Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal Biotechnology Journal International: 212

(searched for: journal_id:(408743))
Page of 5
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Nyamien Yves Bleouh, Coulibaly Adama, Biego Godi Henri
Biotechnology Journal International pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530152

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this study is to monitor the evolution of organochlorine residues levels in kola nuts collected from various actors in the eastern producing region of Côte d'Ivoire. Study Design: Kola nuts samples were collected from farmers, collectors and urban stores in the Eastern of Côte d’Ivoire. Place and Duration of Study: Health Department of Hydrology Health and Toxicology, Training and Research Unit of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2016-2019. Methodology: A total of 225 samples were analyzed using Gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (Agilent 7010B Triple Quadrupole GC/MS System). Results: Data showed that all 21 pesticides analyzed were detected in kola nuts samples. Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in OCPs sub-group used by actors during the three-crop studied. The mean levels of HCHs, DDTs and cyclodienes were ranged from 5±1– 136.67±77.3 µg/kg FW, 5±1 – 116.67±63.2 µg/kg FW and 5±1 - 145±63.2 µg/kg FW, respectively. Otherwise, farmer’s levels of OCPs were lower than those detected in kola nuts from collectors and urban stores samples. Thus, compared to the MRL set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization, the farmer’s samples are lower than limits fixed, unlike the contents registered with collectors and urban stores. In the latter, nearly 80% to 100% of kola nuts collected are contaminated with hexachlorinated residues (HCHs) and heptachlor. Conclusion: There is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in kola nuts produced in Côte d’Ivoire and take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Care should be taken since residues could pose chronic health risk for adults and children.
Bin Lei, Christopher J. Frost, Tao Xu, Joshua R. Herr, John E. Carlson,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 16-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530151

Abstract:
Promoters play critical roles in controlling the transcription of genes and are important as tools to drive heterologous expression for biotechnological applications. In addition to core transcription factor-binding motifs that assist in the binding of RNA polymerases, there are specific nucleotide sequences in a promoter region to allow regulation of gene expression. The allene oxide synthase (AOS) gene family are cytochrome P450s that are responsive to a variety of environmental stress, making them good candidates for the discovery of inducible promoters. Populus AOS homologs separate phylogenetically into two clades. Based on the 19 promoter motifs with significant abundance differences between the two clades, Clade I AOS genes are likely more responsive to hormones, salt, and pathogen, whereas clade II homologs are likely inducible by water stress. In this study, an upstream promoter from a Clade I poplar AOS encoding gene (AOS1) was cloned and used to drive the expression of a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in Arabidopsis. AOS is an essential enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway that is responsible for the production of many non-volatile oxylipins in plants, including the jasmonates, which are regulatory phytohormones coordinating a variety of biological and stress response functions. Consistent with AOS transcript expression patterns, we found that the poplar AOS1 promoter drives rapid and localized expression by wounding. The study provides insight on the responsive elements in the poplar AOS promoters, but more importantly identifies a strong wound-inducible and localized promoter for future applications.
Z. B. I. A. Boli, W. H. Coulibaly, R. Bamba, W. M. Allouet-Boraud, R. Koffi-Nevry, K. M. Dje
Biotechnology Journal International pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530150

Abstract:
Post-harvest storage of oilseeds, particularly groundnut, is a real problem for farmers and traders whose stocks are subject to attacks by pests and fungal contaminants in the shops. In order to find alternative solutions to this problem, a survey was conducted in Côte d’Ivoire, specifically in the markets of the communes Abobo, Adjamé and Yopougon in city of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The objective of this work is to evaluate the main risk factors for spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage in the Abidjan markets. To this end, a survey was conducted among 75 groundnut seeds sellers in the three aforementioned communes of Abidjan and identified the main risk factors favorable to spoilage of groundnut seeds sold during storage. The lack of exact knowledge of the origin of the groundnut seeds sold (92 to 100%), the storage of groundnut seeds in polyethylene bags (84 to 100%), the lack of knowledge of spoilage (28 to 44%), the long periods of sale (22.2 to 86.7%), moisture (0 to 72.2%) and insect pests (5.6 to 20%° were identified as the main factors of these risk of spoilage.
Xing Hong-Yun, Yu Yang, Zhang Xiao-Ke, Zhang Ying, Wang Tong-Tong, Zhang Yu-Jiao,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i530149

Abstract:
Aims: This research explored the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment on sugar metabolism in tomato fruits, and provided theoretical basis for the regulation of ABA on the growth and development of tomato fruits. Study Design: The whole tomato plant was treated by spraying with 50 mg·L-1 ABA. Spraying distilled water was as the control. Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between February 2019 and March 2020. Methodology: The contents of soluble sugar in tomato fruits were measured with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). The enzyme extraction and activities were followed the biochemical method. Results: Exogenous ABA treatment reduced the weight and transverse meridians of the fruit at the ripening stage, but increased the contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose in the fruit. At the same time, it also increased the activities of acid invertase, neutral invertase, and sucrose phosphate synthase at the ripening stage. Conclusions: Exogenous ABA treatment was beneficial to the accumulation of sugar in tomato fruit and improved tomato quality. Therefore, it could be applied to tomato production.
Amir Hussain, , Syed Bilal Hussain, Shahid Masood Shah, Ghulam Shabir
Biotechnology Journal International pp 45-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430148

Abstract:
Onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) are edible herbs but they contain many chemicals which can be used as medicine. These herbs also contain many antibiotic molecules that are capable to inhibit or reduce growth of many types of microbes including bacteria. Due to the development of resistance of bacteria against synthetic antibiotic now there is a need to have natural antibiotic which must be harmless, cheap and easily available. To know the effectiveness of garlic, onion, and cinnamon on disease causing bacteria such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, extracts of each sample was made in water and ethanol. Antibacterial potential of plant extracts was observed at two different stages: at the time of inoculation and after growth of pathogen on media. Results showed extracts applied on all the bacteria before growth inhibited maximum bacterial growth as compared to applied after growth. Moreover, cinnamon extract in ethanol effectively control bacterial growth than onion and garlic extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was shown by ethanolic extract of cinnamon before growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (7.333 mm), Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (7.83 mm) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (5.1 mm). After 24 hours, maximum growth of Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas axonopodis was inhibited by ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (2.82 and 3.35 mm, respectively) while Xanthomonas campestris was inhibited by ethanolic extract of onion (6.55 mm). Extract diluted from 66mg/ml to 0.01mg/ml showed different minimum inhibitory concentration against pathogens. As concentration decreases inhibition of bacteria also decreases. Ethanolic extracts of cinnamon showed maximum MIC against Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (3.5 mm to 1.5 mm) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (5 mm to 2 mm) while for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ethanolic extract of garlic (3 mm to 1 mm) was effective ranging between 66mg/ml to 33 mg/ml. This study highlighted that natural products possess ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth and would also be helpful in medicinal field for further study.
Bao-Zhen Zhao, Yang Yu, Zhi Yang, Qi Ding,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430147

Abstract:
Aims: SPS (Sucrose phosphate synthase) participates in plant growth and yield formation, and plays an important role in plant stress resistance. This study used T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSPS in Arabidopsis as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined, which laid the foundation for further understanding the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance. Study Design: In order to analyze the mechanism of SPS in plant growth and development and abiotic stress resistance, this study used T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSPS in Arabidopsis as test material. The growth indexes and soluble sugar contents of Arabidopsis thaliana under salt stress, osmotic stress and low temperature stress were determined. Place and Duration of Study: College of Biological Science and Technology, between December 2020 and May 2021. Methodology: The contents of soluble sugar in tomato fruits were measured with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). The growth indexes were determined. Results: The results showed that AtSPS played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, under abiotic stress conditions, AtSPS mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar, suggesting that Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings might improve resistance through osmotic regulating substances. Conclusion: AtSPS played positive regulation roles in seed germination and seedling growth of Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, AtSPS mutant increased the contents of soluble sugar to increase resistance of Arabidopsis under abiotic stresses, and the growth and development were blocked, suggesting that SPS was negative regulatory element to resist abiotic stress.
, Noha M. Osman, Nadia A. Abo El-Maaty, Eman R. Mahfouz
Biotechnology Journal International pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430146

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Uterine lumen contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in buffalo after parturition. Nearly one-third of these infected animals develop endometritis which leads to reduced fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the expressions of IFN-γ and NOS2 genes in uterine tissue of buffaloes with endometritis and comparing them with those in healthy animals using RT-qPCR Materials and Methods: Uterine samples were collected from 50 apparently healthy and 50 clinically infected buffaloes. RNA was extracted from the collected buffalo's uteri and cDNA was synthesized from extracted RNA. Quantitative Real Time PCR technique was performed using this synthesized cDNA. Results: Apparent up-regulation of both genes mRNA expression was recorded in endometritis-infected animals with 8.3-folds for IFN-γ and 9.99-folds for NOS2 (P<0.001). Conclusion: The upregulation of IFN-γ and NOS2 expression in the uterine tissue of endometritis-infected buffaloes can be used as a scale for measuring the efficiency of drugs used for endometritis treatment.
, Gali Adamu Ishaku, Afiniki Yohanna, Dashe Dentsen Fortune, Aisha Salihu Jibrin
Biotechnology Journal International pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430145

Abstract:
Malaria remains a threat to public healthcare system. In 2018, more than 200 million people were exposed to this disease globally. There have been reports of drug-resistance in the recommended therapy in some endemic regions. This called for relentless efforts in the search for potential antimalarial compounds. An in vitro culture technique has emerged as a promising option for sustainable and industrial propagation of plant bioactive compounds with wide range of medicinal properties. The demand for these invaluable metabolites is witnessing a continuous increase as a folk medicine, hence, endangering their existence in natural habitats. Besides its use in natural form, the nature’s gift to humans seems to be restricted and limited by environmental conditions. An in vitro culture approach remains the most viable and sustainable alternative for the endangered plant species. Here, we present some plant species reported to have potential antimalarial activities and recommend further study through callus culture induction against malaria.
, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Farid Ahmad Danishfar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430144

Abstract:
β-amylase is a hydrolytic enzyme that is involved in breaking down starch and producing energy. Since the discovery of β-amylase, it has been applied in various applications especially in the food industry. In this study, a novel β-amylase from Clostridium thermosuluregen, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments its extracellular emulsion to ethanol at 62 ℃ was modelled and studied using bioinformatics tools and compared with B. cereus β-amylases that functions at mesophilic conditions. The results showed that the overall structural conformations, secondary structures, and important residues involved in active and binding sites were identified in both proteins. The results revealed that the modelled β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen is very similar with respect to the global conformation, location of active and binding sites. Both proteins showed identical structural domains with the thermophilic variant possessing a high percentage of hydrophobic amino acid residues, polar amino acid residues, and differences in secondary composition such as loops and beta sheets as the potential evolutionary thermal adaptations that make it stable enzyme that functions up to 70 ℃. The results suggest that the thermal stability are not dependent on one single unique mechanism and may use one or a combination of the mechanisms to sustain its structural conformation at a higher operating temperature. Overall, considering the common properties of this modelled protein with the β-amylase of B. cereus, it can be assumed that if the β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen were expressed in-vitro, it would produce a stable protein that possesses the hydrolysis function for C. thermosulfuregen to break down the starch and sugar formation.
Besim Salkić, Kemal Avdić, Ensar Salkić, Samira Huseinović, Ahmed Salkić, Sead Noćajević
Biotechnology Journal International pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330142

Abstract:
Organic food production contributes to the preservation of human health, preservation and protection of the environment and increase of soil fertility, reduction of all forms of pollution as a consequence of intensive agricultural production and animal husbandry. Hence by purchasing products that carry the label organic product consumers indirectly affect the protection and preservation of the environment Organic food is food that is worth investing in due to the smaller amount of harmful substances in the products. Cornel cherry (Cornus mas L.) is one of the most suitable species for organic production. It is adaptable to various abiotic factors and is resistant to numerous pests and diseases. Aims: The aim of the study was to select promising dogwood phenotypes from the natural population for further reproduction by grafting. Study Design: The subject of the research was selected 6 self-growing dogwoods from a rural area. Place and Duration of Study: Samples of fruit were collected at the site of Ćehaje, City of Srebrenik,Tuzla Canton, BiH in the spring of 2019. Methodology: In order to determine the best traits, the measurement of physical quantities, determination of coefficients of variation and analysis of chemical characteristics of dogwood fruits harvested from trees of 6 wild phenotypes marked as DKA1, DKA2, DKA3, DKA4, DKA5 and DKA6 were performed. Results: Based on the analyzed indicators, the DKA6 phenotype showed the best results.
I. R. Danbima, I. J. Tekwa, A. T. Gani
Biotechnology Journal International pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330141

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of groundnut shell incorporation rates on the growth and yield of maize. Research methods: The study was carried out at the students’ demonstration farm of the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, in 2018. Seeds were sown on a prepared land treated with four (4) doses of groundnut shells (0, 25, 50 and 75 tons/ha) arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated 4 times. Each plot was marked out at 2.0 m length × 2.0 m width with 0.5 m gap between the replicated plots and blocks. Maize growth parameters were determined at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing and maize yield parameters were determined at 10 and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS). Findings: The groundnut shell application rates increased maize growth parameters such as, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leave area index, and stem girth, number of cobs per plant and cobs weight. The results revealed that plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index and stem girth were significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced by the treatments, except for the control treatment at 2- WAS. The higher application rates (50 and 75 t/ha) of groundnut shell significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced the plant growth components better than the 25 and 0 t/ha treatment rates. Research limitations: There were no limitations to report. Originality/Value: The results suggests that groundnut shell incorporation rate at 50 t/ha could be recommended as the most appropriate and profitable for high performance of maize plants in Mubi. The results generally suggest that maize plants may tolerate even higher rates of groundnut shell incorporation beyond the rates used in the study.
J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna
Biotechnology Journal International pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330140

Abstract:
The effects of temperature, pH and incubation time on amylase, protease and cellulase activity by different species of Aspergillus in crude oil polluted soil sites in Nigeria were studied. Incubation period, Optimal pH values and temperatures for the enzymes produced by the different micro‐organisms were determined. The production of amylase by A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from crude oil polluted sites showed that both fungi had their peaks on the first day of incubation for amylase, protease and cellulase. A. niger showed higher stability across a range of pH (3-6) and temperature (25-70oC) changes in all the enzyme activities. Further experiments are recommended to purify the secreted enzymes and stability studies will be performed to enhance the application of enzyme to commercial level.
, O. Obire
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330139

Abstract:
This investigation focuses on molecular identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from petroleum producing vicinity using 16S rRNA sequencing based technique. The bacterial 16s rRNA gene sequences were amplified using polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, characterized and compared by using primers which has been compared to national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) sequence database. The presence of the plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance determinants CTX-M and QNRB genes in the bacterial isolates were analyzed. A total of four bacterial isolates that were resistant to all the antibiotic agents used were identified molecularly. The BLAST results showed 100 % similarity and phylogenetic study indicated that the genes were evolutionarily related to Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas xiamenensis, Chryseobacterium cucumeris and Staphylococcus sp., respectively. The genes obtained were submitted to the NCBI gene bank and were assigned accession number; MN094330, MN094331, MN094332 and MN094333, respectively. CTX-M and QNRB genes were however absent in the bacterial isolates. The result identified some peculiar abilities of the bacterial isolates to be resistant to antibiotics and suggests a correlation with resistance and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The level of resistance could be as a result of the disinfection process during wastewater treatment procedure or the same adaptive mechanisms possessed by the isolates to control the hydrocarbon concentration in their cell. The study also clearly indicates that these wastewaters, when discharged into the environment directly may pose a risk for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Pratibha Maravi, Anil Kumar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 36-71; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330143

Abstract:
Cellulase enzyme complex is comprised of three enzymes namely exo-glucanase, endo-glucanase and β-glucosidase which act synergistically to deconstruct cellulosic biomass in order to produce fermentable sugars. The enzymes are produced naturally by the living organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. The majority of microorganisms that live in extreme environments including hot/cold springs, rumen stomach, deep ocean trench, acidic/alkaline pH environment, have been regarded as appealing producers of cellulase. Cellulases produced by microorganisms have enormous applications in different industries such as agriculture, food and feed production, brewing, textile, laundry and biofuel production. Scientists as well as industry researchers consider cellulases as a prospective candidate for further studies due to the intricacy of the enzyme system and massive industrial potential. Scientific belief in its production and further studies challenges are receiving greater attention these days, notably in the intent of decreasing its production cost at the industrial scale. In this review, future possibilities of using cellulase for various industrial applications are also addressed.
, Kola Matthew Anigo, Alice Onyeche Jonah, Meshack Anthony Kugama, Tinok Andrew, Janet Larai Ibrahim, Raymond Arumona, William Denbon Genesis Chinten
Biotechnology Journal International pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230138

Abstract:
Aims: The effect of pre and post-infection administration of zinc and selenium on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in wistar rats on some biochemical parameters were investigated. Study Design: The study was designed to evaluate the effect of pre and post infection administration of zinc and selenium on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in wistar rats. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), Kaduna and Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, between January 2014 to March 2014. Methodology: Fifty four (54) wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six (6) rats each. Groups III-IX were infected intraperitoneally with 1x103parasite load. Animals in group III were infected but untreated while the infected/treated groups received prophylactic (IV, V and VI) and therapeutic (VII, VIII and IX) treatment with zinc and selenium 50mg/kg and 10mg/kg body weight respectively. Results: Results obtained showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities in the infected-untreated control group were significantly different (P<0.05) and higher as compared to infected treated and normal control. Similarly, the two minerals significantly decreased (P0.05) decrease. On the other hand, a significant (P0.05) difference in direct bilirubin was recorded in infected treated group compared to infected untreated and normal control. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of zinc and selenium ameliorate the infection-induced biochemical changes in tissues and organs associated with Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in Wistar rats.
Ensar Salkić, Besim Salkic, Amela Hercegovac, Aldijana Avdić, Azra Dorić, Emir Imširović
Biotechnology Journal International pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230137

Abstract:
Aims: The basic precondition for apple breeding is the genetic diversity of varieties, which implies a large number of different, positive genes that enable adaptation to different weather conditions, resistance to new diseases and pests. One of the reliable sources of genetic diversity are indigenous varieties of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their genetic identification is the first step in a process that has as its ultimate goal the collection of genetic material. The main goal of this research is to analyze the genetic variability of five indigenous varieties of apple in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina in terms of contributing to the management of conservation and expansion of existing genetic resources, spreading this material through registered nurseries. Study Design: The research included fiveautochthonous apple varieties: "Ovčji nos“ “Dobrić“, "Šarenika“, "Rančica“ and "Petrovača“. Place and Duration of Study: Samples of young leaves were collected at the site of Donji Moranjci, City of Srebrenik,Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the spring of 2019. Methodology: In order to determine the genetic diversity of five indigenous apple varieties were genotyped ten SSR(Simple Sequence Repeats) markers. Results: No cases of synonyms or homonyms were found within the analyzed set.The results of the study indicate a pronounced differentiation, ie all five examined varieties represent unique genotypes. Conclusion: The examined sets of genotypes possess significant genetic variability, which is important especially when we consider that a relatively small number of samples have been analyzed.
, C. O. Akujobi, S. I. Umeh
Biotechnology Journal International pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230136

Abstract:
Aims: To optimize effects of selected process parameters affecting yield of green synthesized silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. Study Design: Study was designed with 3 factors Box Behnken Design (Minitab 17) and Response optimizer (Minitab 17) was used to determine optimum values of the factors. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, from March to November, 2020. Methodology: After extraction by boiling, qualitative phytochemical analysis of leaves’ extracts of Ipeoma batatas, Commelina africana and Manihot esculenta was carried out. Following synthesis of silver nanoparticles as prescribed by Box Behnken design, yield of AgNPs was optimized with Response optimizer (Minitab 17). Then antibacterial activity of resulting AgNPs was tested against isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Results: Extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, but no sterols and cardiac glycosides. Optimum pH, temperature and time obtained with Response Optimizer resulted in 62.6%, 55.8% and 54.9% increase in yield of AgNPs, with leaf extracts of C. africana, M. esculenta and I. batatas respectively, compared to un-optimized conditions. Absorbance for resulting AgNPs peaked between 380 to 400 nm. Zones of inhibition (mm) of P. aeruginosa with AgNPs synthesized using extracts of C. africana, I. batatas and M. esculenta were 10, 10 and 9 respectively, under un-optimized condition, and 12, 10 and 8 respectively, for optimized conditions. Against E. coli, they were 11, 11 and 12 for AgNPs synthesized with extracts of C. africana, I. batatas and M. esculenta respectively, under un-optimized condition, and 13, 9 and 11 respectively, for optimized conditions. Conclusion: Leaf extracts of C. africana, I. batatas and M. esculenta can be used in synthesizing AgNPs, with marked antibacterial activities. Box Behnken design is useful for optimization of effects of process parameters.
, P. Prabha
Biotechnology Journal International pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230135

Abstract:
Cassava mosaic virus is one of the major problems affecting cassava industry in India. Currently there are no effective strategy to completely protect cassava from cassava mosaic viruses. In order to attain cassava mosaic virus resistance RNAi vectors targeting the replicase gene of Indian cassava mosaic virus is constructed in this study. Their efficiency to transform cassava immature leaf lobes were also studied here. Replicase gene of Indian cassava mosaic virus in Tamilnadu are cloned and sequenced. Conserved domains are identified and sub cloned to CSIRO RNAi vector system and transformation studies are done in immature cassava leaves. Two different RNAi vectors were constructed, utilizing a conserved 440bp of 5’ end of ICMV Rep (AC1) gene which also corresponds to a part of AC4 gene, and functions as a viral RNAi suppressor protein. The partial Rep gene of ICMV was cloned in sense and anti-sense orientations in the RNAi intermediate vector, pHANNIBAL. After cloning into pHANNIBAL, the cloned RNAi gene cassettes of ICMV is released and cloned into the binary vector, pART27, which contains the kanamycin-resistance gene as a plant selectable marker. In order to use hygromycin as a selection agent in cassava genetic transformation, RNAi–Rep gene cassettes of ICMV were cloned into pCAMBIA1305.2. These constructs were named pICR1 and pICR2 respectively. The Genetic transformation studies in cassava leaves done using pICR2 vector could generate PCR positive plants. An agrobacterium mediated replicase RNAi vector is developed and that can be transformed into cassava immature leaf lobes. Their efficiency to silence the Indian cassava mosaic virus should be studied further.
, A. A. Ngokere, Y. M. Tatfeng, S. I. Musa, I. A. Ibrahim, S. E. Itodo, A. B. Abdu
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230134

Abstract:
Background: The link between cervical lesions and human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 is well established, but the magnitude of the risk of association and the importance of other high-risk hpv types is uncertain in Bayelsa state. Aims: The study was aimed at detecting and typing of cervical hpv among selected subjects, establish the relationship between cervical dysplasia and hpv and also asses the level of knowledge of hpv, perception and attitude of women in Bayelsa State. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were used to assess the level of knowledge of hpv and cervical cancer. Papanicolaou stain for cervical cytology and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain used to study general tissue structure. Nested PCR was used to detect and multiplex PCR for typing. Results: The prevalence of hpv spectrum among participants was 52% while high risk hpv was 24%. Five (5) subtypes were identified. The subtypes identified were hpv 52(40.4%) most predominant, followed by 51(1.9%), 45(1.9%), 31(1.9%) and hpv 30 (9.6%). The age-specific prevalence showed a peak prevalence of 44.2% in the ages of 25-34 years and lowest in the age group (15-24years). Sequence alignment showed a single point mutation for hpv 45 and several points' mutation for hpv 52 at certain points of the sequenced nucleotides with Sequence no: 53CN12 and SeqH2011055303 and accession no: MG195999 and MG196000. HPV 52 was highest compared to previous studies, national and international. The level of knowledge on hpv infection and cancer of the cervix was low among subjects with a percentage score of 38.9%. Among other variables studied, life time sexual partners showed a statistically significant relationship in the prevalence of hpv (OR=0.02, P˂0.01). Perceived seriousness on hpv infection was high among hpv positive subjects compared with hpv negative participants ( =16.39, p ˂0.01). Conclusion: The emergence of hpv 52 in the study area requires public health attention and thus urgent need for local hpv vaccines production.
Armand Kouassi Kanga, , Bernard Téhi Sea, Jaures Oscar Gbotognon, Lucien Patrice Kouamé
Biotechnology Journal International pp 41-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130133

Abstract:
Polygalacturonases constitute the major part of pectinase preparations for many bioprocess purposes. Investigation on the digestive juice of snail Limicolaria flammea led to purification of two polygalacturonases named PG1 and PG2. Properties of these enzymes were examined to explore their potential in biotechnology applications. A three steps procedure including size exclusion, anion and cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography were used for purification. The enzymes PG1 and PG2 had native molecular weights of approximately 46 and 86 kDa, respectively and functioned both as monomeric structures. The purified polygalacturonases PG1 and PG2 showed optimum hydrolysis activities at 50°C in sodium acetate buffer pH 5.6. The common inhibitor of the two purified polygalacturonases activity were Mn2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, EDTA, SDS and L-cystein. NH3+ stimulate the polygalacturonase PG1 while Ba2+ was an activator for polygalacturonase PG2. Substrate specificity indicated that these enzymes hydrolyse a broad range of pectin from different sources. The highest activity of PG1 was observed with apple pectin and lemon pectin while PG2 showed its highest activity with orange pectin. The catalytic efficiency of PG1 was highest for lemon pectin (0.125 µmol/min/mL) and orange pectin (0.124 µmol/min/mL). PG2 displayed highest catalytic efficiency (0.325 µmol/min/mL) towards orange pectin. These results suggest that orange and lemon pectin would be the potential physiological substrates of the two purified enzymes.
Lucineide Teixeira Vieira, Márcia Pinheiro Da Silva, José Dobles Dias Dos Reis Júnior, Carlos Antônio Couto Lima,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 33-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130132

Abstract:
The use of medicinal plants reflects the reality of a part of human history. The Brazilian population with limited access to public health programs led to the development and conservation of ethnobotanical knowledge-rich information regarding medicinal plants. However, popular wisdom lacks systematization so that it can correctly use it. Herein we present the Piranhea trifoliata (family Picrondendraceae), an Amazonian plant with a wide variety of molecules with biological effects. The antimalarial effect was the dominant description observed in the studies used for this review, followed by antifungal and antioxidant actions. This review provides a synopsis of the recent literature exploring the extracts from P. trifoliata that could efficiently prevent pathologies associated with cellular maintenance mechanisms during malaria or fungal infection and oxidative stress.
, C. O. Adenipekun, S. T. Ogunbanwo, E. O. Akinbode
Biotechnology Journal International pp 23-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130131

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of two selected mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria. Study Design: An experimental and descriptive study was conducted using the fruit bodies of Ganoderma lucidum collected from the Botanical garden University of Ibadan and Pleurotus pulmonarius which was bought from a local store in Ibadan. Successive extraction was done on the mushrooms with four solvents of increasing polarity that is from the non-polar (N-hexane) to a more polar solvent(water).Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis were then carried out on the extract fractions. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria between May 2018 and February 2020. Methodology: The N-Hexane, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol and Aqueous extract fraction of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus pulmonarius were analyzed in different system, including DPPH, Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC). The various antioxidant activities were compared to the standard ascorbic acid. Phytochemical include: Phenol, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Saponins, Terpenoids Anthraquinones, and Cardiac glycosides were also analysed. Results: The Phytochemical screening result shows the presence of Phenol, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Saponins, Terpenoids Anthraquinones, and Cardiac glycosides. The quantitative phytochemical screening revealed that the Ethyl acetate fraction of Ganoderma lucidum recorded the highest percentage of Alkaloids (41.70±0.14%) while the Ethanolic fraction of Pleurotus pulmonarius has the lowest percentage of Tannins (0.10±0.24%). DPPH scavenging activity of the Ethanolic extract fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (at 200 µg/ml) was 94.96% higher than that of Pleurotus pulmonarius (22.39%). The extract fraction of all the mushrooms possesses significant TAC content with N-Hexane and Ethyl acetate fraction having the highest. The results of the DPPH, FRAP, and TAC assays indicate that both mushrooms examined showed significant antioxidant activities. Among these, Ganoderma lucidum extract seems to be more effective antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of theses mushrooms has significant importance as it greatly contribute to their nutraceutical properties thus enhancing their nutritive value. Cultivation and production of dietary supplements from Ganoderma lucidum is highly recommended. Conclusion: The Mushrooms species analyzed have demonstrated to be good sources of phytochemical and antioxidants hence it can be recommended to pharmaceutical industries for the manufacturing of drugs.
, Joseph Essien, Utibe Ofon, Solomon Shaibu, Emmanuel Dan
Biotechnology Journal International pp 14-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130130

Abstract:
Sludge samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Nigeria for characterization and evaluation for agricultural applications. Conventional and Molecular techniques were adopted for the isolation and identification of indigenous microorganisms and resulting isolates were characterized and identified by consulting Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology and subjected to further screenings to assess their biofertilizer potential using standard microbiological techniques. The viable cells obtained were enumerated and were found to be in the range of 1.03 ± 0.09 x103 cfu/g to 7.45 ± 0.78 x103 cfu/g for heterotrophic Bacteria and 1.63 ± 0.74 x103 cfu/g for fungal community. The Molecular analysis carried out revealed a rich assemblage of diverse species of microorganisms with Bacteria (99.40%) being the most dominant group, followed by Fungi (0.39%) and others (0.21%). Thirty (30) isolates belonging to four (4) Phyla was recovered culturally and identified with Firmicutes 9(30%) being the most dominant group, followed by Proteobacteria 8(26.7%) and Zygomycota 1(3.33%) was the least dominant. The phosphate solubilization index range from 0.86 to 6.3 for bacterial and 2.5 to 3.8 for fungal isolates respectively. The molecular analysis also revealed microbes adept at improving soil fertility to include those in the order Rhizobiales and Actinomycetales. Although pathogens are of a concern in the land application of sludge, our findings have revealed rich microbial consortia of heterotrophic microorganisms whose beneficial attributes can be harnessed to produce nutrient rich biofertilizer and soil amendment.
, Alain Heu, Abdou Nourou Kone Nsangou, Martial Douanla Ajebe, Godswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong, Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh, Zachée Ambang
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i130127

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of (aqueous (EAq) and methanolic (ME)) extracts of Thevetia peruviana on the in vitro development of Rigidoporus lignosus. Study Design: A synthetic fungicide (Onazol 100), two extracts at differents concentrations: C1 = 3.5 mg / ml; C2 = 7 mg / ml; C3 = 15 mg / ml; C4 = 30 mg / ml; C5 = 50 mg / ml and C6 = 100 mg / ml for EAq; C1 = 3.5 ml/ml; C2 = 7 ml/ml; C3 = 15 ml/ml; C4 = 30 ml/ml; C5 = 50 ml/ml for ME and a negative control (T = 0 mg / ml) were used. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in pathology laboratory at University of Yaounde I and IRAD of Nkolbisson in 2018. Methodology: Daily measurements of the pathogen's development was used to evaluate the average growth (D) of the mycelium. The inhibition percentages of the different doses of EAq, ME and ONAZOL 100 were calculated after 4 to 5 days of growth of the fungus. Results: The major result obtained compared to the rate of rot showed that the treatments EAq, ME (C6) and ONAZOL 100 were closed. The disease rates at different concentrations of C1 to C6 were 13.91 to 100% for ME, 9.34 to 100% for EAq, and 100% for ONAZOL 100. Conclusion: The two extracts are promising, and on small and medium scale, could be an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Rigidoporus lignosus.
, Euloge Rimson Somakpe, Serge Sètondji Houedjissin, Florent Engelmann, Corneille Ahanhanzo
Biotechnology Journal International pp 57-64; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630122

Abstract:
Aims: This study aims to identify the best surface sterilization and evaluate the effect of haustorium suppression on in vitro germination of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos. Study Design: Survival rate and contamination rate of zygotic embryos after different surface sterilization treatments, regeneration rate and organogenesis through the number of leaves and the length of shoots after haustorium suppression were determined. For data processing, the Analysis of Variance was used to compare the means which were separated according to Tukey test (P = 0.05). Place and Duration of Study: Coconut fruits (hybrid PB121) were collected 12 to 14 months after controlled pollination from CRAPP (Centre de Recherches Agricoles Plantes Pérennes), station of Sèmè-kpodji in Benin. Experiments were done in Central Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology and Plant Improvement, University of Abomey-Calavi and conducted from june to december in 2019. Methodology: For the zygotic embryos surface sterilization, four treatments combining three concentrations (3%, 6% and 15%) of commercial bleach (Javel la Croix© containing 12° active chlorine) and immersion durations (5 min, 10 min and 20 min) were tested and the survival rate were determined for each treatment after two months culture. The zygotic embryos were then divided in two sets (haustorium excised embryos set and the whole embryos set) and cultured in modified Y3 medium supplemented with 7 g L-1 agar, 2.5 g L-1 activated charcoal, 5% sucrose, 6.10-3 mM 2.4 D (2.4-dichlorophonoxyacetic acid), gibberellic acid and 0.3 mM BAP(6-benzylaminopurine). After five months culture, the regeneration rate, the number of leaves and the length of shouts were recorded. Results: The high survival rate (80%) was obtained with 6% of bleach and 20 min for the immersion duration without pre-disinfection. The suppression of haustorium have significantly increased the number of leaves (4.3 ± 0.02) and the length of shoots (16.2 ±0.7cm) compared to the whole zygotic embryos. Conclusion: This protocol can help to ensure better surface sterilization of zygotic embryos before their in vitro culture and the development of vigorous plantlets in order to improve the slow growth of plantlets, when transferred to the greenhouse or field.
Zuobing Yan, Yongli Li, , Yongan Zhang,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 75-85; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630124

Abstract:
Carposina sasakii is one of the most important pests on the quality of stone and pome fruits. Investigation of a gene expression level in the species is hampered because of the gap of validated reference genes. The expression variation in the transcription levels of eight candidate reference genes, Actin (ACT), Tubulinbeta-1 (TUB), Ribosomal protein 49 (RP49), Elongation factor1-alpha (EF-1a), Elongation factor1-b (EF-1b), Elongation factor1-d (EF-1d), Ribosomal proteinL13 (RPL13) and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The stability and ranking of these gene expression profiles in three organ types (head, thorax and abdomen), three developmental stages (larva, pupa and moth), and five diapause states (non-diapause, pre-diapause, diapause 0 d, diapause 20 d and diapause 60 d) were assessed using two algorithm-based methods, geNorm and NormFinder. EF-1a, ACT and GAPDH were evaluated to be the three stable reference genes based on the important observations and comprehensive analysis, whereas TUB and EF-1b showed low expression stability. Best gene combinations for different qPCR analysis in C. sasakii could be chosen from the three stable reference genes, the using of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize qPCR data in C. sasakii. The study laid the foundation for gene expression analysis in C. sasakii and provided new information for the selection of reference genes.
Esra Avci,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 65-74; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630123

Abstract:
Recombinant collagen and collagen-like products are increasingly replacing animal-sourced collagen that is difficult to produce in safe and standard quality. In this study to produce hydroxylated collagen, a 400 base pair collagen fragment of the bovine COL1A1 gene was co-expressed with prolyl-4-hydroxylase subunit α (P4Hα) and prolyl-4-hydroxylase subunit β(P4Hβ) encoding the P4H enzyme in Komagataella phaffii. For this purpose, each target gene was inserted into the pPICZαA vector and then cloned in E. coli DH5α cells. Subsequently, co-expression vectors were constructed using recombinant vectors isolated from positive clones according to the in vitro multimer ligation method. All recombinant expression and co-expression vectors were transformed into K. phaffii X33 cells by electroporation. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) proved that all target genes were transcribed by recombinant strains. The expression of recombinant proteins was performed for 96 hours by methanol-fed cultivation, and the concentration of the purified proteins from the culture medium was measured by the His-Tag enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of rP4Hα and rP4Hβ, and rCol1 proteins expressed individually by recombinant strains were determined to be 10.69 µg/L, 10.74 µg/L, and 8.61 µg/L, respectively, while the concentrations of co-expressed rP4Hα/β and rP4Hα/β/rCol1 proteins were 7.82 µg/L and 5.02 µg/L, respectively. These results showed that the target genes were successfully expressed and co-expressed in the recombinant K. phaffii cell.
Gaurav Singh, Garima Dukariya,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 86-98; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630125

Abstract:
The crops belonging to the family Leguminosae are the second to cereal crops of agricultural significance due to their high nutritional value. Soybean is native to East Asia and was originated in China while common bean is native to Central and Southern America originated in Peru. Both soybean and common bean are erect, bushy annual herbaceous plants growing up to 150 and 40 centimeters in height, respectively. They have enormous food and medicinal values. Soybean and common bean are important leguminous crops which are excellent source of high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fats, and other nutrients for both human and other animal feeds. Soybean is beneficial for weight loss, diabetics as dietary supplements, bone loss in women and minimizing cancer risks while common bean is useful for preventing constipation, lowering cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of heart diseases. Pests, pathogens and weeds cause harmful effect resulting in low production of both the legume crops. The present review focuses on the overview, different importance and diseases of soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In addition, attention has been paid on various aspects of these two legumes namely taxonomy, morphological features, origin and distribution along with their pests and diseases.
Kazi Mahmuda Akter, Tanjum Tushi, Sabrina Jahan Mily, Rashenda Aziz Mohona, Samin Anis, Adittya Kishor Chakraborty, Elmee Tabassum, Tahmid Ul Islam, Ozifatun Jannat Akhi, Israt Sultana Nishe, et al.
Biotechnology Journal International pp 43-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630121

Abstract:
Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a type of coronavirus shows bizarre features with fatality rates at 34.4%. The clinical and non-clinical features of COVID-19 might be causative factors for more rapid community spreading compared to MERS and SARS-CoV-1. Objectives: To study the efficacy of RT-PCR based detection of SARS-CoV-2 patients. Besides, the patients' pre and post-infection health conditions depending on selective clinical and nonclinical parameters were analyzed. Materials and Methods: Clinical and non- clinical data were collected from 205 randomly selected COVID-19 patients, identified through RT-PCR from different areas of Bangladesh. The data were analyzed using statistical and analytical tools to illustrate the impact of the pandemic situation on the sufferers. Results: Molecular identification of the patients through RT-PCR has been observed as the most efficient option for detecting SARS-CoV-2 patients. Patients with the smoking habit have been reported to be more prone to the COVID-19 infection; surprisingly the non-smoker female was the worse suffers. The patients aged 60-69 years were the worst sufferers with every adverse health conditions mentioned. Professionally, 28% self-employed male and 8.19% female were infected. The most infected individuals were house wife (32.029%), as next to the health care workers (22.1%). With the increased age group, a decreased number of smokers were found. Nebulization of 5% home and 12% hospital treated patients were provided, with Oxygen for 26% of hospitalized patients. After recovery, combined physical and psychological complications were observed in 19% of male and 11% female. The socioeconomic, environmental and geographical annotations exposed a clear relationship with the rate of infection as revealed from the nonclinical data analysis. Conclusion: RT-PCR proved its specialty in COVID-19 detection. In addition, impacts of different clinical and nonclinical factors on the physical conditions of the nCoV patients were found significant in the research.
Yuan Yun- Ning, Wang Lin- Yu, Chen Hao,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630120

Abstract:
The photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Rorippa amphilia and Rorippa sylvestris were studied by pot experiment under Cd stress, and 7 Cd treatments were 0, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200(mg·kg-1)respectively. The results showed that, (1) The Chla, chlb, and Ch(la+b) changed little when the Cd concentration in the soil was less than 100 mg·kg-1. There was no significant difference among the treatments. When Cd concentration was more than or equal to 100 mg·kg-1, all indexes decreased significantly, Chla/b increased gradually with the increase of Cd stressful concentration; (2) Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) first increased and then decreased with the increase of Cd stressful concentration, while intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci) increased significantly; (3) The photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and electron transfer rate (ETR) decreased gradually with the increase of Cd stressful concentration, while the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) increased with the increase of Cd stress concentration. It indicated that the photosynthetic mechanism of leaves was damaged; the maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and potential activity (Fv/Fo) of PSII decreased gradually with the increase of Cd stress concentration. When Cd concentration was more than 50 mg·kg-1, the decrease was very obvious, showing photoinhibition. The concentration of Cd below 50 mg·kg-1 had little effect on photosynthesis. These results provide a theoretical application by using these two species of Rorippa to ecological restore the Cd contaminated farmland and abandoned mines.
Klenicy Kazumy De Lima Yamaguchi,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 9-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630119

Abstract:
The Amazon forest has the largest biome on the planet, and it is estimated that only 16 to 20% of the identified animal, and plant biodiversity. Considering plant diversity, we will highlight the biological properties of the fruits extracts of Arecaceae, Caryocaraceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae, and Solanaceae’s families due to their significant biological actions. This review presents the antioxidant, glycemic control, and neuroprotective activities from ten fruit extracts distributed in six botanical families in the Amazon region. We obtained 801 publications (described from 2010 to 2020), of which 64 articles were selected by the benchmark previously chosen. The antioxidant effect was the dominant effect observed in the studies used for this review, followed by glycemic control and protective actions in neurons. This review provides a synopsis of the recent literature exploring the extracts from native fruits to the Amazon region that could efficiently prevent pathologies associated with oxidative stress, and cellular maintenance mechanisms.
D. Momoh, C. L. Eze,
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i630118

Abstract:
Pesticides are toxic substance used to reduce or kill pests but the deposits on soil environment can remain there for long period of time causing adverse effects on soil microorganisms which are responsible for soil health conditions. This study was carried out to determine the impact of pesticide drifts on soil microorganisms in a waste receptacle around Port Harcourt city. Soil samples were obtained from various depths around waste receptacles with hand auger using standard analytical procedures. Microbial analysis was done according to prescribed standard methods. Characterization and identification of the isolates were based on their cultural, morphological, and cellular characteristics. Results obtained showed that the bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas sp and Micrococcus sp while fungal isolates include Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Fusarium siculi, and Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulas, Microsporium canis and Yeast. The results of the microbial counts revealed that Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) had 2.08 ×109 cfu/g at a depth of 30-45 cm while Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF) had 6.0×106 cfu/g before application with a mean value of 1.02×109 and 2.8 × 106 cfu/g respectively while after application THB had 4.1 × 108 and 4.6 × 108 cfu/g for 0-15 and 30-45 cm respectively while the THF recorded 1.0 × 106 and 0.6 × 106 cfu/g for 0-15 cm and 30-45 cm respectively. However there was a drastic decrease in the number of microbes in the soils after pesticide application especially at the surface soil depth of 0-15 cm. This shows that the pesticides application affected microbial population by reducing their numbers in the soil and this may in turn affect soil health and physiological status of their habitat. It is therefore recommended that proper surveillance during pesticide application should be considered to avoid drift to non-target organisms and that concentrations of pesticides to be used should be taken into account to avoid reduction in the number of microorganisms in soils because of the vital roles they play in maintaining soil health.
A. A. Yarima, S. M. Sambo, M. D. Kwairanga, K. N. Sharbat, Z. Arifullah, A. Y. Fardami
Biotechnology Journal International; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530117

Abstract:
Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyses a reaction to produce a visible light using an oxidative process, a chemical reaction that is typically referred to as bioluminescent. Insects, bacterial origin or microorganism of marine nature were considered as the mainly sources of discovered luciferase. The protein was commercialized for biomedical and biotechnological use as reporter gene. The first discovered wild form of luciferase originally from Photinu spyralis (firefly). Hence, there is need for both exploration and examination of novel luciferase to be expanded to new sources such as fungal which may likely be exploited to serve commercial purposes and applications. In this study, a novel uncharacterized luciferase protein from a fungal species Verticillium longisporum, was modelled and analysed using bioinformatic tools. The modelled 3D structure is of high quality with a PROCHECK score of 99.5%, ERRAT2 value of 91.01%, and Verify3D score of91.01%, showing that the conformational structure is acceptable. The result showed that the fungal luciferase enzyme share major characteristics with luciferase representative from various fungal and bacterial species. There is only a slight difference in the two nucleotide bindings in V. longisporum with a D/E substitution of D with E and S/T substitution. The difference of the two nucleotides binding from the two proteins may be related to the evolutionary trends. Other differences include increased number of hydrophobic and polar amino acid groups than aromatic and aliphatic ones, as well as more coils and loops with less strands. The distance between the ligand and the binding site that houses Asp 64 and Thr 110 from template proteins (Riboflavin lyaseRcaE) and Asp 543 and Thr 589 from model luciferase is similar. The only difference occurred in the V. longisporum; protein oxidoreductase activities acts on paired donors, incorporate or reduce molecular oxygen, while in the template protein oxidoreductase activities act on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen. This study on fungal sourced luciferase present a unique opportunity away from the more well established bacterial and insect based luciferase.
Qiuli Wang, Bo Qu, Juanjuan Mi, Yufeng Xu, Meini Shao
Biotechnology Journal International pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530116

Abstract:
Aims: By studying the response of seed germination and seedling growth of invasive plants, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, to temperature, the influence of temperature on the invasive ability of two species of Rorippa were further analyzed, which provided a theoretical basis for revealing the diffusion and invasion mechanism of two invasive plants in Rorippa. Study Design: Seed germination and seedling growth test of two invasive plants in Rorippa at different temperature was studied by means of laboratory culture. The germination percentage, germination index, germination potential of the seeds and the total leaf number, root length, lateral root number, biomass and root shoot ratio of seedlings were determined. Place and Duration of Study: Seeds were collected from the Shenyang Agricultural University of Liaoning Province in July 2018. Experiments were done in the College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, and conducted in April 2019 for a month. Methodology: The petri dish method was used at the experiment of seed germination. The seedling growth experiment was carried out by pot sowing. Results: At the seedling stage.R. amphibia has the strongest tolerance at 30°C, while the R. sylvestris does at 35°C. The low temperature is more beneficial to the accumulations of the seedlings, R. amphibia is the most tolerant at 25°C, and R. sylvestris is at 30°C at the seedling stage. Conclusion: The response of the seeds and seedlings of the two species to temperature was basically the same. Higher temperature promoted seed germination and inhibited seedling growth, while lower temperature inhibited seed germination. The response of seeds and seedlings of R. sylvestris to high temperature makes it more invasive in the process of global warming.
Shreya Shah, Anil Kumar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 22-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530115

Abstract:
Since ancient times, coffee has been one of the widely consumed beverages all over the world. It is renowned for its refreshing, body stimulating effect and unique taste. It belongs to the genus Coffea, class Dicotyledoneae, order Rubiales and family Rubiaceae. Coffee is a natural complex chemical mixture constituted of several compounds. It is accountable for numerous bioactivities and a number of compounds exhibit these effects. Some of the significant bioactivities documented are anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity properties. The varying constituents of coffee responsible for the chemo-protective effects are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, diterpenoid alcohols such as kahweol, cafestol and other phenolics. Coffee has been reported to exhibit both protective and adverse effects on various body systems such as skeletal (bone), reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular systems; homocysteine and cholesterol levels and so on. The present review provides an overview of the coffee and its constituents; and their relationship with various diseases. Recent investigations on its health benefits, with focus on their anti-cancer, anti-obesity properties and effect on cardiovascular diseases have also been discussed.
Prashant N. Kolhe, Mrunalini D. Varne, Sumit N. Deshmukh, Sanjay N. Harke, Sopan G. Wagh
Biotechnology Journal International pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530114

Abstract:
Coriander is one of the most widely used herb. Coriander generally grown for leaf and grain purpose throughout the world. Induction of mutation is considered to be effective in improving various characteristics in plants like seed germination, plant vigour, yield etc. In present study we used three different chemical mutagens Colchicine, Sodium azide (SA) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) on four different varieties of coriander (Green wonder, Cross-91, Mrudul and Surabhi). The study was performed by exposing the seeds of four varieties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) to Colchicine (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%), Sodium azide (SA) at (0.1%,0.2%,0.3% and 0.4%) and Methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) at (0.01%,0.02%,0.03% and 0.04%) respectively. The observations were made on seed germination in field and laboratory conditions and the observations on seedling height, number of primary branches and leaves were made in field conditions. All the mutagens significantly affect the germination and seedling growth. The study revealed that germination percentage, plant height, no. of primary branches and leaves decreased with increase in dose/concentration of mutagen. Among three different chemical mutagen we observed that colchicine is better mutagen for induction of mutagen after that sodium azide (SA) had good results for seed treatment. Some of the concentrations of methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) (0.01% & 0.02%) were better. Among all four varieties of coriander Cross-91 gave better result after that Mrudul and Surabhi respond well to some concentrations. We categories the effectiveness of mutagen to induce mutation in coriander as MMS>SA>Colchicine.
Bruno Henrique Gomes, Fabrícia De Matos Oliveira, Ana Paula Oliveira Nogueira, Robson Jose De Oliveira Júnior
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i530113

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this paper is to develop an in vitro organogenesis and callogenesis protocol for Carolina Reaper pepper, and to determine the karyotype and nucleoli of this cultivar. Methodology: The MS medium with supplemented with indole-3-butyric (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) and kinetin (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1) was used. The leaves and nodal segments of Carolina reaper was utilized for the callogenesis and organogenesis induction. The responses to growth regulators were evaluated 30 days of cultivation. The meristematic tissue was pre-treated with 0.05% (w/v) of colchicine for six hours at 18°C. The samples were fixed in Carnoy for 12 hours. Chromosomal observations were made with binocular optical microscope (Leica DM 750) and the cells in good condition for counting the chromosomes and karyotype assembly were photographed. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and were compared by the two-way Analysis of Variance. The means were separated according to Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: Calli were induced from both leaf and stem segments when indole-3-butyric 0 mg L-1 + kinetin 1 mg L-1 were used. Development of shoots in leaf and stem segment were obtained when indole-3-butyric 2 mg L-1 + kinetin 4 mg L-1 were used, and roots regenerated with indole-3-butyric 4 mg L-1 + kinetin 1 mg L-1. It was found two nucleoli in every cell interphase, suggesting that two nucleolar organizer regions are expressing their ribosomal genes. Karyotype analysis indicated a chromosome number of 2n = 24, which is correlation with other Capsicum genus varieties. It was observed 1 or 2 nucleoli per nucleus of both types, homomorphic and heteromorphic. The results can help in programs of breeding and conservation of this cultivar and other species of pepper. Conclusion: Using the concentrations of growth hormones indicated in the present report, it could be possible to regenerate leaves and nodal segments in vitro clones from the original genotype. We have also described the chromosome number and nucleolus number of Carolina reaper, generating a data that could help in programs of breeding, as in the generation of polyploid plants and conservation species of pepper.
R. Bharathesree, R. Saravanan, M. Jeyakumar, N. Murali
Biotechnology Journal International pp 40-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i430112

Abstract:
The current study investigates the polymorphic patterns of keratin-associated protein (KAP) 3.2 gene in Sandyno breed of sheep. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 51 numbers of Sandyno breed. Ovine specific primer associated PCR amplification of KAP 3.2 gene revealed product at 393 bp and genotyped by PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) method and visualized under silver staining technique. KAP 3.2 gene locus revealed 3 genotypes, viz. AA, AB and BB with a frequency of 0.84, 0.16 and 0 in Sandyno breed with allele frequencies of A(0.92) and B(0.08). Regarding population genetic indices, the effective number of alleles (Ne) for KAP 3.2 in Sandyno breed of sheep was found to be 1.1716. The PIC values was 0.1356 and FIS values was negative (– 0.0864) in this breed. The result revealed that the selected population of Sandyno breed of sheep was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without any significant deviation from the population mean and was monomorphic for KAP 3.2 gene.
Poornima Raj, J. Anbumalarmathi, S. Aruna Sharmili
Biotechnology Journal International pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i430111

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted for standardization of in vitro propagation technique of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a medicinal herb of India. Healthy leaf segments of the herb were used as explants with basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing various combinations of different growth regulators for callus, shoot and root initiation. The best callus induction percentage (95.47%) was observed on MS + 0.5 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BAP (T3). The maximum number of shoots (8), shoot length (9.30 cm) and shoot induction percentage (90.48%) was achieved on MS + 3.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L Kn (ST4). The maximum number of roots (8) and root length (7) was observed on MS + 1.5 mg/L IAA (RT5). The rooted micro shoots were successfully hardened and acclimatized in green house and subsequently established in soil with survival rate of 90%.
E. O. Garuba, A. A. Onilude
Biotechnology Journal International pp 21-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i430110

Abstract:
In this study, spores of inulinase-producing thermophilic Aspergillus tamarii were subjected to UV mutagenesis, and colonies obtained were screened for inulinase production on inulin-glucose agar. The thermal stability of the inulinase was also investigated. A mutant strain U4 was found to produce 2.8 times inulinase titre (62.1U/mL) as against the wild strain (22.2U/mL). Inulinase production by this U4 strain was also found not to be significantly (P≤0.05) affected by the presence of glucose. The inulinase produced retained 64% of its activity after incubation at 65ºC for three hours. Solid-state fermentation for inulinase production by the strain U4 showed that wheat bran supported the highest inulinase titre 218.3U/gds while banana peels supported the lowest inulinase production titre of 80.5U/gds. Further optimization of cultural parameters revealed that incubation time of 5 days, 60% initial moisture content of the substrate, 2% inoculum density 2%, temperature 55ºC and pH 4.5 were optimal for inulinase production. Under optimized conditions, inulinase titre of 426.6 U/gds was observed. The pattern of inulin hydrolysis by the inulinase revealed the presence of monosaccharide as the main product of hydrolysis. Inulinase production at elevated temperatures by the mutant Aspergillus tamarii-U4 and its catabolite resistant properties showed that the organism is a potential industrial candidate for the production of exo-acting inulinases.
Boli Zamblé Bi Irié Abel, Bouatenin Koffi Maïzan Jean-Paul, Kouamé Kouhi Alfred, Coulibaly Wahauwouele Hermann, Kakou Abodjo Celah, Rose Koffi- Nevry, Dje Koffi Marcellin
Biotechnology Journal International pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i430108

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the different methods of preparing the traditional cassava starters used for attiéké production in Côte d'Ivoire, allowed the recounting of five different production methods. Study Design: Sampling of cassava starters were collected from attiéké producers de four areas of south of Côte d’Ivoire. The cassava starters obtained with the braised cassava were collected from attiéké women producers of Grand-Lahou, those obtained directly from fresh cassava were collected from attiéké producers in the region of Bonoua, and those obtained with the cassava cooked at water were collected from attiéké women producers of Abidjan and Jacqueville. Place and Duration of Study: University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (between March 2018 and June 2019). Methodology: Traditional cassava starters are produced with the bitter or sweet variety of cassava, either freshly preserved without cooking until fermented, boiled in boiling water or braised over a wood fire. Conclusion: This study highlighted five methods of preparing traditional cassava starters used in Côte d'Ivoire for the preparation of attiéké, a food derived from cassava. This is the starters from fresh preserved uncooked cassava that derived from fresh braised cassava and those (three) from fresh cassava cooked with boiling water either with the casing or without the casing after cooking and without the shell during cooking.
Shreya Shah, Fatema Matkawala, Sarika Garg, Sadhana Nighojkar, Anand Nighojkar, Anil Kumar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i430107

Abstract:
Bio-plastics are either bio-based polymers or capable of degradation into simple compounds. The rising development in the production and use of bio-plastics has globally revolutionized the dependency on traditional plastics. The conventional plastics prepared from petroleum, coal and natural gas have been extensively used by humans since antiquity as a prime component of almost all the materials used in day to day life. Since, these plastics are non-biodegradable; they cause serious impact on the environment. Recent years have witnessed the introduction of a wide variety of bio-plastics derived from natural polymers such as starch, cellulose, chitin etc. These bio-plastics are now being utilised in packaging materials, electronics, medical devices; holding immense potential for utility in future. This mini-review confers about types of bio-plastics, their utility in different sectors and their future prospective.
Oluwole Oluwatoyin Oniya, Ebenezer Olujimi Dada, Ibrahim Adewale Adekunle, Akeem Olanrewaju Arinko, Taofeeq Olalekan Salawudeen
Biotechnology Journal International pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i330106

Abstract:
Modification of clays and clay minerals by using chemical reagents is receiving research attention due to the use of clay in various industrial applications where it may be utilized as adsorbent and catalyst carriers among others. The employed synthetic chemicals, however, unavoidably result in high costs and generate negative impact within the environment. The option to replace the synthetic compounds with non-synthetic materials to cut down cost and to reduce environmental impact has not been properly explored. In this study, the effect of KOH extracted from plantain peel obtained locally on clay modification was investigated. A varying concentration of the extracted KOH was used to treat the clay obtained at Asa River valley in Kwara State in Nigeria. Characterization of the modified clay samples was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Florescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The micro structural images of the modified clays clearly showed the effect of KOH concentrations on porosity enhancement in the selected samples. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the Kaolin showed a high silica and aluminum content while an appreciable increase in K2O was also observed in the modified clay compared to the raw Kaolin. The FTIR spectra of the modified clay showed the formation of some functional groups (O-H, C-H, C=C, C-O, Al-O-Si,) within the band range of 500 to 4000 cm-1. It can be concluded that the clay treated with alkali obtained from green source can effectively replace those produced via conventional methods which involve the use of synthetic materials.
U. S. Anukam, J. N. Ogbulie, C. Akujuobi, W. Braide
Biotechnology Journal International pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i330104

Abstract:
Bacteria strain capable of degrading lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were isolated from wood Feeding termite gut using spread plate technique. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodology was adopted in the identification of the isolate. The isolate’s Morganella morganii (strain S4L2C (MH745964) were found to have a high lignin degradation potential. The organism was able to reduce the lignin content of rice straw from 17.43% to 7.29% after 30 days of pretreatment with 53.27% reduction of the lignin content. This study revealed that termite’s gut bacteria are Potential sources of lignocellulose degrading bacteria for the biological conversion of biomass to biogas production.
Annu Yadav, Jitender Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Shivani Khanna, Anil Sirohi
Biotechnology Journal International pp 24-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i330105

Abstract:
Plants during their growth, experience periodic stress conditions both abiotic (adverse environmental conditions) as well as biotic (infection by pathogens). They appear to respond to these adverse conditions by modulating the expression of many genes. One of the pronounced effects of stress on plant is the enhanced synthesis of a set of proteins-termed ' stress proteins'. Lentil contains asset of genes/proteins which helps this crop to overcome abiotic stresses. In the present study, HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein), LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) and Aldolase genes were identified and cloned in pTZ57RT vector followed by sequencing. Expression analysis was done through Q-PCR which was assessed by using cDNA from all the heat, drought and salinity stressed and unstressed lentil cotyledons. The highest level of transcript of HSP70 was realized upon exposure to heat at 45°C for 3 hour followed by at 45°C for 2 hour and lowest at 40°C for 1hour. LEA gene was identified under drought and salinity stress and highest transcript was at 20% PEG for 3 hour (drought stress) and in salinity stress highest transcript was at 150 mm for 6 hour. For Aldolase gene highest transcript was recorded after 3, 6 and 12 hr at 100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM of salinity stress respectively. From these studies it can be concluded that heat shock protein gene, LEA, and aldolase present in lentil which can be exploited in overcoming the abiotic stresses for obtaining the higher productivity in crop plants through genetic engineering.
Kağan Tolga Cinisli, Ela Akin, Neslihan Dikbaş
Biotechnology Journal International pp 15-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i330103

Abstract:
Despite climate change scenarios, new research on improving yield and quality in agricultural production is extremely important. The use of nanomaterials and plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been of interest to researchers in recent years. In the future, the creation of new nano-biotechnological products by using nanomaterials together with bacteria will be more advantageous than conventional methods. Thus, the number of fertilizers applied on farmland will be reduced and maximum efficiency will be achieved with minimum input. The number of chemical inputs applied to agricultural areas will be reduced and effective protection against various plant stress factors will be provided. By producing Nano-bio-active. It is expected to increase mineral availability in farmland according to chemical formulations. The results obtained are certain to provide an effective benefit to the agricultural area and nature. Also, nano-biotechnological methods with new research potential are important for serving scientific researchers.
, Daniel Antwi-Berko
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i330102

Abstract:
Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered as an important staple crop in the tropical regions. However, the productivity of this useful crop is hindered by drought which contributes to significant yield reduction. The present study aimed to decipher the effects of drought stress on physiological, biochemical and gene expression changes in sorghum genotypes and to ascertain the differences in their response to drought stress. To achieve these objectives, six sorghum genotypes were grown in pot culture in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design and exposed to water stress treatment for 10 days. From the study, drought stress caused a significant (P < .05) reduction in plant height, leaf water and chlorophyll contents while the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar, electrolyte leakage (EL), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly (P < .05) and differentially in all sorghum genotypes. Among the genotypes investigated, PI 585456 showed enhanced performance and was considered as the most tolerant to drought in relation to plant growth and water relation, membrane status, photosynthetic activity, ROS and osmolytes accumulation and antioxidant enzymes activity. Furthermore, the transcript expression analyses of different categories of drought-responsive genes, viz; antioxidant-related, osmolytes biosynthesis-related, dehydrin-related, photosystem-related and transcription-related were differentially upregulated in sorghum genotypes investigated. The results revealed the differences in metabolic response to drought among the genotypes, which accentuated the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanism related to a specific response that may play a vital role in drought tolerance in sorghum.
Abimbola Olajide, Felicia C. Adesina, Abiodun A. Onilude
Biotechnology Journal International pp 35-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i230101

Abstract:
Aim: The study aimed at producing and purifying thermostable and alkalitolerant microbial arabinofuranosidase using local Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) as substrate. Study Design: This is an experimental design in which samples were collected thrice and subjected to laboratory analyses from which quantitative data were obtained and analysed. Place and Duration of Study: Ibadan, Nigeria, Five months. Methodology: Bacterial strains were isolated from degrading PKC by serial dilution and pour plate technique on formulated Modified Basal Salt Agar Medium and incubated at 50°C for enzyme activity screening. Plates were afterwards flooded with 1% congo red solution for visualization of hydrolysis zone. Its arabinofuranosidase activity was optimized in solid state fermentation in PKC. Production temperature, pH, moisture content, inoculum size and agitation were studied for optimization test. Optimal production temperature and pH for arabinofuranosidase by isolate was 45°C and pH 9. Produced arabinofuranosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity with ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and column chromatography techniques. Stability of arabinofuranofuranosidase obtained to temperature, pH, substrate concentration and some ions was determined as well as its molecular weight using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results: Isolate with highest arabinofuranosidase activity was selected and identified as Streptomyces lividus. Purity level attained was 16.36 fold. Enzyme had a specific activity of 25.4 U/mg, and total enzyme activity of 13.2 U. Molecular weight of enzyme appeared as a band of 30 kDa. Purified arabinofuranosidase enzyme revealed optimum temperature and pH as 60oC and 9 respectively. Enzyme was stable over a broad pH range of 3-11, and temperature of 30-80oC. Residual activity after incubating for 1 hour at 70oC was 64%. Enzyme kinetics studies showed Km and Vmax values for P-nitrophenyl arabinofuranoside were 2.3mM and 0.7U/min respectively. Conclusion: Apart from Solid State Fermentation (SSF) of PKC being a potential fermentation technique for production of arabinofuranosidase by Streptomyces lividus, the enzyme was highly stable.
Gurbax Singh, AmanPreet Singh, Jagjot Singh
Biotechnology Journal International pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i230100

Abstract:
A study was conducted to determine the effect of tuber size and intra row spacing on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and subsequent growth in the 2017 production season. The experiment was laid out in a 3x4 combination arranged in a split-plot design with three replications (three levels of tuber size: 20-30 mm, 30-40 mm and 40-50 mm and four levels of intra row spacing's: 8, 12, 16 and 20 cm). For the optimum emergence and successful growth of potato tubers for processable yield, a size of 40-50 mm and spacing of 20 cm between plants, respectively were identified as the best treatments to be used in the study area.
Priyanka Sharma, Bidhan Roy
Biotechnology Journal International pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2020/v24i230099

Abstract:
Biotechnological tools are useful for true-to-type propagation. Shoot tips encapsulation is potential for plant development from pre-existing meristematic tissue. MS medium fortified with 1 and 2 mg/L of BAP (6-bezylaminopurine) was found to be suitable for in vitro mass-multiplication of plantlets (10.18 and 13.05 plantlets/explant, respectively) of Citrus jambhiri from nodal segments. Nodal segments were more appropriate than the shoot tips for in vitro multiplication of plantlets. Synthetic seeds were prepared using 2.5% sodium alginate dropping into 3.0% CaCl2 solution. Maximum germination was recorded when beaded shoot tips were cultured on MS medium fortified with 1 and 2 mg/L of BAP (96.67 and 100.00%, respectively). However, the germination of synthetic seeds was found to be comparatively high than the earlier findings. The results support the use of encapsulated unipolar explants for synthetic seed preparation. These type of capsules could be useful in exchange of sterile material between laboratories, germplasm conservation and direct plant propagation.
Page of 5
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top