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Lê Quốc Nghi, Nguyễn Thị Lài, Nguyễn Viết Bằng
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.699

Abstract:
According to the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism (2018), the number of travellers revisit to Vietnam in general and Binh Thuan in particular is only about 40%. Price increases in peak season, polluted environment, etc. affected the tourists' perceived risk at destination. Therefore, this research is done for the purposes of: (1) Identifying perceived risk componants; (2) Measuring the impact of those perceived risks on traveller 's revisit intention at Binh Thuan province; (3) Proposed implications for local industry managers and business managers to apply in order to increase tourists' intention to return to Binh Thuan in the near future. The research uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research was conducted through focus group discussions. The quantitative study was conducted through interviews with 278 tourists. Research results show that: revisit intention is affected by 04 components of perceived risk: financial risk (-0.547); operational risk (-0,346); psychological - social risks (- 0.274); and, physical risk (-0,248). However, the study also has some certain limitations: firstly, the study conducted a survey during the peak tourist season in Binh Thuan. Secondly, the study only conducted a sample of 278 tourists, so it did not fully represent the research crowd.
Nguyen Anh Tuan
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.691

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent of implementing the green growth activities of the enterprises operating in Dong Nai Industrial Park. Based on the sustainable manufacturing and eco-innovation approaches, the research develop a set of indicators to evaluates green growth from enterprise perspectives. Utilizing the methodology of interviews and professional solution surveys, this set of indicators has been divided into 35 sub-criteria with 5 main groups of activities. The results drawn from the survey of 252 enterprises (classified according to the criteria of scale, field, type, location) have shown that the extent of exploiting the green growth of enterprises in Dong Nai Industrial Park has remained insignificant and inconsiderable. In general, the number of enterprises with a total implementation score of over 50 (out of a maximum of 70 points) is only 17.05%; in terms of the average score of each criterion: only 2/35 surveyed criteria (proportion of 22.85%) have average implementation evaluation score of over 1.4 ; 6/35 criteria have average score from 1.2 to 1.4; the remaining 27/35 have average score of under 1.2 (at the degree of being considered or not implemented). This set of indicators helps enterprises as well as authorities to see the reality of implementing activities that combine resource efficiency with environmental improvement, thereby making improvements to help enterprises accelerate growth, contributing to the successful implementation of the country's green growth strategy.
Ân Nguyễn Vũ Hoài, Võ Thị Ngọc Thúy
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5, pp 1242-1252; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.730

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to determine and measure factors affecting the decision of choosing a bank for saving deposits of individual customers in Ben Tre province. With a convenient sampling of 279 customers aged between 20 and 65, the obtained data is analyzed by the Reliability Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Binary Logistic regression analysis. The result suggests that contrary to assertions in previous studies, Bank Reputation does not impact individual customers' decisions when choosing the bank to deposit. Besides that, (1) Convenience, (2) Service quality, (3) Bank technology, (4) Financial benefits, (5) Reference groups have positive impacts on the decision of choosing a bank for saving deposits. The practical implications drawn from this study suggest that the Bank should develop business strategies appropriate to the market by providing services with more utilities based on modern systems and technology platforms. This study also separates the scale of the Bank Technology factor from the Convenience factor or Service quality factor. This reliable scale will be the standard for future studies in banking selection in Vietnam.
Nguyễn Văn Anh, Thảo Thị Phương Nguyễn
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.723

Abstract:
In recent years, consumers are increasingly interested in corporate social responsibility activities for the community. Many companies have begun to focus on CSR activities as it can contribute to improving the company's image in customer's perception. In Vietnam, although there are also some studies about CSR, the quantity is limited and there are certain limitations. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the relationship between CSR activities and customer loyalty through trust, customer company identify, and satisfaction. With the data being collected by survey questionnaires, the authors test the model and research hypotheses by using PLS-SEM techniques. The results show that CSR activities have a positive impact on customer loyalty through factors of trust, customer company identify, and customer satisfaction. This study helps business managers to develop effective policies and to have a new perspective on CSR activities as well as its values. In addition, the positive outlook of the customers on the business will bring many benefits, contributing to improving the brand value and reputation, enhancing competitive advantages towards sustainable development.
Tran Thien Vu, Hue Hoang Hong Trinh
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.675

Abstract:
Such a disruptive technology as the blockchain platform has a potential to provide value-added contributions towards multiple-disciplinary applications these days. Blockchain technology, considered as the second generation of the Internet in the digital age, has been applied in practice for various industry such as finance, healthcare, tourism, retailing, manufacturing, education, public sector, supply chains management, agri-food industry and so on. In which, supply chain operations, particularly agri-food management, becomes a prosperous beneficiary from blockchain technology. In the local context, Vietnam has been achieved the competitive advantages in agricultural production among the world in some agri-food products such as black peppercorn, cashew nuts, coffee, coconut, rice, and rubber. Furthermore, Vietnam is considered as one of pioneers in implementing blockchain technology for traceability and transparency of agri-food products across Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. However, design and implementation of the blockchain technology application in agri-food production in the case of Vietnam agriculture industry have been confronted with opportunities and challenges, besides its strengths and weaknesses in nature. This paper aims to concentrating on the analysis of Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of blockchain-applied supply chain relevant to agri-food products. In addition, the application of blockchain technology in supply chains has been expected to promote the sustainable development of Vietnam agriculture, in the accordance with the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the 21st century. We adopt the research method of interpretive approach to synthesize the literature and reasonably induce research conclusions. We finally prescribe some policy recommendations and implications for agri-food stakeholders such as regional policy makers, agri-food based blockchain platform designers, executives, and farmers as users in relevant to facilitate the blockchain technology for agri-food chains in Vietnam agriculture.
Huỳnh Thanh Tú, Ung Hoàng Khang
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.706

Abstract:
The research on factors that affect employee motivation at Bentre Import Export Joint- stock Corporation (Betrimex) has special significance in motivating employees, attracting and retaining talent, thereby helping the Corporation improve work performance. During the research, 300 employees working at Betrimex were surveyed and 250 employees with valid answer sheets were selected, survey data was processed with the SPSS software and the research model through scale reliability analysis, exploratory data analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis was tested. The research results have shown 07 factors affecting employee motivation at Betrimex, measured through 37 observed variables and including the pay, bonuses, benefits, allowances, working conditions, relationships with colleagues and relationships with superiors. Where the pay (b = 0.403) is the factor that has the most powerful influence on employee motivation and working conditions (b = 0.171) have the least influence on employee motivation. The results of multiple regression analysis have also showed that the adjusted R2 is 0.732. Thus, 07 independent variables can explain 73.2% of the variations of the dependent variables. Also, the research results have tremendous implications for developing strategies and plans for human resources development of Betrimex in the future.
Nga Thi Nguyen
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5, pp 1187-1199; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.689

Abstract:
The main aims of this study is to explore the intention to use smart watches from consumers perspective. The study applied the extended theory of planned behavior by integrating two additional variables including: aesthetic design and perceived price in addition to variables in the original intended behavior theory model, specifically: attitudes towards smartwatch purchases, perceived behavioral control and social norms to explain consumers' intent to buy smartwatches in Nha Trang city. This study adopts partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique to test the reliability and validity of the measures based on a sample of 200 consumers in Nha Trang. The results indicate that five proposed hypotheses are supported by data with an increasing degree of impact, which are perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.58), attitudes towards smartwatch purchases (ß = 0.20), aesthetic design (ß = 0.15), perceived price (ß = 0.14) and social norms (ß = 0.11). The research results are expected to make significant contributions both in academic research and practical research through useful and practical recommendations for watch product consumption.
, Nguyen Ngoc Tan
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.704

Abstract:
This study was conducted to determine the factors affecting non-performing loans of commercial banks in Vietnam for the period 2007 - 2018. The study applies the Bayesian approach and the Random-walk Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to evaluate the impact of micro and macro factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks. The dependent variable is non-performing loans, which is measured by the ratio of non-performing loans divided by total outstanding loans; the independent variables in terms of bank characteristics are non-performing loans of the previous year, profitability, bank size, bak loans, and bank capital; the macro variables are inflation and GDP growth. Research data was collected from financial statements of 30 Vietnamese commercial banks and the General Statistics Office of Vietnam from 2007 to 2018. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the model as well as reasonable Bayes inference, a convergence test of the MCMC chain was performed. The result of this study shows that non-performing loans of the previous year, bank size, bank loan, bank capital, and inflation have positive impacts on bank non-performing loans. In addition, bank profitability and GDP growth rate are factors that have the opposite effects. Based on the research results, the author proposes policy implications for the decision-makers to help banks reduce non-performing loans and promote banks to operate effectively and more efficiently.
, Khưu Thị Phương Đông, Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Hoa, Takashi Matsuishi
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.690

Abstract:
This study investigates the impact of the application of quality assurance certification on the origin traceability of shrimp exports in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta region. The primary data was investigated in 2018, which covered the whole supply chain of shrimp production such as farmers, collectors, distributors, processing factories. Descriptive statistics are utilized to analyze and compare the differences in the supply chain and product origin traceability between certified and non-certified shrimps. The willingness of farmers to embrace product origin traceability of certified and non-certified shrimps is also analyzed. The results show that certified farmers indicate a higher possibility of traceability due to proper monitoring and management essential to traceability. The application of international quality assurance certification of shrimp farmers increases awareness and willingness to implement origin traceability. The result proves the effectiveness of the collaboration between the farmers and processing factories in the implementation of traceability in the entire supply chain.
Dung Thái Nguyễn
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.719

Abstract:
The study used descriptive statistical methods, interval regression to analyze factors affecting the income of Agritourism Farms (DLNN) in Lam Dong province. On the basis of the resource-based efficiency theory, the previous studies along with the implementation situation to propose model the factors affecting farmers' income. With valid 189 answer sheets, the study combined qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis to identify problems. The findings indicate that the income of farms engaged in agritourism is strongly influenced from group factors such as Characteristic group of household head: age, education; Farm characteristics group: area size, number of years participating in foreign tourism, foreign tourism service activities, distance; Group of social capital: trust, relationship with tourism companies, local authorities; Local authorities and Group factors supported by the state, local government: open class training knowledge on tourism, support loan assistance. In other words, from the reality of the agritourism business situation of farmers in Lam Dong province, the research results show the importance of the above group factors. This is proposing some main functions aimed at improving income for farmers doing business in foreign tourism, while contributing to the development of agritourism in Lam Dong province.
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.684

Abstract:
The goals of competition law and policy play a notable navigator in law enforcement and lead to new rule inauguration regimes. However, Vietnam avoids signifying its goals in all two competition law versions, the Vietnamese Competition Law 2004 and the Vietnamese Competition Law 2018. The practical merger regulation has been thus confusing in the circumstances. Be continued with the lengthy controversial discussions in the academic world; the paper opens the comparative approach to other major jurisdictions. Rather than the Asian earlies system of Japanese anti-monopoly law or the European Union's primary youngest competition law, the United States antitrust law contributes to the original explanation of the law's objectives and directions. It experiences that Vietnam could maintain the diverse goals of competition law with its priority interests. Rejecting the aspect of free and fair competition, or the workable competition, the analysis traces the identification of effective competition mainly according to the European Union's perspective. Notably, the industrial policy takes a significant connection with the competition policy; however, it does not always ensure competition law enforcement. Be mainly based on Japanese historical achievement; the paper leads to an appropriate direction to resolve this complicated relationship between the two conflict but reciprocity policies. These implications will contribute to enhancing the legalization of competition law in Vietnam.
Nguyễn Thanh Huyền
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.697

Abstract:
If disabled people are considered as the weak individuals in community, the handicapped children will be more vulnerable as they are lack of the ability to take care of themsselves. The disadvantage of these people is the dependence on others in many aspects of their lives. The Government has issued amble policies in order to help paralyzed people and children, specifically policies related to social security. According to the Children Law No. 102/2016/QH13, the disabled children are ranked in the top 14 of those who are having underprivileged lives. This law is really important in reducing the handicapped children's burdens in life by providing them with caring and sharing from others. Despite this attention of the Government, the policies for disabled children are given less prioritization than those for normal children and disabled adults. In fact, the policies for disabled children are the same as those for children under 6 years old as well as the disabled adults. However, there are a number of troubles from processing to implementing the policies, negatively affecting the opportunities of accessing to social security of disabled people in general and handicapped children in particular. As a result, those disadvantaged people still have many difficulties in life need to be shared from others.
Tô Thị Kim Hồng, Trần Thị Diễm Thúy
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.679

Abstract:
Nowadays, environmental protection is an urgent problem which raises top concerns. Besides, green consumption is a trend encouraged to be widely implemented in many countries in the world, including Vietnam. However, in the reality of Vietnam, changing green consumer behavior in choosing products has been negligible and insignificant. With a diversified and varied population structure, Ho Chi Minh City is selected to analyze the impacts of demography and other related factors on green consumption behavior in the market. The quantitative research method is mainly used with the analysis of multiple correlation and linear regression. The results retrieved from 312 survey samples show that regarding demography, educational level, and marital status influence green consumption behavior. Besides, the results also show and measure the impacts of other factors, namely attitudes, subjective standards, environmental concerns, unavailability of green products on the green consumption behavior of consumers in Ho Chi Minh city. With the aim at promoting green consumer behavior in Ho Chi Minh City, there is a need for a change requiring the cooperation of all the Government, Enterprises, and consumers in stepping up propaganda, raising public awareness; simultaneously, orienting economic development activities associated with sustainable environmental protection.
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.702

Abstract:
Among many precedents involving the land issue, the precedent No. 04/2016/AL regulates the dispute on the contract for transferring land-use rights. Passed by The Council of Judges of The Supreme People's Court on April 6, 2016, house ownership and land-use rights are marital properties, but only the husband or the wife signs the contract on selling the house and transferring the land-use rights to another, and the transferor received the full payment from the transferee as agreed. The husband or the wife did not sign the contract. If there is sufficient evidence supporting that: (i) this person knows the transfer and jointly uses the money paid from transferring the landuse rights; and (ii) this person knows that the transferee received, managed and used this house and land publicly without having any objections. In this case, it is necessary to determine that person agreed upon with the transfer of land-use rights. Despite its significance and role in the dynamics of the Vietnamese law, little research has been conducted into the extent to which the precedent has a considerable impact on the application of local courts. Furthermore, the understanding and analysis of precedents have not been fully explored. The article aims to analyze the controversial points that focus on an unwritten consent in the aforementioned transaction. This paper examines the legal and practical values of precedent – as a guideline – in three striking aspects: (i) applying precedent to settle cases containing similar issues; (ii) filling a gap in a transaction with the third party of the marital property but only the spouse signed the contract; and (iii) extending the scope of the jointly marital ownership to include the range of common property of households' members. The exploration of this precedent, thus, contributes to the understanding of the contemporary socialist law and the comprehensively legal framework for the precedent system in Vietnam.
Linh Le Thuc Bui
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 5; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v5i1.722

Abstract:
In international trade where the buyer and the seller do not have information about each other, letter of credit is used to assure the other parties' fears in the sale contract. For instance, the sellers are afraid of not being paid after sending the goods bought by the purchasers, meanwhile, the buyers have no reasonable grounds to believe the sellers will send the conforming goods under the requirements of the sale contracts. The letter of credit is a settlement between parties to reduce the risks and inserts security into the international sale of goods. However, there are fraudsters who tries to defraud the process of the letter of credit and fraud rule is expected to prevent this issue. There are countries tried to develop specific regulations for the letter of credit and fraud rule, one of those countries is the People's Republic of China (P.R.C). The practices of letter of credit in China had been an aiming point of critiques through years by letter of credit experts. In such wise, the Supreme People's Court of P.R.C has issued the Rules of the Supreme People's Court Concerning Several Issues in Hearing Letter of Credit Case (``the 2005 Rules'') in an effort to partly solve the problems. This paper will give a brief introduction about the letter of credit's operation, the law regulating the letter of credit in international trade as well as illustrate the specify law for the fraud rule in letter of credit law in P.R.C by emphasizing the history and summarizing the structure of the fraud rule. Thenceforward, the author will evaluate the case study in Vietnam to show the situation of Vietnam in these days and giving recommendations.
Editorial Office
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1167-1169; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.747

Abstract:
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not. The editors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for their generous contribution in 2020.
Dinh Hoang Tuong Vi, , Trần Thị Bích Chi, Đỗ Thị Kim Chung, Hoàng Gia Tú
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1154-1166; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.637

Abstract:
The authors have carried out a study to determine and evaluate the impact of factors affecting the choice of accommodation for students in Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the theory of consumer choice by Mankiw, a new theory of residential location by Hoang Huu Phe and Wakely, the buyer decision process in consumption by Kotler to build a research model. The study was conducted through 2 phases: qualitative research and quantitative research with 515 answer sheets from students in Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City, and applied the analytical method using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The analysis shows that there are 5 factors that affect the choice of accommodation for students in Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City descending order including: (1) Social relations, (2) Prices, (3) Security, (4) Services, (5) Location. In practical terms, the results show the need/concern of students in Vietnam National University – Ho Chi Minh City when making choice of accommodation, thereby giving recommendations to improve the quality of accommodation for landlords, the board of dormitory management and the departments agency. In addition, this result is an important basis for reference when building smart applications to find accommodation to serve the increasingly diverse needs of students.
Nguyen Viet Bang,
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1138-1153; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.695

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to define and measure the key factors affecting the export performance of riceand coffee of some companaies Viet Nam. Results drawn from this study propose some implications for rice-exporting firms and coffee-exporting firms to increase their export performance. The article uses both qualitative and quantitative research methods The former was conducted in two phases by means of focusing on group discussions: the first group discussion involved 10 chief executive officers (05 rice-exporting firms, and 05 coffee-exporting firms) to explore factors that affect the export performance, the second one was conducted with another 10 chief executive officers (05 rice-exporting firms, and 05 coffee-exporting firms) to refine the observational variables of research concepts (based on the findings of the first focus group). And the latter was conducted through interviews with 232 owner/export managers (from rice-exporting firms, and coffee-exporting firms) in Viet Nam. The results show that: (i) export performance is affected by marketing strategies, management characteristics, domestic market characteristics, and foreign market characteristics; and export barriers; and (ii) marketing strategies are affected by management characteristics, and foreign market characteristics. However, the research has some certain limitations: (i) the sample size only consisted of rice-exporting firms and coffee-exporting firms, (ii) The sampling technique of the study is the convenience sampling.
, Ho Thi Hong Minh, Phan Thi Kieu Hoa, Tran Hoai Nam
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.659

Abstract:
The paper investigates the effects of dividend policy and foreign ownership on stock price volatility of Vietnamese listed firms by using multivariate regression analysis. Besides, the impact of foreign ownership on the association between the dividend policy and the stock price volatility is also studied. The Baskin's approach is deployed to measure the stock price volatility while dividend yield and payout ratio are proxies for the dividend policy. The data sample includes 420 firms listed on the HSX and HNX for 10 years, from 2009 to 2018. The FEM and PCSE are applied to examine the panel dataset with 4045 observations. The key findings indicate that both dividend yield and payout ratio are negatively correlated with stock price volatility. Besides, the stock price volatility of firms with higher dividend payments and a greater rate of foreign ownership is less volatile than those of other companies. Foreign ownership stimulates the negative relationship between dividend yield and stock price volatility, implying that foreign ownership also plays a crucial role in the stability of the stock price. Finally, the results illustrate that the volatility of earnings and the debt ratio are positively related to stock price fluctuation, while the business size and state ownership indicate negative associations with the variability of the stock price.
Nguyen Van Ho,
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1081-1092; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.692

Abstract:
Recently, with the growth of technology and the Internet, customers can easily create their opinions and feedbacks about products and services of hotels on websites or social media. This information is stored in textual form, and is a huge source of data to explore. In order to continue developing to meet customers' needs, businesses need to gain customers' insights that customers discuss and concern. In this study, we firstly collected a corpus of 26,482 customer comments and reviews written in English from some e-commerce websites in the hospitality industry. After preprocessing the collected data, our team conducted experiments on this corpus and chose the best number of topics (K) by Coherence Score measurements as input parameters for the model. Finally, experiment on the corpus according to the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model with K coefficient to explore the topic. The model results found hidden topics with the corresponding list of keywords, reflecting the issues that customers are interested in. Applying empirical results from the model will support decision making to improve products and services in business as well as in the management and development of businesses in the hotel sector.
Nguyễn Văn Anh, Nguyễn Thị Phương Thảo
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1093-1103; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.686

Abstract:
This study aims to evaluate the role of the servicescape to service quality and customer behavioral intentions in the context of the coffee shops chains service in the Vietnam market. The author uses Structural Equational Modeling (SEM) to test the research model and hypotheses through survey data of 326 customers who have used services at coffee shops in cities in Vietnam. The results show that the concept of servicescape is a separate concept that plays an important antecedent role to service quality and customer behavioral intention, and employees service quality also plays a vital role in order to improve the overall service quality. The results of this study have confirmed the need to manage servicescape and employee service quality at coffeeshops chains which will contribute to enhace overall service quality and forming the intention to return using services of customers. Based on this result, the study has given some implications for managers not only in the coffee shops chains business but also in other service industry. The important contribution of this study is the affirmation of the independent role of servicescape in the coffee shops chain service business in the Vietnam market.
Phạm Thành Thái, Võ Chí Nam
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1050-1058; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.676

Abstract:
Routine health checkup is the simplest and most scientific method for early detection, minimizing harm, and preventing complications of diseases. However, until now, only a fraction of the population is aware of its importance. Studies in the world and in Vietnam show that the proportion of the population having routine health checkups remains modest. Understanding which factors affect the decision to have routine health checkups is important in creating a system and environment that encourage people to have regular health checkups. The study is based on the survey data of 420 people in Khanh Hoa province to identify the main factors affecting their decision of routine health checkups, using the Logit regression model. The results shows that factors affecting decisions on routine health checkups include: education level, occupation, income, age, chronic illness, waiting time, and the impact of cost. The study also determines that gender and marital status have no effect on regular health checkups. The results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the priorities of time and cost when developing policies to encourage regular health checkups in the population.
, Đỗ Hồng Vân
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.654

Abstract:
The booming of E-commerce trading sites, especially after COVID-19, has aggressively put pressure on the competition in this industry. Hence, building young customers’ loyalty plays a vital role in doing business. One of the best solutions to this problem is to boost customer satisfaction. As customers are satisfied with the products or services provided, they tend to purchase more frequently and eventually become more loyal. Regarding location, HCM City is currently the most potential market for E-commerce development. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to weigh the relative impacts of customer satisfaction factors on the youth’s loyalty (18-25 years old) to E-commerce trading sites in HCM City, address the existing issues, and propose the corresponding solutions. The study used Multiple Linear Regression Analysis with SPSS 20.0 to build, examine, and test the research model through 215 samples indicates that there are five factors, which affect the youth’s loyalty. They are the satisfaction of website design, the satisfaction of the product portfolio, the satisfaction of privacy & security, the satisfaction of delivery, and the satisfaction of the post-sales service. The results reveal that the satisfaction of privacy & security is the most influential factor in the youth’s loyalty, followed by the satisfaction of the post-sales service and the satisfaction of website design. In addition, there are no differences in young customers’ loyalty regardless of genders, occupations, frequencies of visiting E-commerce sites, monthly income levels, and average spending per order. Accordingly, these findings can be good guidance for E-commerce trading sites to formulate suitable development strategies to build the loyalty of customers at the early stage (18-25 years old) and effectively compete in the market. On the other hand, the paper has certain limitations, namely the short duration of collecting primary data (one month) and thus the relatively small sample size compared to the whole population of the youth. Moreover, as the method of data collection is survey-based, the study must be remade for different regions and nations. Also, this paper only covers E-commerce trading sites within the retailing industry. Hence, future research can greatly improve the model by extending the time period of data collection and covering more industries. Besides, a more modern approach such as SEM is a decent option for measurement scales evaluation and model testing, since Multiple Linear Regression Analysis requires strict assumptions and may have a great likelihood of measurement errors.
Hoang Tien Nguyen, Vuong Hoang Do
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1104-1114; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.693

Abstract:
EVFTA is one of the newest endeavors of Vietnam regarding the international integration process, which is anticipated to be beneficial for Vietnam in many aspects across industries. The government procurement sector does not stay out of this influence. This article mainly aims to explore the government procurement sector of Vietnam, the performance of the government regarding managing this market and how it will be affected and reformed by EVFTA. More importantly, by examining the significant factors that may have an impact on the EVFTA's implementation from Vietnam's perspective, the article attempts to assess the compatibility of the current situation of Vietnam with the fundamental conditions to conduct public procurement regulations of EVFTA efficiently. The article collects, summarizes, and analyzes the secondary data from trustworthy sources like the Vietnam General Statistics Office, the ranking table of the International Telecommunication Union, the official annual report of state departments of Vietnam, and other documents like journal articles, research papers,etc. Another methodology employed in the research is the in-depth interviews with professional experts who have been working for several years in the international integration field. the article discovers that Vietnam is capable of implementing EVFTA's chapter 9 efficiently but with more careful preparation. The article also points out that despite of having a strong mindset of globalization, Vietnam's public expenditures are still loosely covered by laws, which leads to irrational allocation on national budget. A number of implications are suggested to localize the EVFTA's regulations and recommendations are made to apply modern technologies to improve the procurement system, especially on the capacity of government on managing the government procurement sector. The authors hope to help state authorities to have a broader look and improve the sector as well as embrace the opportunities from EVFTA regarding government procurement sector.
Minh Hoàng Nguyễn
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1033-1042; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.622

Abstract:
This article aims to understand the relationship between innovation and global competitiveness in several Southeast Asian countries, including: Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bruney, and Philippines in the period 2005 - 2017. Only data on the global competitiveness index from 2013 to 2017 were collected in Laos, the same index was collected in Brunei but in a different period from 2008 to 2013 and the year 2016, 2017. In addition, data on innovation activities from 2007 to 2017 were collected in Cambodia. Data in the study were collected from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). ), World Economic Forum (WEF), World Bank (World Bank), and random-effects, fixed-effects methods were used. Research results show that innovation activities have a positive impact on global competitiveness and economic development is a factor promoting the global competitiveness of some Southeast Asian countries. Based on the research results, some Southeast Asian countries should have appropriate policies to develop global competitiveness, especially focusing on policies to encourage innovation for businesses, mechanisms, enabling businesses to innovate, which contributes to improving the global competitiveness of countries.
Linh Le Thuc Bui
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.591

Abstract:
Even though the letter of credit was invented from a long time ago, however, its legal personalities are very new to the Vietnam Legal Framework. The International Chamber of Commerce (``ICC'') has issued principles for the documentary credit which is the Uniform of Customs and Practice (``UCP'') since 1933 and kept updating it until now, the latest version of UCP is UCP 600 which is presented in 2007. However, the UCP has not systematized many aspects of documentary credit yet and ICC considered those problems as subjects of domestic regulations. The diversification in different national laws leads to confusion thus causing many problems to merchants in international trade. Some countries do not have specified codifications to regulate the letter of credit so these countries treat UCP as ``quasi-law'' while other countries have their own legal framework for letter of credit law and even have fraud rules included. It is quite interesting that the United States which is a common law country is the first country to embody the operation of letter of credit in the Uniform of Commercial Code (``UCC'') and regulates the fraud rule within the same Code. This paper will try to explain and compare the principle of independence in the UCP and UCC, clarify the definition and regulations of fraud rule in UCC and evaluate the legal regulations of Vietnam law for the independence principle in a letter of credit.
, Anh T. Ha
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.664

Abstract:
Staff training is considered as an effective tool to help organizations and businesses develop sustainable competitive advantage based on human resources. However, the investment of enterprises in this training activity is still very limited. The article provides an thorough understanding of why businesses do not emphasize human resource training. The analysis results imply that the enterprise's decision to invest in vocational training may depend on the Intellectual capital of employees. Vocational training is reflected from the experimental research on 983 workers in more than 100 enterprises and from group discussions of managers, employers and teachers, with more than 60 people in Binh Duong Province. The analysis (quantitative methods - Correlation and multivariate Binary logistic regression, and qualitative methods - in-depth interviews and focus group discussions) in the context of high demand for human resources in Binh Duong Province, indicates that: (1). The Intellectual capital of the human resources is not high; (2). The proportion of employees receiving training in enterprises is very low; (3). This opportunity mainly belongs to the qualified labour. Therefore, recommendations are proposed to promote vocational training for the workforce in Binh Duong Province in the future.
Minh Hoàng Nguyễn, Bảo Thiên Hứa Lê, Vi Thúy Lê
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.605

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the perceiving benefit – risk and the continuance intention to use Fintech in Ho Chi Minh City. The data was collected from 472 respondents (under the age of 40). The statistical software AMOS, the consistency coefficient measured with Cronbach's Alpha for scaling test, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used for the analysis. The results show that users' benefit perception was explained by economic benefit and convenience, users' risk perception was explained by financial risk and security risk. Besides that, the benefit perception has a positive impact on the Fintech continuance intention, while the risk perception has a negative influence on such an intention. The research results also show that there is a difference between clumsy and proficient users of Fintech applications, specifically: (1) For users who are not proficient in Fintech applications, benefit perception are affected by economic benefit and convenience, and Fintech's intention to continue using financial services is positively affected by benefit perception and not affected by risk perception. In particular, risk perception is affected by financial risk; (2) For users who are proficient in Fintech applications, benefit perception are affected by economic benefit and convenience, and benefit perception have a positive impact on the intention to continue using Fintech's financial services, but risk perception has a negative impact on Fintech's intention to continue using its financial services, and is affected by financial risk and security risk.
Như Thị Thùy Cao
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1043-1049; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.677

Abstract:
Appraisal is an important stage in the preparation of Public-Private Partnership projects, which has an important influence on the project investment decision. However, the reality of the appraisal work over the past time has not been as effective as expected. To improve this situation, first of all, it is necessary to improve the legal basis of the organization, operation as well as the responsibility of the subject assigned to the appraisal task (the appraisal council). Only when the legal status of the appraisal council is independently designed, the composition of the appraisal council meets the professional requirements and the legal responsibility of each member of the appraisal council are clearly defined, thus the appraisal work can be done seriously and effectively. With the above orientation, this article will clarify Vietnamese legal regulations related to the appraisal council for Public-Private Partnership projects, including the current provisions of Decree 63/2018/ND-CP and the upcoming provisions of the Law on Public-Private Partnership Investment 2020. At the same time, this article will also compare with similar provisions of the Korean laws to have multidimensional views. On that basis, this article will propose a number of personal views to complete the legal basis for the appraisal of Public-Private Partnership projects in our country.
Minh Hoàng Nguyễn
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1069-1080; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.629

Abstract:
In 1986, it marked the renovation path, changing mechanisms and policies in all aspects, including Vietnam's economy. Since then, Vietnam's economy has grown rapidly with the contribution of the private sector, which was explained through Schumpeter's theory, and innovation was considered as the blood source for the nation's existence and development. The paper aims to explore the relationship between domestic innovation activities and economic development in Vietnam during 1988-2018. Data in the study were collected from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the World Bank (World Bank). This study used the Vector Autoregression Model (VAR) to analyze the relationship between domestic innovation activities and economic development. The research results show that Vietnam's domestic innovation activity is still limited, and has a twoway relationship between domestic innovation activities and economic development in Vietnam. Based on the research results, Vietnam needs to have an appropriate policy for economic development, especially focusing on renovating mechanisms and policies to create conditions for the private sector to strengthen its innovation to develop thereby contributing to Vietnam's economic development.
Lê Hữu Tuấn Anh, Hoàng Thị Mai Khánh, Nguyễn Hoàng Hải, Mai Thị Thu Ngân, Võ Thị Sương, Trần Hạnh Thảo
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1019-1032; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.670

Abstract:
Ngày nay, học tập tại nước ngoài được xem là một cơ hội lớn đối với sinh viên để nâng cao kiến thức, trải nghiệm của chính bản thân trong tương lai. Đặc biệt, hình thức học tập thông qua các chương trình trao đổi văn hóa, học thuật tại nước ngoài đã và đang trở thành xu hướng phổ biến. Hình thức này tuy có những điểm chung so với việc du học dài hạn của sinh viên, nhưng ngoài ra những ưu điểm riêng của nó, cũng giúp hình thức này nhận được nhiều sự quan tâm của các bạn sinh viên. Nghiên cứu này được nhóm tác giả thực hiện nhằm xác định các nhân tố ảnh hưởng đến quyết định tham gia chương trình trao đổi quốc tế (TĐQT) của sinh viên Việt Nam. Nghiên cứu được thực hiện theo phương pháp hỗn hợp, bao gồm nghiên cứu định tính (phỏng vấn chuyên gia) và nghiên cứu định lượng (khảo sát thông qua bảng hỏi), tiến hành trên 505 đối tượng trong thời gian từ tháng 11/2019 đến tháng 02/2020. Từ 8 nhân tố được kế thừa từ nghiên cứu trước và thông qua nghiên cứu định tính, kết quả phân tích định lượng chỉ ra 7 nhân tố có tác động trực tiếp lên quyết định tham gia các chương trình TĐQT của sinh viên. Từ đó, nghiên cứu đem lại những giải pháp cho sinh viên, các trường tổ chức liên kết và các phòng ban chuyên môn có thể xây dựng, đặt ra các mục tiêu phù hợp nhằm nâng cao hiệu quả của các chương trình TĐQT tại Việt Nam. Từ khóa: Giáo dục, Trao đổi quốc tế, ý định tham gia, thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Sinh viên In this day and age, studying abroad acts as an golden opportunity for students to expand their perspectives, and to gain priceless experience, which can facilitate their career path in the future. Moreover, international learning and knowledge propels students towards acceptance and understanding of an array of different cultural and community perspectives. Especially, a type of studying overseas called cultural and academic exchange programs has been becoming a popular trend. Although it shares a multitude of similarities with a long-term studying abroad programs, it has its own distinctive features which have been receiving a great deal of students’ attentions. This can be strong evidence that more and more students all around the world are participating in these programs every year. In terms of technical side, this research aims to identify factors having impacts on Vietnamese students’ decisions in participating in exchange programs. In specific, mixed methods are employed in the research, through qualitative methods (semi-structure interview) and quantitative method (survey), with 505 participants involving from November 2019 to February 2020. Based on literature review and qualitative analysis, a framework of 8 factors is proposed. Through quantitative analysis of survey questionnaire’s results, the research continues indicating a total of 7 factors that directly have influence on students’ decisions in taking part in exchange programs. Furthermore, the research provides several suggestions and objectives for individuals and organizations, which get involved in those exchange programs namely students, universities and educational institutions. Ultimately, the research is up for making a contribution to enhancing the effectiveness of exchange programs in Vietnam with a purpose that more Vietnamese students regardless of their backgrounds, can potentially have enough necessary qualities and satisfying the necessary conditions to carry on their studying abroad. Keywords: Education, International exchange, Intention to participate, Ho Chi Minh City, Alumnus
Nam Thi Nha Bach
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 1128-1137; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i4.665

Abstract:
The duty to provide information in the pre-contractual period is one of the fundamental factors to form an insurance contract. In terms of the insurers, they are basically in the reliance of the information provided by the prospective insureds to assess the frequency and level of risks to decide to engage in the insurance contract or not. Meanwhile, the insureds need to be provided the insurance policy and know all the substantial articles of the insurance policy drafted by the insurers to decide the acceptance of the adhesion contract. In the article, the author analyzes the rationale of forming the duties to provide information by the both parties at the pre-contractual period based on the good faith principle of the contract parties, the asymmetric information, and the nature of assessing the risks in the insurance business. Meanwhile, the article also presents the evolution of the duty to provide information in the pre-contractual period in the insurance contract in Vietnam.
Vi Hoang Dinh
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 963-972; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.668

Abstract:
By the end of 2017, VietNam's public debt had reached 3.1 million billion VND; 2.2 times higher than the end of 2011 (1,393 million VND). The ratio of public debt/GDP of Vietnam has increased rapidly in recent year, since 2011. Specifically, within only 5 years from 2011 to 2015, the ratio of public debt / GDP of Vietnam increased by 12.2 percentage points, from 50% to 62.2%. Although, the Government of Vietnam has made strong commitments to control public debt. But the actual results are not as expected and tend to get worse. With the current trend of increasing the size and risk of public debt, it is necessary to forecast the public debt and make policy implications on public debt management. Therefore, the author analyzed the state of Vietnam's budget deficit and public debt. Since the author used dynamic models Cechetti, Mohanty and Zampolli (2010) to forecast Vietnam's public debt trends to 2030, with three scenarios: The basic scenario is that there is no improvement in the balance of budget the Basic scenario is no improvement in the basic budget balance, the Bad scenario is the high budget deficit. From there, implications on public debt management that aim to increase the sustainability of public debt in VietNam.
Correction
Nga Hang Bui Thi
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4, pp 973-973; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.671

Abstract:
Article: Applying the rule of per se and rule of reason to assess the violation of the Competition Law by the IPRs owners (DOI: https://doi.org/10.32508/stdjelm.v4i2.627) by Bui Thi Hang Nga is added new section as below: Acknowledgement This study is funded by University of Economic and Law, VNU-HCM, Vietnam under grant number CS/2019-15.
, Nguyen Duong Ngoc Mai Chi
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.564

Abstract:
This study applied SERVQUAL scale of Parasuraman et al to measure factors affecting customer satisfaction on service quality at Vietnam Technological and Commercial Joint Stock Bank - An Giang Branch (Techcombank An Giang). The study was conducted to survey 207 customers who have been using the service at Techcombank An Giang. The survey results were analyzed by the Cronbach's Alpha reliability test method, then used Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to verify and evaluate the scale of service quality. The results of the regression analysis show that customer's satisfaction about service quality at Techcombank An Giang includes four factors: The factor with the highest level is the Empathy with Beta = 0.253, the second of factor is the Responsibility with Beta = 0.248, ranked third in the influence level is the Tangible with Beta = 0.235, and the lowest impact level is the Reliability with Beta = 0.144. The research also uses statistical methods to describe and test the differences of demographic factors with customer's satisfactionon service quality.The analysis results show that there is no difference between customer's satisfaction on service quality and factors such as gender, age, income, number of transaction banks, regular transaction banks, and time to use the service at Techcombank An Giang. Through the research results, the author would like to propose some ideas to improve the quality of services, thereby attracting new customers and importantly, keeping traditional customers because the development orientation of Techcombank is to take care of old customers to cross sell other products of the bank. The Stud results offer a basis for the branch to identify the factors influencing customer satisfaction on their service quality, thereby having an appropriate strategy to improve customer satisfaction.
Nguyen Hong Nga,
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.635

Abstract:
Migration is an indispensable trend in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and immigrant workers have become an important resource contributing to economic growth. This study aims to clarify the quality of life of immigrant workers and offer a scientific basis for policies that promote the positive contributions of immigrant workers. A linear structural equation model is used to analyze data of 394 observations, including 253 migrant workers and 141 local workers. Quality of life is first assessed by whether immigrant workers can meet or satisfy a variety of their needs. Then the relationship between the needs and outcomes such as income, education, and effort-to-stay is analyzed using a mediator named assimilation. Finally, a comparison between groups such as migrant and local workers, migrants living in HCMC under and over ten years is conducted. The results indicated that employment, settlement, and social support have a direct impact on their assimilation and the strongest indirect impact on effort-to-stay, income, and education. Besides, effort-to-stay and income have a mutual impact. The results also proved that there are differences between migrant workers and local workers but no difference between under 10-year migrants and over 10-year migrants.
Lien Dang Phuoc Hai
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.633

Abstract:
Enabling the use of future receivables as collateral to access to credit is highly economically meaningful, as its development is for one thing to assist businesses and individuals to access the capital easily with movable assets to be accrued in the future, and for another thing to encourage lending by reducing the financial vulnerability of lenders. In Vietnam, the recognition of future objects as a form of property eligible to be used as collateral since the 2005 Civil Code has had positive impacts on business financing. However, the term “future objects” does not explicitly cover all types of assets to be formed in the future such as future property rights not categorized as eligible collaterals. This shortcoming later has been revised and supplemented under Decree 163/2006/ND-CP, amended by Decree 11/2012/ ND-CP (Collectively Decree 163) which permits the creation of security over both existing and future receivables. The 2005 Civil Code has been replaced by the 2015 Civil Code, and it is necessary to revise or replace Decree 163 to reflect the changes in the Civil Code and the new practice. Vietnamese Government has been collecting comments for a draft decree on security measures to replace Decree 163, and this article aims to analyze the legal schemes in the former and current Civil Code regarding the use of future receivables as security for performance obligations, and compare with Japanese laws on securitization of future receivables in Japan. The author will try to provide suggestions drawing from Japanese lawmaking for reforming Vietnamese statutory.
Thuy Bich Le
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.673

Abstract:
Many studies have proven the positive impacts of student mobility on learner development. In general, student mobility may take place in two main forms: (1) learning abroad for a degree; (2) short-term mobility with a duration from some days to some weeks under different activities such as credit transfer, faculty-led study tour, and internship. In reality, the number of short-term mobility programs has dramatically increased globally to meet the needs of those who cannot afford overseas degree programs for financial, medical, family reasons, or the like. While learning abroad for degrees is relatively suitable to some specific learners, the above-mentioned mobility activities are generally easier for schools to organize, more accessible to learners as well as contribute significantly to student holistic development. Students of the University of Economics and Law, especially those in high-quality programs, are expected and encouraged to participate in different kinds of short-term student mobility programs. This paper focuses on presenting the impacts of short-term student mobility on student holistic development, illustrating the best practices from the University of Economics and Law and suggests some implications to foster short-term mobility in higher education institutions.
Vo Duy Minh
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.655

Abstract:
The paper aims to analyze and quantify the factors affecting consumer loyalty to retail stores in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in the lens of the Theory of Reason Action (TRA). The paper uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. The former was conducted through focus group discussions with 15 consumers using services at retail stores in HCMC while the latter was conducted by a direct survey on 465 customers using the service of retail stores in HCMC. The results show that (i) preferential treatment from retail stores, (ii) consumer commitment, (iii) consumer gratitude, and (iv) perceived service quality affect consumer loyalty. The research has limitations such as (i) consumer loyalty is influenced by many other factors. Therefore, it is necessary to include additional determinants in future research (ii) the research is only conducted in HCMC, and (iii) the sample size is relatively small with only 465 consumers.
Nguyen Vu Phuong, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Hoang Ngoc Hieu, Hoang Thi Que Huong, Tran Thi Kim Dao
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.652

Abstract:
In recent years, higher education institutions in Vietnam expect their academics to have more publications in prestigious journals to improve their ranking. Research motivation, both in the forms of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, is viewed as an important factor driving academics to strive to do research. Examining the relation between academics’ research motivation and research productivity which is measured by the number of publications on international and local journals can offer an understanding of the impact of research motivation on research productivity. This relation is examined by a quantitative analysis of data obtained from a survey of 96 academics at the University of Economics and Law. The results show that intrinsic motivation exerts a stronger influence on the academics’ research productivity than extrinsic motivation. Another finding is that the academics with a doctoral degree are more productive in research than those with a master’s degree. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance both intrinsic motivation and sustain extrinsic motivation to promote the academics’ research productivity. As qualifications play an important role in enhancing the number of publications, providing academics with favorable conditions and encouraging them to achieve higher degrees is expected to boost their research productivity.
Duong The Duy, Nguyen Thai Dung
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.658

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of social capital and other factors that affect the market access of coffee farmer households. The study synthesized theories, as well as previous studies, to provide criteria for measuring social capital of coffee farmers' households: including formal social networks, informal social networks, and trust. Besides, the study uses descriptive statistics, logistic regression, two t-average tests to analyze and assess the difference in social capital between poor and non-poor households of 235 coffee farmer households in Lam Dong Province. The results show that Agricultural Extension Associations, Association Organizations (proxy for official social networks), Agents at all levels, Colleagues - Friends (informal social networks), age, years of living in the locality, and labor have an impact on the market access of coffee farmer households. Some recommendations to improve market access of coffee farmers in the province have been proposed, based on the previous theories as well as the results of the research model The research, however, is yet to clarify the impact of social capital on each market of finance, land, labor, extension services, material, and output markets.
Tien Thu Thuy Nguyen, Chi Ha Lien Nguyen
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.579

Abstract:
This paper aims to investigate the literature on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to provide a comprehensive overview of whether CSR would make a difference to organisational financial outcomes. The paper also provides a closer focus on CSR research in Vietnam. Through an extensive analysis of 86 most recent empirical studies from 2015 to 2020, we found that the contribution of CSR to firm financial performance has received significant support from the literature. Yet the overall findings are still inconsistent, and the majority of evidence is mainly from developed countries. The current literature on CSR and firm performance highlights some important issues, ranging from theoretical background, CSR measures, methodological issues, the need to consider intervening factors in CSR-firm performance relationship, and the need to extend this literature further in developing and emerging countries. The literature on CSR-firm performance research in Vietnam closely resembles these problems. Research in this country domain is still scarce in both quantity and quality, reflecting in a number of issues including the limited number of international publications, the absence of theory-driven research, and the less rigorous research design. Building on these findings, we recommend future research to (i) adopt the multi-theoretical approach for a more extensive view on whether and how CSR contributes to firm performance; (ii) obtain more rigorous methodological approaches to measure a wide range of CSR dimensions and address the issue of endogeneity in CSR-firm performance causal relationship; (iii) open the Pandora box to explore why and through which channels CSR can improve firm financial performance with the presence of situational factors; and (iv) build the literature with more evidence from different country contexts and from developing and emerging countries.
Ngoc Thi Minh Tran
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.590

Abstract:
The human capital theory in economics argues that education is an investment in human capital and that the acquisition of knowledge and skills would enable individuals to increase their productivity and earnings, and thereby contributing to economic growth. As an investment, education incurs costs and benefits at various points in time. To measure economic benefits of education investment by individuals, economists use the rate of return to investment in education. This rate of return should be positive and higher than that of alternative options to ensure economic benefits of education investment and motivate education decisions. Given that tertiary education attainment is costly to individuals and the society at large, highly positive returns to tertiary education matter for individual and social human capital investments being economically justified. In the present age of mass access to tertiary education, the pattern of declining returns to investment in tertiary education was observed in a growing number of countries that include Vietnam. This trend may avert individual investment in human capital formation, and thereby negatively affecting national economic growth and development. To contribute to addressing this problem, the current paper aims to analyse the factors that drive the decay in returns to investment in tertiary education in Vietnam. Based on the descriptive research method using descriptive statistics, we summarize key trends in tertiary education in Vietnam. We identify that the abatement in returns to tertiary education investment in Vietnam may be attributed to three main factors: (i) the expansion of education supply, in particular tertiary education; (ii) the economic downturn after the global financial crisis; and (iii) the mismatched quality of tertiary education. These findings are foundations for our suggestions on possible solutions to inform the tertiary education development strategy.
Ho Van Nguyen,
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.656

Abstract:
Recently, with the growth of technology and the Internet, customers can easily give their opinions and feedback about products and services on websites or social media. This information is stored in text form, and is a huge source of data to explore. In order to continue developing to meet customers needs, businesses need to gain customers' insights that customers discuss and concern. In this study, we firstly collected a corpus of 99,322 customer comments and reviews written in English from some e-commerce websites in the hospitality industry. After pre-processing the collected data, our team conducted experiments on this corpus and chose the best number of topics (K) was chosen by Perplexity and Coherence Score measurements as input parameters for the model. Finally, experiment on the corpus was used based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model with K coefficient to explore the topic. The model results found hidden topics with a corresponding list of keywords, reflecting the issues that customers are interested in. Applying empirical results from the model will support decision making to improve products and services in business as well as in the management and development of businesses in the hospitality sector.
Hồ Xuân Thủy, Đinh Lê Minh Hiếu, Dzoãn Khoa Danh, Phạm Phú Thành Đạt, Nguyễn Hồng Ngọc, Phạm Như Ngọc
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.663

Abstract:
Profit maximization is an important goal of any business entities, lead to big concern about how to improve financial performance so as to run businesses in a stability and sustainability. Furthermore, in measuring financial performance, several profitability indicators are widely in use as return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE)... We did conduct literature reviews and conclude: evaluating the impact of factors on entity financial performance is such an essential topic which has drawn the attention of researchers all over the world and yet Vietnam. However, many studies gave dissimilar results, which indicates there might be differences in nature of the relationship, or factors affiliation in enterprises of different sectors or different countries. This study aims to determine the effect of factors on the financial performance of companies listed on the Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) from 2013-2017. The factors include corporate income tax, firms’size, growth of the firm, age of the firm and liquidity. The study used panel data methodology, the FEM model was found to be consistent with data. In this study, variables of return on assets (ROA) used to measure the financial performance of companies. The research revealed that corporate income tax, firms’size and growth of the firm show a significant negative relationship with financial performance. On the other hand, there is a significant positive relationship between liquidity and financial performance. But, the relationship between ROA with the firm age is not significant. Firms’ size and corporate income tax have the greatest influence on financial of companies. The findings of the study will improve the financial performance of companies listed on the HNX.
, Nguyen Duong Ngoc Mai Chi
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.657

Abstract:
This study applied SERVQUAL scale of Parasuraman et al to measure factors affecting customer satisfaction on service quality at Vietnam Technological and Commercial Joint Stock Bank - An Giang Branch (Techcombank An Giang). The study was conducted to survey 207 customers who have been using the service at Techcombank An Giang. The survey results were analyzed by the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test method, then used Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to verify and evaluate the scale of service quality. The results of the regression analysis show that customer’s satisfaction about service quality at Techcombank An Giang includes four factors: The factor with the highest level is the Empathy with Beta = 0.253, the second of factor is the Responsibility with Beta = 0.248, ranked third in the influence level is the Tangible with Beta = 0.235, and the lowest impact level is the Reliability with Beta = 0.144. The research also uses statistical methods to describe and test the differences of demographic factors with customer’s satisfaction on service quality. The analysis results show that there is no difference between customer’s satisfaction on service quality and factors such as gender, age, income, number of transaction banks, regular transaction banks, and time to use the service at Techcombank An Giang. Through the research results, the author would like to propose some ideas to improve the quality of services, thereby attracting new customers and importantly, keeping traditional customers because the development orientation of Techcombank is to take care of old customers to cross sell other products of the bank. The Stud results offer a basis for the branch to identify the factors influencing customer satisfaction on their service quality, thereby having an appropriate strategy to improve customer satisfaction.
, Dao Hong Nhung
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.634

Abstract:
Equitization and divestment continue to be one of the crucial pillars of the economic development strategy over the period 2020-2030. The Vietnamese Government has been completing the legal framework to speed up the process of privatization and divestment over the past 3 years. One of the highlights is the regulation on the application of Book Building (BB) Method to offer state shares in 2018. BB, an effective mechanism to determine the price on the primary market, is encouraged to apply on most markets. However, according to Hanoi Stock Exchange, for four months since Circular 21/2019/BTC-TT was released, 17 announcements of IPOs or divesture of state capital were whole lot sale auction or competitive offering. This implies the popularity of fixed price and discriminatory auction in Vietnam. Moreover, applying BB in Vietnam requires certain adjustments to theories. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of BB over fixed price and auction, reviews BB experiences of some economies, and make recommendations on the application of BB in offering state shares in Vietnam. Given that BB is expected to create a transparent and effective pricing mechanism and enhance the success of state share offering, this study indicates some points that need clarifying or adjusting to the current regulation, including (i) initial price and price range; (ii) time for disclosing information and opening order books; (iii) objectives of BB; (iv) cancel the results of BB; (v) selection of underwriters.
, Hoang Minh Chau
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.667

Abstract:
The study explores the relationship between working capital and profitability using data collected from the financial statements of 17 food and beverage companies listed on HOSE and HNX from 2008 to 2017. The three models used in this research are Pooled Ordinary Least Squares, Fixed Effects Model (FEM), Random Effects Model (REM). The results of the model tests show that REM is the most suitable. To enhance the reliability and efficiency of the model, we conduct robustness tests. The findings indicate the presence of heteroskedasticity in the model. Therefore, the adjusted REM with the GLS method is used to handle this issue. The results of the regression analysis reveal that when the average collection period increases, gross operating profit (GOP) decreases and return on assets (ROA) increases; the average payment period has a negative influence on ROA; cash conversion cycle has a negative influence on GOP and when the inventory period increases, ROA and GOP decrease.
Nguyễn Ngọc Duy
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.672

Abstract:
This study aims to measure the efficiency and productivity of Vietnamese pangasius processing and exporting firms, using variables of assets and liabilities in 2009-2014. The results show that the average resource use efficiency of the firms in this period is about 67.7% with a constant returns-to-scale, 79.4% with a variable returns-to-scale, and a scale efficiency (SE) of 85.5%. Firms need to increase their efficiency by 14.5% to achieve the optimal SE. More than half of the firms have efficiency lower than the industry average, suggesting that they were wasting their asset and liability resources, especially the long-term debt. The improvement of technical efficiency and technological advancement on average help increase total factor productivity by 14.1%. About 40% of firms experienced a decline in average productivity and 60% experienced an increase. This research, therefore, recommends firms to use there resources economically or efficiently, especially the long-term debt. In addition, firms also need to improve their technology to boost productivity, thereby enhancing their competitiveness.
Science & Technology Development Journal - Economics - Law and Management, Volume 4; doi:10.32508/stdjelm.v4i3.662

Abstract:
In recent decades, there have been many authors who researched about the topic of employee engagement with a variety of approaches and significant findings. This research aims to study factors determining the organizational engagement of office workers. Samples were collected from 253 office workers in Binh Duong Province. The results from this study indicate that five factors that have a positive influence on employee engagement, in descending order, include job characteristics, job fit, rewards and recognition, employee voice, perceived organizational support. Especially, Justice factor is not statistically significant. Besides, testing the difference in the level of employee engagement by individual characteristics suggests that there is no difference in engagement by gender and seniority, yet there is a difference by age, in particular, the group under 25 years has a lower level of engagement than other groups (25 - 34 years, 45 - 54 years old, 55 years and older). Based on the findings, some implications are suggested to improve the human resources management of companies in Binh Duong Province through strengthening the organizational engagement level of office workers.
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