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Results in Journal Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology: 309

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, Mustapha Aliyu, Usman O. Alalu, Taiwo Hassan Abdulrasheed
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430255

Abstract:
Urban Growth and its Impact on Urban land cover change in Akure South Local Government area was investigated to bridge the knowledge gap created by data deficiency on the nature, scope, and magnitude of urban threat on the land use/land cover type, most especially the agricultural land in the area. This was done through the analysis of Landsat images of three epochs from 2000 through 2010 to 2020. The processing of the satellite images was done in ArcGIS 10.8, while the analysis and 2030 projection were done in Microsoft office excel using the result from the analysis. QGIS was used to remove the scan lines error on the 2010 image. The result showed increasing urban growth (built-up area), reducing vegetation and farmlands, and increasing rock outcrops. The changes vary among the different classification characteristics. Both farmlands and vegetation increased in the first epoch and reduced in the second epoch due to man's urbanization and other socio-economic activities. The increasing change in the second epoch was higher in built-up areas while rock outcrops increased throughout the study period. The research was able to assess the magnitude of farmland and vegetation that have been converted for urban uses over time. It also proved the efficiency of Remote Sensing and GIS technology in urban growth studies.
, John M. Onyari, Nzioka J. Muthama
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430253

Abstract:
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining imparts on economic development more significantly in developing countries, but it is also responsible for serious environmental deterioration and human health concerns. Despite, the robust environmental legislations focused at mitigating the pernicious environmental and human health effects, little attention has been given to integration of environmental sustainability concepts into these regulations. This paper aims at addressing this gap by utilizing a systematic literature review methodology to analyze regulatory gaps and identify areas for improvement for integration of sustainable development. This study employed a systematic review designed to identify published scholarly studies on artisanal gold mining regulations for their effectiveness on environmental sustainability in the ASGM sector. A total of 159 papers were retrieved from the selected databases, 41 passed the inclusion criteria after a conscientious data analysis forming the evidence synthesis. After a rigorous data analysis, we find that the existing literature on ASGM regulations, largely do not systematically integrate critical issues of environmental sustainability. We found that, the regulations have concentrated on effects of chemicals such as mercury and cyanide mining technologies to minimize pollution and environmental assessments, while at the same time failing to address regulatory components of social issues, lack environmental incentives for the poor miners to improve production, lack of alternative technologies, lack of social securities, economic incentives and relevant trainings and awareness creation on health and safety which will continue to motivate unsustainable operations. It is thus strongly proposed that environmental sustainability concepts should be systematically and simultaneously integrated into ASGM regulations and policies in order to promote community livelihoods while protecting the environment from its rudimentary activities. The existing literature on ASGM regulations is unsystematic and inconsistent with most of it failing to fully address environmental sustainability challenges
T. A. Balogun, M. O. Adamu, T. Alaga, J. E. Adewoyin, S. A. Ajisafe, S. Nuhu
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 17-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i430254

Abstract:
Flood is a natural event that cause varying degree of losses despite initiatives to mitigate its impact. As the drive to retore normalcy in flood riddle areas increases, concerns about the vulnerability of areas in relation to households’ responses to flood has emerged. This study therefore, identified areas vulnerable to flood; elicit households’ sociodemographic attributes and examine their level of preparedness to flood in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. A GIS-based approach was adopted along with 121 well-structured questionnaires administered to the respondents. A multi-criteria analysis (that considers slope, rainfall, soil type, DEM and NDVI was adopted), descriptive statistic and binary logistic model was used to achieve the objectives. The results from the vulnerability map revealed varying vulnerability status across Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. In addition, the sociodemographic statistics revealed important variables that influences household decision to prepare for flood. It was also known that factors that drive households to prepare for flood vary across households in Ogunpa and Oni River Basin. The study recommends enlightenment campaign on proper refuse disposal, strengthening of environmental regulatory agency, adoption of participatory approach in the buildup of environmental policy and increasing the level of awareness on the need for insurance policy that covers household against disaster such as flood.
Anowarul Islam
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330251

Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to explore the major impacts of salinity intrusion on coastal agriculture and farmer’s livelihoods in Bangladesh. The study has attempted to identify some effective measures for the sustainability of coastal agriculture. The study was conducted based on both primary and secondary data during 2010-2020. To collect primary data, a total of 150 respondents out of 240 households were randomly interviewed and samples are drawn proportionately from study sites. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been done to analyze data. The ArcGIS mapping tool was adopted to represent the spatio-temporal change of saline area. It reveals that due to high salinity intrusion the coastal agriculture has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in increasing rate of salinity, loss in cultivable land and production. Shrimp farming with brackish water and tidal inundation are explored as the main causes for salinity intrusion. In study sites, the level of salinity in 2020 is much stronger than in 2010. It reveals that due to strong salinity in agricultural land the farmer's are suffering from low income, unemployment, scarcity in irrigation and freshwater. It was identified that the planned shrimp culture, management of the embankment, cultivation of saline tolerant crops and raising public awareness will be the possible measures to control the intrusion of salinity. Therefore, it is expected that the evaluation of the revealed impacts of salinity intrusions and the explored measures will be effective to ensure the sustainability of coastal agriculture in Bangladesh.
, M. W. Mucheru-Muna, J. N. Mugwe, K. F. Ngetich, M. N. Kiboi, D. N. Mugendi
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 40-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330250

Abstract:
In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), acidic soil covers 29% of the total area. About 13% of the Kenyan total land area has acidic soils, widely distributed in croplands of the central and western Kenyan regions. The high soil acidity, coupled with soil nutrient depletion, negatively affects crop productivity in the region. We conducted an on-farm experiment to determine the effect of lime, manure, and phosphatic fertilizer application, either solely or combined, on soil chemical properties, maize yield, and profitability in acidic soils of Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The treatments were different rates of manure, lime, and P fertilizer. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design replicated ten times in farmer’s fields. Soil sampling was done at a depth of 0-20 cm prior to the start of the experiment, after crop harvest of SR2016 and LR2017 seasons. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory following standard methods. Results showed that lime significantly increased soil pH by 10.6% during the SR2016 and by 17.7% during the LR2017. Similarly, treatments with lime reduced exchangeable acidity and increased soil available P. Treatments with inorganic fertilizers had significantly higher maize grain yield in comparison with treatments with the sole application of lime, manure, and lime + manure. Lime + fertilizer + manure treatment gave the highest average maize grain yield (5.1 t ha−1), while control gave the lowest (1.5 t ha−1) during the LR2017 season. Economic returns were low due to the prevailing low rainfall experienced during the study period during the SR2016 season. Lime combined with inorganic fertilizer treatment recorded the highest returns (128.75 USD ha-1) followed by sole inorganic fertilizer (105.94 USD ha-1) during the LR2017 season. The study recommends a combination of both lime and inorganic fertilizer for enhanced maize production and profitability in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.
J. C. Ozougwu, G. U. Amana, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Imakwu, C. U. Uzochukwu, A. E. Nwafia
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330249

Abstract:
This study is aimed at determining the physicochemical characteristics of selected wetlands of Kogi State. From each sampled wetlands (Abu’ja and Egwubi), surface water was collected and examined for the following physicochemical parameters: hydrogen ion concentration, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and temperature (0C) using Hanna meter. Dissolved oxygen was determined using dissolved oxygen meter. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 20.0, Paleontological Statistics version 3.14 and Microsoft Office. Physicochemical parameters studied were not normally distributed from test of normality. They were compared using Man-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H nonparametric tests for comparisons between two and more than two groups respectively. In Abu’ja wetland, the temperature for all the months were similar except for January and December which were significantly cooler (p < 0.05); pH was similarly constant except for January and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved solids ranged from 95 to 118 ppm with similar values between months except in March. Mean electrical conductivity ranged from 0.15 to 0.22 ms/cm. These values were similar between months in Abu’ja. Significant fluctuation occurred in dissolved oxygen on monthly basis. In Egwubi study station, temperature ranged from 20oC to 31 oC, significant difference occurred between January and May and between September and November (p < 0.05), pH was also similar between months. Dissolved solids ranged from 26 to 90 ppm. Electrical conductivity ranged from 0.2 to 0.14 ms/cm. Significant differences only occurred between April and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved oxygen was similar throughout the study period. Our result indicated that the essential minerals and other physiochemical parameters are widely distributed but some are not within the normal range of portable water for humans. Both study wetlands showed low pollution, organic waste in Abu'ja site may be handled by autochthonous bacteria and through self purification of the water body. Nutrient levels are high in wetland habitats as wetlands have rich biomes and support high level of biodiversity. The water is suitable for irrigation and livestock consumption. The presence of the plankton is a pointer to the fact that the two wetlands possess adequate water quality for establishment of great biodiversity.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 8-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330248

Abstract:
Increased wet season rainfall is associated with improved water supply at point water sources and improved river flows and water reservoir levels. For piped water supply schemes with surface water intakes, this is supposed to enhance operations since there is adequate raw water unlike in the dry season where operations are interrupted due to insufficient flows. However, this is not the case in Nzoia River Basin as established by this study. As rainfall increases, drinking water production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decrease and vice versa. Nzoia River Basin is one of the regions that is highly vulnerable to climate variability in Kenya, hence understanding rainfall variability and trends is important for better water resources management and especially drinking water supply. This study aimed at assessing rainfall variability and trends for 3 rainfall stations in Nzoia River Basin; Leissa Farm Kitale, Webuye Agricultural Office and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme and its impact on drinking water production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies treatment plants. The rainfall data used in this study covers 31 years period from 1970 to 2001 and was obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), Nairobi, Kenya. Monthly water supply production data for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies covering 15 years period from 2000 to 2014 was obtained from the County governments of Uasin Gishu, Kakamega and Busia. Rainfall variability and trend was analysed using the parametric test of Linear regression analysis and the non-parametric Mann Kendall statistical test. Monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water production was analysed using Pearson moment correlation to establish the relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at Mois Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia Water supplies treatment plants. The results of variability and trend in annual rainfall shows Webuye Agricultural Office recording declining rainfall at -0.8994 mm/31 years (-0.029 mm/ year); whereas Leissa Farm Kitale shows increasing rainfall at 1.0325 mm/31 years (0.033 mm/ year) and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme’s rainfall is increasing at 0.5245 mm/31 years (0.017 mm/ year). Drinking water supply production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies has been increasing with time between 2000 and 2014. The results of Pearson moment correlation coefficient shows a strong negative relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at 0.05 significance level for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies. This shows that as rainfall increases, drinking water supply production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decreases. During the rainy season, the cost of water treatment goes up as a result of increased turbidity. Increased rainfall in Nzoia River Basin presents water treatment challenges to the existing water supply treatment plants resulting into reduced production.Water supply managers should improve the capacity of the existing water supply treatment plants to cope with the increased rainfall variability under the changing climatic conditions.
, Abdur Rouf Sarkar
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330247

Abstract:
With pandemic progression and the stay-at-home situation, household are producing more dangerous medical waste. Households became the most vulnerable and unprotected sector of coronavirus transmission due to the unconsciousness and lack of guidance of hazardous waste management. Therefore, waste management is a critical concern to public health. This study examines household waste generation and waste management issues in Bangladesh during COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2021. The study showed that adequate identification, collection, transportation, processing, separation, and disposal are the challenges of safe waste management. Each activity bears a high risk of getting infected because of lack of proper guidance and protection. Moreover, the improper disposal of hazardous waste causes immense soil, water and air pollution that might have negative effects to the human body. Some suggested guidelines to a better COVID-19 household’s waste management are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.
S. M. Adamu, A. A. Ijah, H. C. Ozoani, F. M. Rasheed, J. O. Emmanuel, T. S. Ingoroko, O. O. Adedire, E. J. Zaka
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230246

Abstract:
This study shows the effect s of solid waste dumpsite on ground water quality in Farin-gida, Kaduna State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from six (6) different wells in three(3) strategic areas that have major dumpsites in Farin-gida. These samples were collected in November from both bore holes and hand dug wells within (0-50 meters) to the dumpsite. The following physico-chemical properties of well water was tested for, in the laboratory thus; Total Dissolve Solid, Total Alkalinity, Fluoride, PH, Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity. The results obtained as shown in table 1,2 and 3 respectively indicate that all the wells have varying levels of physico-chemical concentration that is different from the standard as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), which implies that the water from the study areas are not safe for drinking. Hence, should be treated.
, Mokaya Dennis Chweya, Kitur Esther, Koske James
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 28-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230245

Abstract:
Plastic waste material continues to present environmental challenges throughout the world. Of greatest concern is their disposal in agricultural soils where they interfere with soil fertility due to its inability to decompose fast. Specifically, the research examined under experimental conditions the crop germinative emergence of (Zea mays L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) as affected by plastic waste material commonly disposed in urban and rural environments of Kenya. The plastic types were identified by their thickness of 30 microns. The experiment was laid out in a 2 by 1 Randomized Block Design (Latin Square) with two replicates in plots each measuring 1m x 1m. The data collected involved determination of emergence percent cover. The date of planting was noted and records were taken from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls for 10 days. Percent emergence measurements was done for at least 10 days and this involved taking of vertical photographs of each plot from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls. Assumptions of normality were found to be satisfactory and the set hypotheses were supported by the results. In the overall, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 30 microns thick plastic material was 25.78%, while controls had 75.58%. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between Z. mays in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the Z. mays planted in soils mixed with thick plastic material was 41.52%, while that of control groups was 86.18%. In conclusion, there were a significant difference (P<0.05) in effects of 6 microns’ thick plastic material on germinative emergence of the two food crops, that is; E. coracana and Z. mays and hence the study recommends that, plastic waste material of any thickness should be avoided on farmlands where Z. mays and E. coracana are grown.
Hla Hla Aung, Kye Mon Min Swe
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230244

Abstract:
Myanmar is an earthquake-prone country in SE Asia and all types of faulting such as strike-slip, normal, and reverse are occurring all over Myanmar territory. Apart from surface faults, the India oceanic plate is subducting obliquely beneath Burma continental plate along Sunda subduction zone. The interaction between the India plate, the Burma plate and Eurasia plate appears to be characterized by the initiation of major movements between plates switching from one to another within this tectonic region. The Sagaing Fault is a primary plate boundary between the Burma plate and Indochina plate along which most of the relative motion has occurred and will continue to occur for the geologic future. According to seismicity record in Myanmar, most of the earthquakes occurred either in the evening or at midnight or at dawn. So the people become scary because earthquake occurs without warnings. During such situation, people run immediately outside the building to the open space due to people’s survival instincts. People have anxiety which is a normal response to frightening situation. The social media interviews the earthquake researchers/ earthquake geologists why the earthquake occurs and how to protect them during earthquake. By disseminating the information on social networks, people become aware of the earthquake disaster and become focusing on effective preparedness.
Tambeke Nornu Gbarakoro, Edache Bernard Ochekwu, , Benjamin Uzonna Ononye, Lemenebari Teteg
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230243

Abstract:
Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain how Hamelia patens would be valuable in sustaining diversity of beneficial insects. Study Design: Investigative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The insects and plants were processed for identification at the Laboratories of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology and Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Identification and curation of the insects was done at Insect Museum, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. The study started in June and ended in September 2018. Methodology: The heights and canopy sizes of the Hamelia patens were measured with range pole and measuring tape. Insects associated with the floral parts of Hamelia patens were collected in the morning (08:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (4:00-06:00 pm) hours, with a sweep net. They were knockdown by pyrethrum insecticide and preserved in a bottle containing 70% ethanol. They were taxonomically grouped and sent to a taxonomist at Insect Museum, Nigeria for species identification. Results: Fifteen (15) insect species were collected on the Hamelia patens; Megachile mephistrophelica (Grib.), Megachile cinta (Fab.), Braunisca bilunta (Enderloein.), Pterandus sp., Lilioceris sp. and Virachola antalus (Hoph.) restricted their visitation on the plants only in the morning hours, Chelonus bifoveolatus (Szepg.) and Chrysolagria nairobana (Borch.) restricted their visitation in the evening hours. The remaining species were continuous on the plants. There was no significant difference (P=.05) between the number of insect species collected on taller plants and shorter ones. There was a significant difference between the insects that visited the plants in the morning and evening hours. Conclusion: The arrival of the insects on the Hamelia patens varied but some were time dependent. The clipping of the plant’s twigs affected the abundance of insects that visit the plant.
V. Sreelekshmi,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230242

Abstract:
Aim: The present study was done to find out ability of sulfate reducing bacteria to reduce sulfonated azo dyes found in the textile effluent. Study Design: Isolate Sulfate reducing bacterial strains from dye contaminated soil samples, inoculate and incubate dye supplemented media under static anaerobic condition and measure the decolorization using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from Travancore textiles Nemom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Laboratory analysis were performed at Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India. The study was done for a period of six months. Methodology: The isolated sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) strains were screened to test the tolerance to selected sulfonated azo dye Direct blue 71. The decolorization assay was done in Postgate media and an aliquot of samples (3mL) were withdrawn periodically, centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 15min. The supernatant was used to assay azo dye reduction by measuring residual absorption at the wavelength 594 nm of the Direct Blue 71. Results were compared with the uninoculated control. The optimization of physicochemical conditions for effective decolorization of the selected bacterial strains was studied at different environmental conditions (pH, temperature, concentration and added co-substrates such as sodium acetate, lactate and mannitol). The biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye was assessed by characterizing the metabolites formed after degradation by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). FT-IR analysis revealed only decolorization had occurred without degradation of the dye during the short incubation period of one week. Conclusion: Degradation of azo dyes and other recalcitrant compounds by obligate anaerobes such as sulfate reducing bacteria is a slow process. Hence, extension of incubation period is necessary for the effective and complete degradation of the dye by SRB.
, Sharon Chepkemboi Waswa
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 49-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130241

Abstract:
Climate variability poses a major challenge for small holder rain fed agricultural production with a relatively greater impact on small scale farmers worldwide. Kitui County, Kenya, particularly remains relatively less focused on climate change and farmer understanding of climate variability response strategies. This study sought to assess variability in climate (rainfall and temperature) in Kitui County from 1980-2012 and assess influence of household socio-economic factors on farmer’s level of knowledge on climate variability adaptation techniques. The study also investigated the challenges faced by farmers in applying climate variability adaptation techniques. To achieve the objectives outlined above, a survey design was employed and a sample of 387 respondents selected. Majority of the respondents were small scale farmers in Kitui County. Questionnaires were designed and administered to the selected subjects to solicit data on climate adaptation techniques and socioeconomic factors influencing farmers’ knowledge levels on climate variability adaptation techniques. Data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and results discussed and presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found that climate has over the years varied with temperatures having increased by 2⁰C in the 1980s and early 1990s. The rainfall has reduced to less than 600mm with the lowest rainfall (226mm) being recorded in 2006. This implies that the Kitui County is becoming drier and hotter. These findings were ascertained by majority of the respondents (91.1%) who agreed that rainfall patterns had varied in the last ten years. The study found that there were no significant differences on how local farmers adapted to the changes in climate with regard to income, age and even ownership of land. An exception however, was on education levels with the study finding significant statistical differences (p<0.005) on how farmers with different levels of education adapted to climatic variability and change.
Frederick Kwame Yeboah, Samuel Adingo, Liu Xue-Lu
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 42-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130240

Abstract:
The mishandling of agrochemical waste is a major environmental problem causing pollution and a threat to public health. Although the number of agrochemical companies in Ghana continues to grow exponentially, limited efforts are directed toward the proper disposal of plastic bottles after use. Consequently, the study explores the post handling activities of farmers concerning agricultural plastic waste. Using the Birim South District of the Eastern Region of Ghana as the case study, the descriptive statistics are employed to provide answers to the research questions by examining the survey responses of the 120 farmers sampled randomly from an estimated 850 farmers from 4 communities. The results suggest that farmers in the district are aware of the triple rinsing mechanism of ensuring safe disposal. Further, few farmers have had extensive training on the safe usage and disposal of pesticides. In spite, most farmers are willing to burn, bury, and reuse empty agrochemical bottles to properly dispose of after usage. The study reveals a knowledge gap in responsible usage and disposal of agrochemical bottles and the need for an appropriate management system to tackle the challenge.
, Adawa Ifeoluwa Seun
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 30-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130239

Abstract:
Vegetation plays a significant role in the exchange of energy, water and carbon between the atmosphere and land surface, understanding its response to climate variability is of great importance for climate adaptation studies. This study examined Seasonal June-July- August, and December-January-February(JJA and DJF) vegetation response to Temperature(T) and Rainfall(R) variability. Vegetation response to climate dynamics over Japan are still poorly understood, in other to quantify these response spatio-temporal distribution of T and R were investigated, vegetations changes was also accessed utilizing MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 2007-2016(10 years) along with T and R datasets from 1987-2017 (31 years), The NDVI patterns show a checked heterogeneity relating to seasonal variations in climates, our findings further reveals Northern region record an increasing trend in T and R, standard deviation of 0.48, 9.66, with CV of 6.63%, 9.25% respectively were recorded. Also, an increasing trend in T and R was equally observed in the southern region with standard deviation of 0.43, 28.5, by a CV of 2.47% and 15.05. Further analysis revealed critical patterns in the NDVI during DJF months and then afterward NDVI was seen with critical expanding values during the JJA month and diminishing NDVI patterns were seen over similar districts. The result further made it clear that NDVI changes were highly connected to different T and R patterns over the region while seasonal mean NDVI showed a critical increment for JJA in the North and DJA in the south.
Solange Patricia Wango, Guy Josens, Lucie Aba-Toumnou
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 20-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130238

Abstract:
The use of termite mounds as an alternative to chemical fertilizers has grown in tropical developing countries. Termite mounds also play an important role in ecology and these studies were conducted on dynamic of the reconstruction of termite mounds of the genus Cubitermes in the Bondoé savannah from Central African Republic (CAF). The focus on this particular group may be due to their abundance and conspicuous mounds, compared with the diffuse belowground nests inhabited by soldier less soil-feeding termites. The hypothesis of this work was that the termite mounds of Cubitermes (Cubitermes sankurensis and Cubitermes ugandensis) could be reconstructed after removal of hats, trunks at ground level or when termite mounds are dug up 10 cm below the ground. Five (5) experiments were set up to follow the dynamics of the reconstruction of termite mounds during the dry and rainy seasons. The results show that termite mounds with hats removed in one operation rebuild better the following year (25-30% in the rainy season, 50-60% in the dry season). When the removal was done at ground level, an average of 22.5% reconstruction was recorded in the rainy season and 25-30% reconstruction observed in the dry season after one year. Termite mounds dug 10 cm below the ground did not perform better. The removal of hats during the dry season is an option for the rational management of Cubitermes termite mounds in agriculture in CAR.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i130237

Abstract:
Nzoia River Basin is one of the regions in Kenya that is highly vulnerable to climate change. An understanding of community knowledge and perception on climate change and drinking water supply will provide strategic directions for national and county government policy, adaptation strategies and development of community-based guidelines on climate change. This study assessed community knowledge and perception on climate change and drinking water supply in Nzoia River Basin. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. The study was carried out from May, 2017 to September, 2017. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the 403 households administered with questionnaires. An observation checklist was used by the interviewers to collect household- and community-related information. The study results revealed that the community largely comes from low socio-economic background: only 24 % had post secondary education or higher, the majority were small scale farmers, housewives, casual workers and househelps (58 %), and only 25 % earned a monthly income above Ksh. 20,000 (equivalent to US $200). The majority of the participants 81 % had some knowledge about climate change but 19 % did not. On level of knowledge about climate change, 70% know a little/something about climate change, 21% know nothing about climate change and 9% know a lot about climate change. Majority of respondents, 76% receive climate change news from mass media (radio, newspaper and magazines, television); and 81 % point out that climate change will have public health risks in the community. The knowledge level about climate change in the basin was average. National and county governments should work with the sector stakeholders in the basin to improve community knowledge and perception regarding climate change, drinking water supply and health needs with proper content. The results of this study will go a long way in bridging the gap between policy formulation and building adaptive capacity to climate change in the basin.
, Raju Antony, A. Azhar Ali, C. Abhirami, M. M. Sreejith
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 28-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430235

Abstract:
Aims: To enumerate the fern diversity in the disturbed landscapes of Rajamala part of Eravikulam National Park, Western Ghats Study Design: Purposive sampling method was adopted in the study area and habitats suitable for ferns were surveyed. Place and Duration of Study: The study area is Rajamala, a tourist impacted site inside Eravikulam National Park in Kerala, India. Intensive field explorations were carried out in this area during February 2018- April 2019, to document the ferns and fern-allies. Methodology: A preliminary study was conducted in February 2018 to identify the probable habitats of ferns for further detailed study. Purposive sampling was done in the study area considering the most suitable habitats in both shola ecosystems and grassland ecosystems of the area. Materials for herbaria were processed using standard methods. The collected plants were identified with the help of standard field guides and flora. The potential medicinally important ferns were also listed out. Results: 54 species of pteridophytes including fern and fern allies belonging to sixteen different families were found from the Rajamala region of Eravikulam National Park. Aspleniaceae was the most common family with 11 species followed by Polypodiaceae. The majority of the Pteridophytes found in the region are showing terrestrial habit. Eleven species found in the study site are medicinally important. Conclusion: Despite the high tourism pressure in the study area, pteridophyte species richness is higher in the Rajamala region of Western Ghats. The suitable habitat with ideal substrate conditions and year-long moisture availability in the substrates could be the reason for a higher number of pteridophyte species in this area.
H. Bilyaminu, P. Radhakrishnan, K. Vidyasagaran, K. Srinivasan
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430234

Abstract:
Understanding forest degradation due to human and natural phenomena is crucial to conserving and managing remnant forest resources. However, forest ecosystem assessment over a large and remote area is usually complex and arduous. The present study on land use and land cover change detection of the Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary forest ecosystems was carried out to utilize the potential application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). Moreover, to understand the trend in the forest ecosystem changes. The supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood Algorithm and change detection comparison approach was employed to study the land use and land cover changes, using the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM±) and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS using data captured on July 01, 2001, and January 14, 2018. The study indicated the rigorous land cover changes. It showed a significant increase in the proportion of degraded forest with negligible gain in the proportion of evergreen forest from 21.31% in 2001 to 22.97% in 2018. A substantial loss was also observed in moist deciduous from 27.11 % in 2001 to 17.23 % in 2018. The result of the current study indicated the degree of impacts on forests from the various activities of their surroundings. This study provides baseline information for planning and sustainable management decisions.
Zainab M. Sani, Aisha S. Dalhatu, Baha’Uddeen S. Adam, Kasim Mohammed, Yusuf Y. Muhammad, Sani Ibrahim
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430233

Abstract:
Aim: The work was aimed at assessing the potential of Chlorella vulgaris in remediation of reactive dyes. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, between January 2019 and December 2019. Methodology: Wastewater containing individual reactive dyes: reactive red 198 (RR198), reactive yellow 176 (RY176), reactive green 19 (RG19), reactive orange 122 (RO122), reactive red 195 (RR195) and reactive violet 1 (RV1) were collected from a local fabric re-dyeing pit at Kofar Na’isa, Kano, Nigeria. The green microalga C. vulgaris was cultured in Bold Basal medium (BBM) at 30 ± 2°C and subjected to adsorption and decolourization assays of the dyes. Results: The highest dye removal efficiency by enzymatic action was recorded after 48 hours, while that for the biomass adsorption was at day 14, at pH 11.3 and temperature of 30°C. The percentage dye removal by adsorption and decolourization were within the ranges of 68.1-97.8% and 69.8-99.9% respectively. Dye removal decreased with increase in contact time until saturation is attained. Freundlich’s isotherm model was best fitted for the adsorption of the dyes with a strong linear correlation coefficient, R2 ranging from 0.954-0.811. There was a strong linear relationship and high statistical significance among the dyes for both decolourization and adsorption (P value; .01). Conclusion: Chlorella vulgaris was found to be effective in the removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater samples. The results revealed C. vulgaris to be a cost-effective and eco-friendly biosorbent that can be used for the treatment of wastewaters containing toxic dyes.
A. A. Ijah, A. S. Abubakar, H. C. Ozoani, S. Adamu, O. O. Adedire, E. J. Zakka, F. M. Rasheed, O. Olukotun, S. Omodona
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i430232

Abstract:
Samples of Municipal solid waste from dumps situated within four (4) markets located at Kawo, Monday, Sabo Tasha and Mando respectively, and two (2) residential areas located at Kabala Costain and Anguwan Sanusi in Kaduna metropolis were collected and segregated into various classifiable bulks; Organic, Inorganic and bacteria flora of the dumps were compared between the two categories of land users. The results obtained showed that there was a wide variation in the composition of waste in these two land use areas, organic waste made up of plant matters (Leaves, Grasses, Stumps food residues, Vegetables and ash) in this study has the highest percentage composition (65%) in market areas and 35.6% in residential areas, for inorganic waste consisting of glass, papers, metal and plastics account for 35% in market areas. Bacteria isolates from the dumps with their respective percentage prevalence were: E. coli (88.90%), Staphylococcus aureus (81.7%), Salmonella (47.3%), Klebsiella sp (44.1%), Shigella sp (46.6%) and Proteus Sp (35.2%) in market areas while in residential area the bacteria isolates 7prevalence showed: (57.5%), (44.2%),(28.1%),(25.2%),(17.8%) and (14.4%) respectively.
Parfait Nkontcheu Kamta, Arsène Delors Gankam Foyet,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 48-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330231

Abstract:
Aims: Assessing the conservation status of Raphia and the interaction between local populations and Raphia palm groves in Fotouni Study Design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the West Region of Cameroon (Fotouni) Methodology: A total of 60 Raphia palm grove owners were involved in the interview using questionnaires; mapping and direct observations were additional tools. Results: According to the perception of 93% of the surveyed respondents, the quantity of Raphia in the area has decreased over the past 15 years, due mainly to agriculture (N=48; 80.00%) and non-regeneration (N=18; 30.00%). Farming was the main activity in the area. Raphia in the area is mainly used for building, craft, food source, medicine and agriculture. Respondents confirmed the presence of a diversified mesofauna in Raphia palm groves, dominated by rodents. Mapping gave evidence of a close relationship between Raphia palm groves and water points. In addition, Raphia provides firewood and wine. Good maintenance (N=55; 91.67%) and regeneration (N=45; 75.00%) are the main strategies implemented by the respondents to preserve their Raphia palm groves. For a long-term preservation, respondents proposed: sensitization (N=14; 23.33%), re-planting (N=20; 33.33%), pasting of warning and use of fetishes (N=16; 26.67%). Conclusion: The current state of Raphia palm groves in Fotouni is not favourable to wetland conservation. The Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development should provide a national inventory of Raphia coverage while the local population should adopt healthy behaviours towards the exploitation of Raphia.
, W. A. P. Madhushan
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 38-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330230

Abstract:
Most Sri Lankan Industries discharge or dispose of many waste materials in large quantities in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms. Due to the high cost of treatment, many industries dispose of wastes either to dumpsites or lowlands through third-party contractors. The haphazard disposal of untreated waste is growing into a significant problem in the country. As a result, this study was conducted to identify the application options to treat or reuse the valuable waste generated by some selected industries by implementing the industrial symbiosis process in an industrial zone. Personal interviews and questionnaires were used as the methodological tools of the study to collect firm-related waste. Material properties and feasibility facts were mainly considered concerning industrial symbiosis application potential with respect to the waste receivers' and doners' perspectives. Through the study, potential secondary usage of waste was identified, avoiding direct discharge into the environment. The result from the evaluation indicates some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economic and environmental point of view.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 27-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330229

Abstract:
Ecotourism is a melting pot of cultures and people. It is said that national and local pride can be created through the cultural appreciation of ecotourists, and local knowledge and the standard of living can be enhanced. The folklore or story about “Berbenota” the enchanted lady of Rock Formations have resulted to the protection and conservation who is believed to be the protector of the area. These activities provide special opportunities to understand the history and traditions of the community and to witness their cultural practices and daily living, including traditional rituals, rites and dances. For the positive side of ecotourism, it can generate environmental rehabilitation and natural or local tourism development by promoting environmental protection and the improvement of a specific tourist destination. The greatest contribution of ecotourism is the protection of biodiversity and a sustainable development plan is necessary. In terms of the negative side, when ecotourism is improperly managed, environmental degradation follows. These invasions often include deforestation, disruption of ecological lifestyle systems and various styles of pollutants, all of which make a contribution to environmental degradation. It is important to note that majority of the respondents were farmers which at the same time fishermen. It is also interesting that many of the employed people were also patronizing the local tourist’s destination. It seems that common people were benefitted so much of the booming local ecotourism industry in the BLPLS areas as represented by the various stakeholders and key players in the tourism industry. At least One hundred respondents were interviewed using the systematic sampling approach. The results indicate that both the mainland and island communities benefits ecotourism in various ways but not to their level of satisfaction. Members of the community are allowed access to resources such as fish, food crops, firewood and water. Additionally, a range of job opportunities includes tour guiding; rendering service mobility vehicles for the tourists, and accommodations. Another key tourism related benefits include interaction with the tourists, sale of local crafts, fish processing, food vending and opportunities to profile cultural activities. However, there remains the need to improve beneficiation given the high poverty and unemployment rates in the locality.
, Emile Temgoua, Siméon Kenfack, Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Thomas Njiné
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 15-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330228

Abstract:
The agricultural valorization of wastewater has not been part of water resource management and poverty alleviation policies in Cameroon due to insufficient knowledge on its virtues. The aim of this work was to promote sanitation by using wastewater in agriculture in Dschang Municipality, through evaluation of its fertilizing power. The study focused on three selected crops including lettuce (leaf vegetable), eggplant (fruit vegetable) and carrot (root vegetable). The experimental design was a split-plot and composed of nine (09) randomized blocks. The work was done both in the rainy season and in the dry season. Raw wastewater (E1) and urban surface water (E2) were used, while drinking water (E3) aided as control. The plots that received raw wastewater showed the best yields followed by the plots that received urban surface water. Up to 13 tons of lettuce per hectare, 19 tons of carrots per hectare and 61 tons of eggplants per hectare were obtained on the E1 plots. The yields of E1 were 1.5 to 7.4 times higher than those of E3 plots in the rainy season, and 3 to 4.4 times higher in the dry season. The yields of E2 plots were 1.1 to 2.2 times higher than those of E3 in the rainy season and 1.7 to 4.4 times higher in the dry season. These results show the fertilizing power of raw or diluted wastewater. In their poverty alleviation policy, the public authorities of the Dschang Municipality should promote the use of wastewater as fertilizers for crops not consumed raw, as alternative solution to wastewater management in this city.
Samuel N. Paul,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i330227

Abstract:
Aim: The study was aimed at determining the risk assessment of toxic metal concentration in soil and water at two abandoned Lead-Zinc mines Yonov District, Logo, Benue State, Nigeria. Study design: comparative cross-sectional study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at the Bruce Powel Toxicology & Biodiversity Laboratory, Animal and Environmental Biology Department, University of Port Harcourt, Analysis at Giolee Global Services Limited Port Harcourt, Nigeria from 16th July to 30th October 2019. Methodology: Eighteen composite water and soil samples were collected and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: The mean concentration of Lead (Pb) was higher than that of Zinc (Zn) in all eighteen samples, while, Mercury (Hg) and Cadmium (Cd) were below detection limit in all samples. Mean concentration for Pb in soil samples in the order SiteII>Site I (1.29±0.134 mg/kg>1.26±0.04mg/kg) >control 0.82±0.06 mg/kg. Zn was higher in site I, 0.70±0.10 mg/kg than site II 0.66±0.04mg/kg, and control 0.42±0.02mg/kg. Pb values in water was similar in both sites at 0.46±0.04/0.02 mg/L, while control 0.02±0.001mg/kg. Zn was higher in site II 0.05±0.01mg/L than site I 0.04±0.01Mg/L, control was 0.004±0.00 mg/L. Health risk assessment showed that Estimated daily intake of metals, hazard quotient, hazard index were all less than 1, Carcinogenic risk was within the stipulated ranged of 10-6 to 10-4. Conclusion: Ecological and health risk indices revealed non-contamination by Poisonous metals, however, routine assessment is recommended to forestall any sudden change in the concentration that may result to deleterious effects on human health.
Slamet Isworo, Slamet Febrianto, Tosan Aji, Poerna Sri Oetari, Ekannisa Jasmiene
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 52-63; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i230226

Abstract:
Background and objective: The productivity of fishing in marine waters provides an overview of the level of ability of the fishing gear used by fishermen to obtain optimal fish catches. This study aims to determine the productivity of fishing in locations around the construction of the coal-fired power plant, Jepara Indonesia. Methods: The method used is a descriptive method which is a case study. This research case is about annual marine fishery productivity by calculating Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE), then predictions are made using simple regression analysis. Results: Based on the results of the study, a positive modeling trend (increase) was obtained for total fishery production, total demersal fishery production, and total pelagic fish production. Conclusion: capture fisheries productivity in Jepara waters is generally quite good and is not affected due to the development of Tanjung Jati coal-fired power plant B-Unit 5 -6. This is because it is not a fishing operation area for fishermen so there is no potential conflict with fishermen. Suggestion: The results of this study can be used by the Government of Jepara Regency in determining sustainable fishing policies and not overfishing
, Atif Javed, Hussnain Javed
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i230225

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted by growing 25%, 50% and 100% initial densities of duckweed (Lemna minor) plants on dumpsite leachate under natural climatic conditions. Lemna minor (L. minor) growth and its ability to remove and absorb the nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) from leachate was investigated at each mat density. A simple mathematical model was developed to calculate the harvesting frequency (in days) of L. minor on leachate. The maximum growth rate (6.84 ± 4.13 g m-2day-1) of L. minor was observed at 50% initial density of L. minor plants on leachate whereas, the nutrients removal from leachate was the highest at 100% initial cover of L. minor plants on leachate. At 100% density L. minor removed nitrogen at the rate of 152.12 ± 2.31 mgm-2day-1 total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorous at the rate 109.24 ± 3.05 mgm-2day-1 total phosphorous (TP) from the leachate. Absorption of the nitrogen and phosphorous was also highest at 50% density when L. minor absorbed 86% of the total removed nitrogen and 77% of the total removed phosphorous into its biomass. At 100% density in addition to the absorption of nutrients by L. minor, factors such as nitrification/denitrification and, nitrogen and phosphorous assimilation by algae and microorganisms also account for the overall high rates of nutrients removal from leachate. Based on the results of this study, L. minor can be used as a potential aquatic plant for developing a cost-effective natural system of leachate treatment.
David Bamidele Olawade, , Omotayo Asogbon, Grace O. Owojori, Adesina Olufemi Adewole
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 31-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i230224

Abstract:
Water is an important requirement for life but its contamination via natural and anthropogenic activities is of great concern. This study determined some physicochemical parameters of drinking water from the main source (borehole), and selected storage vessels in Abimbola, Ayedaade Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. About 10 household water samples were collected randomly from the 70 households in the village. The major water storage vessels used by the villagers were clay pots. Only about one-fifth of the households used plastic containers. All the physico-chemical parameters assessed were within permissible limits of the World Health Organization and Standards Organization of Nigeria’s drinking water guidelines except for Lead and nitrite. Furthermore, water stored in clay pots had significantly higher levels of Nitrate (p=0.04), Nitrite (p=0.04), Sulphate (p=0.04), Lead (p=0.03), Iron (p=0.04), and Manganese (p=0.04) than those stored in plastic containers. Results suggest that the type of storage vessels used could influence the physicochemical quality of the water stored in them. Also, basic water quality monitoring needs to be conducted routinely to ascertain and maintain high quality water supply per time.
M. N. Naiposha,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 15-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i230223

Abstract:
Proper implementation of land use planning may contribute to solving land use problems, including land use conflicts. Adherence to land plans depends on many factors which vary according to circumstances of a study area. The present study aims to contribute to knowledge needed to enhance adherence to zones in land use planning. Specifically, the study had two objectives, namely: (1) to examine extent of adherence to village land use plans and, (2) to assess factors that influence adherence to the village land use plans. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions, field observation, review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans (VLUPs), district land use framework, books and journal articles. GPS points to examine adherence to VLUPs were analyzed using Kappa statistic. Factors influencing adherence to VLUPs were analysed using binary logistical regression and pair-wise ranking. There was moderate adherence with kappa coefficient of 0.47 and 0.49 for Iragua and Kichangani villages. Larger families with higher incomes were more likely not to adhere to land use plans. Immigrants were also more likely not to adhere to plans than residents. Corruption of village leaders, lack of follow up by village leaders on implementation, lack of awareness on land use plans and underestimated population growth were the key prioritised factors that resulted in non-adherence of land use plans. The study recommends a review of the zoning standards to enhance sufficiency of allocated zones; privatization of grazing land; establishment of communal grazing management plans; and involvement of communities in developing complete plans. The study also recommends close monitoring; reviewing of VLUPs; enforcement of good governance; establishing incentive schemes; offering continuous education and developing participatory implementation framework.
M. N. Naiposha,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i230222

Abstract:
Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems. Effectiveness of implementation of land use plan relies on a number of factors including strategies that are used to enhance adherence to the land use plan. For the study area, current and potential strategies to enhance adherence to land use plans had previously not been assessed. Thus this study assessed current and potential strategies used to enhance adherence to participatory village land use plans in Ulanga District, Tanzania. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, review of guidelines for land use planning, village and use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Information from key informants and focus groups was analysed by content analysis. Current strategies used included by-laws, boundary demarcation, zoning, community action plan, and conflict resolution. The current strategies were ineffectively implemented and enforced due to inadequate awareness, inadequate fines and penalties, funding limitations, weak governance and inefficient coordination and monitoring. Potential strategies that should be implemented include education, awareness raising, capacity building and benefit sharing.
Margaret N. Naiposha, ,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 49-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130221

Abstract:
Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems and hence enhance ecological, economic and social sustainability of land use. Appropriateness of land use plans and hence its potential for adherence may rely on sufficiency of zones allocated for different land uses. This study was designed to empirically identify land use implementation problems and suggest solutions relevant to the land users, the government, planners and other stakeholders. Specifically, the study assesses: (1) The extent to which the land use zones cover all zones needed by the stakeholders and; (2) Reasons for levels of sufficiency of the allocated land use zones. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions and field observation survey while secondary data were collected through review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information used to assess sufficiency of land use zones used in Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed. The implementation of village land use plans was not done as expected. Land use zones were insufficient in terms of the allocated size and needs within the zones for current and future situation. Overall the insufficiency of the land use zones was reported by 90% of the respondents. For individual land use zones the insufficiency was reported by the following percentages of the respondents: 95.0% for residential zone, 89.2% for agriculture zone, 96.7 for grazing zone, 25.2 for forest zone, 0% for wildlife management area, 0% for wildlife corridor and 0% for wetland. The reasons for insufficiency of the land use zones were increasing population, overstocking, and lack of infrastructure necessary within specific zones. Other factors included inadequate consideration for uncertainties in population projection standard, unclear zoning regulation and discrepancy in population data. Based on the findings and conclusions, this study makes the following recommendations. First, the National Land Use Planning Commission should devise mechanisms to ensure that all the six steps of land use planning are completed towards implementable land use plans. Secondly, the national land use planning commission should review zoning standards to sufficiently allocate the land use zones. The population projections used for future allocation of land had influence on the sufficiency of the zones where the rate of population increase is assumed to be fixed throughout the ten years implementation period without consideration of uncertainties. It is worth incorporating GIS to establish trend of land use and forecast future land use to sufficiently allocate land during the 10 years lifespan of the VLUP. Thirdly, the national land use planning commission need to validate spatial data and population data at village level to avoid discrepancies which affect implementation of the village land use plans.
Kezang Choden, , Purna Chettri
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 21-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130219

Abstract:
Forests are natural carbon reservoirs that play an important role in the global carbon cycle for storing large quantities of carbon in vegetation and soils. Carbon stored in pool helps in mitigating climate change by carbon sequestration. The vulnerable countries to changing climate such as Bhutan, Nepal, and India require a full understanding of carbon dynamics as well as baseline data on carbon stock potential to mitigate anticipated risks and vulnerabilities (RVs) through climate change. The scope of such RVs are trans boundary in nature, however, the comparative studies at regional scale are still scanty. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the carbon stock potentials of selected forest types in the eastern Himalayan area, with an emphasis on Bhutan, India, and Nepal. This review paper is based on published articles, information from websites and considerable data from National forestry reports of India and Bhutan; emphasizing on aboveground biomass and soil organic carbon stock. The review showed that carbon stock potential is highly dependent on stand density, above-ground biomass, species richness and forest types. The sub-tropical forest was found to have larger carbon capacity and sequestration potential. SOC concentration and tree biomass stocks were significantly higher at the high altitude where there is less human disturbance. In general, forest coverage has increased compare to previous year in Bhutan, India and Nepal which ultimately leads to higher carbon stock potential. It is mainly due to strong policies and different strategies for conservation of forest management have reduced mass destruction despite a growing population. Despite the rules, deforestation continues to occur at various scales. However, it can be stated that the government and citizens are working hard to increase carbon stock potential, mostly through afforestation and community forest creation. In addition, it is recommended to practice sustainable forest management, regulated and planned cutting of trees and proper forest products utilization.
Wabusya Moses Wetiba, , Njira Njira Pili, Vincent Kakembo
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 33-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130220

Abstract:
Aims: This study assessed the level of climate change awareness among the forest-adjacent communities in the Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem complex. Four locations were chosen for the study, Buyangu and Isecheno in the Kakamega forest, Kaptumo in Nandi South and Kipsamoite in Nandi North forest ecosystems. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect data from primary sources. Structured questionnaires were administered to the residents aged 25years and older within the study area. Place and Duration of Study: The Kakamega, north and south Nandi forest ecosystems in western Kenya between June -December 2019. Methodology: A total of 280 questionnaires were randomly administered to the forest-adjacent respondents with, Kakamega forest 163 respondents, South Nandi forest 60, while North Nandi had 57respondents. A total of 217 questionnaires were filled and returned and the information wherein used in data analysis. Focused Group Discussion and key informants were used to supplement data collects by the questionnaires. Results: Majority of the residents (54%) were less concerned about climate change. In addition, 85% of the respondents had very little knowledge on coping and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. Some 40 % and 45% of the respondents got information about climate through televisions and radios, respectively. Further analysis of the results revealed that climate change was responsible for fourteen key impacts. These included an increase in rainfall, prolonged drought, decrease in the quality and quantity of fresh water, decrease in food security, an increase in temperature, a decrease in agricultural resources, an increase in sickness and disease, a decrease in quality of life, flooding, decrease in forest cover, loss of homes, reduction in biodiversity, and rise in storm surge. A Chi test revealed a significant relationship between forest cover decline and changes in rainfall patterns (X2 = 111.86, df =12, p<0.001), increasing temperature (X2 = 80.492, df =12, p<0.001);, drought( (X2 = 204.84, df =16, p<0.001) and storm surges (X2 = 74.34, df =8, p<0.001)]. The respondents' level of education was significantly different from their level of climate change awareness (X2=44.88, df=4, p<0.001). Conclusion: Forest-adjacent communities in the Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem complex are vulnerable to climate change as a result of insufficient knowledge about climate change and its impacts. The Kakamega-Nandi forest ecosystem is already experiencing climate change effects such as erratic rainfall and increasing food insecurity.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 10-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130218

Abstract:
A forest management plan is a document that guides management of a formally managed forest. The general description is a component of a forest management plan, which describes the target forest and the focal landscape in socioeconomic and ecological terms. This paper gives a general description as part of a forest management plan for implementation of a pilot REDD+ project for Masito Community Forest Reserve, Kigoma, Tanzania for 2012-2017. The methodology used to obtain the data and information for the description was literature review. The general description is given under six main sections, namely: (1) legal status, ownership and administration; (2) location, size and boundaries; (3) physical features; (4) biological aspects; (5) buffer zones and corridors, and; (6) socio-economic aspects of adjacent communities. The forest was not yet gazetted. The vegetation type was predominantly miombo woodlands. The main land use of the forest adjacent communities was agriculture. The general description formed the basis for development of the other components of the management plan.
, Peter Gikuma-Njuru, Bonface Ombasa Manono
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 57-65; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430216

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the effects of salt harvesting on ground water quality in Gongoni ward, Kilifi County. Study Design: The study design was purposive where sampling points were deliberately chosen. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Gongoni ward and its environs in Kilifi County from May 2015 to July 2015. Methodology: Sixteen sampling points were selected within the study area and sampling was done twice between May and July 2015. The water samples collected were analyzed for sodium (Na+), Chlorides (Cl-), Fluorides, (F-) Calcium (Ca2+), alkalinity, acidity (pH), E. coli, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Salinity as NaCl in the Government Chemist laboratories in Mombasa. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel. Results: The ground water sources in Gongoni ward registered high levels of key parameters (TDS, Salinity, Chloride, and Sodium) than the adjacent areas of Mambrui, Ngomeni and selected secondary data from Mombasa County wells where no salt harvesting occurs. Gongoni water sources had a mean TDS of 1969.00mg/L and the adjacent area shad TDS of 1050.00 mg/L. The level of E. coli and total coliform were above the Kenyan and WHO permissible limit of 0 MPN/100ml for treated water and 10 MPN/100mls for untreated water. Conclusion: Despite the elevated concentration levels of chemical parameters from Gongoni ward water sources, the differences are not statistically significant when compared to the adjacent areas of Mambrui and Ngomeni. Recommendations: The water from sources with high levels of TDS and salinity should be pre-treated to make the water more suitable for human use. Those with high coliform and E. coli bacteria should be regularly treated using the appropriate disinfection methods. It is recommended that all projects on salt harvesting should be subjected to an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) before implementation as provided by the Kenya Environmental Management and Coordination Act of 1999.
, T. Sampson, B. Dick
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v15i130217

Abstract:
Water quality determination has become essential in characterising the nature of water used by humans for various purposes. This study was therefore carried out to assess the nitrate to phosphate ratio and other physical and chemical parameters influencing the quality of water used for domestic purposes in Yeghe Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. Water samples (from 3 boreholes, 3 river points and 3 wells) were collected randomly for each study period, and subjected to standard laboratory procedures to analyse for parameters such as temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate, total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity, using standard procedures. Nutrient limitation in the water sources was evaluated based on critical ratios produced by Redfield, using nitrate and phosphate as limiting nutrients. The nitrate to phosphate ratios indicated that there were more of phosphate limitations in the samples, as only two of the samples showed nitrate limitation, with the well water samples showing no nitrate limitation. The study also showed that all the physico-chemical parameters were within the WHO limits, except for pH that had values below the regulatory standard. Statistical evaluation of the data showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the physicochemical parameters of the different water sources (river, tap and well), except for temperature that recorded no significant difference (p > 0.05). This novel study on physicochemical water quality determinants has provided baseline and reference data set for monitoring the pollution status of the different water sources of this rural community. Local health authorities should however regulate anthropogenic activities around these water sources to ensure the availability of safe for use water sources in this locality.
Sharmin Akter, Ferdousi Sultana, Rakibul Kabir, Partha Pratim Brahma, , Nandita Sarker, Mst. Mahmoda Akter, Mahbub Kabir, Khabir Uddin
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 47-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430215

Abstract:
Pharmaceutical industries in Bangladesh are considered as one major industrial as well as environmental pollution problems which discharge a significant amount of organic contaminants in the environment hence require advanced treatment technologies to decontaminate pharmaceutical wastewater. In the present investigation, areca nut husk treated activated carbon (ANHC) was used as an adsorbent to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pharmaceutical effluent as well as a comparative adsorption efficiency with commercial activated carbon (CAC) was performed. The batch experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale. The materials also evaluated for different adsorbent dosages and contact times. The experiment revealed a removal percentage up to 70% for ANHC and 90% for CAC for 3g of adsorbents in 180 min. The adsorption processes were satisfactorily described by pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model which shows a better fitting with the maximum regression coefficient for both adsorbents. The results show that Langmuir model best described the experimental data with a highest correlation coefficient (R2=0.9856 for ANHC and 0.9993 for CAC) compared to Freundlich model and the experimental data showed asorption capacity of 36.549 and 64.935 mg/g for ANHC and CAC, correspondingly. According to the adsorption studies, the results revealed that COD adsorption process followed by the monolayer chemisorption mechanisms. The results revealed that ANHC adsorbent is potentially low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of organic matter from pharmaceutical effluent.
, Ritusmita Maity, Swagata Rana, Mamoni Kamilya, Surojit Patra, Debashis Kuila
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 11-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430213

Abstract:
Eco-parks are generally set up worldwide for serving both recreational and conservation purposes of local biodiversity through limited maintenance. Gopegarh Eco Park was set by the Forest Department, Government of West Bengal in highlands bank of Kangsabati Kansai) river with a heritage ‘Garh’ area with remnants of Khan Raja’s establishment in Midnapore, West Bengal. This park was a place to study for its rich resources of indigenous vegetation, insects and birds for students and researchers. Increased development for amusements including picnic shades and human accessibility, intense weeding and mud ovens are set up. This study to measure quantitative characteristics of plant communities by quardrat method in low, moderate and severely disturbed zones revealed gradual decrease in indigenous flora with time; specially, herbaceous vegetation. The vegetation is gradually turning towards a monodominant tree community of Acacia auriculiformis, in low and moderate disturbed sites and Anacardium occidentale in severely disturbed sites; both planted earlier. Species frequency, diversity and density are decreasing with stress. The frequent cutting and weeding is affecting intensely on the ecosystem; decreasing soil moisture, organic carbon and changes in pH. This practice may affect propagule formation, dispersal and establishment of herbs, shrub and tree species. The park may gradually lose the indigenous flora and the flora dependant fauna and its utility as in situ sustainable maintenance of biodiversity and a resource place for practical study by students and researchers.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 26-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430214

Abstract:
Increasing species-richness at the local scale (within species communities) is accommodated, first, by the diversification of the niches respectively associated to species. Yet, in case of excessive supply in colonizing species issued from the regional pool, the corresponding increase in the number of solicited niches may lead to some “niche-overcrowding” resulting in significant niche-overlaps. Then, second, strong interspecific competition for shared resource can arise, triggered by the density in individuals among those species co-occurring at niche-overlaps. Accordingly, the accommodation of species-richness within a local community involves a balance between (i) the positive contribution of improved niche-diversification and (ii) the negative consequence of induced interspecific-competition at increasing niche-overlaps once the number of colonizing species becomes too large. This balance can strongly differ according to the local ecological conditions, since the latter are expected to strongly influence the range of “overcrowding-free” diversification of niches. So that, concretely, each community requires a specific analysis, in order to disentangle and quantify the respective contributions of the niche-diversification and the intensity of interspecific-competition to this balance. And, in particular, their respective roles upon both the species-richness and the degree of unevenness of species abundance within community. Beyond its speculative interest, this deeper understanding of the process involved in the hierarchic-like organization of species within community also answers more practical concerns, in particular the stability of species-richness, partly dependent on the intensity of interspecific-competition. In this perspective, we quantify and compare how species-richness accommodation proceeds in two major taxonomic groups, Bivalves and Gastropods respectively, both belonging to a same molluscan community inhabiting Caulerpa beds, in the intertidal-zone of Siquijor Island (Philippines). Then, after having compared these two different taxonomic groups, the influence of environmental conditions on species-richness accommodation is addressed, showing that “Caulerpa-beds” habitat features far-less rewarding to Gastropods communities than can be the classical “coral-reef” habitat.
, Ravindra Kumar Sohane, Anil Jha, Reyaz Ahmad
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i430211

Abstract:
The domestication of animals was part of a major transformation in the way of life of an increasing number of human societies with deep social and spiritual changes. In the present study, we report about utility of Nilgai and the values of its products and how it can add variety in our diet. Domestication of Nilgai may prove as an outstanding diet (veal and juveniles) for human and domesticated carnivores it may be the most important achievements that man-made in his cultural history. It is very useful and has many kinds of beneficial mutualism with man exists. We also prerequisite to reconnoiter biological functions, importance, and distinctiveness of products viz milk, meat, leather and body parts such as skin, teeth, nail and other product in addition to transportation and export, because of their size and powerful appearance. The meat of Nilgai is said to be lighter and milder flavored than that of blackbuck meat. A domesticated animal such as livestock plays a vital role in diversified farming systems because food and recycling of nutrients through the farm are well proven. Nilgai appears to have different color which occurs during the developmental stage, like a fawn, juveniles and adults. Few Nilgai showed some docility behavior in nature subsequently that sighs of taming towards domestication. Nilgai may prove a higher status than other domestic animals when it comes to success in domestication. The Nilgai dwelling near the human habitation in proximity to a close distance in anthropogenic and share with its habitat and graze food and fodders with domestic herbivore mammals like goat, buffalos’ and cow in the periphery of the village’s areas. The domestication of Nilgai corresponds to a pivotal change in history not only of humanity but also of the biosphere.
, Parfait Nkontcheu Kamta
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 44-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i330210

Abstract:
Aims: Assessment of human and environmental health implications of pesticide use by farmers in the western highlands of Cameroon, the case of Fotouni. Study design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional Place and Duration of Study: This work was done between November 2016 and March 2017 in Fotouni (West Region of Cameroon). Methodology: A structured questionnaires randomly administered to 76 markets gardeners owning a farm and willing to take part in the survey. Results: The survey revealed that secondary school was the highest level of education achieved by most of the respondents (68.4%). Farmers were aged between 19 and 63 years, the highest percentage (47.4%) being in the 31 to 40 years range. Five pesticide families were used in the study area with a predominance of insecticides. Thirty-one commercial names were recorded corresponding to 18 active ingredients. Chlorothalonil was the most used active ingredient. Beauchamp and Dimethoate were two illegally used compounds recorded. Most farmers (89%) mixed pesticide before application while others (31.6%) changed dosage per crop season. Furthermore, prescribed doses were not followed by 34.2% of respondents and 60.5% of farmers hadn’t receive any training on pesticide application. Market gardeners chose pesticides to apply mainly from information on labels (71%). Farm water was used by 92.1% of respondents for domestic purposes; 28.9% of respondents testified active pesticide poisoning while 47.4% failed to use protective equipment during application. Seven post-application symptoms were recorded, the main one being impaired vison and nausea. The farm house was the main pesticide storage site (56%). Empty sachets were poorly managed as respondents burned (42%) or buried (10%). The Restricted Entry Interval was a mystery for the majority of respondents (70%) who declared they re-entered the farms less than 24h after application. Conclusion: Farmers were highly exposed to pesticides due to ignorance and poor legislation.
S. A. Osemeahon, J. O. Okechukwu,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 36-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i330209

Abstract:
The lack of clean water sources due to pollution and industrialisation is a major problem in many countries including Nigeria. To overcome this challenge, various methods have been adopted including phytoremediation treatment. This study evaluates dried duckweed an aquatic plant and its removal efficiency in comparison with other locally available treatment materials. This was achieved by formulating ceramic water filters (C.W.F) categorized into four different types- clay and kaolin(P1), clay, kaolin and sawdust(P2), clay, kaolin and charcoal(P3) and clay, kaolin and duckweed(P4). These filters were subjected to contaminated water and the following physicochemical parameters Colour, pH, Conductivity(Ec), Fluoride(F-), Magnesium(Mg2+), Nitrites(NO2-), Sulphates (SO42-), Ammonia (NH3) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Total Nitrogen were determined before and after filtration. In all the ceramic water filters, the filter improved by duckweed showed the best removal efficiency of Colour – 100%, Conductivity(Ec) -72.60%, Fluoride(F)- 99.82%, Magnesium(Mg2+)- 51.68% Nitrites(NO2-)-92.34, Sulphates (SO42-)- 46.09%, Ammonia (NH3)-98.75%, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS)- 85.43% and Total Nitrogen (TN) -83.79% indicating that duckweed is capable of adsorbing inorganic and organic pollutants from water.
, Myriam Mukadi Ngondo, Nazaire Kabemba Kadima, Prince Bofati Ilonga, Patrick Kayembe Bibasuya, Patience Mpia Ngelinkoto, Paulin Kapepula Mutwale, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Kalima Nkoma Mwange, Johnny Bopopi Mukoko, et al.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 19-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i330208

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the texture, mineral element and heavy metal content of the soil under the litter of different selected species in relation to the plan of their pedogenesis. Methods: The granulometric analysis of the various samples based on laser diffraction, measurements of Total Nitrogen and Total Organic Carbon were performed using the Elemental Analyzer, the Organic Matter content is estimated by the loss of ignition method using a Salvis furnace, In order to estimate the CaCO3 content. The same samples were heated in the oven at 1000°C for 60 minutes and reweighed. The carbonate content is estimated by the loss in mass during this second firing, multiplied by 2.274 which is the molecular weight ratio between CaCO3 and CO2. The heavy metal and mineral composition was evaluated by ICP-AES and AAS. Results: The granulometric analyses show a sandy texture, according to the FAO classification. The organic matter content thus observed in the soils under the litter of these four species did not show any significant difference. The concentration of major mineral elements recorded in soils under the litter of Blighia welwitchii, Oncoba welwitschii, Zanthoxylum gilletii and Harungana madagascariensis did not show any significant difference. However, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium have a high concentration compared to calcium and sodium. This study showed that the levels of cadmium, lead, arsenic and aluminum in the various samples of litter soils of all plant species including nickel for B. welwitschii are above the standards set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for soil quality. Pollution factors for aluminum are the highest. This indicates that aluminum is the most polluting metal. The low pollution factors for lead and nickel are due to the low fixation of these metals by soils. Conclusions: Our study took place in the Luki Biosphere reserve and showed that the different soils under litter are polluted by very toxic and persistent heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, aluminum, arsenic and nickel. This study has revealed new aspects of heavy metal pollution. This pollution represents a serious threat to the environment in general and to humans in particular through the food chain.
, J. A. Nnamdi, C. D. Onwukwe
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 8-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i330207

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sawmill wastes from selected sawmills in Port Harcourt on the environment. The physicochemical and microbiological features of the air at the sawmill sites were determined using air quality analyzer and settling plate technique respectively. Soil samples were analyzed for their physicochemical and microbiological properties. The study showed that of all the parameters monitored in the air samples at all the sampling sites, only noise level, volatile organic compounds and sulphur (IV) oxide exceeded the Federal Ministry of Environment limits. Results for microbiological analysis of air samples revealed that Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts (THBC) ranged from 2.5 x 104 (CFU/m3) to 1.3 x 104 (CFU/m3) while Total Fungal Counts (TFC) ranged between 1.7 x 104 (CFU/m3) and 7.7 x 103 (CFU/m3). The bacteria present in the air samples were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Klebsiella, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Providencia and Bacillus while the fungi were identified as species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus and Mucor. Results for microbiological analysis of soil samples revealed that THBC ranged from 2.06 x 106 (CFU/g) to 1.1 x 106 (CFU/g) while TFC ranged between 35 (CFU/g) and 1.4 x 102 (CFU/g). The bacterial isolates from the soil were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Aeromonas while the fungal isolates were identified as species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor and candida. The soil physicochemical properties monitored (pH, nitrate, lead, copper arsenic and mercury) where all within normal limits. The study showed that there are inhalable chemical and biological agents in the air at sawmills at the study locations. Measures should be put in place at sawmills to prevent occupational exposure and the waste should be properly managed.
, S. Giarrusso
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i330206

Abstract:
The application of decentralized wastewater treatment system, also known as septic system is very common in suburban and rural areas with no access to centralized sewage treatment plants. Minimizing water pollution and the effects on wildlife and humans is of specific concern in rural and urban areas. A packed bio-tower addition to a 1000 gallon septic tank was tested under pilot conditions using municipal residential sewage. The septic tank packed bio-tower pilot system is able to reduce the NH3-N influent level of 16.5 mg/l to 24.0 mg/l by 77.3% to 96.7% at influent flow levels between1060 l/d (280 gal/d) and 3997 l/d (1056 gal/d). Biochemical oxygen demand levels reduction was 97.0% from 280 mg/l to 8.5 mg/l. for a flow rate of 1060 l/d (280 gal/d). Research showed that a bio-tower addition to a septic system has the potential to improve the systems overall performance.
J. M. Hilili, D. I. Onuora, H. O. Yusuf, R. U. Hilili, O. B. Ojiego, F. R. Raji, F. Dantanko, C. L. Eke, M. H. Hilili
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 51-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i230203

Abstract:
Engineering structures are constantly subject to damage caused by biological activities such as the action of insects, penetration of roots and fluids. Because of this, we conducted a critical study on how these activities contribute to the collapse of these structures in Nigeria. The damage caused by biological activities was evaluated in fifteen buildings in Cross River State, of these buildings six showed damage caused by termites, two of the failed engineering structures were linked to development of roots of plants, and the remaining seven were linked to poor quality building materials, poor compaction, lack of supervision, poor engineering design. Others ten structurally failed buildings were examined in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria, of these four were linked to biological activities of termites, with subsurface porosity showing evidence of surface water discharge zones, two of the failed structures were linked to the growth activities of roots of trees, and four to poor construction design. The road that links Cross River State to Abuja had more than 80 points of failure, the majority of which were linked to poor compaction of road foundation, root of plants and fluid interference. Such damage could be prevented through: thorough investigation of biological activities existing and likely to exist around the environment before the establishment of the engineering structure and over the years; use of bio-resistant materials, such as nano materials incorporated coatings with novel functionalities should be used in the construction of structures; protection of engineering structures from fluid penetration into foundations; and engineering structures must follow the global best practices guide lines, provided by ‘Society of Structural Engineers’.
, B. E. B. Akudinobi, C. J. Chizoba, K. A. Ifeanyichukwu
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 34-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i230202

Abstract:
Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater quality in Nkalagu District, southeastern Nigeria was carried to determine the main factors controlling the chemistry of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. Sixty (60) groundwater samples collected from boreholes and hand-dug wells in different parts of the area were analyzed for a range of physiochemical parameters and heavy metal constituents. The results show that concentration of the major ions were in the order Cl->HCO3->SO42->NO3- and Na>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+. The groundwater samples are slightly acidic with pH of 5.28 to 8.04; moderately hard with TH of 112.88 to 467.78 mg/l. The district is mainly controlled by carbonate and silicate mineral weathering based on the available result. Three main flow regimes were identified with Q-mode cluster analysis. Based on the WQIanalysis results, the groundwater quality in the district was classified, generally as ‘poor’ to ‘excellent’ for drinking purpose. Groundwater quality for drinking purpose were noted to deteriorates as one move from west towards the east of the district, while the north and south part pf the study area indicated the best quality in the district. Groundwater quality for irrigation purpose showed excellent quality based on the United States Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. For future use of groundwater resource in the district we recommend implementation rules and guidelines in the area to enhance health and preserve groundwater sources in the district.
, Nguetsop Victor François, Fonkou Théophile, Kom Meliphe Francis, Ghogue Jean Paul, Tchoumboue Joseph
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 21-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v14i230201

Abstract:
Diatoms are mostly aquatic plants, growing in various environmental conditions and habitat. Because of their high sensitivity to environmental variations and rapid response to degradation, they are used as biological indicators. This study aimed to analyses the physicochemical parameters and diatoms assemblages of waterfalls. This will allow determining the key environmental factors that are responsible for both diatoms and Podostemaceae spatial and temporal distribution in the studied area.Water and diatoms samples were taken respectively for the physicochemical and biological analysis. Diatoms samples were collected by scraping the bedrocks and submerged plants; diatoms were subsequently identified to the species level using a light microscope. For physicochemical data analysis, a principal component analysis approach was used while diatom’s data were submitted to a correspondence trophic analysis. A total of 169 diatom species were identified in both waterfalls. Podostemaceae poor waterfalls were more species-rich (127) than the rich ones (110). Podostemaceae poor and Podostemaceae rich waterfalls were characterized with low mineralization, low values of pH and oxygen saturated water. The observed assemblages were composed of oligotrophic to eutrophic species, acidophilic, neutrophilic and high to moderate oxygen saturated water taxa. The ecology of different species revealed that dissolved oxygen was the main parameter which controls the distribution of diatoms, and probably the Podostemaeceae one in the two type of waterfalls Podostemaceae poor waterfalls are characterized by Fragilariacapucina and Gomphonema gracile. Podostemacea rich waterfalls were characterized by Eunotiafaba, Eunotiarhomboïdea, Pinnularia microstauron, Gomphonema procerum and Gomphonema clavatum.
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