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Chkheidze V
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 4, pp 1-1; doi:10.31031/pps.2021.04.000577

Abstract:
Chkheidze V* Georgian Technical University, Georgia *Corresponding author: Chkheidze V, Georgian Technical University, Georgia Submission: December 26, 2020;Published: January 25, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000577 ISSN 2637-8035Volume4 Issue1 In Kaspi cement plant (Heidelbergcement group) the new 5 stage pre-calciner kiln (3000 TPD) was erected in 2016 and commissioned in 2018. It was a brownfield project, the existing wet plant was stopped with 3 long wet kilns, only cement grinding mills remain in operation. It is quite common thing to upgrade old process equipment with new installations but in this case source of main material, limestone was also changed, it was quite challenging. My PHD work is related to the new production process and control concepts which were necessary to implement for keeping high production, low power and heat consumption and most importantly excellent quality to build the future. Keywords: Clinker; Kiln; Pre-calciner; Raw materials; Production; Clinkerization; Quality; Incorporation Beside above-mentioned challenges with new equipment, material and fuel mix, globally, there is the most important CO2 emissions reduction challenge which is quite tough due to clinker production high heat and temperature requirement and limestone to clinker conversion nature that CaCO3 is losing CO2. There are several scenarios how to reduce carbon dioxide footprint, like: reduction of clinker incorporation in cement, process optimization for lower heat demand for clinkerization, alternative fuels and raw materials usage for clinker production etc. In this study one of the components would be raw material utilization which is added immediately after the clinker burning process directly into the hot part of the grate cooler. This revolutionary idea was tested in 70s by Georgian Technical University professors with very good results, like, gaining 10-20 Mpa of very early strength, in 2 hours after setting the samples. Unfortunately, it was only lab test trial and did not move any further into production. sThe mentioned waste material is waste product from Aluminum production which could be a part of circular economy due to its beneficial ability to reduce carbon footprints while even increasing the clinker quality. Additionally, if clinker quality is increased it gives another room for clinker incorporation reduction in cement [1]. Focus of the research would be clinker production process on local raw material and fuel and clinker with 5 stage pre-calciner kiln and grate cooler in Georgia (country), process and material optimization will be additionally focused in order to reduce heat requirement while keeping or increasing the quality main parameters and having possibility to utilize the benefits in reduced clinker incorruption. © 2020 Hasheminasab H. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Simonyan G
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2021.04.000576

Abstract:
Simonyan G* Departament of Chemistry YSU, Armenia *Corresponding author: Simonyan G, Departament of Chemistry YSU, Armenia [email protected]; [email protected] am Submission: December 26, 2020;Published: January 18, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000576 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 is shown that along with other geoinformation methods, one can also use the value of the Chenon entropy to assess the maturity of oil fields. It was found that in the series of naphthides natural gas →gas condensate → associated gas → oil, entropy increases, while geoecological syntropy decreases. It is curious that for natural gas H = 0.41, which indicates a high degree of freedom of the gas phase, while for oil the entropy and syntropy are approximately equal, which indicates that when oil is formed in a trap mainly from the mantle of a high-energy liquid, the structural formation organization is in equilibrium. Keywords: Naphthides; Natural gas; Oil; Entropy; Shannon index Naphthides are in separate places of the Earth in gas, liquid, semi-solid and solid states or in the form of their mixture. Of greatest industrial importance are liquid naphthides called oil, or literally crude oil. Oil - complex heterogeneous colloid-dispersed systems. is formed in the interior of the Earth from deep mantle fluids and is a renewable resource. Oil is a mutual solution of the closest homologues and other compounds in each other. More than a thousand of individual organic substances were found in the composition of oil, containing: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and more than 60 elements [1]. Gaseous naphthides are natural gas, gas condensate and associated gas [1]. Natural gas or fossil gas is a natural mixture of hydrocarbon gas, consisting mainly of methane, but usually containing various amounts of other low molecular weight alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide or helium. Natural-gas condensate, also called natural gas liquids, is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields. The natural gas condensate is also called condensate, or gas condensate, or sometimes natural gasoline because it contains hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range. Associated petroleum gas is a natural hydrocarbon gas dissolved in oil or located in “caps” of oil and gas condensate fields. In contrast to natural gas, associated petroleum gas contains in addition to methane and ethane a large proportion of propane, butane and vapor of heavier hydrocarbons. Many associated gases, depending on the field, also contain non-hydrocarbon components: hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and argon. Naphthides are unstable open geodynamic systems, which under the influence of anthropogenic, deep, surface, cosmic processes can self-organize in the direction of chaos, the measure of which is entropy or the direction of order. In open systems, which include naphthides, processes can proceed with both an increase and a decrease in entropy. The system interacts with the outside world as a whole. An open system can exchange energy, material and, which is not less important, information with environment. The system consumes information from the environment and provides information to environment for act and interact with environment. Shannon CE [2] was the first who related concepts of entropy and information. He has suggested that entropy is the amount of information attributable to one basic message source, generating statistically independent reports. Get any amount of information entropy is equal to the lost. Information entropy for independent random event x with N possible states is calculated by the following equation: where Pi is the probability of frequency of occurrence of an event. For the first time, in 1955, Arthur RM [3] used the general Shannon entropy equation for estimating the degree of structuring of biocenoses, in which pi was replaced by pi = ni/ N; (where ni is the total number of individuals of the species i, N is the total number of individuals in the entire biocenosis). R. Margalef postulated a theoretical concept according to which diversity corresponds to entropy when randomly choosing species from the community [4]. As a result of these works, the Shannon H Index, sometimes called the Shannon Diversity Information Index, has gained widespread acceptance. Using the Shannon index, a comprehensive assessment of the quality of surface waters was carried out [5] and a structural analysis of the condition of Covid-19 was made [6]. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the state of naphthid systems using the chemical component composition of naphthid systems with Shannon index. To determine the values of the Shannon index index the following computational algorithm is used [7]: Determines the percentage of each component-n. Estimates the total percentage of components (N)-N=Σn. Computes log2N, nlog2n and Σ nlog2n. Determines geoecological evolving syntropy (I) and entropy (H): I = Σ nlog2n / N and H = log2N-I. The values of H and I indicate what and to what extent prevails in the structure of the system: chaos or order. So, if Н ˂ I, then order prevails in the structure of the system, otherwise, when Н = I - the organization of the system is equilibrium. Table 1: Chemical composition (vol.%) and values of I and H for gas. In accordance with the purpose of the work and the formulation of the problem, the Shennon index of natural gas, associated petroleum gas, gas condensate fields, and oil fractions were calculated. Table 1 show the corresponding Shennon index calculations. It is curious that for natural gas H = 0.41, which indicates a high degree of freedom of the gas phase. For oil, the Shenon entrophy (H = 3.33) and syntropy (I = 3.31) are approximately equal. This indicates that the structural organization of the oil is in...
Guillermo Felix
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000575

Abstract:
Guillermo Felix* Tecnológico Nacional de México, Instituto Tecnológico de Los Mochis, México *Corresponding author: Guillermo Felix, Tecnológico Nacional de México, Instituto Tecnológico de Los Mochis, México Submission: December 19, 2020;Published: December 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000575 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 Due to the large amount of compounds present in heavy crudes and bitumens, kinetic modeling of hydrocracking is generally used lumping models to simplify calculations. One way to ensure that the model regime depends only on the reaction mechanisms is to obtain intrinsic kinetics. This happens when it is verified that the transport resistances are negligible depending on the reactor system. Therefore, the kinetic reaction parameters obtained (rate constant, activation energies and collision factors) are affected only by the reaction and not the diffusion phenomena within the reactor. Another important factor to verify in kinetic modeling is that the assumed order of reaction is indeed appropriate and this is done by graphing the variation of the conversion with respect to time in the appropriate power law model according to our reaction system. The sensitivity analysis is a tool that allows confirming that the values of the parameters obtained during kinetic modeling are the best since very few kinetic studies reported in the literature provide sufficient evidence to guarantee that the values of the parameters correspond to the optimal ones. Hydrocracking has emerged as one of the most important secondary petroleum refinery processes due to increased heavy crude production and high demand for valuable products. For this reason, in recent years, researchers have sought to develop refining techniques based on feedstock available at low prices, such as heavy oil, bitumen and residues. The objectives of upgrading these feeds are to decrease the viscosity and the boiling point, reduce or eliminate the level of impurities (such as metals and nitrogen and sulfur compounds) and increase the H/C ratio. To achieve these objectives, dispersed metallic catalysts are used, but to understand the catalytic behavior inside the reactor, reaction mechanisms represented by kinetic models are used where detailed reaction parameters, that depend mainly on the catalyst, feed and operating conditions are optimized [1,2]. When we talk about heavy crude oils and bitumens, their complex composition complicates the kinetics of hydrocracking because they contain a wide variety of impurities as well as high molecular weight materials such as asphaltenes. Nevertheless, that is not all, but also the colloidal structure influences the general kinetics, such as the interaction between the micelles of resins and asphaltenes that must disintegrate to allow the hydrocracking reactions to continue [3]. In hydrocracking, asphaltenes or large compounds are broken to form low molecular weight compounds over a catalyst in a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Simultaneously, another reactions taking place are hydrodesulfurization, hydrodemetallization, etc., and the different rates and selectivity of each reaction depend on the properties of the catalyst used and on the reaction conditions [1]. While cracking reaction is endothermic, the hydrogenation is exothermic leading to an overall exothermic hydrocracking process, since the heat required for cracking is less than the heat released during hydrogenation. Generally, both thermal and catalytic reactions were considered to occur in parallel [4]. Kinetic modeling of hydrocracking of heavy petroleum fractions is often performed in lumped to simplify the feedstock that contains a large number of hydrocarbons. A considerable number of models have been proposed, which consist of a limited number of pseudocomponents (usually less than 10) [5,6]. The benefits of traditional and discrete lumping methods lie in their simplicity since with relatively few equations to solve and few parameters to estimate, calculation times are low. However, the number of pseudocomponents can be increased to make better use of the experimental data, but this exponentially raises the number of reaction rate parameters to estimate [7]. The precision of kinetic data can be affected by several factors such as cumulative error in the measurement of experimental parameters. In addition to the usual parameters such as temperature, H2 pressure, space velocity and/or contact time, the type of experimental system and the time in which the measurement is taken must be considered because the data values will change over time due to gradual deactivation of the catalyst [3]. Reaction kinetics data obtained under conditions of mass transfer limitations cannot be used as such for setting meaningful kinetic expressions because mass transfer limitations can mask the results and lead to misinterpretations in developing kinetic models. There are some criteria for performing kinetic experiments under conditions where transport resistances are negligible depending on the reactor system. When these conditions are ensure, intrinsic kinetic equations will be obtained and reaction kinetic parameters (rate constant, activation energies, and collision factors) will be optimal estimated, so it is important to perform kinetic experiments under conditions where transport resistances are negligible. In addition, there are many correlation in order to ensure the well diffusion of reactive and product molecules [8,9]. As seen in any reaction, the diffusion of reagent molecules into the pores of the catalyst as well as the diffusion of product molecules out of the pores, affect the rate of hydrocracking reactions. Therefore, another important factor to consider during kinetic studies is the porosity of the catalyst (for supported catalyst). In the case of residues and heavy crude oils, the volume and size distribution of the pores are important parameters, since they...
Hasheminasab H
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000574

Abstract:
Hasheminasab H1* 1SEPID, Sustainability Assessment Group, Iran *Corresponding author: Hasheminasab H,SEPID, Sustainability Assessment Group, Iran Submission: September 29, 2020;Published: December 21, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000574 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 The main function of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is to virtually model a construction project to reduce unforeseen circumstances. The applications of BIM in different construction fields and various engineering disciplines have grown over time. Based on existing literature, the percentage of North American construction companies that are using BIM software has grown from 28% in 2007 to 71% in 2012. Based on 2012 statistics, contractors are using BIM 4% more than architects and 7% more than engineers Figure 1. Figure 1: North America construction companies using BIM [1]. BIM deals with multiple stakeholders from owners, contractors, designers, and consultants to operators, analyzers, and programmers. Sun shading, daylighting, lifecycle assessment, energy modeling, and water usage calculation are some examples of the lateral analyzes covered by BIM software. The construction industry has benefited from BIM in the following ways: A. Improve interoperability and communication between engineering disciplines, owners, vendors, and manufacturers B. Reduce construction as well as operation cost C. Improve constructability and unforeseen clashes D. Reduce reworks and construction time and improve productivity E. Reduce drawing ambiguities and site’s Technical Queries (TQs) F. Improve the accuracy of cost estimation G. Reduce document version control and provide a clarified environment H. Facilitate sustainability and energy-related assessments and calculations I. Realize the life-cycle approach in all phases of projects J. Streamline Facilities Management (FM) practices and procedures In terms of easier communication, the improvement in interoperability and communication becomes even more crucial in mega projects in which a multitude of stakeholders and disciplines are involved. For instance, various engineers need to collaborate for a building project from architects to structural designers and MEP engineers, who have to work together on a single model simultaneously. This collaboration would be even more important when a change is requested. Every modification needs to be traceable by the author’s name, date, and department. Every change may influence another department or may cause clashes or constructability difficulties in the final model which needs to be taken into account in the 3D model Figure 2. Figure 2: Collaboration in traditional vs. BIM processes [2]. In Oil, Gas, and Petrochemical (OGP) projects the problems that could arise from lack of proper communication, are much more complicated due to the following reasons: A. The more diverse range and a deeper involvement of engineering disciplines, as well as other stakeholders, such as MC, licensor, manufacturer, vendor, supplier, customs office, and other local authorities such as environmental agencies, transportation departments, etc. B. Due to the high cost of OGP projects, productivity improvement will result in more significant savings. Depending on the means of improving productivity, costs may be decreased in construction or operation phases. C. Constructability, works sequence, and the site layout is more complicated in OGP projects and needs to be clarified in accordance with the requirements and interests of various stakeholders as well as operating the company’s processes and assets and lessons learned. D. More complex work sequence and reciprocal engineering feeding in OGP projects need more collaboration in particular, which means, excessive modifications will lead to more extensive rework. E. Since OGP projects’ documents and drawings include more details that are provided by various parties, ambiguity is more likely to happen. Obviously, the ambiguity will result in more TQs and reduce the productivity and speed of construction activities. This is why a real 3D model would result in a clearer and more accurate environment. F. In OGP projects more construction and operation cost is involved. Also, higher risks and hazards are to be dealt with; this would require more elaborate and accurate assessment and estimation. G. One of the important activities in OGP projects is vendor document control, which takes a lot of engineering man-hour. A more comprehensive and realistic model can improve mutual understanding, reduce the number of comments, and result in lower document versioning. BIM in OGP projects has been continuously developed and improved via various software. Among this group of software, the likes of Revit and Navisworks are commonly used both for building and OGP projects. Meanwhile, there is other software that is developed exclusively for industrial projects such as OGP. Here are some of the tools that are used in OGP projects for BIM purposes: A. AVEVA: PDMS, Everything 3D (E3D), BOCAD, etc. B. Bentley: PDS, Plant Design, Intergraph Smart Plant 3D, etc. C. Autodesk: Revit, AutoCAD Plant 3D, Navisworks, etc. Figure 3: Sample 3D model exported from Revit. Figure 4: An access platform and equipment modeled in PDMS. AVEVA has been developed in the UK and is widely used for OGP projects and plays a pivotal role in Middle Eastern projects as it is demanded by owners. This platform contains many engineering modules and has been continuously improved from PMDMS 11 which was applicable for windows XP-32bit to PDMS 12 which was capable of working on Windows 64bit, and finally, E3D which is an integrated AVEVA solution for OGP projects. AVEVA’s integrated solution can be used by every engineering discipline. This group of software has a large market share and has the highest prices compared to its competitors Figure 3 & 4. The AVEVA integrated solution is designed to be used by all engineering disciplines by using a...
Samoilov NA
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000573

Abstract:
Samoilov NA1* and Zhilina VA1 1Department of Petrochemistry and Chemical Technology, Russia *Corresponding author: Samoilov NA,Department of Petrochemistry and Chemical Technology, Russia Submission: October 18, 2020;Published: December 01, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000573 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 Mathematical modeling of the diesel fuel Hydrotreating process is impossible without a database on the composition and physical and chemical properties of organosulfur components in the feedstock, since the degree of activity of sulfur compounds in hydrogenolysis reactions is different and decreases in the series: mercaptans > sulfides > thiophenes > benzothiophenes > dibenzothiophenes. There are alternative solutions to the problem of describing the composition of Hydrotreating raw materials. The first option is to identify the most complete set of organosulfur components of diesel fuel and develop a data Bank of possible reaction routes; this solution, in principle, allows the most adequate characterization of Hydrotreating raw materials, but it is the most time-consuming and not always solved from the point of view of the sensitivity of analytical devices. We can note a generalization of the thermodynamic parameters of hydrogenation reactions (entropy and Gibbs energy) for 38 organosulfur components [1]. However, it is quite problematic to implement kinetic experiments to obtain the physical and chemical characteristics of reactions necessary for modeling the process, first of all, the constants of the Arrhenius equation (activation energy and pre-exponential multiplier) due to the microconcentrations of many components in the reaction mixture. The second option is to formally combine the components of one group of organosulfur substances into a conditional pseudo-component [2-4], but the calculated constants of both the Arrhenius equation and the reaction rate constants themselves are effective and do not allow forming an objective analysis of the reaction process. For example, in [2], the study of diesel fuel desulfurization was performed using the following conditional pseudocomponents: sulfides, ethylbenzothiophenes, propylbenzothiophenes, butylbenzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, methyldibenzothiophenes and ethyldibenzothiophenes, but in [3] a different grouping of pseudo-components was used. In [3] also provides an example of representing the composition of organosulfur components in diesel in the form of 2, 3 and 4 pseudo-components, in the latter case they were divided into very easily hydrogenated, easily hydrogenated, difficult hydrogenate and very difficult to hydrogenate without identifying the hydrogenated components. In this regard, we propose to conditionally divide the initial diesel fuel into N narrow fractions, in each of which the set of organosulfur components is considered as a pseudocomponent, for which the rate constant of the hydrogenation reaction can be easily determined experimentally. With this representation of pseudo-components, the results of mathematical modeling will be determined only by the number of narrow fractions. We have performed mathematical modeling of diesel fuel hydrotreatment taking into account from two to 16 pseudo-components. The model of Hydrotreating process kinetics in this case has the form of a system of equations where CSI and Ki, respectively, are the concentration of the organosulfur pseudo-component and the rate constant of the i-th reaction. © 2020 Samoilov NA. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
V Beschkov
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000572

Abstract:
V Beschkov*, E Razkazova Velkova and L Liutzkanov Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria *Corresponding author: V Beschkov, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria Submission: October 10, 2020;Published: November 17, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000572 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 The problem of the adverse effect of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere became a global one in the recent years due to the caused probable climate changes. The mostly spread greenhouse gases are methane and carbon dioxide emitted by agriculture (methane), transport, industry and households (carbon dioxide). Carbon dioxide is considered as a big threat for climate changes because of its very powerful emissions all over the world. There are different ways for remedy of this global threat. First, it is to increase the energy efficiency to spend less carbon containing fuels in transport and industry. Another way is to replace, at least partially, the carbon containing fossil fuels by renewable ones, like wind, solar energy and waterpower, or by recyclable biomass. The third one is to recycle the emitted carbon dioxide to fuels (e.g. methane, synthesis gas, light hydrocarbons) and/or useful chemical products (methanol, formic acid, etc.). Mostly the carbon dioxide recycling is based on endothermic processes requiring input of energy thus polluting atmosphere with carbon dioxide in the general case. That is why a carbon-free sources of energy must be applied. Fuel cell applications seem promising to such a purpose.This minireview presents a comparison of the available data for reverse carbon dioxide conversion to methane and organic compounds. Keywords: Carbon dioxide recycling;Fuels;Chemical production;Fuel cell application Methane has various practical applications as fuel, raw material for energy production in fuel cells, for nitrogen-containing fertilizers, syngas production for synthetic fuel applications by the Fischer-Tropsch process, etc. However, in all of these cases the resulting waste is carbon dioxide, assumed as harmful pollutant of atmosphere, leading to greenhouse effect and climate changes. There are different ways to remediate the adverse effects of carbon dioxide on atmosphere: emission minimization, use of renewable energy sources and carbon dioxide recycling. Emission minimization is rendered to two main approaches: by improvement of energy efficiency in different ways or by replacement of fossil fuels by renewable ones, i.e. solar or wind energy, biomass. The use of renewables is to replace, at least partially, the fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas) by renewable energy sources, like solar and wind energy and biomass as well. The latter enables to relate the present carbon dioxide emissions with the carbon cycle, closed by the existing vegetation by photosynthesis. Such fuels produced from biomass are biogas (a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide) generated by anaerobic digestion of organic waste, ethanol, produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, and biodiesel, produced by transesterification of lipids. Within this approach the biogas applications as a fuel and source for syngas production by dry reforming are considered. All approaches of biomass utilization as renewable energy resource end with the inevitable carbon dioxide release due to combustion. On the other hand, the vegetation growth requires energy expenses also associated with carbon dioxide release. That is why, recycling of abiotic carbon dioxide is the main goal of the present scientific research and in the near future. This mini review presents a comparison of the available data for reverse carbon dioxide conversion to methane and organic compounds, including own data. An attractive approach is to convert the waste carbon dioxide into organic chemicals by catalytic processes. Such products are methanol, formic acid and methane. The problem is the high thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide and the endothermic processes of carbon dioxide reduction to organic chemicals. There are different ways to overcome this drawback: to use solar energy, other renewables like wind and water energies and fuel cell applications. There are different methods for carbon dioxide recycling by chemical catalysis [1,2]. Some of them results in production of urea, methane (by Sabatier & Senderens reaction), synthesis gas by dry reforming [3] with further applications, light fuels by Fischer- Tropsch process and other catalysts [4], dimethylether for fuel additive, acrylic acid, iso-cyanates, etc.: 2N3+CO2 = CO(NH2)2+H2O (urea) CО2+2H2 = CH4+H2O (Sabatier’s reaction) CH4+CO2 = 2CO+2H2 (dry reforming) (1) 2CO+4H2 = 2CH3OH↔CH3OCH3 H2C=CH2+CO2 = H2C=CH-COOH; RNH2+CO2 = RNCO+H2O Unfortunately, all these reactions require high temperature and pressure and therefore high input of energy and release of carbon dioxide. That is why other sources of energy avoiding carbon dioxide release are necessary. The first approach is the photocatalytic reduction of gaseous carbon dioxide using solar energy [5-9]. Different products are obtained - carbon monoxide [5], methanol [6,7], light hydrocarbons [8] or methane [9]. The main problem in all these cases is the low yield of the products. Another way is the electrochemical reduction of carbonate in aqueous media. The first step is to capture carbon dioxide by alkaline agents as carbonate and to use it further to produce chemicals or energy. The following cathode reactions are involved: CO2+2H++2e- = CO+H2O CO2+2H++2e- = HCOOH CO2+4H++4e- = HCHO (2) CO2+6H++6e- = CH3OH+H2O CO2+8H++8e- = CH4+2H2O There are communications in the literature for methanol production by electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide [10] or for other liquid fuels [11]. There are some efforts for combined electrochemical and catalytic reduction [12-14]. A sketch of the fuel cell operation for the case of carbon dioxide (or bicarbonate and carbonate...
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-12; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000571

Abstract:
Isam Al Zubaidi* Industrial Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada *Corresponding author: Isam Al Zubaidi, Industrial Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada [email protected] Submission: August 08, 2020;Published: October 27, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000571 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue5 The effect of diffusivity of petroleum products on human health in contaminated areas was investigated. The diffusivity of light naphtha, different brands of gasoline, gasoline-ethanol blends, and jet fuel were examined as a function of temperature. The diffusivities were related to the density, vapor pressure, and the types of hydrocarbons present in each product. The diffusivity of different gasoline-ethanol blends was also studied. The temperature has an effective influence on diffusivity. The increasing of atmospheric temperature means an increasing in the diffusivity and increasing in the impact of human health and especially in closed areas as hydrocarbon vapors contaminated area. Keywords: Health impact;Light petroleum refinery products;Diffusivity Risk assessment is defined as a systematic process for describing and qualifying the risks associated with hazardous substances as action or events. It is function of hazard, exposure, opportunity, and population at risk. To analyze the risk, hazard must be identified and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. In this work, the environment risk assessment will be evaluated with the molecular diffusion of light petroleum refinery products in air at different operating temperatures. Light petroleum refinery products are mixture of hydrocarbons and can cause fire, explosion, health and environmental hazards. The physical properties can vary depending on source, product specification and additives. Vapors of light oil products are heavier than air, so, they don’t disperse easily in air conditions and tends to sink to the lowest level within its surroundings. Accumulations of light petroleum vapors in enclosed spaces or other poorly ventilated areas can persist for long time, even where there is no longer any visible sign of liquids. Vapors concentration of suspended fuel depends upon weather conditions and gives off flammable vapors even at very low temperatures [1]. Automobile refueling is one of the most important sources of benzene vapor emitting to the atmosphere. It has severe health effect on workers and people in refueling stations [2]. Individuals exposal to different hydrocarbons present in these products have reported emotional dysfunction, decreased attention spans, fatigue, skin irritation, postural sway imbalances, and adverse effects on sensorimotor speed, liver function, and the respiratory system [3]. The evaporation of unleaded gasoline with octane number of 93 was studied experimentally [4]. The weight, Reid vapor pressure, viscosity, and the concentration of non-methane total hydrocarbon were measured in oil vapor phase. These parameters were changed significantly during evaporation process because gasoline is a multi-component fuel. The mass loss reached 86.36% after 300 days. Most oil and petroleum products evaporated at a logarithmic rate with respect to time [5-7]. Evaporation rate was conducted with/without wind [8]. The evaporation rates were similar for all wind conditions and lower without wind and the boundary layer regulation was not dominant for petroleum products. Molecular diffusion can be defined as macroscopic transport of mass, independent of any convection within the system [9]. The diffusivity of light petroleum vapor in air can be conveniently determined by Winklemann’s method in which the liquid in a narrow diameter vertical tube, maintained at a constant temperature, and air stream is passed over the top of the tube to ensure that the partial pressure of the vapor is transferred from the surface of the liquid to the air stream by molecular diffusion. According to mass transfer theory, diffusion occurs from high to low concentration regions. Many factors can affect diffusivity such as temperature, pressure and molar mass. Diffusivity is faster at high temperature, low pressure, and low molar mass of material. Diffusion rate can be referred as “flux J” which represents the amount of species per time that passes through a unit area. The flux is calculated through the Fick’s rate equation: It is very essential to calculate the diffusivity since it can predict the time needed for certain species to transfer in a medium. Thus, the diffusivity has several applications and benefits in life. The diffusion rate (flux) depends on diffusivity coefficient D, so it is essential to identify how D affects the flux. It is assumed that the higher the temperature, the higher the diffusivity rate will be, since an increase in temperature represents an increase in the average molecular speed. The transfer theory where molar mass transfer rate NA is related to the diffusivity by the following formula [10,11]: Where CA is the saturation concentration at interface, L is the effective distance of mass transfer, CBM is logarithmic mean of molecular concentration of vapor, and CT is the total molar concentration, which is (CBM+CA). Evaporation of liquid is associated with mass transfer rate in the following formula: Where ρ and M are the density and molecular mass of light petroleum product. By equating equations (1) and (2), then integrating between L to Lo and 0 to t gives the following formula: By rearranging equation (3) to be similar to format of linear equation, it will be as follows: Where: The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient data can be expressed using the following equation: D is the diffusivity in square meter per second which is a proportionality factor in...
Kamil Stasiak, Paweł Ziółkowski, Dariusz Mikielewicz
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000570

Abstract:
Kamil Stasiak*, Paweł Ziółkowski and Dariusz Mikielewicz Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland *Corresponding author: Makarand R Gogate, Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India Submission: October 05, 2020;Published: October 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000570 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 “In the face of tightening climate regulations, the adoption of carbon dioxide recovery systems is inevitable. Modular process skid units have been widely adopted across the industry. The gas-steam power plant skid unit with the carbon dioxide recovery system was described. The proposed skid module consists of the compact cycle with the oxy-combustion and the carbon dioxide capture skid unit producing pure compressed CO2. The compactness of the suggested skid can be achieved due to a novel small size designs of the wet combustion chamber and the spray-ejector condenser.” Nowadays more and more plants walk away from building various process systems on-site and rely on suppliers for ready to connect modules. Suppliers who are usually the manufacturers (or a proxy between a manufacturer and a contractor) deliver these process systems that are built under off-site conditions. As a result of that, modular constructions have been adopted for ease of handling in commercial use. Such a mobile construction of a process system is called “skid” in English or “anlage” in German. Skids are usually built within a frame. Depending on the dimension of a skid and logistical planning, it can fit, for example, on the back of a truck or in the shipping container [1,2]. Most factories emit a certain volume of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example power plants, oil rigs, refineries, waste incinerators, sewage treatment plants, etc. Recent climate restrictions imposed a reduction of CO2 emissions to the environment. As result, a feasible way to capture the CO2 was searched. Depending on the costs and size of a plant, some have decided to build CO2 capture systems onsite, while others (usually smaller) have made decision to pay emission fees. CO2 capture systems built onsite are usually large and may cause additional operational problems. Currently, another rare possibility is to add a compact CO2 capture skid, that solution can benefit both medium and smaller factories. Demand for building reliable systems in the market caused skid manufacturers to build dedicated CO2 recovery systems. Before delivery to a plant, a commercial CO2 skid should be factory acceptance tested (FAT) and certified for its operational use on a manufacturer site, which is an advantage in comparison to these built on plant site without a guarantee [2]. An example of a compact module including CO2 capture process is presented in articles [1,3,4]. The proposed power plant module is composed of a gas-steam cycle (with CO2 separation) coupled to a CO2 capture system as shown in Figure 1. The compactness of the proposed gas-steam power plant skid is achieved due to a novel small size designs of the water combustion chamber (WCC) and the spray-ejector condenser (SEC), both based on enhancements of the energy conversion. Conventionally, the size of a combustion chamber and a condenser would be about 30-fold and 32-fold greater than the WCC and the SEC, respectively. Starting with the WCC in the gas-steam cycle part, the oxy-combustion process takes place, where supplied methane is burnt in the presence of clean oxygen supplied from the ASU through the compressor CO2. The ASU separates the high-purity oxygen from atmospheric air basing on the cryogenic method. The waste gas from the ASU is then directed to the GTN2 expander which is connected to the main shaft. Due to a high temperature of the oxycombustion in the WCC, the chamber walls are refrigerated by the water injection. Injected water acting as an inert medium, evaporates at the nano level to the combustion chamber. The working fluid exiting the WCC, which consists of 10-20% CO2 vapor and 80-90% steam is directed to expand in the vapor turbine GT and the vacuum vapor turbine GTbap. In the literature there is also the name of the gas-steam turbine in relation to the vapor turbine (GT + GTbap) [1,3,4]. Both turbines are connected to the main shaft with the generator G, the oxygen compressor CO2 and the expander GTN2. The exhaust vapor leaving the GTbap is directed to the SEC after cooling in the regenerative heat exchanger HE. The vacuum in the SEC is generated in the result of properly sprayed nano-droplets of water through the nozzle longitudinally to the main jet, while the working fluid is sucked perpendicularly to the main jet and then immediately mixed in the path of sprayed water. In the main jet, the steam fraction is partially condensed and CO2 compressed simultaneously. The mixture of water steam, liquid water, and compressed CO2 leaves the SEC and raises its pressure to 1bar entering the condensate-cooler exchanger with the separator CHE+S. In the CHE+S liquid water is cooled, while the remaining mixture of steam water and CO2 is separated in the result of the main jet action in the SEC. Some of cooled water exiting CHE+S is pumped back to the SEC spraying nozzle. The rest of water is pumped back to the WCC after being preheated in the HE, while an excess of water is being removed (which is produced during combustion) [1,3,4]. Figure 1: The compact cycle with oxy-combustion and CO2 capture, where WCC - wet combustion chamber, GT+GTbap - vapor turbine divided into two parts, SEC - spray ejector condenser, ASU - air separation unit, CO2 - compressor, HE - regenerative heat exchanger, CHE+S - condensate-cooler heat exchanger and separator, CHE - cooling heat exchanger, M - motor, G - generator, P1 - supply water pump, P2 - water pump for cooling combustion chamber, GTN2 - expander N2, CCO2 - CO2 compressor In the CO2 recovery part, the mixture of compressed CO2 and steam from the CHE+S separator from the...
Makarand R Gogate
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000569

Abstract:
Makarand R Gogate* Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India *Corresponding author: Makarand R Gogate, Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India Submission: September 02, 2020;Published: October 01, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000569 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 In industry, the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of CO and water vapor to form CO2 and H2, the two principal shift products: As a stand-alone reaction, it is an important industrial reaction used in the manufacture of ammonia, to balance the H2/CO ratio, and provide pure H2 at the expense of CO. It is also an important side reaction that occurs in parallel to the main synthesis reactions in conjunction with steam reforming of methane (over Ni-based catalysts), and methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/ H2 mixtures (over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3) [1-4]. The WGSR is also a critical component in reducing CO concentrations from feed gas streams in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The Pt electrodes are highly susceptible to CO poisoning to levels as low as 1ppm [5,6]. Figure 1: Syngas generation for ammonia synthesis: Steam reforming of natural gas, HTS converter unit, LTS converter unit [10]. In most ammonia plants, the shift conversion is carried out in two stages: A high temperature shift (HTS) conversion unit, which converts typically > 80% incoming CO, and a low temperature shift (LTS) conversion unit, which converts majority of remaining CO. The HTS converter is typically operated at 310-450 oC, over a Cu-promoted Cr-Fe mixed metal oxide catalyst (with a composition of 88% Fe2O3/9% Cr2O3/3% CuO). At these temperatures, the shift reaction is in chemical equilibrium, and the concentration of CO at the reactor outlet is close to equilibrium levels, at 2-3% (v/v) at 400 oC. The LTS shift converter unit, over a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (methanol synthesis catalyst), then converts majority of remaining CO, to a concentration of ~1000ppm (or, 0.1%). The inlet temperature of the gas stream entering the LTS converter unit is typically in the range of 190-230 oC and is operated in the adiabatic mode [7-9]. Due to the adiabatic nature of operation and the exothermal reaction, the temperature at the converter outlet can reach 280oC, and CO content is typically reduced to <0.1%. The schematic diagram of steam reforming (of natural gas) in series with the HTS and LTS water-gas shift conversion units, for syngas generation and purification for ammonia plants, is illustrated in Figure 1 [10]. The Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 WGS shift catalyst is highly susceptible to S poisoning, even at trace (or, ppb levels). Ahead of the LTS converter unit, a ZnO guard bed removes S (as H2S) from the LTS inlet stream, typically operating at 370oC. The concentration of S leaving the guard bed is typically 10-50ppb, tolerant for the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 shift catalyst. We now consider and discuss the application of water-gas shift reaction for production of pure H2, for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). As stated above, the concentration of CO leaving the LTS converter unit is typically ~1000ppm or so (or, 0.1%). However, for applications in PEMFCs (for portable power generation or transport applications), the Pt electro-catalysts are highly susceptible to poisoning by CO, to levels as low as 1ppm. CO poisons the anodic Pt electrode through selectively adsorbing to Pt sites (akin to atom-specific CO chemisorption on Pt); however, CO poisoning is also slow and reversible. As possible strategies for mitigation, the use of CO-tolerant Pt alloy particles (based on Ru-Pt core-shell nanoparticles), a higher operating cell temperature (150oC), and use of oxygen co-feed in the fuel gas to the cell inlet, have all been proposed to combat the CO poisoning problem. In fact, the electrochemical oxidation of CO, adsorbed on the Pt electrodes, the so-called “CO stripping” reaction, is one of the most widely studied electrochemical reactions [11]. In addition, perhaps a better strategy is to reduce the CO content of the inlet stream from about 1000ppm to <1ppm before it enters the fuel cell assembly. A possible research advance in this area is the use of Ru-Pt core-shell nanoparticles and catalysts based on Au (supported on Fe2O3, TiO2, etc.) for low temperature CO oxidation reactions [12-15]. The Au/TiO2 system is exceptionally effective for catalysis of low-temperature CO oxidation reactions, even at temperatures as low as 0 oC, mainly on account of a unique particle shape (hemispherical shape), and a narrow particle size distribution (for nanoscale systems prepared by the D.-P. method, with TiO2 Degussa P-25 support), with particle sizes in the range of 2.5-4.1nm. The unique particle shape and size leads to a very high metal-support interfacial contact area, a structural motif that is rich in coordinatively unsaturated sites (cus sites with a low coordination number, N), such as those at steps, corners, edges, and other planar/border discontinuities. The effect of a low coordination number for Au is enormous: In contradistinction with adsorption/activation characteristics of planar, metallic Au for O2/CO, the cus sites can result in a site-specific adsorption of over 13-orders of magnitude, at low temperatures (OoC or higher), with very high turnover rates and very low activation barriers (<20kJ/mol). Indeed, the grand universality of catalysis by nanoscale Au and application to catalysis of low-temperature CO oxidation reactions extends to other organic reactions of small molecules, including the water-gas shift reaction, synthesis of vinyl chloride monomer, synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from H2 and O2, and others. As originally proposed and validated by further studies, nanoscale Au dispersed on suitable supports is an “uncommonly good” catalyst. The production of pure H2 for use as in PEMFCs for streams containing very levels of CO require catalysts with exceptionally high...
Devendra Swaroop Bhargava
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000568

Abstract:
Devendra Swaroop Bhargava* Department of Environmental Engineering & Pollution Control, India *Corresponding author: Makarand R Gogate, Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India Submission: September 09, 2020;Published: September 23, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000568 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 Lakes in India had been serving as drinking-water-supply sources apart from other uses like recreation, boating, etc. Ever since the Green-Revolution (mastered & advocated by MS Swaminathan) was adopted in India without taking due regard of the possible adverse environmental impacts on lakes particularly due to the ignorance & greed of the illiterate-farmers, Indian lakes started dyeing. This paper attempts to bring out this serious environmental tragedy caused by the “pseudo-environmentalists” dominating the environmental scenario and decision-making in India. Keywords: Green revolution; Indian lakes; Chemicals; Eutrophication; Algae Lakes in general get created naturally or are man-made to serve the various human needs. Apart from serving as Water-Resources, they also receive run-offs during monsoon times and the wastewaters generated around them including from the agricultural activities/fields. Thus, undesirable material and pollutants of varying kinds find their entry into the lakes. Some of these pollutants are taken care of by the nature but some special pollutants damage the very existence of the lakes, thanks to the stated ‘green-revolution’. The world-famous Dal- Lake in the J&K state of India had been the greatest victim. To improve agricultural-yield, synthetic nutrients (N,K & P) along with insecticides/pesticides were added to the agricultural fields as per the green-revolution's main theme. The doses of these nutrients depend on the varying and numerous parameters of the agricultural fields and desired crops. Indian farmers were/are mostly illiterates of a higher level/order apart from being greedy like most other business-people. They, therefore, added much higher amounts/doses of these chemicals in the hope of a bumper crops with complete killing of insects and pests. Thus, lots of unused insecticides and pesticides were left over on the agricultural fields only to be washed off with runoffs from the agricultural-lands and pollute the various water-resources including the rivers and lakes. It is to be understood and recalled that unlike the human-beings, plants and animals cannot/do not uptake or feed on their food once they are full or after their hunger is satisfied. As a result, all the extra or the leftover food/nutrients is washed out with runs-offs from the agricultural lands/fields only to enter into the rivers and lakes. In the lakes, ponds, confined water-storages/bodies, etc. these nutrients along with carbon-dioxide (produced by the aerobic-bacteria through the disintegration of organic matter, present in all waters, in the presence of oxygen) in the presence of sun-light serve the needs to produce algae which in turn gives out oxygen needed by the aerobic bacteria while stabilizing, the organic matter. The algae blooms in the presence of high concentrations of the stated nutrients. Therefore, when all the nutrients are utilized/finished, the algae begin to die and since the dead algae cannot float, it starts settling to reach the lake-bottom. The settled bottom-algae, an organic-matter, begins to get stabilized aerobically first and soon thereafter when all the Dissolved-Oxygen in the lake-bottom is utilized/finished, it starts getting stabilized anaerobically only to produce foul-gases like methane, inert residual fibrous-material and release nutrients which diffuse upwards to reach the lake-top where, in the presence of carbon-dioxide and sunlight, they again start aiding the production of algae as algal-blooms. This cycled-process is called "eutrophication" (a bio-algal symbiosis process) and once this process of eutrophication starts in a lake, it never ends as discussed above. But the above-stated fibrous-material keeps collecting and building up at the lake-bottom such that it occupies significant lake-depth in a time span of several decades. This phenomenon was reportedly observed in around 1960 in J&K State's "Dal"-lake when a foreign-tourist staying in a house-boat (a boat with built-in bed-room+toilet) took a spring-board dive into the lake but never came-up because he got entangled in the above-stated heavy fibrous-builtip. After numerous decades, the thickly built and compressed fibrous-layer occupies the entire lake-depth to produce marshland which later is reclaimed for constructions to denote a complete death of a lake. Thus, eutrophication has partly killed the above-said Dal lake and is fast taking other lakes towards their end. This is the disastrous-Gift of Green-Revolution enforced by its master, Dr. MS Swaminathan who enforced the Green-Revolution without anticipating its adverse impacts and consequences of its implementation by the illiterate farmers. It is very unfortunate for India not taking corrective measures. On top is the fact that India's blind-faith in Dr. MS Swaminathan is reflected in the approval of a proposed Super-Green Revolution in India. © 2020 Devendra Swaroop Bhargava. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Makarand R Gogate
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000567

Abstract:
Makarand R Gogate* Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India *Corresponding author: Makarand R Gogate, Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India Submission: June 05, 2020;Published: August 20, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000567 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 Methane is the principal constituent of natural gas and constitutes over 90% (v/v) by volume, regardless of the source. Coal, oil, and natural gas have traditionally been the 3 fossil fuels of choice for further conversion and upgrading to fuels and fuel additives, chemicals, and petrochemicals, and for generation of electric power. The advent of “Fracking”, a technology first commercialized in the United States around 2008, made it possible to harvest and recover huge quantities of shale gas and associated gas liquids, trapped within tight pore spaces of shale rock deposits or coal bed methane, considered to be 2 unconventional sources of methane [1-3], other than gas hydrates. The production of domestic natural gas saw a hugh spike in about 2008 (about 1Tnm3) and is expected to grow by up to 44% by 2035. The U.S. is now the world’s largest producer of natural gas, and the cost of natural gas is at about the lowest it has been in over 2 decades, at $1.85/MM BTU. The historical trends in the production and price of domestic natural gas, 1900 onwards to 2020, is shown in Figure 1. Instructively, the hugh spike in the production capacity of natural gas is clearly seen around 2005-2010, which coincides with the advent of new “Fracking” capacity in the United States [4]. Figure 1: Historical trends in price of domestic natural gas, 1900 onwards to 2020 [4]. Not surprisingly, natural gas surpassed coal (in 2007) for the largest installed electricity generation capacity in the United States. In addition, the E.I.A. estimates that the unconventional resource base (primarily shale and coal bed methane) of natural gas is around 65Tnm3, out of which about 5Tnm3 are considered to be “proven” reserves, i.e., recoverable under the current economic and environmental conditions [4]. Natural gas, a versatile fuel feedstock, with a high calorific value - one with the lowest C footprint on account of its highest H:C ratio – is primarily used for electricity generation, and for home heating/cooking applications. More than 90% of U.S. domestic production is burned to create energy, for heating, cooking, and transportation purposes, or for generation of electric power (for residential and commercial use). The use of natural gas as a chemical feedstock for further conversion into fuels/fuel additives, chemicals, and petrochemicals, is still very limited. The reason for this is primarily economic in nature. Most natural gas wellhead locations/deposits are found in remote, inaccessible locations. Natural gas, a vapor under ambient conditions, has a very low mass and volumetric energy density, and is difficult and uneconomical to transport over long distances, using gas pipelines, or even LNG tanker trailers. Unfortunately, thus, apart from conversion to synthesis gas, hydrogen cyanide, acetylene, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, methane conversion pathways are not yet cost-competitive to oil-based fuels and chemicals/petrochemicals. However, natural-gas based indirect liquefaction technologies, based on syngas, offer a critical potential avenue (to reduce our dependence on oil and to reduce the C footprint), for further high-volume growth and market share in syngas-based bulk chemicals. The top 3 chemical products, based on natural gas-based syngas, are, ammonia (worldwide capacity 175MMtpa, 11MMtpa U.S.), methanol (110MMtpa, 4.5MMtpa U.S.), and F.-T.-based synfuels products (over 220,000bpd). While the U.S. capacity of the top-3 chemicals above is still a very small fraction of the worldwide capacity, more than a dozen methanol mega projects are currently in various stages of planning, design, and construction, all along the U.S. gulf coast. Natural-gas based syngas is an ideal feedstock for production of above 3 chemicals, as it affords a stoichiometric inlet H2:CO ratio of 2-2.5, directly possible with both conventional steam reforming and autothermal reforming (ATR), without need for any additional shift conversion [5-8]. In this article, we offer an insightful analysis of the current status of syngas production technologies and assess future projections and forecast for the industry. Steam reforming of natural gas is a conventional and now mature technology, for synthesis of “syngas”, a mixture of CO, CO2, and H2 [9-12]. In steam reforming, CH4 reacts with steam to reform CH4 into a mixture of CO, CO2, and H2, as given below: The synthesis reactions are highly endothermic and thus limited by chemical equilibrium; heat is supplied to the reformer tubes (in a vertical, parallel arrangement), by combustion of natural gas inside a firebox. The product gases leave the reformer unit at 855 oC and 2MPa. In industrial practice, heat is recovered from this gas stream by a series of heat exchange operations. As noted above, only 2 of the 3 reactions above are independent; the H2:CO ratio for the overall product gas is between 2-2.5. The kinetic studies on a commercial Ni/γ-Al2O3 or a ceramic support indicate that it is the reforming of CH4 to CO and the water gas shift reaction that take place under industrial conditions. The dry reforming reaction can also be postulated to occur in the overall series of reactions, as follows [13]: As discussed above, steam reforming of natural gas is a mature process technology, and discussed extensively in several recent reviews [6,7,9-12]. Steam reforming is catalyzed by Group VIII transition metals, including Ru, Rh, Ir, and Ni. While extensive experimental and theoretical studies (DFT calculations, scaling relationships, and microkinetic models) show that Ru and Rh are the most active transition group metals for...
Liang Hong
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000566

Abstract:
Yi’en Zhou1 and Liang Hong2* 1,2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Singapore *Corresponding author: Liang Hong, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Singapore Submission: July 14, 2020;Published: August 13, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000566 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue4 When a cool N2-CO2 co-gas stream flows over superheated activated carbon (AC) flakes, a vortex field near the interface is induced as a consequence of the confrontation of the cool co-gas stream and the hot vaporized carbon stream, where the pre-deposited Pt atom clusters on AC catalyze gasification of AC by CO2 to produce CO, and the CO undergoes immediate disproportionation to release carbon atoms in vapor form. The vortex field functions as a dynamic template for deposition of carbon vapor, leading to the proliferation of nano-sized carbon needles with characteristic spikes (ca. 1µm) and short in length through an anisotropic assembling of carbon atoms. A trace amount of Pt pre-coated on the AC flakes is sufficient to catalyze gasifying AC by CO2. This phenomenon is the first observation over the surface of amorphous carbon via catalytic pyrolysis without electric potential assistance. Keywords: Nano carbon spines; Polypyrrole; HEC polymer; Raman spectra; Dendritic nano carbons; AC catalyze gasification; catalytic pyrolysis; Pt atom; CO gas treatment; Reverse boudouard reaction; AC flakes Dendritic growth is characterized by the presence of side branches that evolve under two different ways when the latent heat of fusion is removed from the interface [1]. Growth resulting from an undercooled melt (usually in alloys) results in equiaxed dendritic crystal formations when latent heat is dissipated through the cooler fluid at the interface whilst directional solidification or constrained growth results when the latent heat is dissipated swiftly. This study unveils that the Pt atom clusters assist the generation of carbon atoms forming a vapor stream via a two-step reaction mechanism, which is responsible for the growth of dendritic dense carbon nanofibers from a porous carbon flakes. Such dendritic growth has been observed previously in cells [2-5], crystals [6,7] and metal alloys [8-13] with a characteristic tree-like structure, which is considered as the result of mass transfer under meta-stable thermodynamic state. Namely, the growth happens through a series of thermodynamic instabilities when the growth rate is limited by the rate of diffusion of solute atoms to the interface and the material is supercooled at the same time [14]. Dendrites have shapes that are most suitable for heat and mass transfers at small scales and hence, are highly attractive for applications seeking these properties. Numerous studies undertaken over the years offered the insights in dendritic growth of crystals [7], as well as mathematical models and simulations [6, 12-13,15-18] about the growth. These growths are a result of faster material packing along energetically favorable crystallographic directions and may be due to anisotropy in the surface energy. In trying to minimize the area of these surfaces with the highest surface energy, the dendrite would exhibit a sharper and sharper tip as it grows [19]. When the crystallization front becomes morphologically unstable, small perturbations at the interface will lead to the formation of various polycrystalline structures, especially so for dendritic growth. The dendritic growth theory using Ivantsov transport theory relating to the dendrite tip radius and velocity of growth to the tip has been found to predict the growth rates and limitation of the existence of dendrites in 2D fairly accurately [1,14]. To the best of our knowledge, no reports or discussions on the dendritic carbon spinal growth in N2-CO2 co-gas atmosphere have been published nor observed before. Contrary to the growth of porous carbon fibers described explicitly in our previous work [20] caused by the random stacking of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the axial direction leading to the formation of fibers, this work proposes a different gowth path catalyzed by platinum atom clusters that assist with generation of CO via the reverse Boudouard reaction [21], which subsequently releases carbon atoms in vapor form that condense to form dense dendritic structures in the vortex field as illustrated in Figure 1. Although the incubation environment of this study is similar to that reported in [20], the resulting growth looks drastically different due to mediation by Pt atom clusters or colloids spread on the surface of the sample prior to the co-gas treatment. This paper aims to report and explain the growth mechanism we observed in detail. Figure 1: Preparation of AC Flakes An initial sample of 2-Hydroxyethyel cellulose (HEC) is carbonized by the method discussed elsewhere [22]. The resulting carbonaceous material from HEC was then activated at 700 oC under CO2 for 1 hour and cooled in an Ar purging stream. The carbon powder obtained was washed in water until the filtrate became colorless. This protocol resulted in an AC powder consisting of dense carbon flakes, which was used as the starting material for the preparation of the carbon needles. Carbon Spinal Growth and Characterizations Two separate, independent methods were employed to incorporate platinum onto the samples. The final carbon samples obtained from both Pt-deposition methods were characterized by electron microscopy (JSM-6700F Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), JEOL), Raman spectroscopy (Renishaw in Via Raman Microscope), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Bruker D8 Advance, Cu Ka radiation, l=1.54Å) using Cu target Ka-ray (40kV and 30mA) as X-ray source, respectively. Formation of Dendritic Structures Over the Surface of AC Under Purge of CO-Gas Under close examination using the transmission electron microscope (TEM), tree-like dendritic structures are observed to have formed from the sputtering...
Krzysztof Biernat
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000565

Abstract:
Krzysztof Biernat1* and Monika Ziółkowska2 1Department for Fuels and Bioeconomy, Poland 2Department of Petroleum Engineering, Poland *Corresponding author: Krzysztof Biernat, Department for Fuels and Bioeconomy, Poland Submission: July 02, 2020;Published: July 29, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000565 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue3 The article discusses the process of gelation of engine oils and its influence on exploitative properties. The results of research on the propensity of engine oils for gelation at low and high temperatures are presented. The influence of various factors such as: base oil, vegetable oil, FAME and soot on the gelling process was determined. It was found that the cause of gelation of oils, depending on the operating conditions, oil components, may be several factors independent of each other. These factors are discussed in the article. Keywords: Gel; Gelling process; Engine oil; Oil components; Vegetable oil; Fame; Soot In the 1990s, the problem of forming a gelatinous (gel) oil structure in the operation of vehicles powered by diesel oil appeared in Poland. However, the problem of gelation of motor oils was already noticed in Europe in the 1980s. At that time, it was assumed that this could be related to the introduction of a new category of engine oils, including the CD class according to API. The quality class CD introduced then a new generation of additives improving detergents and dispersants. In addition, the process of limiting sulfur content in diesel oil started, which was initially thought to have adversely affected the performance of engine oil. In Poland, the phenomenon of gelation was observed mainly in the late autumn and early spring periods, i.e. during periods in which large temperature fluctuations could occur. In winter or summer, when the temperature jumps were not large, this problem did not occur. In addition, the problem of gelation included engine oils of various quality and viscosity grades of known domestic and foreign producers. A characteristic feature of gelation is the rapid increase in kinematic viscosity at both 40°C and 100°C, the other parameters do not change much in relation to fresh oil. The problem of gelation is a very unfavorable phenomenon for the engine. Gelled oil completely loses its operational functions, i.e. it does not provide lubrication, does not dissipate heat, does not neutralize acidic products originating, among others from incomplete burning of fuel, etc. which leads to engine seizure. Based on the collected literature on the operational problems of motor oils, including the phenomenon of gelation, several factors can be distinguished that can cause the formation of a gelatinous oil structure. The most important of them are: But in addition to the factor that triggers the gelling process, temperature also plays a key role. Under the same atmospheric conditions, during the operation of vehicles, some oils show a greater tendency to form a gel while others are less and undoubtedly related to the temperature, not only of the engine itself, but also of the ambient temperature. A gel is a colloidal system that consists of at least two components. Each of the components forms a separate continuous phase extending over the entire volume of the mixture. The gelling agent forms a rigid, branched, porous network spreading in the liquid constituting the second component of the gel, causing it to immobilize [1]. The gel structure consists of network nodes, loops, and free ends of chains. The diagram of the gel structure is shown in Figure 1 [2,3]. The division of gels is related to the type of interactions responsible for creating a rigid network, and thus with the type of gelling agent. There are chemical gels in which in the process of gel formation gelling agent molecules create covalent bonds between them, and physical gels in which the molecules of the gelling agent are bound by much weaker intermolecular interactions, mainly hydrogen bonds and electrostatic, dipoledipole interactions, van der Waals, as well as hydrophobic. The physical gels are thermally reversible, because the change of external parameters such as temperature and pressure lead to the disintegration of the gel network. In contrast, chemical gels are formed in the polycondensation, polymerization and copolymerization of multifunctional monomers or because of introducing a cross-linking agent into the polymer. The chemical (covalent) bonds formed in this way create nodes of the network [4]. The best-known methods for obtaining gels are shown in Figure 2 [4,5]. Figure 1: Gel structure scheme. Figure 2: Chemical and physical methods of obtaining gels. Multigrade engine oils have been introduced to reduce the viscosity of the oil at low temperatures to facilitate engine starting. With the easier start-up of the engine at low temperatures, there was a problem with the oil pumpability. This problem turned out to be much more serious because the lack of pumpability of the oil could lead to engine damage. In bench tests, it was found that at low temperatures we have two types of problems related to pumpability: Research on oil-air binding led to the development of a method for testing the tendency of oil to gel using a Brookfield scanning viscometer. The STB method as an international standard ASTM D 5133 allowed the study of the tendency of oil to form a gel. The method consists in heating the tested sample to 90 °C, and then slowly cooling it, while continuously measuring the viscosity [7]. Based on this method, you can designate: The literature data show that the highest gelation and consequent air retention were found at temperatures much higher than those associated with limited flow, for the same class of SAE motor oils. Modern multi-grade motor oils require a maximum gelation index value of 12. This is the value at which the resulting gels in the engine oil do not endanger the engine's operation. The value of the gelation...
Quan Xi Zheng, Ji Xin Mao, Li Guo, Yong Liang Xin, Shi Zhao Yang, Jian Jian Zhang, Bing Hao Chen, Jian Qiang Hu, Xin Xu
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000564

Abstract:
Ji Xin Mao1, Quan Xi Zheng1*, Xin Xu1,2, Li Guo1, Yong Liang Xin1, Shi Zhao Yang1, Jian Jian Zhang1, Bing Hao Chen1 and Jian Qiang Hu1* 1Department of Aviation Oil, China 2State Key Laboratory of Tribology, China *Corresponding author: Quan Xi Zheng, Department of Aviation Oil, China Jian Qiang Hu, Department of Aviation Oil, China Submission: April 07, 2020;Published: July 20, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000564 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue3 The effect of concentrations of titrant, delivery rates, stirring rates, and oil mass on catalytic thermometric titration for the determination of the lower acidity of jet fuel were investigated, using KOH in isopropanol and paraformaldehyde as titrant and a catalytic thermometric indicator respectively. The results show that paraformaldehyde used as a catalytic indicator exhibits strongly endothermic effects to reflect end point significantly. When the oil mass is from 10g to 30g, the titration concentration is 0.01mol/L and the delivery rate is 1.0mL/min with moderate stirring, the tested acid numbers have good reproducibility and accuracy. The linear coefficient R2 of the fitting curve is 0.995. Using benzoic acid as a standard acid with concentration of 0.0105mg KOH/g to verify the accuracy of catalytic thermometric titration, the verified acid number is 0.0115mg KOH/g and basically consistent with the actual acid number, indicating that catalytic thermometric titration has good agreement with standard potentiometric titration methods and can be used for determination of acid number of jet fuels. It can accurately determine the acid number of jet fuel as low as 0.015mg KOH/g or even lower at optimized test conditions. The procedure is fast, easy to use, accurate, and highly reproducible to measure lower acidity in jet fuel. It is very suitable for the routine process and quality control of many types of oils. Keywords: Acidity; Jet fuel; Catalytic thermometric titration; Paraformaldehyde As an important quality control index to evaluate corrosion, especially for fuel oil, aviation oil, and hydraulic oil, the acidity of oils is applied to estimate the properties and deterioration of oils during usage and storage [1-3], which is determined with the standard methods based either on visual indicators titration or potentiometric titration [4-7]. However, accuracy of visual titration is strongly influenced by the skills and color perception of the analyst, and especially differential color perception of analysts is considerable for coloured oils. Potentiometric titration, especially for oils containing trace weak polyacids, is subject to the noxious influence of the sample solutions and is always unreliable because of the weak change of potential during acid-base neutralization titration, which results in difficult detection of end-point and repeatability. In order to achieve more fast and efficient determination of the end-point in titrations, there is increasing attention for a simple, fast, accurate, and precise automatic titrimetric operation that is substantially independent of analysts’ skills and suitable for routine process and quality control. As a new method, catalytic thermometric titration has several attractive features: [1] the apparatus is simple, and all that required is a temperature measuring probe such as a thermometer or a thermistor as the sensing element; [2] the thermometric probes are inert to most solutions, and temperature changes in highly colored can be detected easily; [3] the range of indication reaction is unlimited because all of reactions are accompanied with temperature changes, the magnitude of which can be adjusted by changing reagents’ concentrations [8-11]. The basic principle of this method is catalytic initiation of an exothermic or endothermic reaction with an excess of titrant, as a consequence, the end-point can be indicated by obvious temperature changes of the solution [8-15]. It has been successfully applied for determining acidic substances in aluminum ion concentration of waste water and vegetable oils [16-19]. However, as so far, there are few reports on application of catalytic thermometric titration on lower acidity of jet fuels. When small amounts of weak acidic species are titrated in nonaqueous solution with a titrant of strong alkali, the heat produced from the neutralization reactions may be quite small and easy to be confused by solvent evaporation and the mixing heat of the titrant with sample solution [4-7]. If the special thermometric indicator is added to sample solution, excess hydroxide ions would react quickly with them in endothermic or exothermic reactions, the end-point can be easily determined by temperature increase or decrease of the solution [20,21]. However, practical experience has demonstrated that the endpoint in thermometric titration showed excessive rounding, with consequent loss of precision and accuracy for some oils with lower acidity, such as aviation oil, hydraulic oil and fuel oils. Many studies have shown that titration error or the sharpness of the endpoint can be related to the concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and types of thermometric indicator [22-27]. In our previous studies [9,10], the trace water in jet fuels, as well as the acidity of several coloured oils, could be accurately and rapidly determined by catalytic thermometric titration using the mixture of acetone and chloroform as the end-point indicator. In this paper, we report herein our results on the determination of the lower acidity of jet fuels with catalytic thermometric titration employing paraformaldehyde as the end-point indicator, which exhibits strongly endothermic effects to reflect end point significantly and can determinate much more lower acidity than ASTM thermometric titration, and compared with potentiometric titration, the accuracy and repeatability of the thermometric titration is further investigated. Materials Paraformaldehyde, potassium hydroxide...
Bereslavsky En
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000563

Abstract:
Bereslavsky EN** Department of Physics and Mathematics, Russia *Corresponding author: Bereslavsky EN, Department of Physics and Mathematics, Russia Submission: May 25, 2020;Published: July 01, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000563 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue3 Summary In the hydrodynamic formulation, the problem of liquid filtration from a channel filled with water through a soil layer with an underlying pressure horizon of relatively high permeability in the presence of evaporation from the free surface of groundwater is solved. When considering flows from channels, it is usually assumed [1-5]. that filtration occurs only through their bottom, which is usually taken as a horizontal segment. Taking into account the influence of the depth of water in the channels, that is, the study of movement not only through the bottom, but also through the slopes of the channels makes an additional angular special point in the physical area, which significantly complicates the solution of the problem. In this paper, the method developed earlier [6] is used to study the regime of ground water when filtering from such channels filled with water, in the presence of evaporation from a free surface. In the framework of the theory of plane steady filtration of an incompressible fluid according to Darcy's law deals with the flow of rectangular channel of width 2l with water depth H in the soil capacity T, underlain by the well permeable pressurized horizon is relatively high permeability, the pressure of which is equal to H0 (0
Makarand R Gogate
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000562

Abstract:
Makarand R Gogate* Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India *Corresponding author: Makarand R Gogate, Independent Consultant for Ch.E Education and Research, India Submission: June 05, 2020;Published: June 22, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000562 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue3 The use of hydraulic fracturing the extract oil and gas from the earth, dates back to 1940s, but only in the last decade or so, has the word “Fracking” become a buzzword. Fracking alludes primarily to the shale gas boom in the United States, since about 2008, and also refers to the process - the high pressure injection of water, chemicals, and sand into the shale rock deposits – to release gas and oil trapped within shale rock by fracturing it, to harvest stores of gas and oil, previously unfeasible to access or recover. As stated above, Fracking became commercial in the United States in 2008, first at the Bakken Shale deposits in North Dakota, and later at Barnett Shale Basin in Texas. The production of domestic natural gas thus saw a high spike in about 2008, and is expected to grow by up to 44% by 2035. For example, the domestic production was at 17Tn cu ft/year in 2008, and now stands at 27Tn cu ft/year (2017), an increase of 59%. As a result, the price of domestic natural gas (Henry Hub Index) was $15.46/MM BTU (2008 basis), and has steadily declined to the current $1.85/MM BTU (2020). The historical trends in the natural gas prices are illustrated in Figure 1; [1]. Not surprisingly, the oil prices, seen historically to trend directly with price of natural gas, have also steadily declined: Oil prices peaked to over $110/bbl (2008) - when the cost of gasoline was over $4/gal -- and have also steadily declined to $30/bbl, as of today. Fracking is a uniquely and hugely successful American story, that, by safely unlocking America’s abundant natural resources, has created millions of jobs, reduced energy prices (oil and natural gas), and also brought cleaner air by significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions (to lowest levels in 25 years), and transformed the United States back into a global superpower [2]. The global chemical industry is heavily dependent on stable and inexpensive sources of fossil fuel feedstock, such as crude oil and natural gas. However, increasing utilization and exploitation of crude oil in the 1980s and 1990s, fueled by cheap prices and plentiful supply, led to eventual price instability, and supply chain issues. Consequently, the United States chemical industry was in decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Many chemical producers were thus faced with either using syngas as a chemical feedstock - a mixture of CO, CO2, and H2, from domestic coal, biomass, and natural gas, or disassemble existing chemical plants and facilities altogether and relocate them outside of the United States. As discussed above, a major technological breakthrough, called as “Hydraulic Fracturing”, or, “Fracking”, for short, occurred in about 2008, which made possible the very economical recovery of natural gas and gas liquids associated with high amounts of shale oil deposits in the United States. The shale gas boom, as it is commonly called now, led to gigantic increases in the production/recovery of both natural gas and gas liquids in the United States. This has clearly led to a “rebirth” of the U.S. chemical industry, and the business of industrial chemistry is growing, with a very rosy outlook to the future. It is a very opportune time now for the U.S chemical industry, and clearly behooves on us to develop cost-effective process alternatives, due to the strong interest and economic incentives of shale gas. Currently, the catalytic upgrading of methane to value-added chemicals proceeds via the indirect liquefaction route. The resulting syngas is then converted into a host of chemicals and chemical feedstocks, including methanol, ethanol, higher alcohols, light olefins, acrylonitrile, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, 1,3 butadiene, etc. However, the steam reforming of natural gas is a strongly endothermic and an energy-intensive process, and requires a large energy input. The traditional thrust has therefore been to find process alternatives to steam reforming, or to use syngas from coal gasification as an alternative. Two approaches for the indirect conversion of methane into liquid hydrocarbons are now practiced on an industrial scale: methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis [3-8]. It is imperative at this time to enable transformational thinking and pursue transformational discoveries in methane functionalization, towards direct conversion of methane to value-added chemicals. Figure 2 shows the various approaches and pathways for the direct conversion of methane and ethane to value-added chemicals. As stated above, the plentiful availability of the low-cost natural gas feedstock allows a transformational opportunity to lower the C footprint of the chemical industry. Methane (CH4) has the highest H:C ratio of any fuel, and the highest calorific value, but from a chemical standpoint, the linear single C-H bonds in a perfectly tetrahedral symmetry in methane have a very high bond strength (over 440kJ/mol) and are very difficult to break. Because it a saturated linear hydrocarbon, it is very difficult to activate the C-H bonds, except in very harsh environments, such as very high temperatures (>1100 K), highly oxidative conditions, or highly acidic/alkaline ones. For these reasons, the direct and selective conversion of methane to higher-value chemicals is often considered to be the “Holy Grail” of experimental/theoretical research in heterogeneous catalysis and catalytic chemistry. Despite these difficulties and the chemical recalcitrance of methane, several pioneering technologies for direct catalytic upgrading of methane have been developed. This bodes very well for the United...
Aroloye O Numbere
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000561

Abstract:
Aroloye O Numbere* Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Nigeria *Corresponding author: Aroloye O Numbere, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Nigeria Submission: April 09, 2020;Published: May 06, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000561 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue3 The tropics are generally evergreen and have large tree populations that make up the bulk of plant biomass. The Niger Delta is rich in biodiversity and has the largest mangrove system in Africa and the Atlantic. Above ground biomass (ABG) is a good indicator of stand productivity in mangroves, and can be calculated with allometric method using tree structural characteristics of dbh and tree height. Red mangroves are the most dominant species, and the species mostly used for making firewood and charcoal. The carbon stock estimates was higher in locations with more red mangrove trees (66.1 ± 15.1 Mgha-1) than locations with fewer red mangrove trees (36.0 ± 12.8 Mgha-1), which indicates that they are excellent carbon sequesters. Mangrove forest therefore supplies low cost renewable energy and also reduces global warming through carbon sequestration. Already, utilization of firewood and charcoal for cooking is a booming business in many communities in the Niger Delta. But the issue is that deriving sustainable energy from mangrove forest requires modern technology. Energy production from mangrove raw material will reduce the burden of energy generation from petroleum. This will thus, save the environment from pollution from oil and gas exploration which has led to ozone layer depletion. Nonetheless, mangrove-derived biomass energy will thus save the environment from sulphur and radioactive contamination. Keywords: Goniopsis pelii; Rhizophora; Heavy metals; Bioaccumulation; Niger Delta; Hydrocarbons; Biomass; Calories; Carbon; Charcoal; Energy; Firewood; Mangrove; Rhizophora; Energy; Pollution Mangrove forest are found in the interface between the land and the sea where most negative impact of nature and humans are being felt the most because of the actions of hurricanes, and tsunamis [1], and crude oil spillages [2]. Mangroves are at the frontlines of the battle to recapture the environment from the jaws of anthropogenic devastation. They are naturally found in laborious terrain where they face onslaught from high velocity hurricanes, which break their branches and fall their stems. They are also battered by tidal surge from cyclone which sweeps through the entire forests and levels the trees [3]. Despite this natural attack by hazardous environmental phenomenon they still stand their ground defiantly and remain resilient [4]. This resilience can be attributed to their tough and flexible stems, which makes them elastic to pressures. Their stems have high recoiling ability to tidal pressure and keep them standing after hurricanes and tsunami had come and gone [5]. Mangroves forest therefore, absorbs and disorganizes high velocity winds and tidal surge, which is capable of wiping out a whole generation of plant community. Although, bad for the trees, this action protects human community from utter destruction. The stems don’t only serve as wind and water breaks but also serve as biomass energy for producing renewable energy through firewood and charcoal manufacture for cooking in rural communities. Wood from trees and other plant material make up the traditional sources of biomass energy in rural areas [6]. Biomass is solar energy stored in organic matter via photosynthetic process where energy from the sun reacts with carbon dioxide to form food material. Biomass can produce solid fuel, liquid fuel, gas and electricity [7], but out of these forms of energy the solid fuel (i.e. fire wood and charcoal) are the most utilized in Africa and other third world countries. This is because these countries most often lack the needed technology to convert biomass to liquid, gaseous or electrical energy. Globally, biomass is the fourth source of energy, but in Nigeria it is the second source of energy after petroleum [8,9]. Nigeria is the highest producer of crude oil and has the largest mangrove vegetation in Africa [2]. Therefore, the energy potentials of biomass in Africa and other developing countries of the world are great if it can be efficiently utilized. For instance, 96% of rural dwellers in Tanzania [10] and 90% of rural dwellers in Nigeria utilize firewood and charcoal for cooking and heating. Solid biomass fuel typically includes: Figure 1: Ecosystem services of mangroves forest. Timber and fuel are produced from mangrove stem and branches. (Source: [13]. There are over 150 species of mangroves globally, but the most dominant species in most parts of the world are the red mangroves (Rhizophora spp). In the Niger Delta there are three major species: the red (Rhyzophora racemosa), white (Avicennia germinans) and black (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves and their percentage occurrence are 62.5%, 25% and 12.5% respectively [14,15]. All these three species are used to produce fire wood, but the most commonly used is the red mangrove because it has the highest potential (Table 1). This is followed by Sonneratia species. Rhizophora species is the best source of biomass energy because the stems are resilient and can catch fire and burn faster than stems of other species. They are thus used in producing firewood and charcoal, which are used for cooking, barbecue, heating of homes, drying of fish, baking, brick making, earthen pot making, casting of metal and ceramics. Red mangroves are used to produce firewood and charcoal. Similarly, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Conocarpus, Heritiera and Laguncularia can also be used to produce firewood and charcoal. Table 1: Potential of using different mangrove species to produce firewood and charcoal. Source: [15]. Figure 2: Conversion of red mangrove stem (Rhizophora spp) to charcoal log, which is further broken into smaller pieces for local cooking and roasting [17]....
E Santacesaria, M Cozzolino, R Tesser, M Di Serio
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-11; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000560

Abstract:
E Santacesaria1*, M Cozzolino2, R Tesser3 and M Di Serio3 Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Slovenia *Corresponding author: E Santacesaria, Eurochem Engineering srl, Via Codogno 5 (IT-20139) Milano, Italy Submission: April 16, 2020;Published: March 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000560 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 Metal alkoxide grafting technique can be used for changing the acid-base and/or the redox properties of the surface of an oxide rich in hydroxyls. The preparation of catalysts by grafting different commercial available alkoxides, such as: Si, Ti, Zr, and V on the surface of oxides, such as: SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2, is reviewed. The performances of the acid catalysts were evaluated by adequate test reactions such as: methanol dehydration, skeletal isomerization of 1-butene and alkane isomerization and cracking. The redox properties of vanadium based catalysts, obtained by grafting vanadyl alkoxide on SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 supports, have been tested in reactions, such as: the SCR of NO with NH3, the Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethanol and methanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, the ODH of propane, isobutane and n-butane. Keywords: Grafting; Metal alkoxides; Silica; Alumina; Titania; Vanadia Metal alkoxides are nowadays largely employed for preparing ceramic materials, for thin coating films and for supports and catalysts preparation using in the different cases the sol-gel technique or the chemical vapour deposition [1]. Although very promising, less popular is the employment of metal alkoxides for preparing supports and catalysts by using the grafting technique. This technique can usefully be used for deeply changing the acid-base and/or the redox properties of the surface of an oxide rich of hydroxyls. As the catalytic properties depends almost exclusively on the surface properties of the solid used as catalyst, modifying opportunely the surface by contacting it with reactive substances like the metal alkoxides can give surprising results in terms of activity and selectivity in different reactions. In particular, the properties of the new surfaces obtained by reacting the superficial hydroxyls with a metal alkoxide, after a stabilizing treatment of hydrolysis and calcinations, are quite different from the original surface. A systematic work has been made on the subject by our research group in the past and a review of the most significant obtained results is reported in this paper. Summary of the properties of some alkoxides affecting the grafting procedure Metal alkoxides are characterised by the presence of M-O-C bonds. Due to the strongly electronegative character of oxygen (3.5 in the Linus Pauling electronegativity scale) the ionic character of the metal-oxygen bond would be preminent. Metal alkoxides exhibit both Lewis and base properties. It could be expected 80% of ionic character for the more electropositive metals (electronegativity in the range 0.9-1.2, that is, alkaly metals, alkaline earths and lanthanons, while, it could be expected 65% of ionic character for metals having electronegativity values in the range 1.3-1.5 such as in the case of aluminium, titanium and zirconium [2]. However, some of the mentioned alkoxides show a fair degree of volatility and solubility in common organic solvents, that is, have properties which can be considered characteristics of covalent compounds. The attenuation of the polarity of the metal-oxygen bond can be attributed to two main factors: The oligomerization of alkoxide complexes [M(OR)n]x depends on a number of factors such as: Bradley [2] suggested the following rules: Examples of aluminium alkoxides association are reported below: Silicon and Germanium alkoxides are all monomeric (see Mehrotra et al. [3]). Summary of the properties of some oxide surface that can be used as support for grafting Alumina is an amphoteric oxide with a moderate basic character having a ZPC (Zero Point Charge) = 8-9. According to Peri [4], on the alumina surface there are 5 different type of hydroxyls A, B, C, D and E, as it can be seen in Figure 1. The difference is given by the number of groups O2- surrounding the hydroxyls and clearly these hydroxyls have different acid-base characters. Figure 1: Different types of hydroxyls on the surface of alumina [4]. Moreover, Tanabe [5] has demonstrated that on alumina there are both acid sites of Bronsted & Lewis character in an approximately equal amount. However, considering an amphoteric oxide in acid environment the hydroxyls of the support will react as it follows S- OH + H+ A- ↔ S- OH2+ A- (3) On the contrary, in a basic environment the reaction will be: S- OH + B+ OH- ↔ SO- B+ + H2O (4) The hydroxyls on the silica surface are more uniform and have a moderately acid character being the ZPC=1-2. No Lewis acid sites are present. Description of the grafting technique The grafting technique [6-8] consists in putting in contact a metal alkoxide pure or dissolved in a opportune solvent with the surface of an oxide rich of hydroxyls. By grafting a metal alkoxide on a support it is possible: The grafting operation occurs through three different steps that are: A. Grafting: Reaction between the metal alkoxide and the superficial hydroxyls. This reaction can occur with different a stochiometry according to the type of alkoxide employed and the surface density of the hydroxyls: B. Steaming or burning: Have the scope of stabilizing the obtained surface eliminating the organic groups bonded to the grafted metal. C. Calcination: A dehydration occurs and the original oxide surface is more or less coated with another different oxide. Metal alkoxides eventually can also be modified before grafting for a better control of the properties of the heterogenized catalytic site: By changing the alkoxide groups through equilibrium exchange reactions of the type: Me(OR)n + nR’OH ⇄ Me (OR’) + n ROH (6) By introducing other elements changing the electron density on the...
Anita Kovac Kralj
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000559

Abstract:
Anita Kovac Kralj* Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Slovenia *Corresponding author: Anita Kovac Kralj, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Slovenia Submission: March 10, 2020;Published: March 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000559 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 Over recent years, engineers and scientists have directed their attentions to the waste heat flow rate and mass recoveries for cheaper energy and mass generation. Mass and energy re-usage techniques can be useful for increasing the efficiencies of conventional energy and mass systems. The re-usage of waste heat would have positive effects on the amount of resources and waste and pollutants generated within industries. Waste-heat recovery techniques that are environmentally friendly and have technical and economic advantages should be assessed for possible contributions to the energy economy and the national economy. The mass and energy re-usage technique, as a simple method by using air heat flow rate from the dryer, is based on more efficient steam generation targets, using pinch analysis and/or MINLP. The benefit of this technique allows the maximal recovery of heat and mass. This technique is a simple method for estimating of the maximal the maximal recovery of heat and mass. The aim of the presented research is an investigation of heat flow rate and condensate recovery improvement opportunities within food plants. The mass and energy re-usage of air outlet after drying indicates major potential for improvement within the following drying systems: Modified existing sugar process allows additional profit of 756,000EUR/a by using the replacing of low-pressure steam with air heat flow rate from dryer. The mass and energy re-usage technique is a very simple method that was tested during existing sugar production. The existing evaporators used low-pressure steam for heating, which could be replaced by heat flow rate from the dryer. The usable air heat flow rate (Qair) was 14.100kW, which shared with the vapour (Qvap=1,100kW) and condensing (Qcond=13,000kW) parts and located above the GCC of cold streams of evaporators (Figure 1). The condensing heat flow rate (Qcond,i) is split into smaller parts regarding the number of individual evaporators (Nev). The vapour heat flow rate was too small for splitting. The inlet and outlet temperatures of the vapour air streams (Tvap,in, Tvap,out) were 125 °C and 90 °C. The started condensing temperature (Tcond) was 90 °C. The output temperature (Tcond,out), fraction of condensing (fcond) and condensing heat flow rate (in kW) would be calculated by using a linear function. Figure 1: The diagram of energy re-usage techniques for the existing evaporators. © 2020 Ruizhong Jiang. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Ruizhong Jiang, Xiaobo Liu, Ting Yu, Weian Huang
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2020.03.000558

Abstract:
Xiaobo Liu1,2, Ruizhong Jiang1*, Ting Yu1 and Weian Huang1 1School of Petroleum Engineering, China 2Shengli Oil Field Dongsheng Jing-gong Petroleum Development Group Co Ltd., China *Corresponding author: Ruizhong Jiang, School of Petroleum Engineering, China Submission: February 19, 2020;Published: February 25, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2020.03.000558 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 It is necessary to know the reservoir property and the isothermal adsorption characteristics of shale for the exploratory development of shale gas. Aimed at the shale reservoir in lower section of Shahejie 3 Group in Shengli Oilfield, total mineral composition and relative content of clay mineral are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, porosity and specific surface area are tested by nitrogen adsorption method, ultra-low permeability are measured by differential pressure pulse decay and the pore structures are evaluated by using 3H-2000PS1 full automatic aperture analyzer of shale. Results show that the average content of fragile mineral (quartz, feldspar, calcite) is up to 65%, the average content of clay mineral mainly composed of illite is 27%, porosity distribution of this shale is from 0.62% to 2.68%, the average Langmuir specific surface area is 0.94m2/g, the permeability is in range of 0.008mD-0.022mD, the aperture is between 1.7nm and 77nm. The isothermal adsorption experimental results indicate that the adsorption of methane gas on this shale surface accords with Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation, increasing pressure and decreasing temperature are beneficial for shale to adsorb methane gas, and the adsorption of methane gas are in positive correlation with TOC content and specific surface area of shale. Keywords: Shale reservoir; Isothermal adsorption; Porosity; Permeability; TOC; Specific surface area The exploration and development of shale gas in China is in its initial stage, but the geological conditions in our country are very beneficial to the enrichment of shale gas, and many basins have the geological conditions of shale gas reservoir formation [1]. Compared with conventional gas reservoirs, shale gas reservoirs are self-generated reservoirs [2,3]. Because shale has the characteristics of low pore and low permeability, it is both a source rock of shale gas and a reservoir and caprock [4,5]. According to the genesis of shale gas, it can be divided into thermogenic type, biogenic type and mixed genetic type gas reservoir [6,7]. There are two main ways of shale gas occurrence in the reservoir, one is that shale gas exists in the adsorbed state on the surface of organic matter and clay mineral particles, the other is in the free state in the natural fractures, macro pores, and matrix pores [8]. The storage and seepage space in shale is mainly pore and fracture [9]. Therefore, the description of shale reservoir characteristics and adsorption characteristics is of great significance to the efficient drilling and development of shale gas and shale oil in China. Characteristics of shale minerals X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the whole rock minerals and clay minerals of the shale reservoir in the lower Shahejie Section 3 of Shengli Oilfield. It can be seen from Table 1 that the average quartz content in the shale reservoir is 27%, the total average content of potassium feldspar and plagioclase is 16%, the average content of calcite is 22%, and the average content of clay mineral is 27%. The brittle mineral reaches 65%, indicating that the reservoir has strong jointing capacity, especially suitable for increasing production measures such as hydraulic fracturing, and it is easy to produce fracture network [10]. The clay mineral is mainly water-bearing aluminosilicate with large surface area and a large amount of charge, and its content is high, then the reservoir has a strong ability to adsorb shale gas. It can be seen from Table 2 that among the clay minerals of rock samples, the content of kaolinite, chlorite as well as illite montmorillonite mixture is low, and the content of weakly hydrated or difficultly hydrated illite is close to 70%, which is favorable for later reservoir fracturing and jointing [11]. Table 1: Results of mineral composition analysis by X-ray diffraction. Table 2: Results of the relative contents analysis of clay minerals by X-ray diffraction. Test results of shale porosity and true density Based on the Archimedes principle-gas expansion displacement method and the Boer's law of inert gas with small molecular diameter under certain conditions (PV = ZnRT), the porosity of the core sample is obtained through measuring the reduction of the gas capacity of the sample test cavity caused by placing the sample into the test cavity of the sample [12]. The porosity of the core of shale reservoir in the lower section 3 of Shahejie Group of Shengli Oilfield was analyzed by using the 3H-2000TD2 automatic true density tester of Bethesda Corporation. The test results Table 3 showed that the porosity of the shale was between 0.62% and 2.68%, the true density was between 2.44g/cm3 and 2.50g/cm3. Table 3: Results of true density and porosity measurement of shale core samples. Figure 1: Differential integral pore volume and pore size distribution curve tested by BJH method. Test results of shale pore size distribution and surface area According to the capillary condensation and the principle of volume equivalent exchange, the pore size of rock samples is measured, in which capillary condensation is the phenomenon that the vapor adsorbed by the adsorbent condenses in its micro pores at a certain temperature. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of the core of shale reservoir in the lower section 3 of Shahejie Group of Shengli Oilfield were analyzed by using the automatic surface area and pore size analyzer of type 3H-2000PS1 from Bethesda Corporation. The specific surface area of powdered rock samples was analyzed by methylene blue method. It can be seen from Table 4 and...
Ratnesh Das, Pankaj Koshti, Neha Mishra
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2019.03.000557

Abstract:
Pankaj Koshti, Neha Mishra and Ratnesh Das* Department of Chemistry, India *Corresponding author: Ratnesh Das, Department of chemistry, Madhya Pradesh, India Submission: April 30, 2019;Published: August 28, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2019.03.000557 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 In this short review, a brief description about olefin metathesis (OM) by transition metal complexes is presented. Metathesis reactions in olefin (organic eye compounds) are mostly carried out using transition organic-metal complexes (OMC) such as ruthenium, rhenium, molybdenum and tungsten based, schorock, grubb’s, Hoveyda-grubb’s catalyst etc. These catalysts cause redistribution of π-bond of alkene by cross scission and rearrangement in compounds by the formation of cyclic (2+2cycloaddition) intermediate. OM reactions are efficiently used for the synthesis of neohexene by dimers of isobutene, conversion of detergent by shell higher olefin process and synthesis of many drugs. Graphical abstract Keywords: Metathesis; Olefin; Metal catalyst; Cross-coupling reaction Abbreviations: OMC: Organic-Metal Complexes; CM: Cross Metathesis; ROM: Ring-Opening Metathesis; RCM: Ring-Closing Metathesis; ROMP: Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization; ADMET: A Cyclic Diene Metathesis Metathesis of olefins is developed as catalytic synthesis method which is applied for synthesis in organic compounds like basic and fine laboratory chemicals, active pharmaceutical ingredients and it may also use as polymeric, noble materials. Olefin metathesis reactions are following particular mechanism just like ring-opening metathesis reaction, ring closing metathesis reaction, and acyclic diene metathesis reaction, cross metathesis reactions are following the formation of met allocyclic intermediate [1-9]. By the development in the structure of transition metal complexes, they get catalyze enzyme metathesis reactions with high turnover, and emerged a high interesting research area to produce various substitution in olefins. Organometallic catalysts are very efficient for these reactions like ruthenium hydrides [10-14], Grubbs-I catalyst [15], palladium [16], Hoveyda-Grubbs pre-catalyst on zirconia membrane [17]. Fogg et al. [18] have reported that olefin metathesis is used as a technology for Industrial production of derivative of olefin. For the cross synthesis of cyclic and bicyclic compounds via Pd-catalyzed alkene [19,20] with N-alkylureas and alkenyl halides, they give the mixture of products of acyclic or cyclic compounds [21-22]. Such types of reactions show the cross-metathesis reaction, in the method of preparations of cyclic or acyclic compound via cross metathesis, use simpler methods as synthesis of cyclic urea’s using α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with pentad dentate ligand in metal complexes followed by cross-metathesis reaction. In these reactions, formation of C-N and C-C bond formation takes place [23]; (Figure 1). Figure 1: For the synthesis of long chain polymers ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) method is used which is firstly introduced by Hillmyer et al. [24-26] via using 4-cis-butenediols using ruthenium carbine organometallic complexes. Heterodontieschain polymers are carrying two different functional groups at the end of chain (Figure 2). Such types of polymerization methods are, mostly applicable for the synthesis of flexible biologically active molecules [27,28]. Figure 2: In the synthesis of ring closing reactions stereo-specific skeleton structure is found in bio-active compounds, it’s very unique synthetic procedure in the field of polymer chemistry, via development into synthetic method (Figure 3), which is limiting the potential for biomedical applications. Here we have discussed about the synthesis of a stereo-selective compound by 1,4-linkage in six-membered cycle polyether which is prepared by the method of ring-closing metathesis (RCM) [29]. Figure 3: Figure 4: Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is an efficient method for the formation of practically important in various fields of applied science, as functionalization in polymeric materials to form advance material structures [30-32]. ROMP of norbornadiene (NBD) in the presence of [RuCl2(PPh3)2(pyrrolidine)] as the starting complex and catalyst and the reaction at room temperature with 2mL of CHCl3, for 30 minutes. Measured yields of poly-NBD were found in inert argon atmosphere [33]; (Figure 4). Acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) is a method of synthesis of cyclic and acyclic end compound via fragmentation of α, ω-diene monomer. These types of polymers can be self-interconvertible or by the use of catalyst, which causes the pi-pi interaction between conjugated diene, and the movement of electron is enhanced [34]. These reactions are carried out in presence of 2mol% of WOCl2sub> (2,6-Br2C6H3O)2 as catalyst, α, ω-diene monomer for 1 hour into the corresponding in 68-70% isolated yield [35]; (Figure 5). Figure 5: Here we are describing some new methods for synthesis of alkenes by metathesis. These new methods are having versatile application in the field of industry, biomedical and other porous material synthesis. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization process give an opportunity, with which we can develop nanoporous polymers with the structure having high surface area. Ringclosing metathesis is very ease for the synthesis of co-polymerized material and the ring size can be modulated or multi-functionalized by use of different solvent cause di-hydroxylation for example olefin group converted into sugar like structure as polyethylene glycol. Modification in bioactive molecule like amylase, via change in configuration of STERI GENIC center in cyclo-polymers. New crossmetathesis reactions are used as a transformation effect for the synthesis of derivatives of olefin with diene and allyl group for the formation of bi-cyclic and mono-cyclic ends. Metathesis reactions are highly...
Noah A, Ghorab M, Abu Hassan M, Shazly T, El Bay M
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/pps.2019.03.000556

Abstract:
Noah A1*, Ghorab M1, Abu Hassan M2, Shazly T1 and El Bay M3 1 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute [EPRI], Egypt 2 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minofia University, Egypt 3 PetroServices Gmbh Middle East, Egypt *Corresponding author: Noah A, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt Submission: January 31, 2019Published: March 15, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2019.03.000556 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue2 Prospecting in oil and gas fields characterized by risks and high costs which is strongly effective on operations and prospecting plan, so we can avoid many problems and keep the cost reduction with safely drilling a well by pre-dill pore pressure prediction which depends on maintaining the wellbore pressure between the formation pore pressure and the maximum pressure that the formation withstand without fracturing, where Pore pressure prediction improve the decision for the well design by studying the hydrocarbon traps, mapping of hydrocarbon migration pathways. Predrill pore pressure prediction allows for appropriate mud weight to be selected and drilling plan in order to design a proper casing program, so we can avoid well control events such as formation fluid kicks, loss of mud circulation and surface blowouts with the use of accurate pore pressure predictions. The paper provides an overview of Application of Interval Seismic Velocities for Pre-Drill Pore Pressure Prediction and Well design to achieve minimizing the exploration and development risks and to save drilling of expensive wells. It was found that Pore pressure prediction cube was normally compacted, or close to normally compacted. Keywords: Pre-drill pore pressure; Interval seismic velocities; Eaton’s equation A pre-drill pore pressure prediction is one of the basics for well design and the planning of well-drilling and represent a key to safe drilling and avoid drilling problems and well control operations. Knowledge of expected pore pressure will provide valuable information for efficiently drilling wells with optimum mud weights. So first we should throw light on the basic and typical terminologies used in subsurface formation pressure. The hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by the static column of fluid at a reference depth. It is dependent on the density of the formation fluid, usually water or brine, and the true vertical height of the column of fluid. The overburden pressure is the pressure exerted at a particular depth by the weight of overlying sediments including the fluid it contains. Formation pore pressure is the pressure which formed by the fluids (formation Water, Oil, Gas) in the pore spaces of the formation. Normal formation pressure is the state where the hydrostatic column of water equal to the subsurface formation pressure. Abnormal formation pressure is characterized by any departure from the normal trend line of any formation property depending on porosity and densities of matrix and fluid. When the formation pressure exceeding hydrostatic pressure in a specific geologic environment is defined as abnormally high formation pressure (over-pressure), Whereas formation pressure less than hydrostatic pressure is called subnormal formation pressure (Under-pressure). Figure 1 Show that schematic pressure-depth plot with the illustration of typical terminologies used in pore pressure work. Figure 1:Schematic pressure-depth plot with illustration of typical terminologies used in pore pressure work. A pre-drill pressure prediction using seismic velocities is based on rock physics and the analysis of seismic velocity which commonly used interval seismic velocity where the estimation of pore pressure can be obtained from transform model using seismic interval velocity to pore pressure transform. The seismic velocities should be derived using methods that give sufficient spatial resolutions, so it can be by using horizon-keyed velocity analysis for the main horizons in the section. Determining pore pressure from interval seismic velocities is similar using the sonic log but the major difference is that the interval velocities which calculated from the RMS velocities which concerned with stacking velocities are horizontal velocities while the sonic log is measuring the vertical velocity assuming the well is vertical. In general, the vertical, the horizontal or the average. If the compaction trend is a function of vertical velocity it is important to make sure that the shale velocity is the same. There are some of the attempts to predict pore pressure from the use of reflection seismograph data. The first pore pressure evaluation methods correlated empirically log data with pore pressure measurements, such as the equivalent depth method [1]. The pioneering work by [2] was the first method that used seismic data where found average velocity for each reflective horizon in a given survey, then the average velocities were converted to interval travel times. Understanding the relationship between reservoir pore pressure condition and state of faulting variation for fluid flow processes in hydrocarbon migration and identify hydrocarbon migration pathways. In the present work, Eaton’s equation method was used to predict pore pressure before drilling and the results were compared with the measured Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) as a pore pressure data of the offset wells for the reliability of our results. The proposed area of study located in Belayim Land Oil Field which considers one of the oldest oil fields in the Gulf of Suez. Belayim Land Field is located in the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez between longitudes 33˚ 12 and 33˚ 15 east and latitudes 28˚ 35 and 28˚ 40 north Figure 2. Belayim Land Oil Field was discovered in 1954 and occupies an area of about 113km2. From then until now continuous exploration and development efforts have been spent to raise the production to reach about 350 wells were drilled in the field, which became a very mature field and the...
Ivan Víden, Erlisa Baraj, Gang Tian
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/pps.2019.03.000555

Abstract:
Erlisa Baraj1 and Ivan Víden2* 1 Department of Gaseous and Solid Fuels and Air Protection, Czech Republic 2 Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Czech Republic *Corresponding author: Ivan Víden, Department of Gaseous and Solid Fuels and Air Protection, Czech Republic Submission: January 31, 2019Published: March 13, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000555 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue1 Determination of carbonyl compounds emitted from car exhausts, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde is vital in outside air of every highly populated city-center including Prague. The sampling site was a highly car frequented and densely populated Prague street. Two types of vehicles from the second largest car manufacturer (Hyundai Motor Company) were selected for the assessment of carbonyl compounds emission. Some of the emitted components from fuel combustion are classified as carcinogenic and/or mutagenic to humans in addition to having other harmful environmental effects. Carbonyl compounds were sampled using 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine sorption tubes. For the quantitative determination of the aforementioned compounds HPLC separation and ultraviolet detection as recommended in method TO 11A was applied. For comparative purposes, HPLC-MS separation and detection was applied as well. Gaseous standards of carbonyl compounds are necessary for the assessment of the accuracy of each method. Production of carbonyl compounds gaseous standards and tests regarding their stability were performed. Keywords: Carbonyl compounds; Emission; 2-4 Dinitrophenylhydrazine; Exhaust; Air Air quality is affected by both biogenic and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric contamination [1]. Petroleum products from human activity, especially diesel and gasoline used mostly for transportation purposes, are the source of most Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) occurring in atmosphere [2]. As a result, air pollution is the often-stated reason for special measures that have the objective to control motor vehicle emissions [3-5]. Fuel combustion leads to the emission of a variety of pollutants that can be categorized as regulated and unregulated. Among the regulated air pollutants belong the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Oxide (CO), total hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter (PM) [6]. The unregulated pollutants include Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, where primarily listed are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde [7,8]. However, many carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, have been receiving regulatory attention, due to their consequences as eye irritants, toxic air contaminants, mutagens and carcinogens [9-13]. Transportation is the heaviest air quality burden and the main reason for special control measures [3,4]. Although the majority of emitted pollutants are similar, their differences depend on the exact composition of the fuel and details of combustion conditions [14-16]. The most emitted aldehydes from gasoline, diesel or even biofuel combustion are formaldehyde followed by acetaldehyde [17,18]. Other carbonyl compounds emitted from gasoline engines are C3-Aldehydes plus acetone and benzaldehyde, making up for around 29% and 5% of carbonyl emissions, respectively [19]. From the exhaust of diesel engines outside of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, acrolein is the third most emitted carbonyl compound which can be mentioned [20,21]. Further most emitted aldehydes cited are propionaldehyde, n-pentanal, crotonaldehyde, isobutanal and benzaldehyde [22,23]. Carbonyl compounds are toxic to living organisms. Therefore, their characterisation and monitoring is important to pollution control, not only due to their health effects [24,25] but also due to their crucial importance in atmospheric chemistry [26-28]. When emitted into the atmosphere some carbonyl compounds produce very reactive and harmful free radicals, ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. In the presence of NOx, predominantly NO, emitted from combustion sources such as vehicle exhaust in urban areas, aldehydes and other VOCs contribute to the photochemical ozone formation and other photochemical air pollution problems [29-31]. Having concerns about air quality of densely populated cities like Prague, this work focuses on determining carbonyl emissions from vehicle exhausts and their concentration in urban atmosphere, sampled in a highly frequented Prague street. Two types of commonly used passenger cars were chosen. In Czech Republic the leading car manufacturing company is Skoda Auto. However, very attractive are also the vehicles of Hyundai Motor Company, which is the second largest car manufacturer in the Czech Republic. The chosen vehicles were the 2009 model diesel fuelled Hyundai i30 cw and the gasoline fuelled Hyundai 2000 Accent. Identification and quantification of carbonyl compounds via DAD has been carried out. Additional MS analysis was applied, to verify if a lower Limit of Detection (LOD) could be achieved and to compare the sensitivity of both methods. Sampling and analysis were performed according to US EPA method TO-11A [32]. The determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds has been done using active sampling with coated solid sorbents followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Quantification based on the comparison with standards of carbonyl compounds was carried out. As recommended by TO-11A method, Ultraviolet (UV) detection after HPLC separation has been conducted. Mass Spectrometric (MS) detection was also performed, as comparative method for analysis. Standard solutions were prepared using liquid standards (TO11A 6 Component Carbonyl-DNPH Mix, 15μg/ml in acetonitrile, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmgH, Germany) containing six 2,4-DNPHhydrazone derivatives of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and propionaldehyde....
Ibrar Iqbal, Gang Tian, Shahid Iqbal, Amin Khan
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.03.000554

Abstract:
Ibrar Iqbal1*, Gang Tian1, Shahid Iqbal2 and Amin khan3 1 Department of Earth Sciences, China 2 Department of Earth Sciences, Pakistan 3 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, China *Corresponding author: Ibrar Iqbal, Department of Earth Sciences, China Submission: October 24, 2018;Published: November 13, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000554 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue1 Seismic data is extremely beneficial to envisage the subsurface lithologies. However, only seismic data is not sufficient to stipulate the gas reservoir. In this paper, by reviewing many signposts in the development of AVO methodology regarding the principles of AVO analysis, we applied AVO analysis to two formations (Murree and Sakesar). We have endeavored to cover the critical formulae and the most current tools in AVO analysis. After comparing multiple methods, we determined that the Aki and Richards equation is the best technique for the AVO analysis in this area because it provides the most accurate results. Because the Aki and Richards approximation is deviates at all angles, it will show the deviation when the angle is either small or large. Here deviation means that the curve plotted are matching to the Zoeppritz curve or not. “The variation of the reflection and transmission coefficients with the angle of incidence (AVA) (and corresponding increasing offset) is often denoted to as offset dependent reflectivity and it is essential for amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis” Ostrander (1982, 1984). Conferring to the type of seismic data there are two types of AVO analysis P-wave and multicomponent seismic data. The term AVO was first used in the literature in 1982 when Ostrander presented his paper “Plane wave reflection coefficient for gas sands at non-normal angle of incidence.” Ostrander (1982, 1984) established that the seismic reflection AVO can be used to distinguish gas related amplitude anomalies from other types of amplitude anomalies. Smith and Gidlow (1987) derived another approximation of the Zoeppritz equation based on Aki and Richard‘s simplification. Today, AVO analysis is broadly used in hydrocarbon detection, lithologic identification, and fluid parameter analysis, because the seismic amplitude at the boundaries is affected by variations in the physical properties. AVO analysis in theory and practice (tentative) is becoming progressively eye-catching. Different approximations are discussed along with their comparisons with the Zoeppritz result. 1. Bortfeld [1] Approximation 2. Aki and Richards [2] Approximation 3. Shuey’s Equation [3] 4. Fatti et al. [4] Approximation The above approximations are discussed in detail later and are used for the plotting of curves. We compared the results with the Zoeppritz exact curve and concluded our result based on these plots. The study area is situated in Jhelum, which is in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The area lies around approximately 33°7’37” North 72° 58’ 1” East. It is connected to Dina on one side and Rawalpindi on the other side through the GT road and North western Railway, both running from Peshawar to Lahore. The study area is shown in (Figure 1). The Salt Range is a part of an active foreland fold and thrust belt of the Himalayan collision zone in northern Pakistan, where the Indian plate is being underthrust beneath its own Phanerozoic sediment (Baker, et al. 1988). The Sakesar Limestone (Early Eocene Ypresian) is thinly to thickly bedded-and in parts, is massive limestone with subordinate calcareous shale. It is mostly nodular (of 10-30cm size) with chert nodules mainly present in the upper part of the formation. Figure 1:Map showing the study area. The limestone is light to dark gray and in parts creamy in color. Bioturbation (vertical, horizontal and random) is common. The upper contact of the Sakesar Limestone is conformable with the Chorgali Formation at Nilawahan and Bhadrar and the unconformable with late Pleistocene Kalabagh conglomerates at Khura and with the Siwaliks at Baghicha Nala. The lower contact is transitional with the Nammal Formation. The Sakesar Limestone is highly fossiliferous. Larger and smaller benthic foraminifers along with other fossils such as ostracods, gastropods, pelecypods and echinoids are present in this formation. The strata of the Murree Formation of the Rawalpindi group present the initiation of the molasses sedimentation in North Pakistan. The sediments were deposited after the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate (Powel, 1979). They are distributed in the Kohat-Potwar Province, Salt Range, Hazara- Kashmir syntaxis belt, Jammu and the North Indian plain. (Shah, 1977; Bossart and Ottigar, 1989) The lithology is mainly reddish brown and gray sandstone, siltstone, clay and conglomerate. Previous stratigraphic studies on the Murree Formation have been reviewed in detail by Shah (1977). (Figure 2) shows a geological column map of the area. Figure 2:Stratigraphic chart of Potwar Plateau. AVO analysis is a technique that geophysicists can execute on seismic data to determine a rock’s fluid content, porosity, density or seismic velocity, shear wave information and fluid indicators (hydrocarbon indications). Here, we are using the technique on the Murree and Sakesar formations because they form a hydrocarbon play. The seismic data were acquired by the Oil and Gas Development Corporation, Limited Pakistan, the Table 1 shows the field parameters that were used during the survey. Turkwal Deep -01 well data are used for AVO analysis and the following information is also available for our study. The locations of the seismic lines and the well are shown in (Figure 3) Table 1:Field parameters. Figure 3:Base map showing seismic lines and Turkwal01well in the study area. a. Base map of the area to determine the four seismic lines. b. Seismic sections of fours seismic lines. c. Complete wire line data of the Turkwal...
Amit Singh Thakur
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.03.000553

Abstract:
Amit Singh Thakur* Department of Chemistry, IPS Academy, India *Corresponding author: Amit Singh Thakur, Department of Chemistry, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore, India. Submission: March 26, 2018;Published: October 16, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000553 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue 1 With the limited stock of liquid engine fossil fuels petrol and diesel available for automobile and mechanical industries, there is continues demand to use alternative sources. In view of this need, a study using ethanol-camphor mixtures was carried out to study its suitability an alternative of conventional liquid engine fuel. For this purpose, petrol, diesel, ethanol, ethanol-camphor (9:1), ethanol-camphor (8:2) and ethanol-camphor (7:3) were compared on various parameters. All the fuels under study were burned in an open flame system and flame temperature, duration of burning, flash point and density was determined. With this study it can be concluded that ethanol-camphor mixture can be used as alternative for conventional liquid fuel. Present research work is based on the study of ethanolcamphor as an alternative fuel, as we all know that fuel is important component in automobile and mechanical field, in India use of alternative fuel is limited as it is not cost effective. Ethanol and camphor is cheap and easily available as compared to petrol and other alternative fuel, so the problem of pollution is solved. The main aim of this study is to study the suitability of ethanolcamphor as an alternative eco-friendly fuel that is cheaper and easily available as compared to petrol and diesel. We succeeded in our experiments and observed that the mixture of ethanol and camphor is burns with blue flame and no by-product is left after burning [1]. This use of volatile-sublime mixture as fuel is first time tested by us in India, the results of the study are suggesting that with the use of such fuels we can increase the efficiency of engine. It can not only used in engine but also in generator or any other object to produce energy in form of heat energy. In automobile sector requirement of heat energy is very important and we know heat is produced by burning any component, but 100% heat is not possible. Because after burning some waste and by product are left and some vaporized in smoke. Detailed study of literature was done to study the various properties of liquid engine fuel. Various properties of ethanolcamphor mixture were calculated to compare with the properties of petrol, diesel and ethanol. The petrol and diesel for the study were collected from HP petrol depot; ethanol used was obtained from Merk India Ltd. and camphor from CDH India [2]. All fuel samples were burned in an open flame system and during this combustion process, temperature of flame, duration of burning and flash point was determined. The density of sample fuel was also determined to study the physical property of fuel. Three different composition of ethanol-camphor 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 was prepared to determine the exact mixture that can be effectively used in combustion [3]. Figure 1:Duration of burning of petrol, diesel, ethanol, ethanol-camphor (9:1), ethanol-camphor (8:2) and ethanolcamphor (7:3) in open flame system. Figure 2:Flame temperature of petrol, diesel, ethanol, ethanol-camphor (9:1), ethanol-camphor (8:2) and ethanolcamphor (7:3) in open flame system. Figure 3:Density of petrol, diesel, ethanol, ethanol-camphor (9:1), ethanol-camphor (8:2) and ethanol-camphor (7:3) at 35 °C. Figure 1-3. The result of the present study suggests that the ethanolcamphor mixture can be used as an alternative of conventional liquid engine fuel. It is a cheap and eco-friendly approach towards discovery of new fuels for engine. This study suggests that other volatile-sublime compounds can be tested for their efficiency as an engine fuel [4]. © 2018 Amit Singh Thakur. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Purti Bilgaiyan
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.03.000552

Abstract:
Purti Bilgaiyan* Department of Chemistry, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology, India *Corresponding author: Purti Bilgaiyan, Department of Chemistry, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Submission: April 05, 2018;Published: October 15, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000552 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue1 Development of efficient and environmentally friendly chemical process for preparation of new biologically active molecules constitutes a major assignment for chemists in organic synthesis. Therapeutic drugs have played a major role in increasing average life. For a long time, natural sources have been used to prepare medicines for treatment of human ailments. Many new medicines actually are modified version of old medicines that have been improved to help people feel better [1]. A variety of medicinal agents have symbolic qualities and better results with numerous reactions for providing new chemical entities. Among well-known reactions, Mannich reaction has been of great importance due to its diversified applications-especially in medicinal chemistry. Mannich reaction is a condensation process involving three reactants (substrate, aldehyde and amine). Mannich reaction is considered only in general way here. Pathway a or b (Figure 1) can be followed, if one includes a rather unlikely trimolecular mechanism. In case formaldehyde reacts initially with the amine (Path ‘a’), a condensation product having the structure of x-amino methyl derivative or methylene immonium salt is formed, which is then able to attack the substrate RH. Alternatively (Path ‘b’), a hydroxymethyl derivative is generated, which gives the Mannich Base by reaction with imine [2,3]. Figure 1:Mechanistic routes of Mannich reaction. Mannich Bases were prepared by reacting amide (0.01mol) dissolved in 20ml of ethanol with sulphonamide (0.01mol). 2.5mL (0.01mol) of formaldehyde solution (37%, v/v) was added slowly with constant stirring. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 3.5 by adding 0.5mL of 1mol L-1 HCl. The mixture was kept at efficient ice cooling for half an hour and refluxed on water bath. Reflux time varied with the sulphonamide used. The refluxed mixture was kept at 0 °C for four days when crystalline product was obtained. The product was recrystallized from DMF [4]. Secondary amine (0.01mol) was added to an ethanolic solution (50ml) of Active hydrogen compound (0.01mol) in a flat bottom flask. Amount of 0.4mL (0.015mol) of formaldehyde solution (37%, v/v) was added slowly with constant stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70-75 °C for 3 to 8.5 hours, depending upon the secondary amine [5]. The remaining portion of formaldehyde solution was added in two installments after 1 and 2 hours, respectively. The reaction mixture was kept overnight in the refrigerator. Next day, the excess of solvent was distilled off from the reaction mixture under reduced pressure. It was again kept for crystallization in the refrigerator. The product obtained was purified by recrystallization from DMF. Mannich Bases have been synthesized from various substrates by modifying them using Mannich reaction. It involves the reaction of active hydrogen component, formaldehyde and amine (sulphonamide/secondary amine). The structure of the newly synthesized Mannich Bases has been elucidated by physicochemical methods and spectral techniques. we can synthesize Mannich Base through condensation of some aromatic and heterocyclic compounds with sulphonamides and various secondary amines [6]. They were screened for their antibacterial properties. The antibacterial activities of Mannich Bases were tested against some pathogenic bacteria as follows: Gram positive: Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Gram negative: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Salmonella typhosa (S. typhosa) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The investigation of sensitivity of bacteria to antibacterial agents is usually done by various methods with their advantages and limitations for screening antibacterial properties. We have studied these properties by cup plate method. Mannich reaction has been used as an important tool for several years to acquire compounds with several pharmacological properties. Rapid expansion of investigations in this field is largely due to increasing utility on these compounds. Mannich Bases are synthesized by condensation of active hydrogen compounds with formaldehyde and primary and/or secondary amines. Mannich Bases synthesized from different active hydrogen compounds, which have great medicinal importance. The Mannich bases incorporated with sulphonamides are reported to be potent antibacterial agents and less toxic than parent sulphonamide. Different active hydrogen compound used as a substrate and sulphonamide as amine component were condensed via Mannich reaction. A series of Mannich bases were synthesized with different sulphonamides/ secondary amines. The synthesized Mannich Bases appear to be better and more potent antibacterial agents than sulphonamides themselves. These results warrant detailed pharmacological studies of these Mannich Bases [7]. Mannich Bases are not only important in research, but they also have considerable practical use in a wide range of other fields. Moreover, these compounds are equally important in pharmacology. This research is expected to facilitate the pharmaceutical industry in the good cause of manufacturing medicines with low cost and minimum side effects. Overall, I want synthesized series of new drugs which is more effective for diseases and less side effect on human body and also available in very low cost in the market, so I can help to the society in these ways. © 2018 Purti Bilgaiyan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build...
Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.03.000551

Abstract:
Mona Taheri and Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz* Payame Noor University, Iran *Corresponding author: Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran, PO. Box: 19395 3697. Submission: October 05, 2018;Published: October 10, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000551 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue1 In this work, the nonlinearity responses of SBR 1500 compounds having black (N550) and clay (closite 10A) nano particles were studied. As expected, complex viscosity (η*) of filled SBR 1500 was higher than unfilled SBR; higher loading, larger η*. The strain dependency in complex viscosity was indicated as the critical strain, which was affected by nano particles type and content. In the presence of both black and nano clay, the nonlinearity zone of strain shifted to the lower strain especially at higher filler content. While black is more effective than nano clay on the nonlinearity phenomenon due to high loading and large black networks, which are highly sensitive to the applied strain. In addition, the elasticity response was investigated considering damping factor (tan δ). In the presence of nano clay, lower tan δ was observed comparing with unfilled SBR, hence more elasticity. As the clay content increased, more elasticity was achieved because of more interactions between clay particles and rubber chains. However, black had two different effects on tan δ: at low strains, black caused more elasticity while the reverse trend was recognized at high strains. Keywords: SBR compound; Nano filler; RPA; Viscoelastic property; Elasticity Many researchers have reported the enhancement of the properties by incorporation of nano fillers into the polymers. Using different types and concentrations of nano fillers, the obtained nanocomposites can exhibit enhanced properties relative to the virgin polymer such as better mechanical properties, lower permeability against the gases, higher heat deflection temperature or higher flame retardancy [1-4]. In addition, concentration and type of fillers affect significantly the viscoelastic behavior of the polymers [5,6]. Normally, filled rubber compounds have an ability to dissipate a main part of the mechanical energy applied during deformation by damping which depends on the formed interactions between rubber and filler. That can be studied performing rheological tests like strain sweep test in dynamic mode. Rubber processing analyzer (RPA) allows testing the strength of the filler networks and the filler-rubber interactions in the green compound as well as in the vulcanizate, in a wide range of shear amplitudes. Using this instrument, the viscoelastic responses of the gum, master and final compound can be detected [7,8]. As a response to increasing strain, rubber compounds show a non-linear viscoelastic behavior, which is detected as a drop in the elastic modulus versus strain [9]. In addition, tan δ (G″/ G′) increases when the strain rises, recognizing that the energy of dynamic deformation is dissipated. Fillers can affect this strain dependent trend in rubber compounds. In this work, attempts have been made to the strain dependency and elasticity of different nano filled compounds. In this way, SBR compounds having various amounts of clay (closite 10A) and black (N550) nano particles were prepared; and the effects of nano fillers type and content on the viscoelastic behavior were studied during the strain sweep tests. Table 1:Formulation of sample. Table 1 depicts some information about the materials used in this study and the formulations of samples. Based on our previous work [10], mixing conditions were selected to ensure the best dispersion of the filler in the SBR matrix. RPA2000 from Alpha technologies Co. (UK) was used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of filled compounds and gum. Strain sweep tests were done using RPA at the temperature of 100 °C and the frequency of 1.68Hz, in the 0.1-100% strain domain. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were done at room temperature on a D5000, Siemens, Germany. Table 2: XRD result. Table 2 shows XRD results for various nano clay levels. The peak of organoclay at 2θ=4.59° corresponds to 1.952nm inter gallery distance. While in nanocomposites, diffraction peak shifts to the lower 2ɵ values, because of dispersion process; the peak of organoclay is weaker and the distance between layers is greater. Figure 1 shows the complex viscosity (η*) of compounds versus the applied strain. As can be seen, samples containing nano fillers have higher viscosity than net SBR. In the presence of filler, the modulus increases and flowability declines so the viscosity increases. With increment in Black amount, η* rises and the linear zone of the strain domain becomes shorter. By adding 70phr N550, the viscosity growth is 10times larger; and the curve state changes to fully nonlinear form. Higher nano clay content also made an increase in the viscosity, with less effect on the linear zone than Black does. It is interesting that 9phr of nano clay is more effective than 30phr of N550 on the viscosity value; having less disturbing effect on the linear zone. Figure 1: Complex viscosity versus strain for compounds with different nano filler loading. Figure 2: Elastic modulus versus strain for different CB content. Figure 2 & 3 give the changes in elastic modulus (G’) of compounds against the strain. As can be seen in this figure, firstly, there is a region where the elastic modulus is independent of shear strain, which is named the linear viscoelastic region (LVER). In the lower strains, linear viscoelastic behavior is observed, while in the higher strains, the non-linear viscoelastic behavior is seen. We named the transition strain between linear and on-linear regions, as the critical strain which discussed later. According to Figure 2, as the CB amount increases in compounds, the linear viscoelastic region disappears and the elastic modulus increases. Reduction in the CB particle size has the...
Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 3, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000551

Abstract:
Mona Taheri and Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz* Payame Noor University, Iran *Corresponding author: Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran, PO. Box: 19395 3697. Submission: October 05, 2018;Published: October 10, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.03.000551 ISSN 2637-8035Volume3 Issue1 In this work, the nonlinearity responses of SBR 1500 compounds having black (N550) and clay (closite 10A) nano particles were studied. As expected, complex viscosity (η*) of filled SBR 1500 was higher than unfilled SBR; higher loading, larger η*. The strain dependency in complex viscosity was indicated as the critical strain, which was affected by nano particles type and content. In the presence of both black and nano clay, the nonlinearity zone of strain shifted to the lower strain especially at higher filler content. While black is more effective than nano clay on the nonlinearity phenomenon due to high loading and large black networks, which are highly sensitive to the applied strain. In addition, the elasticity response was investigated considering damping factor (tan δ). In the presence of nano clay, lower tan δ was observed comparing with unfilled SBR, hence more elasticity. As the clay content increased, more elasticity was achieved because of more interactions between clay particles and rubber chains. However, black had two different effects on tan δ: at low strains, black caused more elasticity while the reverse trend was recognized at high strains. Keywords: SBR compound; Nano filler; RPA; Viscoelastic property; Elasticity Many researchers have reported the enhancement of the properties by incorporation of nano fillers into the polymers. Using different types and concentrations of nano fillers, the obtained nanocomposites can exhibit enhanced properties relative to the virgin polymer such as better mechanical properties, lower permeability against the gases, higher heat deflection temperature or higher flame retardancy [1-4]. In addition, concentration and type of fillers affect significantly the viscoelastic behavior of the polymers [5,6]. Normally, filled rubber compounds have an ability to dissipate a main part of the mechanical energy applied during deformation by damping which depends on the formed interactions between rubber and filler. That can be studied performing rheological tests like strain sweep test in dynamic mode. Rubber processing analyzer (RPA) allows testing the strength of the filler networks and the filler-rubber interactions in the green compound as well as in the vulcanizate, in a wide range of shear amplitudes. Using this instrument, the viscoelastic responses of the gum, master and final compound can be detected [7,8]. As a response to increasing strain, rubber compounds show a non-linear viscoelastic behavior, which is detected as a drop in the elastic modulus versus strain [9]. In addition, tan δ (G″/ G′) increases when the strain rises, recognizing that the energy of dynamic deformation is dissipated. Fillers can affect this strain dependent trend in rubber compounds. In this work, attempts have been made to the strain dependency and elasticity of different nano filled compounds. In this way, SBR compounds having various amounts of clay (closite 10A) and black (N550) nano particles were prepared; and the effects of nano fillers type and content on the viscoelastic behavior were studied during the strain sweep tests. Table 1:Formulation of sample. Table 1 depicts some information about the materials used in this study and the formulations of samples. Based on our previous work [10], mixing conditions were selected to ensure the best dispersion of the filler in the SBR matrix. RPA2000 from Alpha technologies Co. (UK) was used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of filled compounds and gum. Strain sweep tests were done using RPA at the temperature of 100 °C and the frequency of 1.68Hz, in the 0.1-100% strain domain. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were done at room temperature on a D5000, Siemens, Germany. Table 2: XRD result. Table 2 shows XRD results for various nano clay levels. The peak of organoclay at 2θ=4.59° corresponds to 1.952nm inter gallery distance. While in nanocomposites, diffraction peak shifts to the lower 2ɵ values, because of dispersion process; the peak of organoclay is weaker and the distance between layers is greater. Figure 1 shows the complex viscosity (η*) of compounds versus the applied strain. As can be seen, samples containing nano fillers have higher viscosity than net SBR. In the presence of filler, the modulus increases and flowability declines so the viscosity increases. With increment in Black amount, η* rises and the linear zone of the strain domain becomes shorter. By adding 70phr N550, the viscosity growth is 10times larger; and the curve state changes to fully nonlinear form. Higher nano clay content also made an increase in the viscosity, with less effect on the linear zone than Black does. It is interesting that 9phr of nano clay is more effective than 30phr of N550 on the viscosity value; having less disturbing effect on the linear zone. Figure 1: Complex viscosity versus strain for compounds with different nano filler loading. Figure 2: Elastic modulus versus strain for different CB content. Figure 2 & 3 give the changes in elastic modulus (G’) of compounds against the strain. As can be seen in this figure, firstly, there is a region where the elastic modulus is independent of shear strain, which is named the linear viscoelastic region (LVER). In the lower strains, linear viscoelastic behavior is observed, while in the higher strains, the non-linear viscoelastic behavior is seen. We named the transition strain between linear and on-linear regions, as the critical strain which discussed later. According to Figure 2, as the CB amount increases in compounds, the linear viscoelastic region disappears and the elastic modulus increases. Reduction in the CB particle size has the...
Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000550

Abstract:
Mona Taheri and Somayyeh Mohammadian Gezaz* Payame Noor University, Iran *Corresponding author: Somayyeh Mohammadian-Gezaz, Payame Noor University, Tehran, PO Box: 19395-3697, Iran Submission: September 17, 2018;Published: September 21, 2018 DOI: 10.31031/PPS.2018.02.000550 ISSN 2637-8035Volume2 Issue5 The cure characteristics of EPDM compounds were investigated using of an oscillatory cure meter, namely, the rubber process analyzer (RPA 2000). Cure tests were conducted at different cure conditions and the effects of temperature, frequency and strain on the elastic (S’) and viscous (S”) cure torque curves were studied. The results showed that the cure process was affected strongly by the changes in the test conditions. Increasing temperature assisted the vulcanization which was indicated by the greater rate of cure and shorter cure time. It was found that with increasing cure temperature, tmax S” were approximately is the same them as real scorch time (tC10). As the cure frequency increased, scorch and cure time and the slope of the elastic torque are not changed significantly and the percentage of cure at tmax S” decreases. With increasing strain, the elastic and viscous torques increase and the nonlinearity effect was observed at the higher strain. Keywords: EPDM (Ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber); Rubber process analyzer (RPA); Cure characteristics; Cure conditions Rheometers are the instruments which can determine the cure characteristics of the rubber compounds [1,2]. Generally, in these equipments, a certain shear strain is applied, and the torque response of the material is measured. Conventional rheometers include two-parallel-plate and cone-and-plate types which are utilized to study the rheological and the cure properties of the rubber compounds [1-7]. But in these instruments wall slip may occur and the sample loading in the gap is not easy, affecting the repeatability of the tests. In addition, the high viscosities of rubber compounds may raise a number of difficulties. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop specific measuring equipments. RPA (rubber process analyzer) is a strain-controlled shear cone-andcone rheometer specifically designed for raw elastomers and their compounds. It can be operated in rotation dynamic and relaxation modes. Rheological characterizations of gum and rubber compounds [8-10] and the cure behavior of compounds [11-13] can be investigated using RPA. Figure 1:Schematic of the RPA gap. The reciprocal cone geometry of RPA can be seen in Figure 1 schematically. The values of α and R are equal to 0.125rad and 20.6mm respectively. The lower cone is moved with the rotational angular of θ which induces the shear strain (γ) equal to. A torque transducer at the upper cone measures the torque transmitted through the sample from the lower cone. The rheological properties are measured from the viscoelastic response of the material. In the dynamic mode of RPA, the applied sinusoidal shear strain and the shear rate are given by the following equations, respectively. Where is the maximum strain amplitude and is the frequency. In the cure experiment, Cure torque response (S*) is divided to the elastic (S’) and viscous (S”) parts by equation 3. The elastic torque response (S’) is in-phase with the applied strain and the viscous torque response (S”) is 90° out-of-phase with the applied strain. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship. In this study, the cure tests were performed with a EPDM compound at different cure conditions using RPA and the influences of temperature, frequency and strain on the cure behavior were investigated. In all cases, viscous and elastic cure torque curves, scorch time, and the rate of cure were also evaluated. Figure 2:Applied strain and torque responses in RPA. To evaluate the effects of cure conditions, cure tests were performed at different cure conditions with a compound based on EPDM (Keltan 2340A) from DSM Co. and a conventional sulfur curing system according to Table 1. The Compound was prepared by mixing on two roll mill mixers with the friction ratio of 1.6:1 (Polymix 200L, Schwabenthan Co., Germany) by the rotor speed of 15rpm, for 20 minutes. Ingredients were added in order of rubber, activators (Stearic Acid and ZnO), antioxidant (TMQ), CB and oil, curing agent (sulfur) and accelerator (TBBS, TMTD). Finally, the compound was sheeted on the mill and kept at room temperature for 24hr before testing. Table 1:Formulation of sample. The cure process can be characterized by functions such as elastic and loss modulus. These functions can be obtained in a dynamic test, from measuring the forces which developed by the material when subjected to the oscillatory deformation of controlled amplitude and frequency. In this work Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA 2000) from Alpha technologies Co. (UK) was used. The effects of temperature, frequency and strain on the cure characteristics were investigated at various test conditions according to Table 2. Table 2:RPA cure tests conditions. Figure 3 shows the typical viscous cure curve (S”) along with the corresponding elastic cure curve (S’) of a rubber compound versus cure time. First, the viscous torque (S”) increases and reaches a maximum amount. The rise in S” curve can be due to the formation of polysulfide pendent groups between rubber and accelerator during the induction step of the cure which can prevent the rubber chains mobility. After the peak, the viscous torque declines as the cure process continues until reaches a constant value at the ultimate state of cure. The time the maximum of S” occurs is named tmax S”. The elastic torque (S’) rises as the crosslink density increases and reaches a plateau at the end of cure. From the slope of the S’ curve, cure rate (K) can be calculated by the following equation. Here, S’C10 and S’C90 are the elastic...
Santosh Narayan Chadar, Keerti Chadar, Manju Singh
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000548

, Hamid Mounir, Abdellatif El Marjani
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-7; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000549

, , Omi Uchimura, Kazuya Uezu
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000547

Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000545

Raju Mc, Padmavathi Rs, Venkateswarlu
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000541

, Bencheng Wu, Jianhua Zhu
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000539

De Paz Carmona H, Brito Alayón A, Macías Hernández Jj
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000538

, , Hicham Gourgue
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000536

David Jackson S, Cory Black, Ron R Spence, Keith Whiston, Stephen Sproules,
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-22; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000534

Mohamad Hassan Amin
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-5; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000532

Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000533

, Shobha Lata Sinha,
Progress in Petrochemical Science, Volume 2, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/pps.2018.02.000529

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