transparansi, termasuk birokrasi di institusi-institusi peradilan.303 Undang-undang ini menjamin akses publik untuk memperoleh informasi dari badan publik dan mewajibkan badan-badan publik untuk menyediakan informasi yang dikategorikan sebagai informasi publik yang menjadi kewenangannya. Undang-undang ini telah melalui proses pembahasan yang cukup lama. Sejak dorongan muncul dari masyarakat sipil kepada pemerintah untuk mengeluarkan satu undang-undang sakti guna menguak tabir kronis ketertutupan birokrasi. Terhitung, undang-undang ini telah terkatung-katung selama 9 tahun sebelum akhirnya disahkan secara aklamasi oleh Komisi I DPR di pertengahan tahun 2008. ...
Mukhlish Mukhlish
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 067-098; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk724

Abstract:
Nowadays, Enviromental issue is not belong to Individual or bilateral issue merely, it has becornara collective responsibility of all people in the world. We can say that any pollution and environmental damage almost reach out the highest culmination. A conjungture enviromental disaster almost occurred in all over epicentrum of the world, including Indonesia. It will be an undebatable proof that between human and nature in the context of enviromental management is getting to be unfriendly. Thus, prevailing every existing issue, needs a progressive and integrative legal breakthrough, which is become one of elegant solution for sake of suistainable development purposes. Therefore, hopefully, the estuary of this writing is attempt to give alternative idea to development of the concept of legal administrative oversight, which will be a reference for development of administrative law and currently as a correction of the oversight of enviromental administration all at once.
Muhammad Insa Ansari
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 276-295; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1124

Abstract:
In the Act of 1945 (before amendment) environment is part and Chapter XIV of the National Economy and Social Welfare, precisely in Article 33 paragraph (3). After the amendment, the environment gets the settings in Chapter XA of Human Rights, which in Article 28H (1) and Chapter XIV of the National Economy and Social Welfare, which in Article 33 paragraph (3) and (4). Environmental settings in the constitution of course have implications for legislation, including legislation business activities. There are a number of regulations of business activities that have included environmental material in it. Law No. 40 of 2007 on Limited Company is a business law institutions that have incorporated environmental material. While the laws governing business activities have included environmental material of which is Law No. 25 of 2007 on Investment, Law No. 10 of 1998, and a number of other legislative business activities.
Ach. Rubaie, Nyoman Nurjaya, Moh. Ridwan, Istislam Istislam
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 11, pp 85-108; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1115

Abstract:
Basic considerations of the Constitutional Court made ultra petita verdict was:(a) philosophical reasons in order to enforce substantive justice and constitutional justice as embodied in the Constitution NRI 1945, (b) theoretical grounds related to the authority of the judge to explore, discover and follow the legal values that live in the community, if the law does not exist or insufficient legal anymore (outdated), and (c) juridical reasons relating to the provision of Article 24 paragraph (1) NRI 1945 Constitution and Article 45 paragraph (1) of Law no. 24 year 2003 on the Constitutional Court, that Court as organizers aim to enforce the judicial justice according to law and the evidence and the judge's conviction. The verdict the Constitutional Court which is ultra petita basically acceptable, all associated to the subject of the request and based on considerations which can be accounted for philosophical (ie, contains the values of justice, morality, ethics, religion, principle, doctrine). The authority to make ultra petita verdict for the Constitutional Court can only be given if there is vagueness of legal norms (vague normen) through the method of interpretation of the law, or if a legal vacuum (rechts-vacuum) through the creation of legal methods (rechtschepping). But considering the legal interpretation and legal formation are highly subjective, hence in order to prevent abuse of power, the Constitutional Court issued a verdict ultra petita, should be limited by the principles of a democratic state of law, the principles of fair trial and impartial, and general principles of good governance.
Iskandar Muda
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 10, pp 69-88; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1014

Abstract:
Pros and cons of the authority to deal with judicial constitutionality review of Government Regulation in Lieu of Law (Perpu) either from fellow judges of the Constitutional Court (MK) or from the world of legal science is acceptable. The pros and cons is not due to the differences in interests between them, but it is caused by the differences in schools or schools of thought and interpretation methodologies adopted. The authority of the Constitutional Court to review the constitutionality of Perpu is in line with the philosophy of Judicial Activism (the concept of active understanding) which is identical to the "Statue of the Goddess of Justice" whose eyes are not closed in order to be able to watch and absorb the "sense of social justice", to incorporate the living legal values in the society, respond to the demand and aspiration of the people and, furthermore, to create “the thinking judges” which make their decisions responsive. However, the authority of the Court to review the constitutionality of the Perpu might cause “broader impacts” in the future which means that the impact will not be only on the constitutionality review of the Perpu but also on the other decisions of Constitutional Court.
M. Laica Marzuki
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk741

Abstract:
PENDAHULUANTheConstitutionof The United States of America yang ditandatangani 39 delegasi di kala tanggal 17 September 1787 di Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, tempat terselenggaranya Constitutional Convention, mendorong lahirnya constitutional states (negara – negara konstitusi) di beberapa kawasan dunia, termasuk negara – negara monarki, yang dikenal dengan penamaan: constitutional  monarch. Dalam perkembangannya beberapa constitutional statemenyadari bahwa konstitusi negara – negara dimaksud kurang memuat pengaturan hal pembatasan penguasa dan pengakuan hak – hak sipil rakyat banyak di dalamnya. Muncul gagasan agar dalam konstitusi diatur semacam constitutional government, yang pada hakikatnya mewujudkan hal pembatasan pemerintahan atau limited government, yang bertujuan to keep government in order. Hal dimaksud menggagas diadopsinya paham konstitusionalisme atau constitutionalism dalam perubahan konstitusi (constitution amandement) beberapa negara di abad XX dan XXI.
Khairul Fahmi
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 7, pp 119-160; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk735

Abstract:
Pendahuluan Dalam proses perubahan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia 1945 terjadi pergulatan pemikiran tentang gagasan kedaulatan rakyat. Pergulatan pemikiran tersebut berujung dengan diubahnya ketentuan Pasal 1 ayat (2) UUD 1945. Awalnya, Pasal 1 ayat (2) UUD 1945 berbunyi “Kedaulatan adalah ditangan rakyat, dan dilakukan sepenuhnya oleh Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat”. Kemudian diubah pada saat perubahan ketiga UUD 1945 sehingga rumusannya menjadi “Kedaulatan berada di tangan rakyat dan dilaksanakan menurut Undang-Undang  Dasar”. ...
Wahyu Wiriadinata
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 9, pp 313-332; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk924

Abstract:
This paper was intended to answer a question on the extent of the effectiveness of a reversal burden of proof as stipulated in positive (prevailing) Indonesia law, that is, as provided for in Law Number 31 of 1999 on Eradication of Corruption Crime. Then, a problem that rose next was: could the application of reversal burden of proof in proving a corruption crime case prevent or reduce or even eliminate totally corruption crimes in Indonesia? This research built on a theoretical frame of thought from Roscoe Pound, who maintains that law is a tool of social engineering. This concept was cited by Muchtar Kusumaatmadja, who adapted it to Indonesia conditions and transformed it to be law as a social engineering medium. Law should be made as a medium of reforming and resolving all problems that emerge in community, including corruption crimes. One of the things to reform is the law of proof system, that is, from a conventional proof system to a reversal system. This paper was written by a juridical-normative method, that is, by studying legislations, both contained in laws and in literature/books on legal science, particularly legislations relating to reversal burden of proof. Then, the results, in a form of juridical aspect, were written in a descriptive-analytical form. The conclusion of this research was an answer to the problems put forward above, that is: Corruption crimes have been occurring continuously till now in Indonesia. Thus, Law Number 31 of 1999, Article 37, has not been effective yet in eradicating corruption crimes. Therefore, it needs to apply a pure reversal burden of proof by avoiding the incidence of bureaucratic chaos.
Miftakhul Huda
Jurnal Konstitusi, Volume 8, pp 113-160; https://doi.org/10.31078/jk826

Abstract:
The pattern of direct elections of regional head and the Constitutional Court practices in adjudicate disputes local elections have been developed rapidly. Some of violations color the elections of regional head. They were the mobilization and partiality of Civil Servants,  abuse  of office, facilities, and state budget  by  the  incumbent  candidate,  and  the practice of money politics. The systematic, structured as well as massive violations generally results reelected vote with a final decision or interlocutory preceded. More than that, various violations of further stages of the General Election was also assessed based on the principle of free   and fair election so that the decision of the Court has eigh models based   on similar characteristics.The paradigm of substantive  justice  made  procedural  rules  does  not open the opportunity for justice. It drives the role of the Constitutional Court put the final determinant of local democracy which is still colored  by piracy and fraud. Constitutional Court justices are not only expand but also strengthen democracy  that  took  place  so  as  not  limited  to procedural democracy. With this, the examination is very extensive; the free encyclopedias assess weight and  sanction  violations.  Paradigm  has evolved to be followed by the ratio decidendi constancy previous decisions and anticipate the variety of sanctions violations by designing the right to justice  itself.
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